The Nepal Digest - September 26, 1995 (12 Ashwin 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Tuesday 26 September 95: Ashwin 12 2052 BS Volume 42 Issue 12

 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *


Dear Editor,

Thank you for mailing me the Nepal Digest at my internet address. I really enjoyed going through it. Particularly, the articles on Arun III attracted my attention. We have to ponder in this issue of national interest deeply so that a rational solution could be achieved on time.

I would like to thank you once again for giving due attention to my request and sending the Digest.

Thanking you and looking forward to hearing from you soon.

Rajeeb Gautam.

******************************************************************* Date: Mon, 25 Sep 95 12:27:47 -0700 From: Puru Subedi <> To: Subject: Call for papers on "Languages and Literature of Nepal..."

Call for Papers
             International Nepali Literary Seminar
       "Languages and Literature of Nepal and Nepalese in America"

Second National Convention of Nepalese and Friends of Nepal in North America will be held in University of Maryland, College Park, on May 25-26, 1996
(Memorial-Day Weekend). An International Nepali Literary Seminar will be organized on that occasion. The seminar will cover working papers and many other literary forms like poems, pros, satire, jokes, short stories, folk tales etc.. The seminar is scheduled on May 26 from 10:00 AM to 12:00 noon. There are very limited time slots left. Please send your papers and other literary writings as soon as possible to reserve your time slot. You must send your literary works by February 15, 1996 to 2926 Wetherburn Ct., Woodbridge, VA 22191. Please follow following guidelines when preparing your literary works for the seminar:

 I. The working paper should focus on The Language and Literature of Nepal and Nepalese in America. You must send the title, theme, and summary of the working paper. You can write the paper on any languages of Nepal like Newari, Thakali, Gurung, Kirati, Chhantyal etc.. It could be your mother language which represents your ethnic group but you must present the paper in either English or Nepali language.

II. A Poetry-Gram will be held in the seminar. In the Poetry-Gram, the participating poets themselves evaluate each other and figure out the best, second best and third best poems by averaging the marks. Poems that is submitted for Poetry-Gram must be in Nepali and can be in any subjects but it should not exceed more than 30 lines or 100 words. All other poems can be on any subject and in any languages of Nepal but you must translate the poem in Nepali or English when presenting in the seminar.

III. Any Nepali or friends of Nepal from around the world can participate in the seminar. Youngsters are also encouraged to participate.

IV. All other literary forms could be in any subject and in any language but must be presented in Nepali or English.

For more information contact Hom Nath Subedi at (703) 221-2656 or Dr. Pralad Panta at (513) 851-1019, or Khagendra Thapa at (616) 592-1468, or Dr. Mohan N. Shrestha at (419) 352-5984.

Nepali Literary Sub-Committee Second National Convention of Nepalese and Friends of Nepal in North America 1996

                International Nepali Poetry competition, 1996

        On the occasion of Second National Convention of Nepalese and Friends of Nepal in North America, INLS announce following literary award:

Subject: Any Length: Less than 100 word or thirty lines Language: Nepali Award: 1st - $150.00
                        2nd - $100.00
                        3rd - $ 50.00
                        The winners will be invited to present their poems
                        during the convention. Release Date: April 1st, 1996 Submission: Accepted from anywhere in the world. Format: Electronic file, typed paper or handwritten. Due date: Post-marked or e-mailed by February 29th, 1996. Participation: Everybody is eligible, and encouraged, for
                         participation in the competition except the
                         members of judging committee and the President of

Judging Committee: Dr.Jagadishwor Devkota
                         Dr.Kamal Pande
                         Kiran Dhungana

Award Distributions : At the site of the Second National Convention of Nepalese and
                        Friends of Nepal in North America to be held at the University of
                        Maryland, College Park (a suburb of Washington D.C.) on May
                        25-26, 1996.
  Award Funded by: Kiran Dhungana, President of Nepalese Community
                        Network of Canada as a dedication to his father
                         Mr. Mahendra Nath Dhungana.

Mail your submission to: INLS
                                        2926 Wetherburn CT.
                                        Woodbridge, VA-22191 Or e-mail:
  For more information call Hom Nath Subedi at (703)-221-2656.

******************************************************** Date: Mon, 25 Sep 1995 13:38:10 -0400 (EDT) From: mahesh maskey <> To: The Nepal Digest <>


In my last article "Some examples on Nepalese particularity in the field of religion" I have presented citations as body of evidence to argue for
        i) the existence of religious syncretism in Nepal, particularly
           kathmandu valley.
        ii) the process of development of such syncretism being more
            cooperative than conflictive, between the different religious
            streams in valley society.

I had expected counterarguments, supported too, by a body of evidence, either in the compilation of plausible arguments presented by other scholars or pertinent facts dug out by oneself.

Amulya does neither.

Mostly spending energy in side issues, amulya's arguments do not even question the existence of religious syncretism let alone refute it. He had an opportunity to prove how has P. R. Sharma misinterpreted or misrepresented Locke about Matsyendranath. But instead of providing us Locke's version, he takes a 'trust me' approach. I am afraid such approach hardly has any merit in polemics, especially when one aspires to make some really strong comments about a scholar's attitude or bias as Amulya does to Dr. Sharma.

With some interspersed pointed observations, what we mostly have in his response is the statements of his likes and dislikes, acceptance and rejections, mainly centering around how that religious syncretism might have been carried out. These, however do not help much to confront an established scholarship. Those who want to challenge the authorities like Dhanavajra Vajracharya, it is prudent to remember his precedence at least. Dhanavajra was an iconoclast because he had the tenacity and perseverance to dig out and present facts. We owe him tremendously for our knowledge of Ancient Nepal. When he dig into the past and come out with "Licchavi Kal ka Avilekh" or spent his life's important years in reading the difficult text of "Gopala rajavamsavali", was he committing the folly of looking into those useless ancient times (like the anthropologist booed by Amulya's Shangrila scare!), or was he burdened by the overriding necessity of inventing a "Hindu" version of chronicles? When Amulya suggests that past may be irrelevant (eg. "rupture" in the historical link,
'why go to those periods?, etc) he appears to have forgotten that the central issue in my article was cultural and religious assimilation the examples of which had taken shape in a certain period of history in the past and which are still very much observed in the present. In situation like this understanding of past very often becomes a precondition for understanding of present in all its complexities.

Interestingly, he uses two contradictory line of argument to dissuade readers from looking into the past. First arguing against the possibility that past might be of some help to understand present, he brings in the possibility of "rupture in the historical link" and second; he argues that those who look into the past they do so inspired by Shangrila myth as if such efforts are already biased and designed to present a picture of peaceful and conflictless society in no way relevant to present. (by the way it seems out of place to apply Shangrila myth in the context of religious syncretism, Mahabharat and Hindu motif. Shangrila myth, popularized by the book and the movie 'Lost Horizon' in 1937 is based upon the story of a certain British citizen Conway who happens to see a society near Himalyan borders of Tibet organized in the BUDDHIST way of life, kindness, moderation and middle path. There is no time freeze in Shangrila, they accept very well modern technology and are aware of what is going on in outside world. The only thing that may be assigned to "time freeze" is the delayed effect of time in their ageing process because of there peaceful way of living and lack of stress. There is no religious syncretism nor is there any "sectarian" issue involved for the state in the field of religion. It would have been better if Amulya has chosen some other metaphor to describe his argument. And there is no "Shangrila" either in Mahabharat era as presented by epic Mahabharat. The later highlight the fued, conspiracy and war between the ruling elites and which like Homer's Greek epics conveys whole lot of philosophical and social implication of society of a particular time period in which it was written and /or compiled. There is no reason why an anthropologist should not look into Mahabharat or Rigveda in his/her effort to understand the time period these texts describe. Serious researcher do not dismiss these texts by calling them 'esoteric'. It is a different question how efficiently they untangle plausible evidences from fiction and superstitions. Homer's work has been considered as a reliable account of early Greek history and civilization. And Western Historians are not so unthoughtful about the oriental epics as well. J. M. Roberts, writer of monumental book " History of the World" (1993) writes: "Rigveda is one of the most important source for the history not only of Indian religion but also of Aryan is like Homer, the eventual written form of a body of oral tradition but quite different in being much more certain". Study of those period may provide us a very important insights in the evolution of human society. Mistake should not be made by knee-jerk assumptions that such efforts are an escape from the realities of present.).
"Hinduism", "Brahminism" seems to be the recurring themes in Amulya's writings and target of attack as well. He consider religious syncretism
"as the category whose express purpose is to legitimize Hindu philosophy and the religious and social mores of casteism" and describes my argument's standing as confined to the perspective of "Brahminised Hindu nepali" And, what is more, he has the audacity to present my reference in earlier texts to NAGARJUN, the outstanding proponent of MAHAYAN BUDDHISM, as an evidence of this "brahminized Hindu nepali " position!!

Since Hinduism is going to be the frequently discussed topic, I want to make it clear what I am referring to by this word. "Hinduism" as an instrument of oppressive rulers and state power is mainly "Manusmriti" and "Puranas" - the ritualistic aspect of Hinduism. Hindu rulers have ruled by the laws codified by Manu, and the force of Hindu tradition also draws inspiration from Manusmriti and Puranas. The content of these laws have ofcourse evolved in a long historical period before Manu. The latter can only be acknowledged for systematizing and upholding it as the practical basis of Hindu society. A whole institution of priesthood guarding the rituals based on superstition and fear of gullibles had continually reinforced the subjugation of human populace in such Hindu rule. The reference to Hinduism in my last articles represented this aspect of Hinduism and my criticism to "Hinduism" in future will be directed by this understanding. It is difficult to draw a clear line of demarcation between Hinduism's abstract philosophical endeavors and its dogma of ritualistic priesthood. However a summary dismissal of Hinduism or attempt to reduce Hinduism to only Manusmriti and not to see its philosophical and /or scientific contribution would be a mistake. An analogy of this mistake is to reduce Buddhism to the oppressive system of Lama rule in Tibet, a system based on brutal oppression of serfs and slaves for centuries. I think Kanshiram - the charismatic leaders of Dalits in India, has wisely coined the word "Manuvad" to drive home his arguments. Assignment of "Poorba Janma ko Paap" is also not an exclusively Hindu phenomenon. Rebirth and Karma had found much eloquent expression in Buddhist faith especially in Tibetan lamaism. The whole cycle of Rebirth is based on "Poorba Janma ko Paap" or
"Poorba Janma Ko Dharma".

Even at the risk of being labeled as an "apologist of Hinduism" I would caution and argue for a deeper study of the subject with those enthusiasts who aspire to dismiss Hinduism with a wave of hand. One reason for such caution is its understanding of the phenomena of Universe. Modern science has discovered that of all the ancient philosophy Hindus had approximated the present understanding of universe as eternal flux, a continuous process of creation and destruction, and their time calculation about universe also corresponds to the modern science of cosmology. There speculation matches with the quest of scientists about what happened before the begining of Universe ie. the Big Bang. And they also provide a plausible answer that there was never a begining or an end to universe. The theory of Oscillating Universe which considers universe having alternate phase of contraction and expansion and which considers Big Bang rather an end point of contraction phase is quite at home with the reasoning or belief of ancient hindu concept about Universe.(ref. Carl Sagan -COSMOS series(10) "the edge of forever"). Another contribution worth mentioning is Zero and decimal system to the science of mathematics.

I have often noticed Amulya's different articles treating Newars sort of dominated castes, juxtaposing them to bahun chhetri. I myself have used the term newar indiscriminately. But now, our discussion has reached to a point where we have to blast this erroneous view of Newars as caste. There are very high class Brahmins in Newars
(Karmacharya as Hindu temple priest, Vajracharya as Buddhist priest) there place being second only to Rajopadhyaya Brahmins in social hierarchy set by Jayastithiraj Malla. And there are "uncleans" and perhaps "untouchable" too in Newars - the "Chyames" and the "Podes" among others. Analogous to Bahun chhetri group is the "Chhathare" in Newars. Newar is not a single caste, nor it is the "Vaishyan" Varna of Hindu varnashram into which the non newar Hindus tried to squeeze newars. The social distance within newars are much too obvious. Newar is a MULTICASTE community.

And it is not only that. It is multi tribal or "ethnic"( if we can call them ethnic) and multi racial community. It has both streams of Aryan and Tibeto burmese race and intermixing. Kirantas, Gopalas, Abhira Guptas, Vrjis, Licchavis, Thakuri Varmans, Koliyas, Shakyas all have contributed to the making of Newars.

And it is perhaps among the few example of its kind where a community, apparently so "homogenous" due to its language and culture that it is mistaken for a caste, has been able to contain two major streams of conflicting religion within itself almost half belonging to each religion. It is not difficult to see that the examples of religious syncretism is very often a phenomenon maturing within this community. If there is something called Newari Culture then it must have been historically developed by some process that not only assimilated different racial and trible decent but also converged the two religion; and what is more, held them together!

This why Amulya, even to understand how Newars came into being it is important for us to look back into the history and understand what great forces and developments materialized this cultural and religion assimilations. The cultural assimilation that gave rise to Newars and the process that led to religious syncretism can only be understood by examining the the past. There is no escape from this. And there is no
"rupture". Our cultural past extends right into the marrow of the present. The question is how was this accomplished.

Was it, as I like to believe, more cooperative in nature, or was it more oppressive in nature as you like to believe. By cooperation, I am not idolizing feudal state or feudal culture. This is not to minimize class contradiction. The very fact that castes existed within Newars are indicative of intensive class conflict and social order based on them. This is also not the denial of a oppressed and oppressive culture in the general terms of "Nepali culture" or
" Newari Culture". On the contrary, the only plausible explanation I find for this cementing factor between different vertical streams of religion and tribes is the consolidatiion of class solidarity on both sides of class struggle which I had already explained in the last article. What I mean by cooperation is that the process that gave rise to the modules of religious syncretism seems to be more cooperative then conflictive between the religions at that particular time period. And it seems to have bloomed in those periods when state consciously tried to take a non sectarian approach to religion or kept an equidistance and paid almost equal respect to each or tried to resolve conflict by syncretic approach or at least did not resort to overt oppression of other religion. This act of state may be more of a COMPULSION than CHOICE. This practice was later lost or over taken by the overriding interest of the state and its allied religion. If this view is correct then the logical conclusion for Nepal could be that the state patronage to any one religion at the cost of other is a hindrance to the process of cultural and religious assimilation. This lesson coincides with the aspiration of the modern age with all the logic of history and rational thinking. May be it is time that we peacefully drop the feather of "Hindu Kingdom" from the hat Nepal is wearing. In the age of enlightment, in 18th century, the authority of church was challenged and was separated from state in Europe. At the threshold of 21st century, I think we nepalese have enough reason to severe the bonds of state and religion and end the status of a "state religion". I am inclined to believe that our ancient past is a sympathizer if not a staunch supporter for this move.

But Amulya does not agree with this construct of past , he calls it a fictitious "Hindu social construct". Hence the question remains and needs a patient exploration. The responsibility of our differing position is to bring the facts however inadequate, to substantiate our arguments in the hope that thought interaction may lead to a better and more plausible social construct. But we must look into the past. Confinement to a certain period in present can not explain something that has already occured in the past. The logic of such inquiry , as explained before, is to make present more understandable. If a new born baby dies of tetanus, the cause is the infection with tetanus organism but the condition for facilitating such infection very often lies in the maternal state of immunization - whether the protective antibodies were passed from mother into the body of baby or not. This knowledge is crucial in control program of tetanus. Effective immunization of mothers has drastically cut down the morbidity and mortality of newborns by tetanus even before substantial change in the environment could be made. To look for our strength is the search of that social immunity. One of the complexities of Present is that this social immunity has been depleted considerably.

A few words on "rupture" and "Progressivism" before the presentation of one more evidence in favor of my argument.

Until now I rejected the consideration of the possibility of any rupture in the continuity in the sense that Amulya uses the word - ie. no relation to past, collapse to zero base. This I did simply because such rupture does not exist. We are living in a time which is not only excavating lost civilizations and establishing its link with the mosaic that construct ascent of human race and society, we are living in the age of Cosmos, that links our earth to changes in the universe. Many of the roots of present human behaviour are sought in man's prehistory and their roots in turn, in the behaviour of apes. where is the rupture?

But yes there is a kind of rupture in development of every process. - A change from quantity to quality, a qualitative turn from the past, a revolutionary leap in the continuum of evolution, a jump from one species to another. We do have to take account of such rupture. They are an invariable component of the process of social evolution but which the
"evolutionists" usually do not want to see. But this qualitative turn or rupture is a product of the past and always has explanation rooted in the past. Water can be changed to vapor by applying heat, a qualitatively a new state of matter, and one may like to think it as rupture from the past of the state of liquid, but they are causally linked with the state of water and application of heat. There is no escape from this causal chain. Of course this cause effect process is not an absolutely predictable property as the deterministic or mechanistic thinkers like us to believe. On the contrary the complexity of nature, human body and society is quite unpredictable, but nevertheless, they only leads us to multiple causation and interaction, not to the abandonment of cause effect relationship.

This brings once again to the word "progressivism". I don't know which
"progressivism" Amulya links with to "evolutionism" and "social Darwinism". Is it a "modernist" or "post modernist" progressivism? If he is , however talking about marxist progressivism then he missed the point. Marxist progressivism is not a theory of social evolution. It is a theory of social revolution - an upward spiral of evolution interspersed with revolutionary leaps. It rejects any linear theory of history in a mechanistic deterministic sense which amulya ventures to assign to his understanding of "progressivism".

Now to the heart of matter. Amulya does not want to allow me to "wash away political patronage of Hinduism from religious syncretism category". But he has not presented any evidence of Hindu state patronage oppressive to Buddhism. When Dhanavajra Vajracharya notes "in earlier Licchavi period... it does not appear from available evidence that they had adopted an exclusive religious values of either Buddhism or Hinduism", Amulya should have been able to bring some evidence to counter such observation. He does not bring any. He only hints by the example of Svayambhu not being as successful as syncretic symbol as Pashupati Nath thus suggesting indirectly a hand of state favorable to Hindu and not to Buddhist for that outcome. Even if we assume that there were consistent state patronage to Hinduism throughout the period in question, he has not produced any evidence of force being used for that. If such syncretism has been achieved by persuasion and not by force then we have a non oppressive image of Hinduism which runs contrary to Amulya's belief. Since he has mentioned Svayambhu, I think it is useful for the discussion to produce a brief account of relationship between state and Buddhism in Ancient Nepal.

It is not that Buddhist never had state patronage. The 13th king of Licchavi Dynasty King Vrsdeva ( King Mandeva was sixteenth) was follower of Buddhism. In his time Svayambhu and Dhando Chaitya were build. In India Buddhism had state patronage during the reign of King Ashoka, (3rd century BC). It had that privilege during the reign of Kushanas in 1st and 2nd century AD also. The last Kushana king, Kaniska, had tried to organize the great congress of Buddhist in his effort to bring diverging sects of HINAYAN and MAHAYAN Buddhism together. At that time Nepal is also said to be under their influence as many coins of Kushana period has been found both in Kathmandu Valley and Kapilavastu. Buddhism flourished in Kathamandu valley till the domination of Kushanas before the Licchavi take over. Hence there is a kind of ups and down in state affinity to a particular religion. There are even evidences of adopting Buddhism as second religion by Hindu kings after Vrsdeva. But while there are indications that hostilities were against Buddhism in different periods of history in Nepal, there is not much evidence of one religion oppressing another using its state power. Religious animosities of Hinduism towards Buddhism in India is quite evident. We know how catholic treated Prostestants in 16th century, Pope John Paul recently apologized publicly for that. I hope amulya will try to find such examples to make his point. I have given examples of Shankaracharya's visit in previous article. I present a quote to encourage for that search so that we have a balance opinion of our history.

" In the religious field of Nepal's history, various ages witnessed struggles and hostilities in the name of Buddhism. Some legends give the account of Bloodshed". (J.C.Regmi "Religion in Nepal").

But was that a state sponsored hostility or clash between followers of faiths we do not know. Despite the possibility of conflict and hostilities, cultural assimilation and religious syncretism exemplified by the socio-historical formation of community of newars and Newari culture is remarkable. I would be greatly surprised if some body tells me that such great outcome was accomplished without conflict. I anticipate the role of conflict not only during the reign of a particular power but also during the change of power from one religious affinity to another. However, it is also clear that conflict alone can not achieve such a level of cultural and religious synthesis. My intent was to show that despite the conflict, the cooperation in the field of religion in Nepal stands out esp. compared to India.

To this end, I want to present an interesting inscription found in pillar of Garuda at Satyanarayansthan, Handigaon consecrated by Anupuram Gupta whose son the powerful courtier Bhaumgupta had captured power from the reigning kings of Licchavis around 515 AD ( about 10yrs after the death of Mandeva). In this inscription great praise have been showered on the Vedic tradition and philosophy and 'atheist' Buddhists are condemned explicitly. this inscription is also taken as an indication of powerful groups of Abhira Gupta's attitude toward Licchavis rulers. "Anupuram, By eulogizing the Vedic tradition in his Vaisnava inscription and by condemning the 'atheist' Buddhists, had openly condemned the Licchavi kings for granting protection to 'atheist' Buddhists. The fact that he had overlooked the reigning king of that time without mentioning his name in the inscription is also glaring illustration of the same." (Dr. Regmi, ibid).

The defiance of Anupuram Gupta, I believe, is one reliable pointer for understanding how the state under early Licchavi period, might have behaved towards the Buddhists.

mahesh maskey 23 sept. 1995

******************************************************************** To: Subject: Mahat to beg WB to restore Arun III Date: Mon, 25 Sep 95 14:00:05 EDT From:

A recent news item has said Finance Minister Ram Sharan mahat will meet with WB president J W next month to ask him to restore Arun III.

I think this amounts to begging and selling nepal's sense of dignity after being rejected by WB.

Second, to what extent can we believe WB would reconsider the request of a wobbly coalition govt which hardly has a roaring endorsement of the nepali electorate that they will sink so many million dollars? Doubtful, This is a trip for mahat and his political alliance to pay tribute the lone superpower and get their unofficial endorsemnt in the corridors of White house. BTW, has any one heard of Bill Clinton congratulating Deoba yet?

Third, it must remembered that the WB decision was a response to a convergence of a lot of powerful forces other than cold economics, which Mahat thinks he understands, these include the environmental INGOs and their constituencies in US and the Western nations.

I wonder how others see this .

amulya y R chridna

************************************************************ To: Subject: News 9/23/1995 Date: Mon, 25 Sep 95 14:15:34 EDT From: (Sher B. Karki)

                   The Xinhua General Overseas News Service
                          Xinhua General News Service

The materials in the Xinhua file were compiled by The Xinhua News Agency. These materials may not be republished without the express written consent of The Xinhua News Agency.

                SEPTEMBER 23, 1995, SATURDAY 02:16 Eastern Time

LENGTH: 197 words

HEADLINE: d p 1379 bc- nepal -economy hke092316 --nepali new government to restructure economy

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 23; ITEM NO: 0923079

   the nepali coalition government will take a host of austerity measures to restructure the nation's ailing economy, according to newly appointed finance minister ram sharan mahat. mahat was sworn into office friday along with other cabinet members after king birendra expanded the five-member cabinet at the recommendation of prime minister sher bahadur deuba. the cabinet was expanded to a full-fledged one after the three-party government got a vote of confidence in the parliament earlier this week. the new finance minister friday told a local english newspaper that the government would aim at concentrating more on increasing revenues through reforms in tax structure and giving a much needed boost to export. to increase the flow of resources, austerity measures would be needed, he said. mahat accused the former government of implementing welfare-oriented economic policies, noting the worse economic data recently released by the country's central bank, the kathmandu post reported today. however, the new finance minister said, the popular village-oriented programs of the former government would be continued.

                           SEPTEMBER 22, 1995, FRIDAY

LENGTH: 189 words

HEADLINE: nepali coalition cabinet expanded

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 22; ITEM NO: 0922073

   the nepali coalition government formed by three parties under prime minister sher bahadur deuba has expanded its five-member cabinet, a notice issued here today said. king birendra expanded the cabinet by allocating the portfolios at the recommendation of the prime minister. besides the prime minister, the new cabinet, or the council of ministers, has 19 ministers, one minister of state and five assistant ministers. among the 26 cabinet members, 12 are from the nepali congress party, 13 from the national democratic party (rpp) and one from the nepal goodwill party. prime minister deuba will look after ministries of royal palace affairs, defense, general administration, woman and social welfare, population and environment, parliamentary affairs and youth, sports and culture. following are major ministers and their portfolios: foreignaffairs minister: prakash chandra lohani home minister: khum bahadur khadkafinance minister: ramsaran mahat agriculture minister: padma sunder lawati
                           SEPTEMBER 22, 1995, FRIDAY

LENGTH: 177 words

HEADLINE: indian bank to change foreign exchange norms for acu

DATELINE: new delhi, september 22; ITEM NO: 0922092

   the reserve bank of india (rbi) is introducing new foreign exchange control regulations in regard to the asian clearing union (acu) for settlement of payments on a multilateral basis between participating countries from january 1,1996, a highly-placed source said here today. the seven countries in the acu which met in colombo on september 1 approved the new regulations on foreign exchange. they decided to put all the trade between the participating countriesin us dollar designated transactions. the exporters and importers in the acu,industry minister: dhunderaj shastri water resources minister: pashupati who earlier received payment in their local currency, will now get all their proceeds in us dollars. the seven nations in the acu are india, nepal, srilanka, myanmar, iran, pakistan and bangladesh. the central banks of these seven nations will be making corresponding changes in their foreign exchange regulations, the same source said. the new regulations will make available pre-shipment and post-shipment credit in foreign currency for trade and discounting and rediscounting of foreign currency bills abroad.

                          SEPTEMBER 21, 1995, THURSDAY

LENGTH: 74 words

HEADLINE: national park guide killed by rhinoceros in nepal

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 21; ITEM NO: 0921206

   a tourist guide injured by a wild rhinoceros in a national park in central
 nepal died today on the way to a hospital. the tourist guide of the chitwational park was injured seriously by the rhinoceros when he tried to protect five tourists from an attack of the beast, a report reaching here said. the tourists were going on a sightseeing of wild animals in the park when the rhinoceros launched an attack towards them, the report said.

                          SEPTEMBER 21, 1995, THURSDAY

LENGTH: 332 words

HEADLINE: nepali king on coalition government's policies

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 21; ITEM NO: 0921191

   king birendra today said that on the basis of mutual trust, goodwill, cooperation and equality, nepal will consolidate its relations with india, china and other neighboring countries as well as all friendly countries of the world. the king made this statement at a joint sitting of the two houses of parliament here this afternoon. birendra said, as a member of the united nations, nepal's international relations will be conducted to further enhance image of nepal as a peace-loving, staunch supporter of human rights, democratic and active non-aligned nation in the world. nepal's commitment to and participation in international organizations will be continued, he added. he stressed that his government will pursue policies to promote the spirit of regional cooperation in a pragmatic and result-oriented manner through the south asian association for regional cooperation (saarc). the king said, after the re-instatement of the house of representatives, a coalition government has been formed for the first time in the country under the constitution of the kingdom. he wished that this new constitutional exercise will contribute towards consolidation of multiparty parliamentary system and acceleration of overall development of the country. the lower house, which was dissolved on june 13, was reinstated by the supreme court in its verdict published on august 28. on domestic affairs, the king said that the government will lay emphasis on devising policies for a just land reform program, irrigation extension, supply of agricultural inputs and loan, promotion of investment on physical infrastructures, comprehensive extension of small and medium scale cottage industries, gradual balance of export and import and promotion of employment opportunities. he said that nepal will follow an open, liberal and transparent industrial policy by encouraging the private sector to the industrialization endeavors of the country and by attracting foreign investment to this end.

                          SEPTEMBER 21, 1995, THURSDAY

LENGTH: 81 words

HEADLINE: adb extends loan to nepal for road project

DATELINE: manila, september 21; ITEM NO: 0921142

   the asian development bank (adb) today approved a concessional loan of 25.65 million us dollars to nepal for the third road improvement project. the project is designed to improve sections of strategic roads totaling 250 kilometers in the eastern, mid western, and far western regions and also to rehabilitate about 100 kilometers of priority roads. the project road sections were selected because they provide connection to the east-west highway, the key arterial route in nepal.

                          SEPTEMBER 19, 1995, TUESDAY

LENGTH: 65 words

HEADLINE: south, east asia's health ministers meet in colombo

DATELINE: colombo, september 19; ITEM NO: 0919065

   health ministers and representatives from countries in south and east asian region met here today to discuss the role of health in social development in developing countries. they are from bangladesh, bhutan, india, indonesia, the democratic people's republic of korea, the maldives, mynamar, nepal, thailand and sri lanka. the meeting was sponsored by the world health organization.

                         SEPTEMBER 19, 1995, TUESDAY

LENGTH: 195 words

HEADLINE: nepali opposition protests rejection of its motions

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 19; ITEM NO: 0919177

   the communist party of nepal (uml), the country's major opposition, today accused the house of violating the constitution in rejecting its impeachment motions. house speaker ram chandra poudel monday rejected the impeachment motions against supreme court's chief justice bishwonath upadhayaya and justice surendra prasad singh. the uml registered the motions at the parliament secretariat last sunday, demanding the removal of the two men from their posts on the grounds that "they lacked efficiency and honesty in the discharge of their duties as chief justice and justice." at a press conference here today, uml's secretary general madhav kumar nepal charged that the speaker's rejection was out of prejudice against his party. raising motions by members of parliament is guaranteed by the 1990 constitution, nepal said, adding that "we have referred the issue to the constitutional procedural working committee of the lower house for consideration." nepal's 11-member supreme court, led by chief justice upadhayaya, ruled on august 28 to revive the dissolved lower house, which passed a non-trust motion against a nine-month long communist minority government.

               Proprietary to the United Press International 1995

                     September 19, 1995, Tuesday, BC cycle

SECTION: International

LENGTH: 286 words

HEADLINE: Speaker rejects impeachment motion


   The speaker of Nepal's Parliament has rejected an effort to impeach the nation's chief justice, threatening further tension within the divided government. Speaker Ram Chandra Paudel said Monday he rejected the impeachment motion because it ''failed to clarify the reasons and basis of the claim'' against Chief Justice Bishway Nath Upadhaya. Communist Party lawmakers are furious at Upadhaya and the Supreme Court, which last month reinstated Parliament and annulled planned elections. The Communists in June dissolved Parliament and ordered elections be held Nov. 23 to avert a no-confidence vote sought by opposition parties. The Communists ruled the government until they were ousted by a coalition of oppositions parties last week. The Communists said the court's decision was a misinterpretation of the constitution and the verdict was ''politically motivated.'' Some supporters of the Communist Party called for the death of the chief justice. Communist Party lawmaker Jhalanath Khanal introduced the impeachment motion Sunday. The impeachment effort came eight days before the 65-year-old Upadhaya is scheduled to retire. The impeachment motion said Upadhaya ''lacked efficiency and honesty in the discharge of duties as the chief justice.'' But Paudel, a member of the Nepali Congress Party, disagreed. ''No proper reasons or justifiable basis have been mentioned to prove that Chief Justice Upadhaya lacked efficiency, good conduct and honesty,'' he said. ''The Supreme Court has the right to interpret the country's constitution and laws. There is an obligatory provision for all to accept the interpretation of the Supreme Court,'' Paudel said.

                     Copyright 1995 Agence France Presse
                              Agence France Presse

              September 23, 1995 India-Hindu 1 03:26 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 547 words

HEADLINE: Hindu gods have drunk enough milk: priests


 BODY: subsided here Saturday as priets said the "miracle" had ceased because the gods were satiated.

   Devotees trickling into the Birla Mandir, New Delhi's largest Hindu temple, were told by priests that the elephant-headed Ganesh, the Hindu god of wisdom, was no longer accepting milk, witnesses said.

   "We went to the Mandir, but we were were told the miracle had ended," said Purshottam Mallik, a pharmacist. More than 150,000 devotees have offered milk to Ganesh at the temple since Thursday.

   City officials said six of New Delhi's largest Hindu temples were almost empty on Saturday, while in Calcutta, priests said Ganesh was in "deep slumber" after drinking thousands of litres of milk.

   "The gods are now satiated and will not accept any more milk," said Baburam Gosai, a priest in the city's Kalibari temple.

   Their testimonies sparked a massive religious frenzy which spilled into Britain, Hong Kong, Nepal, The Netherlands, Singapore and the United States as Hindus thronged temples to give Shiva or Ganesh idols some liquid sustenance.

   Even in Islamic countries such as Pakistan and Bangladesh members of the faith and non-Hindus made a beeline to temples to try and feed the gods.

   Scientists and devotees have offered various explanations, some saying it is a portent of disaster, others a lucky sign, or just mass hysteria.

   "It involved a temporary suspension of logic, reasoning and judgement... It can affect any society and is mostly harmless and temporary with varying durations," tDinesh Mohan, a prominent Indian psychiatrist said Saturday.

   Another theory is that the rumours were spread by Chandraswami, a jet-sitting Hindu guru, who counts Elizabeth Taylor and the Sultan of Brunei among his acolytes.

   He apparently said he had "invoked" Ganesh but he did not directly claim credit for the "miracle."

   Newspapers on Saturday warned against a repetition of Thursday's religious frenzy.

   "Whether fake or genuine, the hysteria denied milk to the needy and the sick," said The Statesman in an editorial called "The Milky Way."

   Meanwhile in Kathmandu, Nepalese scientists said they had solved the mystery.

   "The number of people offering milk to Ganesh has fallen to almost nil after the Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (RONAST) solved the milk mystery," said a policeman on duty outside a temple.

                     September 22, 1995 22:30 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 214 words

HEADLINE: Deuba names 26-member cabinet


    Nepal's Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba has named a 26-member cabinet.

   King Birendra on Friday formally announced the new appointments which include Prakash Chandra Lohani as foreign minister, state radio said.

   There are 20 ministers, one state minister and five assistant ministers with cabinet rank in the tripartite coalition government headed by Deuba's Nepali Congress (NC).

   Deuba retains royal palace, defence, general administration, social welfare, environment, sports and culture portfolios.

   The coalition partners are the NC, the rightist Rastriya Prajatantra Party
(RPP) and the pro-India Nepal Sadbhavana Party (NSP).

   The coalition government was formed on September 12 after the three parties brought down the ruling Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist government in a censure motion.

                     September 22, 1995 23:07 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 1587 words

HEADLINE: "Milk Miracle" -- or "Mass Hysteria"?

DATELINE: (picture)

    By Chris Lefkow

   NEW DELHI, Sept 22 (AFP) - Scientists and Hindu devotees squared off Friday to explain the phenomenon of "milk-drinking" idols that has gripped India and spilled over into Hindu communities abroad.

   "A divine event, a miracle," proclaimed the Hindu fundamentalist Vishwa Hindu Parishad, the World Hindu Council.

   "Mass hysteria," countered the Indian Rationalists' Association, advancing scientific explanations for the vanishing milk, such as "surface tension" and

   Whatever the reasons, Hindus continued to flock to temples Friday to offer milk to Lord Shiva, the Hindu god of destruction, or his son Ganesh, the portly elephant-headed god of prosperity, wisdom and good luck.

   Thousands across the country reported that when they held a spoonful of milk to the lips of Shiva or to the trunk of Ganesh, the liquid disappeared into the statue.

   Their testimonies sparked an unprecedented religious frenzy which has spread to Britain, Hong Kong, Nepal, Singapore and the United States as Hindus headed to their local temples to give Shiva and Ganesh idols some sustenance.

   In New Delhi, the number of worshippers Friday was far fewer than on Thursday, when the city ground to a virtual halt and temples were jammed with people carrying cartons, bowls and cups of milk to the nearest temple.

   The right-wing Hindu party which governs the Indian capital was taking no chances, however, and ordered an extra 100,000 litres (26,455 gallons) of milk shumshere j.b. rana health minister: arjun narsingh k. c.

to be on hand after stores were virtually drained on Thursday.

   The offering of milk, fruit, sweets or money to the gods is an established practice in Hinduism. Milk is poured over busts of Shiva, or his phallic symbol known as a "lingam," while Ganesh is doused with milk during festivals.

   But the offering of a "drink" of milk by pressing a spoon or a cup against an idol is unusual, and there were conflicting reports as to what inspired the first worshippers to do so on Thursday or where it all began.

   A number of Hindu priests in the capital reported receiving telephone calls from Calcutta after midnight on Thursday telling them that idols would "drink" milk.

   The news spread like wildfire until it engulfed the entire country.

   One theory is the rumors were spread by a powerful Hindu guru, Chandraswami, who is currently under investigation by the Indian authorities for his links to a suspect in the March 1993 serial bombings in Bombay.

   The jet-setting Hindu mystic, who has served as a spiritual adviser to such celebrities as Elizabeth Taylor, was maintaining an aloof silence however. The Indian Rationalists Association offered a 100,000 rupee
(3,000 dollar) reward to anyone who could prove that milk given to a religious idol sitting on a piece of blotting paper "was being consumed by the diety."

   "I visited many temples and found that spoons were being tilted," said Sanal Edamaruku, secretary-general of the group. "Consequently the milk disappeared as it flowed down.

   "Since many idols are white and since milk is virtually transparent when in thin flow, it appeared as if the milk was disappearing," he said. "Liters of milk were flowing down, clearly proving that this was no miracle."

   Narender Sehgal, a member of another rationalists' group, attributed the phenomenon of the "vanishing" milk to "surface tension" or "capillarity."

   "Every liquid has its own surface tension, which is dependent on the molecular force of the force of attraction within the liquid and the surface it comes in contact with," he said in a statement.

   "As soon as milk comes in contact with the marble surface of the statues of gods and goddesses, it spreads fast and it appears as if it were disappearing or being sucked in by the stations," he added.

   Ranjana Kumari, director of the Center for Social Research here, said the country appeared to be in the grip of "mass euphoria or mass hysteria."

   "Our people are great believers," she said. "Their faith led them to believe the gods were drinking the milk."

   The World Hindu Council -- which has links to India's main opposition party, the Hindu revivalist Bharatiya Janata Party -- dismissed the scientific explanations saying "this was not an ordinary event but a divine one and a prophecy."

   For Sanjay Sonthalia, a New Delhi resident, it was all in the eye of the beholder. "If you believe, you believe. If you don't, you don't," he said.



   India's main Hindu nationalist party is hoping the religious frenzy unleashed by "milk-lapping" idols signals a resurgence of faith that will help it perform a miracle in next year's general election.

   The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP, Indian People's Party), the country's main opposition party, found cause to rejoice in the nationwide reports that the elephant-headed idol of the Hindu god Ganesh had been seen "drinking" milk.

   B.L. Sharma Prem, the BJP's most outspoken parliamentarian, rejected explanations that millions of Hindus had suffered from "mass hysteria."

   "No one has the right to question one's faith," Prem said. "The miracle is a signal that our god has finally woken up."

   India's ruling Congress (I) party for its part described the phenomenon as a
"political disinformation" campaign but refrained from laying the blame on the BJP, expected to pose the Congress' greatest challenge in next year's vote.

   Prem, who defeated top Congress leader H.K.L. Bhagat in the 1991 elections in a New Delhi constituency, said the BJP would clearly gain from the "milk miracle."

   "We would benefit immensely," said the leader of the BJP, which is counting on its "Hindu first" platform to take power next year.

   Tens of millions of people left their homes and offices across India on Thursday to give milk to the elephant-headed god of prosperity as rumours spread that the stone idols were accepting milk from true believers.

   The religious fervour spilled over into Indian communities in Britain, Hong Kong, Nepal, Singapore, the United States and other countries.

   Congress party officials met here Friday to discuss the event and whether there could be a political backlash, party sources said.

   "The issue is a minefield," a party leader said on condition of anonymity.
"We have to tread extremely carefully."

   The Marxist Communist Party of India reacted angrily, accusing the BJP's frontline ally, the Hindu fundamentalist Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP, World Hindu Council), of perpetrating a fraud on an unprecedented scale.

   "The phenomenon which occurred yesterday clearly shows that it had been planned and orchestrated by organisations such as the VHP," Marxist leader Prakash Karat said.

   Karat said the VHP was the only Indian political organisation with networks in Britain and the United States to spread the rumours. "VHP leaders out there telephoned Hindus to orchestrate the frenzy," the opposition leader charged.

   Another theory is that the rumors were spread by a powerful Hindu guru, Chandraswami, currently under investigation by the Indian authorities for links to a suspect in the March 1993 serial bombings in Bombay.

   The jet-setting Hindu mystic, who has served as a spiritual adviser to such celebrities as Elizabeth Taylor, has said mysteriously that he had "invoked" the god Ganesh but he did not directly claim credit for the "miracle."

   The offering of milk, fruit, sweets or money to the gods is an established practice in Hinduism, although the offering of a "drink" of milk by pressing a spoon or cup against an idol is unusual.

                     September 22, 1995 05:07 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 480 words

HEADLINE: Devotees say elephant headed-god drinks milk in Nepal


   Housewives, civil servants, teachers and devotees of the Hindu elephant-headed god Ganesh thronged to his temples on Friday to offer milk, which witnesses said he was drinking.

   The offerings, and reports of statues drinking milk, have also been made in India, Britain, Hong Kong, Singapore and the United States as Hindus headed to their local temples to give Shiva and Ganesh idols some sustenance.

   "The miracle began early Thursday morning in Kathmandu and other parts of the country and continues today also," said Ram Prasad Sharma, a devotee.

   "The benevolent god, also known as god of wisdom and good omen, drank the milk I offered him in a spoon," the ecstactic Sharma said.

   "This is the eighth wonder of the world," Dilli Ram Basel, a college student, told AFP.

   Thousands of Hindus stood in queues up to a mile long waiting to offer milk to the stone idols here, forcing police to divert traffic on the busy roads where the ancient temples stand.

   Television and radio broadcasts said the stone and marble idols of Ganesh drank hundreds of litres of milk offered by devotees from spoons and pots.

   "The god actually sucked milk offered to it from its trunk," a cameraman said.

   Reports said statues of other Hindu gods such as Lord Shiva, his consort Parvati and copper and brass images of Ganesh drank milk in different parts of the capital.

   But sceptics said almost all the milk offered dripped to the floor, forming a big puddle.

   Nain Raj Pandey, the royal palace's chief astrologer and chief priest, said the phenomenon was "a good omen for Nepal and will bring good luck to the country and its people," while the Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology said it had set up a committee to study the reports.

   Pandey's view was not shared by many other astrologers, who rushed to consult Hindu holy scripts and said the phenomenon was a portent of disaster for the country.

   Local papers in Kathmandu gave prominence to the news, while state television and radio in this Hindu nation continued "miracle" reports Friday.

                     September 22, 1995 05:34 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 734 words

HEADLINE: Nepal's premier expands coalition cabinet

BYLINE: Kedar Man Singh


    Nepal's Prime Min ister Sher Bahadur Deuba named a new expanded cabinet Friday, 12 days after the political opposition united to bring down the previous left-wing government.

   The three-party coalition government hopes the new team will bring political stability to the country and ensure it retains power until the next scheduled general elections, analysts here said.

   The announcement of the new 26-man cabinet came after a week of wrangling between leaders of the tiny Himalayan kingdom's newly-formed coalition, which took power on September 11 after toppling the communist administration that had been in power for 10 months.

   The new cabinet, boosted from its original five members -- one of the smallest in the country's turbulent political history -- is expected to remain in office for a full four-year period, a party source said.

   The new coalition cabinet is made up of 13 ministers from Deuba's Nepali Congress party (NC), 12 from the right-wing Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP) and one member of the pro-India Nepal Sadbhavana Party (NSP).

   There are 20 ministers, one state minister and five assistant ministers with cabinet rank in the government.

   Deuba retained seven of the 18 posts he took after being appointed on September 11, including the royal palace, defence, general administration, social welfare, environment, sports and culture portfolios.

   The composition of the new cabinet has more than satisfied the RPP leadership because right-wingers won important posts such as foreign affairs, water resources, agriculture, local development and land reform and management, an RPP official said.

   Foreign affairs went to the party's Prakash Chandra Lohani, while water resources was won by Pashupati Shumsher Rana. Both jobs are considered important as they are central to Nepal's relations with its large neighbours, India and China.

   The NC also won a range of key cabinet portfolios, but only Ram Sharan Mahat's post at the finance ministry and Chakra Prasad Banstola's job as tourism and civil aviation minister are considered politically significant, analysts said.

   Meanwhile, analysts said the NSP's lone cabinet victory, the securing of Gajendra Narayan Singh as minister of supplies was "a matter of prestige" for the party.

   The ruling alliance's agreement on the cabinet was in stark contrast to the stalemate created in November when the NC and RPP failed to compromise on a joint cabinet, resulting in mid-term polls which saw them ousted from power.
   The frustrated electorate swept the Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist (NCP-UML) into office, giving them 88 seats in the the 205-member House of Representatives and creating a hung parliament.

   But, after months of uncertainty and political manoeuvring, the opposition united on September 10 to defeat former prime minister Man Mohan Adhikari in a no-confidence motion in parliament.

   The opposition move to topple the NCP-UML came after King Birendra dissolved parliament on June 13 on the advice of Adhikari who said his government was unable to rule effectively because of opposition blocking tactics.

   But on August 28 the supreme court ruled the dissolution was unconstitutional and reinstated the house, leaving Adhikari weakened and vulnerable to the no confidence motion which came less than two weeks later.

                     September 22, 1995 15:48 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 600 words

HEADLINE: Hindu 'milk miracle' spreads west


   The phenomenon of "milk-drinking" idols that has gripped India spilled over Friday into Hindu communities abroad, with believers flocking to their temples around the world.

   The news from India has sparked an unprecedented religious frenzy that has spread to Britain, Hong Kong, Nepal, the Netherlands, Singapore and the United States.

   In The Hague, two statues of the elephant-headed god Ganesh apparently drank several spoonfuls of milk offered by priests.

   Soekdew Ramdhani, a priest at the temple of Ram Mandir, said: "I had already tried yesterday but it didn't work." He attributed his initial failure to his own lack of faith and to the fact that he had not carried out the usual cleansing ritual.

   He added: "This morning, I tried again and the god drank it all. Nobody knows where the milk has gone."

   The same thing happened at the Sewa Dhaam temple, also in The Hague, said another priest, Pandiet Tewarie. "Ganesh drank the milk that was offered. It is a good omen."

   And he knew of the same thing happening in Amsterdam, he added.

   In India on Thursday, people from all walks of life in cities across the country dropped whatever they were doing to join queues at Hindu temples to witness the "miracle."

   Members of the Indian Rationalists' Association dismissed the phenomen as
"mass hysteria," advancing scientific explanations for the vanishing milk, such as "surface tension" and "capillarity."

   But the faithful seem more inclined to accept the interpretation of their priests. Hindu fundamentalist Vishwa Hindu Parishad, of the World Hindu Council, proclaimed it: "A divine event, a miracle."

   In Kenya, thousands of Hindus queued for hours at temples with cartons of milk after reading the reports from India.

   In one temple, the milk was poured into a huge hanging pot with a small hole in the bottom, and allowed to drip onto a statue of Shiva.

   One statue "drank" 300 half-litre (one pint) cartons of milk, television reported.

   In Britain, Hindus queued at the Vishwa Temple in west London Friday after a priest reported seeing statues of the Hindu gods drinking milk. Many of those waiting carried bottles and cartons of milk.

   Roshan Lal Bhanbari, chairman of the west London temple, told journalists he had asked his priest if anything had happened at the Vishwa temple after he heard about milk-drinking idols in India.

   The priest told him that "when he put a spoon of milk up to the lips of the deity the milk disappeared in seconds."

   Bhanbari said it was the first time anything like this had happened since the Vishwa temple was established in 1978.


*********************************************************************************************** To: Subject: The Sherpa People in Nepal Date: Mon, 25 Sep 95 14:17:53 EDT From: (Wing Luk)

The Sherpa culture is changing? Is the culture becoming more westernized or becoming more nepalized? Why?

IPS ( wrote:
: TENGBOCHE, Nepal, (Sept. 21) IPS - Fifteen years ago, it looked like
: there was no hope for the receding forests around this monastery below
: Mt. Everest. Mountaineers, hikers and porters had hacked away the trees
: and bushes, leaving the slopes bare and lifeless. Expedition trash and
: toilet paper littered the trail.
: Today, the mountain flanks below Tengboche are once more draped in young
: rhododendron and juniper. Pheasants and musk deer roam the undergrowth, and
: there isn't any plastic wrapper or garbage to be seen.
: The battle to preserve the ecology of the fragile Himalayan foothills
: below Mt. Everest from the effects of mass tourism has been won. A lot of
: the credit goes to His Holiness Reincarnate Lama Ngawang Tenzing Zangbo,
: the Abbott of Tengboche.
: But for the head lama, an even greater battle looms ahead: to preserve the
: cultural heritage of the Sherpa people.
: "We have saved the trees, now we need to save our culture," the Abbott
: tells a visiting journalist in his small meditation room inside the
: monastery.
: The Tengboche Monastery, perched at 4,100 meters above sea level, is the
: spiritual heart of the Sherpa people who migrated to what is now Nepal from
: eastern Tibet in the 16th century.
: The monastery has itself literally risen from the ashes after it burnt
: down in 1990. Priceless scrolls and Tibetan Buddhist thangka paintings were
: lost. But with donations from the local people and supporters abroad, the
: monastery has been rebuilt.
: The head lama now wants to turn it into a center for the spiritual
: rebirth of his people. His plans include a school for novice monks,
: courses in Tibetan herbal medicine and training students in Tibetan
: sculpture and thangka painting.
: The abbott has reason to be worried. There is a shortage of lamas in the
: monastery as Sherpa families are no longer sending their children in to
: become novices.
: "Ours is a living cultural heritage, but we are facing a serious
: threat from external influences," says the Abbot, who has set up the
: Himalayan Heritage Foundation to help rescue Sherpa culture.
: In many ways, the Sherpas are the victims of their own economic success.
: Traditionally, they carried out a thriving trans-Himalayan barter trade
: traversing high mountain passes with their yak trains between Tibet and
: Nepal. But the Chinese occupation of Tibet in the mid-1950's put an end
: to the trade and also cut off the Sherpa's cultural umbilical ties to the
: centers of Tibetan Buddhist learning.
: Luckily, the mountaineering industry took off in 1953 with the first ascent
: of Mt. Everest by New Zealander Edmund Hillary and his Sherpa guide, Tenzig
: Norgay. Sherpas earned international acclaim for their tolerance of high
: altitudes and they became a vital part of expeditions on Nepal's virgin
: Himalayan trails.
: Along with mountaineering came other tourists, as thousands of
: back-packers and hikers came to walk to the base of Mt. Everest, bringing
: employment and affluence to the region.
: Today, the annual per capita income of Sherpas is nearing $1,000, nearly
: eight times Nepal's national average. Tengboche, Namche Bazar and other towns
: here have electricity and phone links to the outside world. There is a
: hospital, a high school and even a dentists' clinic. Well-to-do Sherpas
: are building houses that look like chalets in the Swiss Alps, complete
: with geranium boxes on the window sills. Their shingle roofs bristle with
: satellite dishes.
: Although many of the 3,500 Sherpas in the Khumbu District below Mt.
: Everest are still traders and livestock farmers, half of all households
: directly depend on tourism for their livelihood.
: Sherpas own about a quarter of the 100 or so hiking companies in
: Kathmandu, and now employ people from other ethnic groups to do the
: portering. Although many do not carry loads anymore, Sherpas still have a
: near-monopoly as high-altitude guides on mountaineering expeditions where
: they can earn anywhere up to $2,000 per ascent.
: Since Norgay, 80 Sherpas have climbed Mt. Everest. Some, such as the
: legendary Ang Rita Sherpa, who climbed the mountain eight times, have reached
: the summit so often that they have become blase about it. Tired of
: climbing for others, Sherpas organized their own all-Sherpa expedition on
: Mt. Everest three years ago.
: But it is still a dangerous profession, as hikers are reminded on a
: moraine below Mt. Everest where prayer flags flutter over the tombs of
: Sherpas who have died on expeditions. At least 120 have been killed on
: Mt. Everest alone over the years.
: Tashi Sherpa coaxes his helicopter up the Bhote Kosi River in the daily
: 45-minute run up from Kathmandu ferrying hikers and construction material. The
: helicopter's rotors bite into the thin air as Tashi maneuvers to land in a cloud
: of dust at Namche Bazar, a day's walk below Tengboche.
: Tashi's father, Dawa Sherpa, started Asian Airlines, a helicopter company,
: three years ago and the service has transformed the Sherpa lifestyle and
: tourism. Tashi is a new breed of Sherpa professionals. On this flight, his
: helicopter has brought in plywood sheets, corrugated metal roofing,
: cement bags, kerosene, a dozen mountaineers and their expedition gear.
: "There is a feeling of prosperity and security in Namche Bazar since the
: regular helicopter services started," says Ang Karma Sherpa, who owns a
: hotel in the Sherpas' largest town.
: The construction material has reduced pressure on forests outside the Mt.
: Everest National Park, but helicopters have also taken away the jobs of
: thousands of porters who used to carry loads for hikers and mountaineers.
: "The real benefits of having a door-to-door helicopter service can be
: questioned," says New Zealand-trained ecologist, Lhakpa Norbu Sherpa. "Not
: everyone in an economically stratified society is able to benefit from
: helicopters."
: Helicopter passenger services will make it easier for Sherpa
: youngsters to commute to Kathmandu and be influenced by the outside
: world, and the guardiansof Sherpa culture fear this will hasten the erosion
: of their values.
: Edmund Hillary once said that the Sherpa's Khumbu region was the "most
: surveyed, examined, blood-taken and anthropologically dissected area in the
: world." And as they get more affluent, many Sherpas say they resent being
: treated like zoological specimens.
: Even before satellite dishes and helicopters, the foremost anthropological
: expert on the Sherpas, Austrian Christof von Haimendorf lamented the
: disappearance of Sherpa culture.
: "I cannot veil the feeling of disappointment and sadness to see this
: seemingly ideal society and lifestyle transformed by the impact of outside
: forces which disrupted the delicately balanced social fabric and
: undermined the traditional ideology that has dominated Sherpa thinking
: and conduct for countless generations," von Haimendorf wrote in 1984.
: Not all agree. Recent studies have shown that newly rich Sherpas may
: dress in jeans and down jackets, but they are still strongly attached to
: their family and culture, and are deeply religious.
: Sherpa festivals and rituals have also benefited from generous
: donations from compatriots living in Kathmandu, many of whom now can
: afford to take a helicopter to their villages to touch base with home.

************************************************************* To: Subject: Tiwari's analysis of contemporary Nepali politics Date: Mon, 25 Sep 95 14:18:49 EDT From: IN%"" "C. Tiwari" 24-SEP-1995 10:56:01.25

Nepali Politics: Judicial Activism, Hung-Parliament and Panchangress Coalition By Dr. Chitra K. Tiwari

Communists Pushed Out: Nepal's minority government of Nepal Communist Party (Unified Marxist & Leninist)-CPN-UML was voted out of power by opposition parties through a no-confidence motion on September 10, 1995. A coalition government consisting of the parties with divergent political opinions, namely, the Nepali Congress (NC), the Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP), the Sadvavana Party (SP) and Independents have been formed to replace the communist government. This was made possible by what many experts believe the judicial activism of the Supreme Court, especially its Chief Justice Biswonath Upadhyaya.

Supreme Court, on August 28, restored the dissolved Parliament stating that the dissolution of parliament by the Prime Minister was indeed unconstitutional and illegal as claimed by the opposition petitioners. In its verdict, the Supreme Court opined that the Prime Minister's use of Article 53(4) of the Constitution to dissolve the parliament violated the parliament's right to explore the formation of an alternative government under Article 42(1) of the Constitution.

In a similar petition in 1994, the Supreme Court, however, had opined that the Prime Minister's right to recommend dissolution of parliament under Article 53(4) was absolute and unrestricted. But this time the Supreme Court justices mysteriously found restrictive spirits to curtail the powers of a Prime Minister under a parliamentary system. Many analysts of parliamentary democracy have taken Supreme Court's decision as uncalled for judicial activism in executive and legislative affairs.

No-Confidence Motion Passed: Be that as it may, the communist government, instead of resigning right away following the Supreme Court's verdict, decided to face the no-confidence motion perhaps with the expectation that some members with change their heart or the situation could be brought in government's favor through last minute horse-trading. The opposition members, however, did not budge and as a result the no-confidence motion was passed by the parliament with 107 for the motion and 88 against. The Prime Minister was unable to go to parliament due to his hospitalization following the helicopter accident in which his collar-bone and vertebra was fractured.

Formation of Coalition Government: Following the passing of the no-confidence motion the opposition coalition led by Nepali Congress moved to form the coalition government with NC parliamentary leader Sher Bahadur Deuba as the new Prime Minister. The council of ministers expanded on September 22 has 26 member out of which 13 are from RPP, 12 from NC and one fron NSP. Although the NC has retained 12 of the 19 Cabinet positions, the RPP has clearly emerged as victorious in the game with 68% of its legislators in the ministry. The NC has only 14% of its legislators in the ministry! The proportional ratio should have been 80% (NC), 18% (RPP) and 2% (NSP).

Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba, 49, is a third generation NC leader. He was the founding President of Nepal Student Union, an NC front organization. He had spent nearly 9 years intermittently in jail in the period 1966-85 for what was then considered as political crime. Although he was in London during the politically crucial moments of the 1990 People's Movement, he was, however, elected to the parliament in 1991 as an NC candidate from a constituency in Far Western Nepal. He then served as Home Minister in NC government headed by Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala. After the November 1994 election, in which NC lost more than 23 percent of its previous seats, Deuba was elected NC's parliamentary leader and acted as the leader of the main opposition.

Prime Minister Deuba is hardly a dominant personality to maintain discipline within the cabinet. He will have to face several internal and extraneous pressures. The cabinet and especially its PM Deuba will be a pawn in the mastergame of former Prime Ministers and leaders of RPP Surya Bahadur Thapa and Lokendra Bahadur Chand on the one hand and NC leaders and former Prime Ministers Girija Koirala and KP Bhattarai on the other from behind the scene. Many observers believe that Koirala and Bhattarai are no match for Thapa and Chand in the art of elite manipulations. Moreover, Deuba's marraige to Arju Rana, daughter of a RPP activist, makes him althemore vulnerable to pressures from Rana-Thakuri aristocratic intrigues. Highly knowlegeable persons further opine that one fine morning PM's wife's dubious hobnobbing with Western diplomats could be a piece of national embarassment.

How Long Will This Coalition Survive? Notwithstanding a joint statement from the leaders of the coalition on their unity to run the government for the remaining term of the parliament, the analysts of Nepali politics opine that the future political stability is bleak under this quirky coalition government which is considered as an opportunistic and unholy alliance by non-partisan observers. Apart from their common desire to share the benefits of political office by toppling the communists from power, the three coalition partners have nothing in common.

First of all, the NC was, for more than 30 years, a victim of RPP leaders who had worked as praetorian guards of absolute monarchy. The birth of RPP after the dawn of democracy was viewed with skepticism by many, including the NC which took RPP as a reactionary and revivalist party. Observers who had been NC's sympathisers in the past have now come to describe NC's alliance with RPP as shameful and a morally bankrupt action. The RPP, on the other hand, has been projecting itself as nationalist party while denigrating the NC as an stooge of India. In this context the question naturally is how are they going to act together? Whose manifesto are they going to implement? How are they going to handle Nepal's relations with India when one of the partner (NC) is supposedly a long hand of India while the other
(RPP) pretends to be ultranationalist? Moreover, the alliance of both the NC and the RPP with Terai based Sadvavana Party, which had been ridiculed by both for its communal and sectarian outlook, is considered to be yet another political perversion.

Secondly, the easiest phase of the coalition of toppling the communist government is over. The difficult task of administering the country with a clearly defined policies and program is a major challenge for this strange coalition. The coalition partners have not yet come up with an alternative policies and plans. It is yet to be seen how NC will reconcile its "democratic socialism" with that of RPP's conservatism.

Thirdly, exercise of power in Nepal involves leader's ability to provide jobs in the government and public corporations to one's followers. This is an area where the coalition partners are sure to agree to disagree within couple months.

Now the only common platform left for the coaltion is to prevent communists from forming the government. The break in the coalition will result in the return of CPN(UML) to power under Article 42(2) of the constitution. This is a major headache for the coalition whose desire it is to conduct elections while in power. In this situation, the question now is: will the CPN(UML) act as a glue by default to hold the coalition together? If so, how long?

Whither CPN (UML)? Independent observers believe that the CPN(UML), even though ousted, has proved its bona fide. The communists came to power through democratic means and they departed through democratic means. The NC/RPP/SP's sinister slogan that communists will mess everything and that they will not relinquish power once they are in it has proved utterly nonsense in the case of Nepal. The CPN(UML) has pretty much established its image of a democratic party not only in words but also in deeds. They have changed their color from red to light pink. Moreover, they have introduced the scheme of age old pension underwhich all elders above 75 years are given Rs.100.00 per month. They introduced "build your own village" campaign and allocated Rs.500,000 to each Village Development Comittees. In addition to this each constituencies are allocated on an average of Rs. 6 million for local development. They also distributed surplus land to the landless. These populist measures, totally new in Nepal, made the UML "unpopular" in the eyes of desperate opposition.

But there is concentrated effort to discredit the CPN(UML) by the coalition partners. The NC was desperate to dislodge UML because it successfully hijacked NC's ideology of democratic socialism. The RPP was desperate because UML attacked the landed interests of majority of RPP leaders. As a result the UML is likely to remain a ghost that could glue the heterogeneous coalition for some time to come.

Nonetheless, what the leaders of this quirky coalition did not realize or chose not to realize is the fact that their action has the potential of pushing the rank and file of UML towards radicalism. Of the dozen or so splintered left groups in Nepal it is the UML leadership which is the most non-radical, accomodating, and moderate in its thinking and behavior. NC and RPP would have remained in better position with UML in power. The potential of radicalization of left politics is not certainly in the interest of NC and RPP unless they are prepared to use massive amount of force against rag-tag hungry bellies led by Masal and UPF. Political development in Nepal appears to be heading towards that direction.

     What Next? There is no indication to an end to political instability in Nepal, at least in the near future. At this juncture three scenarios stand out clear: first, the NC/RPP/SP coalition will survive for the remaining term of parliament i.e. until the November of 1999 with the help of a political talisman from New Delhi or Washington.

Secondly, the RPP will continue to remain in coalition with the NC until it believes its electoral situation in the country has improved significantly. RPP's withdrawal from the coalition will clear the way for CPN(UML) to form the minority government once again.

Thirdly, if NC leaders become intelligent enough to detect RPP's plan to exit from the coalition, the Prime Minister would recommend the dissolution of the house before RPP makes the move. Or alternatively, the NC/RPP could mutually agree to go for election to solve their own internecine conflicts.

Fourthly, if NC's antenna to detect RPP move becomes blunt and RPP exits from the coalition, a clique within the UML, which is notoriously known as HA-MAALE in recent days, may seek to form a coalition, rather than a minority government, with the RPP with a view to assure Vote of Confidence on the one hand and to avoid elections on the other.

Fifthly , if RPP believes that it has a chance to win parliamentary elections it will not be a coalition partner with the UML and the UML's minority government will not receive Vote of Confidence. This will automatically lead to the dissolution of the parliament and call for a fresh elections.

In all of these scenarios except the first and the third, the management of elections will fall on the shoulder of the UML.

Finally, there is yet another scenario which could emerge through extra-constitutional means. The extra-constitutional means is not always undemocratic. It is a last resort democratic action. In fact, the right of the people to forcefully evict the rulers is enshrined in the doctrine of liberalism--a philosophy that has inspired modern day democracy propounded by John Locke. When people feel that they have been cheated by their contractual agents i.e. the rulers, the social contract theory reserves the right for the people to overthrow the rulers forcefully. In Nepal's case general public is increasingly becoming uncomfortable with ruling elites who have constantly misused the institutions of power such as the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The latest example being the double standard maintained by the Supreme Court.

************************************************************* To: Subject: Anti-Feminist Deoba Cabinet Date: Mon, 25 Sep 95 14:20:31 EDT From:

Anti-Feminist Deoba Cabinet

Twenty-six ministers of all sorts of political parties and shapes but not one female minister.

This in a year of Beijing conference on Women.

This, despite having a reknowned nepali feminist, Arzoo Rana, for a wife.

This confirms that feminism in nepal is not a pan-sexual category driving women across other categories of caste, class, political affiliations, or regional identities.

Feminists and feminist agenda in nepal are almost aways embedded and appropriated by other larger categoris, the most powerful being caste and class.


********************************************************************** From: Date: Sun, 24 Sep 95 22:46:10 -0500 Subject: To:

         _ _ ___ ____ ______ __ ____ ___ _ _____ _____
        | | | |/ _ \| _ \| _ \ \ / / | __ )_ _| | |/ _ \ \ / / _ \
        | |_| | |_| | |_) | |_) \ V / | _ \| |_ | | |_| \ V / |_| |
        | _ | _ | __/| __/ | | | |_) | | |_| | _ || || _ |
        |_| |_|_| |_|_| |_| |_| |____/___\___/|_| |_||_||_| |_|

                    ____ ___ ____ _ _ ___ __ __ ___
                   | _ \ / _ \/ ___|| | | |/ _ \| \/ |_ _|
                   | | | | |_| \___ \| |_| | |_| | |\/| || |
                   | |_| | _ |___) | _ | _ | | | || |
                   |____/|_| |_|____/|_| |_|_| |_|_| |_|___|

Rajpal ji: Greetings and Subhakamana from Nepal. Thank you sending Nepal Digest. Enjoyed reading your electronic Newsletter and have opportunity to read about the Nepalese living in US and abroad.

Sidhartha M. Tuladhar | New ERA Kathmandu, NEPAL. | P. O. Box 722

******************************************************* Subject: Kathmandu Post To: Date: Mon, 25 Sep 1995 19:09:47 -0600 (CDT)

Since I saw a few requests for Kathmandu Post's WWW address, here it is:

If you have any problems accessing those pages, let me know.


************************************************************** Date: Tue, 26 Sep 1995 10:14:17 -0400 From: Dibesh Bikram Karmacharya <> To: Subject: To the Editor,

          Would you kindly post this message on Nepal Digest
    Thank you

A very happy Dasahara to all the folks in Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa and whole America. oh! Subi and Bijay dai in Wichita, KS too.

Hey! Abhijeet and Sujan and Bibek how about going fishing in Alaska next summer? I am pretty much sick of Midwest. And how is Pradeep doing in Minnesota(?). I seem to loss the contact.

And one small comment on one of the articles posted on 22nd Sept. issue about how St.Xavier's School is spreading the light of Jesus and Mary: Thank god, and being a hindu god, I did not go to school there, cuz I am pretty much sick of churches here in midwest where they basically make you think that you are a sinner- and I don't like that idea.


******************************************************* To: Date: Tue, 26 Sep 1995 13:13:50 From: Gert Venghaus <> Date: September 26, 95 Subject: Re: Disaster Management

This article dealt with an article written by Mr. Hidetomi Oi on Disaster Management in Nepal. Just a few quick points:

1. I would strongly recommend that the author of this article (which is supposedly a summary written at university) use spell checks and grammar checks to make parts of the document comprehensible.

2. The researcher would be well advised to get his names right. What is described as "Red Cross international aid" refers to emergency contributions by the "International Red Cross to Nepal Red Cross Society".

3. These funds and all funds related to development (90% of the work here in Nepal) are directly channelled through Nepal Red Cross by the local office of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. In addition, there are a number of bilateral contacts with sister societies of the Red Cross. To insinuate that such funds are handled by any other authority of persons (quote
"other sundry princesses" unquote) is incorrect and describes a situation that existed almost 8 years ago.

4. Today, Nepal Red Cross is probably one of the strongest disaster response organisations in the country and definitely one with one of the best track records particularly considering the most recent disaster situations (e.g. 1993 landslides and floods, the continuing refugee emergency). This organisation, as probably the only NGO in Nepal, maintains through support by the International Red Cross Movement, a network of district-level warehouses to respond immediately to localised disasters. It also maintains a cadre of over 2,500 volunteers trained in basic disaster management in ALL 75 districts of the country.

5. The article goes on stating correctly that, in a disaster situation, information needs to be gathered and shared quickly. May I ask, how deeply the author has researched communications in Nepal before he arrived at the rather condescending statement that some existing facilities (e.g. short-wave communication of police and military) might not be available for security reasons ? It might not be known to the author that various options are currently being explored, one of which is the support by the Nepal League of Radio Amateurs. The author might also not know that disaster response agencies, such as the Nepal Red Cross Society and the International Federation, are closely working with the UN-Disaster Management Secretariat and the Ministry of Home in an effort to (a) bring about a more streamlined approach to disaster assessment, management, health and nutrition needs, logistics, etc. and (b) to maximise available financial, material, communication and human resources in the case of a disaster.

If both the author of the article and the author of the summary aim at enhancing the current situation by making constructive comments, then they should definitely do a little more and deeper research of the easily available material before writing a document that states old facts in a partly incomprehensible way.

Should either author wish to discuss this matter in more detail, I am willing to do so on a PRIVATE level since such a discussion would exceed the general forum of the Nepal Digest.

With best regards GERT VENGHAUS

****************************************************** Date: Tue, 26 Sep 95 16:52:09 -0400 To: Subject: Dasain at UConn From: (Dr. J. R. Joshee)

Hello Nepali New Englanders:

The Nepali Community in Connecticut, mainly the group in and around UConn, Storrs, is planning a grand Dasain celebration on Saturday, Oct. 7th, 1995. As per the message posted in TND by Bidya Ranjeet, and my conversation with her, all of you Nepalis and friends of Nepal are welcome to attend the happy occasion. It will be held at UConn's Asian Cultural Center.

For shopping and other logistical purposes, Bidya would appreciate your call (203-450-0259) by Sept. 30th if you are planning to attend. But if you forget to notify, just show up on Oct. 7th. See you all there and I and my family would like to wish:

            ~~~~~~~HAPPY DASAIN TO YOU ALL~~~~~~~

          Abiral, Nisha, Subarna, and Jeetendra Joshee in Amherst

********************************************************* Date: Tue, 26 Sep 95 16:54:29 -0400 From: "Rajesh B. Shrestha" <> To: Subject: Anti-Feminist Deoba Cabinet

Cross-posted from SCN:

On 25 Sep 1995 wrote:
> Anti-Feminist Deoba Cabinet
> ============================
> Twenty-six ministers of all sorts of political parties and shapes but not one
> female minister.

History has always judged on deeds and not on who you are. We live in times when "affirmative action" is seen as a mere cliche'. Many states and universities in US have abolished this idea of favoring some groups with regard to what they are and not what they are capable of. We all know that Nepal is at a brink of total havoc. Here the survival of the whole nation in a growing civilized world, is at stake. At times, when the odds are so much against us, let's not voice for the sake of some group's interest. We should bear in mind that if you heed to someone's interest then your overseeing another's ability. The country can't afford another fiasco. Let's quit whining about race and gender issues and work towards embracing our one and the only common priority,
`a descent living standard for each and every citizen'.


**************************************************** Date: Tue, 26 Sep 95 16:56:48 -0400 To: Subject: Seeking Advice: Laptops for Nepal From:

Laptops for Nepalese field use

I am wondering if there are anybody with experience on using Laptops in Nepal's rural areas. I am considering the use of a Laptop for research in remote and rural areas of nepal. I would appreciate any advice you can give based on yoiur experience: For instance:

1. Which company Laptop perform the best, say Toshiba, NECs or IBM or other compatible.

2. How long do batteries actually last under nepalese conditions and how to get recharge if they fail 2 days from the nearest electrical outlet? What sort of battteries do better: NICA, NiMh, or Lithium. Is it cheaper to buy in Kathmandu or take from here?

3. What sort of color monitor is best? is active matric absolutely necessary? can one live dual scan types/ how difficult is it to look atthem in sunlight/

4. How do Laptops withstand the heat, the humidity, the rough and tumble of a nanglo-doko ride?

5. Is it better to carry a tape drive or a removbale hard drive tosave large quantitities of data, how do they perform in terms of speed, energy use, and reliability?

6. What are predictable hassles: from customs, the lack of parts in Ktm, possibility f stealth, the option to transfer data and dock it to desk top monitors and cpus in Nepal? Should we be worried about compatibility?

7. Are solar powered laptops cheap and convenient to use?

any advice will be gratefully acknowledged, thanks


*********************************************************** Date: Tue, 26 Sep 95 16:57:55 -0400 To: Subject: CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS: AYCE Reader

Cross-posted from SCN:
--------------------- From: txd3660@omega (Time Traveler)

Call for Submissions

AYCE Reader is an upcoming Asian American literary arts publication whose purpose is to provide a forum for artistic and literary endeavors pertinent to Asian American issues, experiences and viewpoints. Our publication will serve as a means of e ducating the public on the talents and ideas of Asian Americans while promoting Asian Americans in the rapidly growing, vastly diverse literary community. Because we feel Asian American artists are not apart from, but part of the artistic and literary community, we encourage all those interested to join AYCE Reader in making our magazine a truly exciting endeavour.

AYCE Reader is soliciting literary and artistic submissions conducive to print publication, including prose, poetry, essays, research articles, black and white photographs (only!), for our upcoming Fall/Winter 1995 premiere issue. Requirements are only that essays, articles and prose be limited to 2500 words and that all works must be original and unpublished. AYCE Reader will not assume responsibility for the return of original pieces.

If interested, please contact: Sophia Lee at (215) 288-7104 or e-mail: Betty Liu at (215) 722-2724 or e-mail:


: --------------------------

: This call for submissions will be available on a permanent basis via the
: World Wide Web at

********************************************************** To: Subject: Anti-Feminist Deoba Cabinet Date: Tue, 26 Sep 95 16:58:50 EDT

Cross-posted from SCN:

This is because our country is governed by people with culture who preach "Patee Deva Bhava = Treat Your Husband as God", and those people with attitudes like who says : "Khutta Bhaya Samma Jati Pani Jutta Aaunchha = You will get as many pairs of shoes so long as you have the feet". In other words, majority of people in our culture treats wives like shoes.

R. Tuladhar (

************************************************************* To: Subject: Anti-Feminist Deoba Cabinet Date: Tue, 26 Sep 95 16:59:36 EDT

Cross-posted from SCN:

It is clear that US is Kunga's referent, his norm and standard against which nepal should be judged when he refers to affirmative action being cliche here and let us get a decent [I hope that is what he means or was there a subconscious slip and pun when he refers to "descent living standard..." a more honest statement]. It is right and his opinion, i respect.

However, I seriously question the suitability of US being an appropriate referent, I posit, it is more productive to draw lessons from India and in particular the bordering states of Nepal. There in UP, Bihar, and even in WB, the whole issue is of affirmative action, called reservation for consitutionally sanctioned scheduled tribes, backward castes, languages etc. In almost half a century of politically efficient mollification of the upper echelons of historically deprived and disenfranchised social groups, the ruling elite have managed to get the highest payoff: the postponement of massive revolutionary reprisals and changes of status quo a communist nation may have. That this is not beyond criticism and improvment is borne by the contemporary politics that advocates of low castes in up and Bihar are in the state leadership helm and even greater reservations are being sanctioned despite strenuous objections of social groups that were historically privileged.

With Nepal, deciding what is the main problem is itself a political struggle. For Kunga, perhaps, it is material upliftment and so the state should be allowed to suppress or devalorize other struggles. Feminists and ethnic minorities who have struggled with political expression and role in nation building and sharing of nation's "development" would vehemently insist that participation is the main problem and would take umbrage at Kunga cites whining and insist that this is railroading.

Thank to kunga for raising this issue. amulya

->We all know that Nepal is at a brink of total havoc. Here the survival
->of the whole nation in a growing civilized world, is at stake. At times,
->when the odds are so much against us, let's not voice for the sake of
->some group's interest. We should bear in mind that if you heed to
->someone's interest then your overseeing another's ability. The country
->can't afford another fiasco. Let's quit whining about race and gender
->issues and work towards embracing our one and the only common priority,
->`a descent living standard for each and every citizen'.

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