The Nepal Digest - September 30, 1995 (16 Ashwin 2052 BkSm)

From: The Editor (nepal-request@cs.niu.edu)
Date: Sat Sep 30 1995 - 11:26:59 CDT


Received: from mp.cs.niu.edu (mp.cs.niu.edu [131.156.1.2]) by library.wustl.edu (8.6.12/8.6.9) with SMTP id NAA05263 for <huestis@library.wustl.edu>; Sat, 30 Sep 1995 13:58:59 -0500
Received: by mp.cs.niu.edu id AA28846 (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for nepal-dist); Sat, 30 Sep 1995 11:27:01 -0500
Received: by mp.cs.niu.edu id AA28842 (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for nepal-list); Sat, 30 Sep 1995 11:26:59 -0500
Date: Sat, 30 Sep 1995 11:26:59 -0500
Message-Id: <199509301626.AA28842@mp.cs.niu.edu>
Reply-To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
From: The Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu>
Sender: "Rajpal J. Singh" <A10RJS1@cs.niu.edu>
Subject:      The Nepal Digest - September 30, 1995 (16 Ashwin 2052 BkSm)
To: <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
Content-Type: text
Content-Length: 63345
Status: O
X-Status: 
X-Keywords:
X-UID: 175


        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
        % N N EEEEEE PPPPPP AA L %
        % NN N E P P A A L %
        % N N N EEEE P P A A L %
        % N N N E PPPPPP AAAAAA L %
        % N NN E P A A L %
        % N N EEEEEE P A A LLLLLL %
        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

The Nepal Digest Saturday 30 September 95: Ashwin 16 2052 BS Volume 42 Issue 13

 
  BIJAYA DASHAMI KO UPALAKSHA MA HARDIK SUBHA KAMANA!
  HAPPY BIJAYA DASHAMI

            - Rajpal J.P. Singh
              On behalf of The Nepal Digest Editorial Board
              TND Foundation

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha rshresth@black.clarku.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

********************************************************************** From: Puspa M Joshi <pjoshi@magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu> Subject: Tidbits from Columbus To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Tue, 26 Sep 1995 21:25:41 -0400 (EDT)

Tidbits from Columbus, Ohio By: Puspa Joshi

                    Invitation to Dashain party

    Students of the Nepali Language class in Columbus, with the help of their parents, are organizing a Dashain party. A potluck dinner will be held on the evening of October 7, at 6 o'clock at the Buckeye Village Recreation Center.
    On behalf of parents, Gyanu Sherchan is contacting individuals and families to ensure that there will be a plentiful supply and a wide variety of food. Monica Sherchan, who is a student in the language class, is actively planning a grand cultural program for the evening.
    Interested netters and thier families are more than welcome to join the celebration. Please do not miss the chance to partake of "Thakalinee le pakayeko meetho kukhurako masu" (special chicken), peero alu ko achhar, Nepali sweets ityadi, ityadi...
    It is known from a reliable source that after the cultural program, Mr. Mukesh Singh and Sarala Pandey are hosting a reception at their new Bexley residence, inviting all attendees to play bawunna patti, which I am told is a kind of video game...
    For further information about the Dashain party, please call Mrs. Gyanu Sherchan or Miss Monica Sherchan at 614 457-3649. The best time is 5 to 6PM.

                   Congratulations and Welcome

     The Greater Columbus Nepali community would like to congratulate Mallika and Roshan Bajracharya who became the proud parents of their first baby, Sujaya, at Doctor's Hospital on Sept. 17. We warmly welcome Sujaya Bajracharya as the 39th member of our community.

*********************************************************** Date: Wed, 27 Sep 1995 00:02:42 EST From: tilak@UFCC.UFL.EDU To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Hinduism

Dear Peter G.,

     Please accept my regards. Please refer to your letter published in The Nepal Digest - September 23, 1995. You wrote
"Hinduism is a foreign concept in Nepal..... Hindu oppressor rode roughshod over their traditional way of life; their own cultures were destroyed by this imperialistic religion which was grafted out the political structure of the country". And you also added
"King became God, they were forced to worship.... Kiranti people had their own holy book called Mundhum.... the cow is our mother....".

     I would very much appreciate it if you would provide where did you get these information. I would like to know. Please educate me. How Hinduism is a foreign concept in Nepal ? When Hindus oppressed Nepalese and destroyed local cultures ? Please give us specific historical facts. I am also curious and wonder in case you are writing true history but substituting the terms
'Hindus' and 'Hinduism' for 'Christians' and 'Christianity'. Will you be interested to know how Christianity destroyed, and is destroying other native cultures ?

     Are Christians in Nepal are persecuted merely because they happened to be Christians, or legal actions were taken because an individual christian happened to break specific Nepalese laws ? Were they persecuted merely because what they believe ? Like Christian persecution of Jews. Do you remember Jew baiting ? Holocaust ? Does Hindus ever persecuted people for believing any particular doctrines ? Or not believing any given doctrines ? Have you forgotten inquisitions ? Crusades ?

     Believe it or not, Hindus are not of a particular race but people comprising of many races including Nepalese. Neither do Hinduism have one specific scriptures, like Bible; but consists of many ideas and books including the scriptures of Kiranti people. Believe it or not Lord Pashupati Nath originally was associated with Kiranti people.

     Is it really superstition to consider Cow being holy, or King being divine ? Perhaps it is because of the prejudice generated by Bible, as it teaches that man is empowered to plunder the nature. Hindus tends to think themselves as part of the nature. For us whole universe is divine. We see divinity in every nook and corner. We see divinity in the innocence of a child, wisdom of an old, knowledge in a book, friendship of a dog, sovereignty of a king, shade of a tree, the sun as the source of all energy, water as the source of all life, and so on. Believe it or not, holiness of a cow is based upon sound ecological and economic reasons. I am sure you must have read books by anthropologist Dr. Marvin Harris on that issue. Perhaps you also would agree that Hindus do not force their views on to others. When and where people were forced to worship King as god in Nepal ?

     I am not claiming here that Hinduism or Hindu society is perfect. Yes, we have many problems and superstitions. For example - caste, untouchability, and what not. Perhaps you would agree with me that as education and social consciousness is rising, the Hindu superstitions and bad social norms are also slowly dying off. Perhaps it is slower than we wish, nevertheless it is dying. Again, let us take the case of untouchability. A Hindu high caste person may not like to touch a low caste Hindu. Bad as it is. However, question may be asked how bad it is ? At least the high caste Hindu is not proposing to attack a non believers; or try to convert by force, if possible; if not, then by subterfuge; if not, then at least damn them to the eternity. A question may also be asked 'Is christianity free of superstitions
?' How about - 'Have a baby, still virgin', 'A man dies and comes back alive for good, though no body has seen him for last two thousand years', 'You can get rid of your sin by sacrificing an innocent person', 'Sin can be transfered to others like bank balance, and communicable like cholera', 'It is sin to eat apple of knowledge, but not the orange of igorance', 'Pope is the sole representative of God', 'All the Christians automatically go to the heaven, no matter how evil. All others automatically go the hell, no matter how virtuous', and so on. I am sure you may be able to add a few yourself.

     Let me invite you to get rid of our respective superstitions and evil ways, and transcedent to higher spirituality. Hopefully following mantras would guide us to the right direction.

     Love every body, including your enemies.
     Ask forgiveness for your misdeed.
     Truth always triumphs.
     Lord dwells in the heart of all beings.
     There are many paths to the same summit.
     The entire humanity is one big family.
     Om Shantih, Shantih, Shantihi.

     With respect. Sincerely yours - Tilak B. Shrestha.

************************************************************* To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: A Mystery or a Statistical Co-incidence Date: Wed, 27 Sep 95 10:22:13 EDT From: bohara@unm.edu (Alok Bohara ECONOMICS)

                          SOME INTERESTING FACTS

Abraham Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846. John F. Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946.

Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860. John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960.

The names Lincoln and Kennedy each contain seven letters.

Both were particularly concerned with civil rights.

Both their wives lost their children while living in the White House.

Both Presidents were shot on a Friday.

Both were shot in the head.

Both were shot in the presence of their wives.

The Secretary of each President warned them not to go to the theater and to Dallas, respectively.

Lincoln's Secretary was named Kennedy Kennedy's Secretary was named Lincoln.

Both were assassinated by Southerners.

Both were succeeded by Southerners.

Both successors were named Johnson.

Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was born in 1808. Lyndon Johnson, who succeeded Kennedy, was born in 1908.

John Wilkes Booth, who assassinated Lincoln, was born in 1839. Lee Harvey Oswald, who assassinated Kennedy, was born in 1939.

Both assassins were known by their three names.

Both names comprise fifteen letters.

Booth ran from the theater and was captured in a warehouse. Oswald ran from the warehouse and was captured in a theater.

To cap it all off, Booth and Oswald were assassinated before their trials.

---
What do you think: Mystery or a statistical co-incidence? 

************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Dashami Date: Wed, 27 Sep 95 10:22:45 EDT From: subin@Hawaii.Edu (Subin Shakya)

# # # # # # ## # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ###### # ###### # # # # # # # # # # # # #### # # # # #

###### # # # # ## #### # # ## # # # # # #### # # # # # # # # # ## ## # # # # # # # # # #### ###### # # # ## # # ### # # # # ###### # # # ###### # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ###### # # #### # # # # # # # # # ####

# # # # ##### ## # ## # # #### # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # #### #### ###### # # # # # ##### ###### # ###### # # # # # # ###### # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ##### # # # ###### # # # # #### # # # # #

# # # # ## ##### ##### # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ####### # # # # # # # #### # # ###### ##### # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ##### # # #

##### # # # # ##### # # ## # # # # ## # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # ## ## # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # o ================================ o

Date: Wed, 27 Sep 1995 16:33:10 +0200 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: vdherten@innet.be (Dirk Van der Herten) Subject: Subscription TND

A happy bijaya dashami to everyone contributing to The Nepal Digest, an extremely interesting initiative, I recently discovered on the Net in usergroup.soc.culture.nepal (I am a new user with a lot of interest in everything related to your country). I thank you in advance to kindly take note of the subscribtion I would like to take. Yours sincerely, Dirk Van der Herten (Belgium).

Dirk Van der Herten, Advocaat

**************************************************************** Date: Wed, 27 Sep 1995 11:41:25 -0500 (CDT) From: Mahesh Ghimire <umghimir@cc.UManitoba.CA> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - September 26, 1995 (12 Ashwin 2052 BkSm)

Dear Editor

Nepal Digest has been a great meeting place of ideas among the Nepali Community living in parts of the world where internet access is easily available.We must be grateful to the frequent contributers on TND who bring forward interesting topics and discuss them with powerful arguments counter-arguments. many simillar sites in Net has ended up in name-calling and four letter word dictionary over the time. We must be proud of ourself and the editor that we don't have that problem.Here I am trying to express my opinion for the first time in this forum.

In my opinion we hold too high opinion about opinion. We think it is important to have opinion about as many issues as possible to be 'smart' or to be regarded as intelligent.Is it really so? If you have different opinion than me then that must be wrong because I have more opinions to support my opinion or because I am more eloquent or because I can shout louder(or can spend more time in the computer). Suppose I realize latter that the opinion I held may be wrong.... but it is too late now.... I must hold to my opinion otherwise I will look like a fool. I must search or think more opinions, or I should cleverly change the topic or may be I

What are these opinions that at times tends to be more dear to us than our friends and relatives, our culture and religion? Is it nothing but manifestation of our ego? Or is it fuel to the gigantic machine called human civilization. Can we choose not to have opinions in topics we don't know much? Then again how much of knowledge is good enough?

People have been exploited by force, wealth,caste, religion etc through out the history , is it a new era of neo- priesthood of laptop carrying opinioners? One gets better pay because he/she have learned more ways to collect-and express the opinions.And you are at the top if you can change others hard held opinions in your way, you are leader.

The lowly common people (uncommon thing about them is that they work-hard, they value friends and family, custom and culture,don't have so many opinions and are happier than the opinion rich successful few) must be tought how to have opinions.One striking thing I have observed after coming to opinion rich civilization is that every-body from the very small age seem to have likes and dislikes. There is no middle way." I love coke.....Oh I hate pepsi"I think Oj IS guilty...I think he IS innocent"etc etc. it seems to be stupid to say" I don,t care coke or pepsi if it is chilled and i am thirsty".May be it is tought from the begining that one must have opinions and must hold that very strongly.

I read somewhere people have choice of buying one out of twenty-seven brands of car in NorthAmerica, but no choice of not buying one.we seem to have choice of having any opinion we like but do we have choice of not having one, and not getting disturbed by opinion sales persons(T.V,Newspapers,magazines,computers), and not getting jeered by opinion smart -collegues?

Should we must express our opinins simply because we have the means to do so? Should we must paint our opinion to make it striking? One example of that is -"Anti-feminist Deuba! And not bland matter of factly-no female member in the new cabinet . I don't mean to offend Mr. Amulya we all indulge in simmilar things-when we can.

I think the world would be a much better place to live if we give less emphasize to opinions.Of course they are needed, but may be we should give more importance to examples. May be we should write like-The effects of Hindu philosophy on the indegeneous people of Nepal in the period .....Or better- the effect of karma-bad on................. Shouldnt we be more careful not to say all golds are yellow so all yellow must be gold? It is very easy to give more swings to a pendulam that is already swinging from one extreme to another but it is difficult to bring it back to the delicate balance. I have felt that it is easier to argue extreme views-like "Bigre ko GHar lai chuna lagayera naya hundaina naya banauna tyas lai bigarnai parcha etc" but that does not make the view better. History may be used to maintain the status -quo of the privieleged class's perception of Shalgri-la, does not mean we should dismiss history and historians altogether.

The temptation of sounding bold and radical is great. But givingway to that lure may not be.May be real and long lasting changes are brought about by common people following the examples(not ideas) set by the true leaders. May be society is intact because of common people's small heroics. I believe Buddha ( and all great leaders ) have tried to teach us this simple lesson.

I know I haven't been able to convey my 'opinion' in a very coherent and forceful manner but I should't care about that much if I am to start giving less importance to opinions.

Thanks. Mahesh

Date: Wed, 27 Sep 1995 22:25:58 -0400 (EDT) From: Tulsi Maharjan <tmaharja@sun1.raritanval.edu> Subject: Bhintuna

The 4th annual Bhintuna Celebration will take place on November 4, 1995. Everyone is invited. If you are interested in attending the Bhintuna celebration and need a special accomodation, please let me know.

We will be happy to find you a place to stay in Washington.

The Nepa Pasa Pucha committee members look forward to seeing you on November 4th in Washington DC. Actually, it will be held in Silver Spring Maryland.

If you need additional information contact Dr. Tulsi Maharjan Email Tmaharja@sun1.raritanval.edu

Thank you. Date: Thu, 28 Sep 1995 08:56:17 -0400 From: nshresth@capital.edu (Nischal Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Kathmandu Post

Hi, netters Happy Vijaya Dashami. nshresth@capital.edu

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: ***Send/Receive Email To/From Nepal*** For Those Requiring Email Receive/Send Services to Friends and

Nepal, a company named Global Communications Consultants up an email service through Mercantile Office Systems (MOS). services to the general public. They also have a branch at Everest

With this service, anyone from abroad can receive/send email to charged to the recipient (in Nepal). The Costs are as follows:

Sending email (by keyboard use) NRs. 60.00 per KByte Receiving email NRs. 20.00 per KByte NOTE: 1Kbyte= 1024 Characters

Procedures in Sending an Email to a Person In Nepal:

1. Create and send the email to the address glocom@globpc.mos.com.np 2. Do not forget to write the recipient's FULL NAME and PHONE NUMBER 3. The recipient will be notified immediately. PHONE: 977-1-228143, 229143, 472576, 471571

Please forward your comments/questions/concerns to : [bshresth@frodo.okcu.edu] or [sbhattar@gmu.edu]

*************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: New York Parties - Six07 pt.2 From: txd3660@omega (Time Traveler)

STRICTLY enforcing a dress code; making sure that our parties never exceed 400 participants (the Plaza event was an exception due to the sheer number of advance notice) and making sure that our crowd is at least 21 and over.

Limited/IC These events are geared for undergraduate Asian-American between the ages of 18 to 24; our policy, as with any other responsible collegiate party, is 18 to party and 21 to drink (although anyone of age is welcome to come). We do NOTHING but intercollegiate events and don't have events more than five times a year so as not to water down our formula. We currently have Asian-Americans promoters working for us in schools such as:

Brown AASA Columbia CSC KSA Farmingdale ASA Hofstra AAO RPI CASA Albany, Baruch, Binghamton, Boston U., Buffalo, Dartmouth, Geneseo, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, M.I.T., NYU, Pace, Princeton, Queens, Rutgers, Smith, St. John's, Stonybrook, Tufts, U. Penn, Wellesley, West Point, Yale

and numerous local schools. These are huge reunion- type events

*********************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: HELP: Paper on Asian American Women Date: Thu, 28 Sep 95 12:07:48 EDT From: txd3660@omega (Time Traveler)

Hi fellas,

I'm writing a paper for my Asian American Studies class. The course title is "Asian Women in the U.S.", and since I hang out on the Net so much, I decided to focus on the women here. I would like to focus on perceptions of Asian American female Users. Actually, it's still early, so I haven't decided on a concrete topic, but if you're interested in

helping me out with my paper (i.e. e-mail interviews, et al.), please e-mail me at bschang@uclink2.berkeley.edu. Thanx in advance! :O)

********************************************************************* From: karkis@mail.med.upenn.edu (Sher B. Karki) To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: News 9/28/1995

Copyright 1995 Reuters Limited The Reuter European Business Report

September 28, 1995, Thursday, BC cycle -09:31 Eastern Time

LENGTH: 428 words

HEADLINE: NEPAL TO LOBBY WORLD BANK OVER POWER PROJECT

BYLINE: By Gopal Sharma

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Sept 28

BODY: Nepal's new finance minister said on Thursday he would press the World Bank to reverse its recent decision to pull out of a large-scale power project in the Himalayan kingdom.

Ram Sharan Mahat told Reuters in an interview he would meet World Bank president James Wolfensohn in Washington on October 8 on the margins of the annual meetings of the multilateral lending agency and the International Monetary Fund.

Wolfensohn announced last month that the World Bank was withdrawing financial support for the US$ 1 billion Arun III hydropower project because it was too ambitious a programme for a small economy like Nepal's.

The bank's concessionary lending arm, the International Development Association, had earlier proposed lending $ 175 million to help build the 201 megawatt plant in east Nepal. The World Bank's withdrawal of support doomed the project.

"We'll make all efforts to restore the project," Mahat said. "But I can't say what the chances for this are."

Mahat took over as finance minister earlier this month after the nine-month-old communist government was ousted in a no-confidence vote.

After the World Bank backed out of the Arun III project, the three parties in the present ruling coalition, which were then in opposition, blamed the communists.

"The World Bank decision was no doubt due to the wrong economic policies and the absence of timely decision on the part of the communist government," Mahat said.

Businessmen and analysts say investment in Nepal would remain weak until adequate power was provided.

Currently only 12 percent of Nepal's 20 million people have electricity. The kingdom can generate 241 megawatts, less than its peak need of 244. The shorfall is met through regular power cuts

Nepal's energy consumption is growing by 10 percent every year, but most of its 83,000 megawatts hydroelectric potential is untapped.

"There are a number of pending projects which will also be discussed with the World Bank," Mahat said. "More importantly, the purpose will be to gain the World Bank's support for the type of policies the new government has adopted in Nepal. " The three-party coalition which took power this month has announced a more liberal economic programme than the communists'.

Mahat was architect of the free-market policies introduced by a Nepali Congress government in 1992.

In addition to the Arun III project, the World Bank and Nepal are discussing a forest renewal programme, irrigation projects and drinking water schemes, a Finance Ministry official said.

Copyright 1995 Xinhua News Agency

The materials in the Xinhua file were compiled by The Xinhua News Agency. These materials may not be republished without the express written consent of The Xinhua News Agency.

SEPTEMBER 27, 1995, WEDNESDAY

LENGTH: 171 words

HEADLINE: nepali prime minister on tourism

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 27; ITEM NO: 0927066

BODY: nepali prime minister sher bahadur deuba said the world tourism day should inspire nepal to further intensify its tourism promotion endeavors. in a message on the occasion of the world tourism day which fell on tuesday, deuba said that it was also the day for a developing country with tremendous tourism potentials like nepal to assess the achievements it has made so far in tourism sector and chart the right course for the future. he urged all concerned to maintain a clean environment. tourism is one of the major sources of foreign exchange for this himalayan kingdom. it earned the nation about 88.20 million us dollars last year. according to the department of tourism, nepal attracted nearly 150,000 foreign tourists in the first half of this year, about 8 percent more than that of the same period of 1994. western tourists normally come to nepal for trekking and mountaineering, while indians, who account for the largest share of the visitors to the country, mostly come here for shopping and pilgrimage.

SEPTEMBER 27, 1995, WEDNESDAY

LENGTH: 173 words

HEADLINE: terms decided for south asian development fund

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 27; ITEM NO: 0927206

BODY: an expert group today decided the terms for the establishment of a south asian development fund at the south asia association for regional cooperation (saarc) secretariat here. a two-day meeting of the expert group, which ended today, decided on the terms of reference, operational modalities and composition of the governing board of the development fund. according to a press release of the saarc secretariat, the fund will include three windows: one for identification and development of projects, one for institutional and human resource development projects and one for social and infrastructural development projects. saarc secretary-general y. k. silwal said tuesday at the opening of the meeting that the saarc leaders had already endorsed the establishment of the development fund. he stressed that the fund had the potential of becoming an effective instrument of economic and social development in the south asian region. saarc members include india, pakistan, bangladesh, sri lanka, nepal, bhutan and the maldives.

SEPTEMBER 27, 1995, WEDNESDAY

LENGTH: 135 words

HEADLINE: new chief justice appointed in nepal

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 27; ITEM NO: 0927071

BODY: senior justice surendra prasad singh was appointed chief justice of the supreme court tuesday by king birendra of nepal, a communique of the royal palace said today. singh, who will replace bishwonath upadhyaya as chief justice, is the most senior justice in the 11-member supreme court which reinstated the dissolved parliament last month by a vote of eight to three. the parliament was dissolved by the king three months ago at the recommendation of former prime minister man mohan adhikari as a pre-emptive move to avert a no-confidence motion tabled by the opposition. lawmakers from the communist party have been trying to file impeachment motions in the parliament against chief justice upadhyaya and justice singh who strongly supported the supreme court's decision to revive the parliament.

September 27, 1995, Wednesday, BC cycle

SECTION: International

LENGTH: 292 words

HEADLINE: Nepali Parliament resumes proceedings

BYLINE: BY BHOLA RANA

DATELINE: KATMANDU, Sept. 27

BODY: Nepal's Parliament resumed normal proceedings after disagreeing factions reached a compromise over impeachment motions registered against two Supreme Court justices. ''It is a privilege of individual members of Parliament to move impeachment motions against officials of constitutional organs,'' Speaker of the House of Representatives Ram Chandra Paudel told lawmakers Wednesday. ''Such impeachment motions will not be rejected in the future,'' he said. But Paudel told Parliament his summary rejection of the impeachment motion against retired Supreme Court Justice Bihawanath Upadhaya, who retired Tuesday after reaching the mandatory 65-year-old retirement age, stands. The minority communists had been obstructing parliamentary proceedings for three days while demanding discussion of the impeachment motion against Upadhaya. The compromise reached Wednesday paves the way for the filing of a new impeachment motion. Radha Krishna Mainali, politburo member of the communist opposition, said later that his party will file an impeachment motion against new Chief Justice Surendra Prasad Singh on Thursday. King Birendra administered the oath of office to Singh at the royal palace Wednesday. Both Upadhaya and Singh, in a majority 8-3 decision earlier this month, ruled in favor of reinstating Parliament, which was dissolved June 9 by the communists, who were in power at the time. The restoration of Parliament led to the downfall of the minority communist government. The Supreme Court ruled the party unconstitutionally dissolved Parliament to avoid a no-confidence motion. The communists now charge that Sing forged documents that list him as younger than 65, the mandatory retirement age.

Proprietary to the United Press International 1995

September 27, 1995, Wednesday, BC cycle

SECTION: International

LENGTH: 532 words

HEADLINE: New 'tuk-tuk' to ease Bangkok pollution

BYLINE: BY JOHN HAIL

DATELINE: BANGKOK, Sept. 27

BODY: A U.S. diplomat Wednesday formally handed over to the Thai government three prototypes of an electric rickshaw that could one day replace the city's noisy, smoke-belching three- wheeler taxis known as ''tuk-tuk'' because of the chugging noise they make. U.S. Charge d'Affaires Ralph Boyce handed over the keys to the sleek, fiberglass vehicles to Science, Technology and Environment Minister Yingpan Manasikarn. The ceremony came after two years of work on a $2 million U.S.-funded project to clear up Bangkok's toxic environment. Promoters of the project hope that the clean-running vehicles may one day replace the nearly 10,000 loud and smoke-spewing tuk-tuk taxis currently plying the streets of Bangkok. ''Tuk-tuks powered by internal combustion engines are noisy, polluting machines,'' Boyce said at the presentation ceremony. ''Indeed, the vehicle takes its name from the 'tuk-tuk' sound produced by its smoke-belching two-stroke engine. On the other hand, the tuk-tuk is something of a cultural icon in Thailand.'' The Zero Emission Electric Tuk-tuk Testing Project began in 1993 with a memorandum of understanding signed by U.S. Vice President Al Gore and Thailand's then deputy prime minister Amnuay Virawan to promote cooperation on environmental initiatives. Boyce said the tuk-tuk project gave hope for the future of Bangkok's air -- which a recent UN study said was the most polluted in the world in particulate matter. ''The idea of electric tuk-tuks for Thailand has proven to be an innovative, yet pragmatic idea, utilizing advanced U.S. electric vehicle technology in a traditional Thai vehicle to solve a serious environmental problem,'' he said. He said the project, funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), would be used as a model for the possible development of similar clean-running vehicles in India and Nepal. Lou Senter of the Planet Electric Company of California, which helped design and build the electric tuk-tuks, said the vehicles cost about $6, 000 each and run for three hours before they need re-charging. ''But the costs will come down and a new type of battery will make it possible to run for five hours without a charge,'' he said. He said the tuk-tuk prototypes presented to the Thai government Wednesday, the first of 30 to be donated under the project, contain their own re-chargers and can be plugged into any electric outlet. ''We put them through some pretty rugged testing,'' he said. ''We've run them at speeds of up to 60 miles per hour.'' Senter said that in addition to the electric tuk-tuk's environmental benefits, it can be run very cheaply, for as little as 0.47 cent a mile. He said the technical know-how to build the electric tuk-tuks was developed for the production of golf carts in the United States. Sender said electric vehicles were becoming increasingly popular in the United States, in retirement communities and for use by police, post offices and delivery companies. He said he expected the first commercially available tuk-tuks in Thailand to be personal vehicles used for shopping and short errands rather than as taxis.

September 26, 1995 03:05 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 294 words

HEADLINE: Now it's Virgin Mary drinking milk: reports

DATELINE: KUALA LUMPUR, Sept 26

BODY: Following the religious frenzy spurred by reports of statues of the Hindu deity Lord Ganesh drinking milk in India and elsewhere, devotees here now say statues of the Virgin Mary and Jesus are doing the same.

The English-language Sun tabloid reported Tuesday what it said was its photographer A Arumugam's "eye-witness account of Virgin Mary and baby Jesus sipping milk off a tablespoon" at the home of Hindu devotee R. Rajamohan in the Kelana Jaya suburb outside Kuala Lumpur.

"The milk vanished in two minutes," the Sun said.

"After reading news reports on the statues of Lord Ganesha drinking milk, I thought I would try the same thing on Mother Mary and baby Jesus. They drank a whole spoonful," said Rajamohan, a Hindu who also believes in the Mother Mary.

Rajamohan said he does not understand what he is witnessing, but believes it is a blessing from God.

Sacred idols drinking milk appeared last Thursday in India, triggering a frenzy that sent tens of thousands of devotees on pilgrimages to Hindu temples. Similar occurrences were reported in Hindu communities in England, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Nepal, the Netherlands and the United States.

Copyright 1995 Agence France Presse Agence France Presse

September 26, 1995 07:17 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 374 words

HEADLINE: Communist MPs attack ruling coalition government lawmakers

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Sept 26

BODY: A brawl between opposition communist MPs and ruling coalition lawmakers interrupted the fourth day of parliamentary proceedings here Tuesday, a parliamentary source said.

Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist (NCP-UML) lawmakers and Nepali Congress MPs exchanged punches when a fist-fight broke out during a debate in the lower house of parliament, witnesses said.

Speaker of the House Ram Chandra Paudyel was hustled away by martials of the lower house as communist MPs attacked members of the ruling tripartite coalition, the witnesses said.

The house is to resume its debate Wednesday morning.

The NCP-UML parliamentarians have been demanding an impeachment motion against retired supreme court Chief Justice Biswo Nath Upadhyay and his successor Surendra Prasad Singh, who is to be sworn in later this week.

The court on August 28 reinstated the lower house of parliament, saying its dissolution by King Birendra in June at the recommendation of NCP-UML Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikari was "unconstitutional."

The court also cancelled mid-term polls slated for November 23 and ordered parliament to continue. Eight out of 11 justices voted in favour of the reinstatement.

The impeachment motion, registered against Upadhyay and Singh last week, was rejected by the Speaker of the House for lack of concrete evidence that the justices had failed to carry out their "responsibilities impartially." The communists have been obstructing procedures of the 205-member house since Sunday by hampering discussion in the house, which is to hear a modified budget for 1995/96 later this week.

Copyright 1995 Agence France Presse Agence France Presse

September 26, 1995 10:12 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 200 words

HEADLINE: King appoints new chief justice

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Sept 26

BODY: Nepal's King Birendra appointed Surendra Prasad Singh as the new chief justice Tuesday after the former chief justice retired on Sunday, state-run radio announced.

Singh is the most senior among 11 justices of the supreme court.

He had come under fire from Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist (NCP-UML) parliamentarians, who registered a motion of impeachment against him and outgoing chief justice Biswo Nath Upadhyay for a ruling in which the court held the king's dissolution of parliament unconstitutional. The motion failed.

The court on August 28 reinstated the lower house of parliament, a move which led to the fall of the NCP-UML government, which was replaced by a coalition.

Copyright 1995 Reuters, Limited

September 26, 1995, Tuesday, BC cycle

LENGTH: 310 words

HEADLINE: Communists throw Nepali parliament into chaos

BYLINE: By Gopal Sharma

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nepal

BODY: Opposition communists disrupted Nepal's parliament and scuffled with security guards Tuesday in an unsuccessful attempt to force the speaker to accept a motion to impeach two supreme court judges.

Witnesses said members of the Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) party stormed toward speaker Ram Chandra Poudel, surrounded his rostrum and demanded that he place the motion before the lower house.

After Poudel abruptly adjourned the house and left the chamber, communist deputies tried to clash with members of the parliamentary majority but marshals again intervened.

The communists then climbed on to their desks, shaking their fists and shouting before dispersing after about 15 minutes, witnesses said.

Last week Poudel rejected a communist motion to impeach Supreme Court chief justice Bishwanath Upadhyaya and deputy Surendra Prasad Singh for allegedly failing to discharge their duties honestly.

Last month the court voted 8-3 to quash a decision by King Birendra, backed by the then-UML government, to dissolve parliament and call new general elections for November.

The communists were then voted out of power in a no-confidence motion in parliament this month, paving the way for the Himalayan kingdom's first coalition government led by the Nepali Congress party.

Upadhyaya retired as chief justice Tuesday and his deputy, Singh, is next in line to take over.

Both of them voted in the majority against the communist-backed decision in June to call fresh elections, while Singh dissented.

Political analysts said if Poudel accepted the impeachment motion and brought it before the lower house of parliament for debate, Singh's appointment as chief justice could be delayed.

The impeachment motion would probably fail as the UML has only 89 of 205 seats in parliament, while the three-party coalition which opposes the motion has 107.

Proprietary to the United Press International 1995

September 26, 1995, Tuesday, BC cycle

SECTION: International

LENGTH: 380 words

HEADLINE: Scuffle breaks out in Nepali Parliament

DATELINE: KATMANDU, Sept. 26

BODY: A scuffle broke out in the Nepali Parliament Tuesday afternoon soon after Ram Chandra Paudel, speaker of the House of Representatives allowed discussions on King Birendra's address to Parliament outlining the programs of a three-party anti- communist alliance. Members of the opposition Nepal Communist Party rushed toward the speaker shouting slogans immediately after Paudel ordered discussions of the royal address. Marshals simultaneously formed a chain between the speaker and her shouting communist legislators. Paudel then adjourned Parliament for Wednesday. Immediately confusion followed. Scuffles broke out, and one woman leaped to the Parliament floor from the spectator gallery and was thrown out by a ruling party legislator. Peace resumed after 20 minutes of pandemonium, and parliamentarians left the chamber floor. Earlier, the opposition spent three hours demanding that Paudel reconsider his decision to reject without discussion a communist- sponsored impeachment motion against Chief Justice Bishwanath Upadhaya, who retired Tuesday after turning 65, the mandatory retirement age. Members of the ruling coalition supported Paudel's decision to reject the impeachment motion without debate. The communists succeeded for the third consecutive day in obstructing parliamentary proceedings by insisting Paudel reconsider. The party is upset with Upadhaya because a majority Supreme Court decision last month reinstated Parliament, which was dissolved by the minority communists when they were in power. The reinstatement led to the defeat of the communists and the effective annulment of the Nov. 23 elections they called. The communists were banking on winning the elections and forming a majority communist government following the polls. The communists argue that Paudel had no right to reject the impeachment motion after 25 percent of the House of Representatives signed such a motion and registered it in Parliament. Paudel said, ''No proper reasons or justifiable basis have been mentioned to prove that Chief Justice Upadhaya'' acted improperly. The impeachment motion would need two-thirds support in the 205- member House of Representatives, and would have been defeated regardless.

Copyright 1995 British Broadcasting Corporation BBC Summary of World Broadcasts

September 25, 1995, Monday

SECTION: Part 3 Asia-Pacific; NORTH AND SOUTH KOREA; NORTH KOREA; EE/D2417/D

LENGTH: 400 words

HEADLINE: FOREIGN RELATIONS; Nepalese paper reportedly demands apology for North Korean propaganda quiz

SOURCE: Source: Yonhap news agency, Seoul, in English 0900 gmt 22 Sep 95

BODY: [9] Text of report by the South Korean news agency Yonhap

Bangkok, 22nd September: The North Korean embassy in Nepal has been harshly criticized for its recent false propaganda praising the late Kim Il-sung and his son Kim Chong-il and for provoking the Nepalese youth. In an article, obtained in Bangkok, entitled "North Korea is making fools out of the Nepalese youth" , a Nepalese weekly reported that North Korea is now engaged in a dangerous game of false propaganda and unethical practices targeting the vulnerable Nepalese youth when it held an inter-country school quiz contest recently in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal.

All the "correct" answers to the quiz were supposed to be "North Korea" , the Jana Bhawana National'pointed out in its edition dated 18th September. The Nepalese weekly revealed some of the questions of the so-called quiz - Which country does not have AIDS, unemployment or taxes? Which country is a paradise on earth, and Where does one find the best education system? Which country has the market of cheapest food grains and rice?

"If the questions asked and the answers given are to be evaluated in proper perspective, it can easily be interpreted as an insult to our intellect, talent and time... It unquestionably invites harsh criticism," the weekly demanded.

Such programmes create nothing but falsehoods and are a gross insult to the pride of the Nepalese people, the weekly commented. The paper stressed that authorities from around the world describe North Korea as a country facing acute food shortages and note that the situation is ever-worsening there, to such an extent that North Korea had to even beg its bitter foe South Korea for food grain assistance. "North Korea's Kathmandu- based embassy is engaged in activities that are a waste of time for Nepalese youth. Why is it engaged in such an exercise? This is a matter of considerable concern and curiosity for Nepalese in general. This has not only made North Korea a target of scorn but also created an atmosphere whereby," the paper said.

The weekly urged that the Nepalese government should demand an apology from the North Korean officials at its embassy there and also any others involved in instigating the Nepalese. If such activities are repeated in the future, North Korean embassy will be the centre of protest from students, teachers and intellectuals here, the paper concluded.

******************************************************************** Subject: Re:"Disaster Management in Nepal" Published in 26th September. From: s001030@ipe.tsukuba.ac.jp (Dhakal Amod)

Re: Disaster management in Nepal Amod sagar Dhakal, University of Tsukuba.

This is in response of the comments of Gert Venghaus on article of Mr. Hidetomi Oi on "Disaster management in Nepal".

1) When you make such a strong comment you should have introduced yourself with few words.

2) Though you have suggested the author in all respect including his English I wonder whether you were talking of "Relief management" or "Disaster management". If the solution of any disaster is only a relief works the field of Disaster management would not have come into existence. "Disaster management" does not only look at during disaster activities but gives much emphasis on pre and post disaster activities. If the biscuits and blankets would be the solution to disaster country like Japan would not have suffereda bit during Kobe earthquake disaster.

3) It was very surprising to note your comment that Red Cross is the only NGO in Nepal. There is an example of overwhelming of NGO's during 1993 flood and erosion disaster due to which government had to decide particular NGO according to the site.

4) It was also interesting to learn about the volunteers trained in basic disaster management in all 75 districts of Nepal. The impact of the disaster in Nepal is magnified basically due to insufficient preventive and mitigative measures because of scattered settlement pattern in the country and unawareness of the people due to lack of appropriate information on hazards. Disseminating information about hazard to the people depending on topographical and geological location of the area (most probably with simple hazard mapping) could be the most efficient solution to control the loss of lives as they can react themselves during the disaster. Do the volunteers work at the time when there is no disaster? ; for the pre disaster activities, something like to educate the people. I don't think so. Because even the core organisations that you have mentioned in your article sleeps during no disaster period i.e. almost 8 months (excluding 4 months of Monsoon) in a year if some other disaster like earthquake does not occur.

5) I agree with you that the information management regarding disaster since1985 has been improved due to UN-disaster management secretariat and the Ministry of Home. But do you have idea how the management of information is going on?. One straight example is that you can of course find the data of damages due to floods/landslides district wise since 1985. But if you want to know the damage only due to flood or landslide, it is not available. Moreover if one needs the general information like on which river the flood occurred or the location and size of the landslide ; only God can give you the answer because it is a God induced disaster (Daibi Prakop) for Nepalese people. Because the so called project was not even successful just to change the name from God induced disaster (Daibi Prakop) to Natural disaster (Prakritik Prakop) in their norms, which would have otherwise opened the eyes of many innocent people who have been deceived in the name of the God.

6) Finally, its true that Nepal Red Cross has a long history in the various field in Nepal and also has a very good reputation. You should look at when the Red Cross was established in Nepal and when it started to work for the disaster management activities (besides distributing biscuits and blankets and just being a member on various disaster related organisations). It would be much wiser if the various organisations make better co-ordination to improve the Disaster Management in Nepal as it covers a big area from development to prevention, mitigation, preparedness, rescue and relief, instead of making individual arrogant propaganda.

I think Mr. Oi's article tries to focus on overall management aspect looking at past and present situation which would gives good understanding to the people about "Disaster Management in Nepal" ; one of the most lagging field in Nepal, despite the country being vulnerable to many kinds of hazards.

Amod.

Date: Thu, 28 Sep 1995 21:52:36 -0400 (EDT) From: mahesh maskey <mmaskey@acs.bu.edu> Subject: The TB explosion...

Explosion of TB:Indicator of Detoriorating Socio-economic Condition? ____________________________________________________________________

I thank amulya for drawing our attention to the problem of MDR-TB (multi drug resistant TB) in Nepal. He has outlined almost all the important points discussed in "Foreign aid and TB control policy in Nepal". However he missed one importance issue for the emergence of MDR-TB: the Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) mentioned in the article. The problem of MDR-TB and DOT has to be understood, apart from inefficiencies in our own system of health care, in the light of global situation of Tuberculosis resurgence and particulary in the background of what is happening in India.

In 1993 WHO declared TB as a global emergency. And this was especially true for developing countries since out of 8 million new cases appearing each year in the world, 7.6 milion(95%) are in developing countries. It is projected that by the year 2000, no. of TB cases will increase to about 10.2 million.(1) About 3 million die each year and thus since 1995 six million people have already died because of tuberculosis. South Asia has the lions share in the death toll. In fact recently in June 1995, Klaudt, a WHO expert described the situation in India as country "sitting on a TB- time bomb". In the same statement the synergy with HIV has also been highlighted in no uncertain terms. " The time bomb has a shorter fuse now. The dual TB/HIV epidemic is on a deadly collision course in India. The epidemic of HIV is spreading faster in ASIA then anywhere on the planet". Apart from our own problem of TB morbidity and mortality and rapidly spreading infection of HIV, it is obvious that open border and girl trafiking to India have much to decide the epidemiological patterns of disease in our country.

Are we Nepalese prepared to deal with the impact of this unavoidable collusion in the Indian subcontinent? The answer is no, not so far. It has been recognized that TB is a major problem in Nepal but no "national survey has been done, the reporting system is defective, exact magnitude of the problem is not quantifiable." so says Dr. Thir man Shakya,(2) Director of National Tuberculosis center and a stalwart in tuberculosis control program in Nepal. On the basis of tuberculin surveys however Annual Infection Rate (ARI) is calculated which is 2.2% in Nepal. This corresponds to an incidence of 110/100000 population. And with Nepal's population arround 20 million it is estimated that 22,000 (new) cases of sputum positive TB occur each year. Including non sputum positive and other form of TB, the total no appearing each year is estimated to be 47000.(2). But since case finding rate is 45%, only 10,000 new sputum positive patients were reported last year . In other words another 10000 or more go without detection and treatment. WHO estimates that 15600 people die from tuberculosis each year in Nepal.

In this background the importance the introduction of Short Course Chemotherapy (SCC) has to be understood. The long courses ranging from 12 to 18 months were more costly because of the duration and frequent sputum check ups, complex and inferior structure of drug regimens, lesser patient compliance, lower completion rate as compared to SCC. The cure rate is also very high in SCC. Hence this method is hailed by WHO as the most potent weapon in the fight against Global resurge of TB. But the success of SCC strongly depended upon what is called Directly Observed Therapy ie. the health staff should watch the patient swallow the prescribed drugs. Where it has been carried out properly there are high success rates eg. United states , some countries of subsaharan Africa (89% in KwaZulu Natal), even in India(83% cure rate in 3 pilot studies). One study conducted in Nepal shows 92% of sputum conversion to negative in the patients who had completed the full course of treatment. but the defaulter rate is very high (31%) hence overall success rate is only 60% (3).

High defaulter rate, inadequate or improper use of the drug are the main reason for the development of MDR-TB. The world at present has quite potent anti tuberculosis drug at hand and if they are properly used drug resistance is not a problem. Rifampicin whether used separately or in combined formulation with other drug does not matter, the efficacy is almost same. If however Rifampicin is taken singly the chances of developing resistance is high. Be it as it may, most notorious problem in TB management is defaulter rate. Defaulter rate is very high for various socio- economic cultural reasons, Taking drugs for some time and discontinuing it is the main reason of multidrug resistance. The challenge of TB management hence is to curb down the defaulter rate and improve the proper use of drug by ensuring accessibility of the care under supervision of health staff. Because of these reasons DOT is a must for the success of SCC. It appears from the article that Nepal has not taken DOT seriously or was not in a position to take it seriously while trying to implement SCC. This makes sense because to ensure an effective DOT the country has to have a well functioning Health care delivery system and motivated community participation.

It should however be mentioned that tuberculosis and MDT-TB are not the problem of underdeveloped countries only, alarms have been raised in the 'developed' countries as well. While the rich in underdeveloped countries are usually shielded from its attack, the poor in the rich countries are becoming vulnerable in an unprecedented scale. In an article in New England Medical Journal(jul 26), Dr. Thomas Frieden reported " over a 15 year period ending in 1992, the no. of TB cases nearly tripled and the no. of cases that showed resistance to standard treatments more than doubled. In central Harlem, NY. the TB rate was higher than in many Third world countries." The same concern is echoed in Britain .The incidence of Tuberculosis had lowered in Britain and the western world long before the advent of even the first generation anti TB drug. This was possible because of the improved socio- economic and environmental condition. Now British scientist are again blaming poverty by quoting their study results " TB is 10 times more common in the poorest 10% of the borough and districts in England than wealthiest 10%."( Dr. John moore, British Medical Journal , 12 April 1995).

I share the conviction with many professionals that drug based approach to the problem of tuberculosis does not yield sustainable result unless it is also integrated with developmental approach. On the contrary it may invite troubles. Nepal's effort may be a case in point. The message is not to abandon help or 'gift'from another country but to strive for its proper use by providing a matching efficiency in health care system. In most part of national control efforts , however, our governments' priorities have been to provide a false sense of security to the people by relying on short term efforts and urge for quick results. My personal feeling is that we are only witnessing the Tip of the Iceburg of the health problems that are about to emerge in coming decade. The cumulative effect of various determinant are pointing towards that direction. People's awareness, initiative and active participation for the control and management of their health in overall developmental perspectives seems to be only rays of hope for dealing with such colossol tasks. This is why the solution for medical problem has to be sought very often in 'non medical' realms. I find the following words of Janet Dabishire,Director of Medical research council's HIV clinical trial center in London an accurate discription of our problem and its challenges.

" The failure to reduce tuberculosis in most developing countries in spite of availability of effective chemotherapy has been attributed to failures to improve socio-economic conditions and the evidence from Britain supports this ". ( BMJ, 12 April'95).

mahesh maskey 27 sept, 1995. Ref.

2)*) Shakya TM. National Tuberculosis Program In Nepal. JNMA, Feb. 1995. 3) Shakya TM. Eight months short course chemotherapy infield condition of Nepal. JNMA, Feb.1995.

****************************************************************************** * * * The Nepal Digest(TND) is a publication of the Nepal Interest Group for * * news and discussions about issues concerning Nepal. All members of * * nepal@cs.niu.edu will get a copy of TND. Membership is open to all. * * THE EDITOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO EDIT ARTICLES FOR CLARITY. * * * * Subscription/Deletion requests : NEPAL-REQUEST@MP.CS.NIU.EDU * * Provide one line message: sub nepal "lastname, firstname, mi" <user@host> * * [OPTIONAL] Provide few lines about your occupation, address, phone for * * TND database to: <A10RJS1@MP.CS.NIU.EDU> * * Snail-Mail Correspondences to: Rajpal J.P. Singh * * Founding-Editor/Co-ordinator * * TND Foundation * * 44 Greenridge Ave * * White Plains, New York 10605, U.S.A. * * * * Digest Contributions: NEPAL@MP.CS.NIU.EDU * * Contributors need to supply Header for the article, email, and full name. * * * * Postings are divided into following categories that are listed in the * * order below. Please provide category-type in the header of your e-mail. * * * * 1. Message from TND Editorial Board * * 2. Letter to the Editor * * 3. TAJA_KHABAR: Current News * * 4. KATHA_KABITA: Literature * * 5. KURA_KANI: Economics * * Agriculture * * Forestry * * Health * * Education * * Technology * * Social Issues * * Cultural Issues * * Environment * * Tourism * * Foreign Policy * * History * * Military/Police * * Politics * * 6. CHOOT_KILA (Humor, Recipies, Movie Reviews, Sattaires etc.) * * 7. JAN_KARI: Classifides (Matrimonials, Jobs etc) * * 8. KHOJ_KHABAR (Inquiring about Nepal, Nepalis etc. ) * * 9. TITAR_BITAR: Miscellaneous (Immigration and Taxex etc. ) * * * * **** COPYRIGHT NOTE **** * * The news/article posters are responsible for any copyright violations. * * TND, a non-profit electronic journal, will publish articles that has * * been published in other electronic or paper journal with proper credit * * to the original media. * * * ******************************************************************************

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %% %% %% END OF "THE NEPAL DIGEST". %% %% %% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%



This archive was generated by hypermail 2b29 : Tue Jan 11 2000 - 11:15:47 CST