The Nepal Digest - October 13, 1995 (30 Ashwin 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Friday 13 October 95: Ashwin 30 2052 BS Volume 43 Issue 2

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha rshresth@black.clarku.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 02 Oct 1995 10:56:38 EST From: tilak@UFCC.UFL.EDU To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Hinduism

     The Koan - 'The Battle of the Left and the Right Hand'.
     Tilak B. Shrestha, University of Florida, Summer 1995.

     (Part IV of the IV parts series on the question 'Is Buddhism part of Hinduism ?'. Previous three parts were published in the Nepal Digest as follows. Part I - August 7, 1995 : Hinduism - Geography, Democratic forum, Science of spirituality; Part II - August 18, 1995 : Sanatana, Buddhism; and Part III - Sept. 4, 1995 : Buddhism and Vedanta, Many paths to the same summit. Comments are welcome.)

     Buddhism survives in India :
     Shakya Muni Gautam Buddha's teachings brought tremendous spiritual vitality in the Indian subcontinent. Buddhist universities like Takshyashila and Nalanda came to being, where students from all over the then known world came. Emperors like Ashok supported and helped to spread the gospel of compassion, cessation of suffering and Nirvana. The gospel spread throughout Asia and bordering regions. However, after millennia of expansion, slowly moral and intellectual decay occurred in the birthplace itself. Which paved way for the rise of intellectual stalwart like Shankaracharya who went around throughout India revitalizing the spirituality by drawing strength from ancient scriptures once more. Thus Shankaracharya was not only able to bring vitality but also balance the creeping exclusiveness of latter Buddhism. We may also point out that Buddhism itself was opening to the possibility of revealed truth, as opposite to the strictly empirical truth, by the way of Mahayanism and Boddhisatwas.

     However, the physical onslaught came with the Muslim invasion of India. Following the Koranic injunction against so called 'Idolaters' and 'Infidels', muslim hordes destroyed Zoroastrian, Hindu temples and Buddhist monasteries. Libraries were destroyed, priests, monks and nuns were put to death by thousands. Many Indians were forcibly converted to Islam. Present Indian state of Bihar, which is named so because of the many
'Bihar' or monasteries, suffered so much muslim carnage that presently very little of the original monasteries are left. Historian Hyman Kublin writes - "The final blow to Buddhism in India was delivered by the Muslims. Pushing into northwest India from the eight century on, they destroyed the great Buddhist monasteries, burned the libraries, and killed monks. Most of the monks who survived this onslaught fled India." Christians also participated in such destruction. Franciscan missionaries arrived in Goa-India in 1517. In 1540, by the order of King of Portugal all the Hindu temples were destroyed. Jesuits came in 1542, and inquisition was introduced in 1560.

     However, Buddhism still survives in India.

     Nepal - the melting pot.
     The perception of so called difference between Buddhism and Hinduism has come simply because of Geography. Since only Buddhism went out of India in evangelical spirit, most of the people living outside India proper are not exposed to the different sects or philosophies of Hinduism. Thus, a Chinese would consider himself or herself as a Buddhist not as a Hindu. Which is partly true in the sense that they do not live in India proper or they do not know about other aspect of Hinduism, say for example karma yoga. However, it is not correct to say that Hinduism and Buddhism are two different religions.

     These kind of differing ideas do come because of history also. For example, Indonesian call themselves Muslim by religion, but they also have Ramayana and Mahabharata, which they call as their culture.

     In Nepal, we assimilate all the incoming ideas and evolve, but do not convert. We add the new teachings but do not discard the old. We do evaluate the values or the teachings, we also do debate. At the same time, we also value the diversity of ideas. Diversity of ideas gives freedom, growth and life. Without diversity every body, whether a monk or a layman, will be a simple carbon copy. The religion would become an exercise in polemic and apology. Whether Krishna or Buddha in ancient times and Vivekananda or Dalai Lama in modern times, different masters speak out from different perspectives, however the spiritual ethos remains the same.

     In Nepal, many groups of people came bringing their ideas and religiosity both from north and south. Aacharyas and monks of many sects and their festivals came. Festivals like Indra jattra, Dasain, Tihar, Shiva ratri, Basant panchami, Buddha jayanti, Krishnastami were introduced. In modern times, we add Shahid divas and Democracy day. We celebrate them all. Just because we celebrate Tihar, we did not discard Dasain. King Ashok, Shankaracharya came from India, Manjushree came from Tibet. We welcome them all. Siddhartha Gautam was born in Nepal. As Buddha, he enlightened the whole world. Sita went to India, Vrikuti went to Tibet. They worship them. The ethics of Ramayana, Karma yoga of Gita, Enlightenment of Buddhism, Philosophy of Vedanta and any other are welcome. We appreciate them all, learn and evolve. That is spiritual progress. Presently we may be occupied more with democracy, socialism, education, technology and economic development. We will assimilate them also and continue evolving. Evolution or change (Rita) is life. Getting attached to one idealogy, as Buddha might have put, is an end.

     Nepalese religiosity being a blend of different sects of Hinduism may be illustrated by the fact that the role of the guardian Goddess of Nepal 'Kumari' is always assumed by a girl from the Buddhist sect, though the king follows the Brahmanic tradition. A perfect harmony between the three principal sects of Nepal, namely Buddhism (Buddha), Shaivism (Nilkantha) and Vaishnavism (Narayan) can be seen in the temple situated in the northern corner of Kathmandu, which is popularly known as 'Budha Nilkantha Narayan'.

     Satyam ewa jayate. Vashundhaiva kutumbakam.
     Sarve api sukhino santu. Yeto dharma stato jaya.
     Om mani padme hum. Om shantih, shantih, shantihi.

****************************************************************** Subject: forward failed (fwd) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Mon, 2 Oct 1995 11:17:00 -0400 (EDT)

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

In article <43n2q2$qba@news.hal.com>, twong@hal.com wrote:

> Is it a good time to trek in the Everest region in March?? If you
> have experience, please let me know.

I have also an experience of trekking in the Everest route in spring. Though I went to there in April, it was cold above 4000m.a.s.l.

A dawn jacket and thick sweater will be necessary for you in that time. Because of not a large crowd of tourists, it may be a good time.

I think April to early of May or September to October is a good time.

******************************************************* To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: DASHAIN in Rochester, NY area Date: Mon, 2 Oct 95 11:19:52 EDT From: praju@aol.com (Praju)

The anual DAHAIN party will be held in Rochester again. If you are interested in atending please contact me via e-mail. My address is Praju@aol.com. please include your name, day time phone number, where you will be comming from, and if you are a student. This is a great oppertunity to meet the nepali comunity in this area. Please respond as soon as possible.

Praju

******************************************************* Date: Mon, 2 Oct 95 11:22:02 EDT From: blumassoc@aol.com (BlumAssoc)

EXPEDITION NEWS HIGHLIGHTS from the October 1995 issue

EXPEDITION NEWS is a monthly review of significant expeditions, research projects and newsworthy adventures. It is distributed online and by mail to media representatives, corporate sponsors, educators, research librarians, environmentalists, and outdoor enthusiasts. This new forum on the outdoors covers projects that stimulate, motivate and educate.

PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Here are highlights from the October issue. If you'd like to receive the complete version of the latest issue and remain informed about leading expeditions and adventures all year long, we invite you to send us an email note for a free trial issue.

OUSLAND PLANS SOLO, UNAIDED ANTARCTIC TREK

Norwegian polar explorer Borge Ousland will attempt the first solo, unaided crossing of Antarctica next month.

SKINNER COMPLETES FIRST NAMELESS TOWER FREE CLIMB

Despite difficulties that included the death of a Balti porter, the illness and forced departure of a team member, permit expirations and the usual Himalayan snow storms and avalanches, Todd Skinner and the 1995 Reebok Trango Tower team completed the reportedly first free climb of The Nameless Tower in Pakistan's Karakoram range.

ALISON HARGREAVES' FAMILY VISITS K2

Jim Ballard, the husband of climber Alison Hargreaves, has taken their children, Tom, six, and Katie, four, to see the mountain where their mother recently died.

EXPEDITION FOCUS

Historic Antarctic Dome to be Dismantled; New Center Under Review

The South Pole Dome, located at the Amundsen-Scott Station at the geographic South Pole is slated to be replaced, along with the outmoded buildings it shelters, and a $200 million eight-year plan for the redevelopment of the South Pole Station is awaiting go-ahead from President Clinton in the form of his FY1997 budget, to be presented in January.

EXPEDITION NOTES

Dogpackers Complete Banks Island Expedition

Polar explorer Lonnie Dupre and his wife Kelly reached Sachs Harbour, Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Aug. 19, completing a 250-mile dogpacking trek across the island.

Bancroft Named to National Women's Hall of Fame

Ann Bancroft, who in 1986 became the first woman to trek to the North Pole, is one of 18 women recently chosen to be inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, N.Y.

The Climb for CARE

As part of the 50th Anniversary celebration of CARE, a team of 10-12 climbers plan to ascend Tanzania's Mt. Kilimanjaro (19,340 ft.), January 12-14, 1996.

Sanitizing Spelunkers Say Toothbrushes Work Best

After seven expeditions into the Crystal Room of Alabama's Cathedral Caverns for the purpose of restoration, a group of cavern cleaners have concluded that some common household materials prove most effective for cleaning and restoring caves.

Kittinger to Receive Award

Col. Joe Kittinger, the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean by balloon (1984), and holder of the world parachute jump record (102,800 feet set in 1960), will receive the Elder Statesman of Aviation Award in Washington, D.C., October 24.

MEDIA MATTERS

Climbing Imagery Strong on Madison Avenue

The U.S. advertising community continues to use climbing imagery to sell its products and services. Many believe such corporate interest opens the door to increased spending in expedition sponsorship.

K2 Examined in "The Story of the Savage Mountain"

Author Jim Curran looks at the mystery and tragedy surrounding the second highest point on earth.

Expedition News Celebrates First Anniversary

What started a year ago as a fax to media, corporate sponsors, and the expedition community at-large, has now become a thriving newsletter read worldwide.
  EXPEDITION NEWS is published by Blumenfeld and Associates, Inc., 397 Post Rd., Suite 202, Darien, Conn. 06820 USA. Tel. 203-656-3300, fax 203-655-7710. Editor/publisher: Jeff Blumenfeld. Assistant editor: Jon Lesser. c1995 Blumenfeld and Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Subscription rate: US $36/year. E-mail: BlumAssoc@aol.com or CompuServe 76226,773. Highlights from EXPEDITION NEWS can be found on the World Wide Web at http://microship.ucsd.edu/Expedition_News. # # #

****************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: I want to go to Nepal Date: Mon, 2 Oct 95 11:24:24 EDT

Cros-posted from SCN:
--------------------

Kyle Hadersberger <kyleh@wsu.edu> wrote:

>Hello there.
>I am new to this newsgroup, but am interested in travelling to Nepal.
>I will have completed my B.S. in December and am interested in
>spending time there. I am interested in recources involving travel or
>perhaps work possibility. If anyone can help me get some research
>done on how I could possibly do this, please email me personally at
><kyleh@wsu.edu>. Thank you for your time.
>Kyle:):):)
>'Nothing left to do but :) :) :)'

Hi! I'm trying to figure out ways to spend some time in Nepal too. Have you thought about teaching English over there? I'm considering it as I have some experience teaching English to immigrants in the U.S. Anyways, if you're interested you should contact the British Council in Kathmandu. They will send you an information sheet about teaching opportunities.

Also, the company Insight Nepal (PO Box 6760, Kathmandu) has a placement for a volunteer service work program where a few volunteers are allocated to schools in different areas of the country for between 1 and 3 months to teach English, science and sport starting in February and August. The registration fee is 400 dollars which covers pre-orientation and a 1 week trekking trip. The host provides food and accomodations.

You can also contact the American Language Center (USIS) in Kathmandu. I think the address is: GPO Box 58, Kathmandu, Nepal. Tel: (1)419933/416746 fax: 223894

I tried sending something to this address, but I never received an answer so you may want to contact TESOL Inc. at: 703/836-0774. I believe this school hires 10-12 teachers per year. The qualifications needed are: min. BA, MA or TESL certification plus experience. (Even if you aren't qualified, you should still apply. Sometimes they're not as strict as they sound) Conditions of employment: 1 year contracts, renewable, 3-4 teaching hours per day, morning (between 7:15am and noon) or afternoons
(between 2Pm and 6:30pm). Pupils aged 18-35. Some business oriented courses. Salary: US $7/hr Facilities/Support: advice given on finding accomodation. pre and in service training given. Recruitment: via TESOL convention in US. Local interviews preferred, but interview not essential.

Another school that hires teachers is the American English Langauge Institute
                Lal Durbar
                Kathmandu, Nepal
                Tel: 977-11-247-236
                fax:: 977-1-272-357 I don't have any information about this program, but if you contact the U.S. Information Agency, Office of Cultural Centers and Resources, they should have some info.

Well, that's all the information I have. Let me know what you decide to do, and let me know if you come up with any other work opportunities.

By the way, why do you want to go to Nepal, and have you been there before?

you can write to me at MonikaD@aol.com. I check my mail over there more frequently.
********************************************************* To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Happy dasain
           Dear Editor
          thanks again for regular bulletins. a couple of weeks
          before i asked to stop mailing at my previous email address.
           my new address is
          SAGAR@HAUSER.COM
          I would like to convey GREETINGS to all my friends scattered
          all over the globe. Have a happy dasain and feel free to
          write to me.
          with all best wishes from
          Sagar Shakya
          p.s. please post this in nepal digest.

****************************************************************** Date: Mon, 2 Oct 1995 13:42:29 -0400 (EDT) From: mahesh maskey <mmaskey@acs.bu.edu> Subject: correction To: The Nepal Digest <Nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Dear Editor,

Inspite of my effort to correct my posting "TB explosion.." before its publication in TND, the text containing some errors has been published in 30 sept issue of TND. I am sorry for that and apologize to the readers and Amulya. Amulya has mentioned all the important points in the article including DOT. In 2nd para line 5, the year is 1993 instead of 1995. Others are minor spelling mistakes.
  Thanks mahesh

************************************************************************ X-Sender: chobby@willow To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: help

Namaste i am looking for information on the "impact of child labor in nepalese economy" if anyone has some information i would greatly appreciate it. please email it to the address below. thanks in advance.

Shamir B. Shahi
(904) 392-1345 CHOBBY@grove.ufl.edu

************************************************************************ Subject: To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Mon, 2 Oct 1995 21:46:06 -0400 (EDT)

TNDeers,

Is there any Nepali party being organized during the weekend of Oct 14, 1995 Saturday at around Pittsburgh, Columbus, or in the vicinity? We are just a bunch of college students trying to find some places to be at for our Fall Break. THANKS IN ADVANCE.......

To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Mon, 2 Oct 1995 21:32:08 -0400 (EDT) Dear TNDeers, Here is a Dashain party idea for the "intellectuals" and the
"opionionateds": Get Mr Amulya Tuladhar and Mr Mahesh Maskey, both knowledgeable in their own fields, and both commanding my highest repect, at the same party and open the floor for some "quality" debate on issues and non-issues. I am sure there are many out there who would love to fill the audience section of the party.

Good work,,,,,,,keep it up both of you.. Happy Vijaya Dashami...... diwas almost heaven, west virginia..

************************************************************* Date: Mon, 2 Oct 1995 18:51:30 -0700 (PDT) From: Abadhesh Singh <singh932@uidaho.edu> To: "Achyut Gyawali (FO 1995)" <achyut.gyawali@yale.edu> Subject: SHUBH-KAMANA ! SHUBH-KAMANA !! SHUBH-KAMANA!!!
                                             
        ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
        ++ ++
        ++ WISH YOU ALL THE BEST ++
        ++ ++
        ++ FOR ++
        ++ ++
        ++ YOUR PEACE, PROSPERITY, AND GOOD HEALTH ++
        ++ ++
        ++ ON THE AUSPICIOUS OCCASION ++
        ++ ++
        ++ OF ++
        ++ ++
        ++ HAPPY VIJAYADAHSMI ! ++
        ++ ++
        ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Abadhesh singh U 200 South Asbury ST. Department of English ~ ? ~ Apt. # 13 Brink 200 Moscow, ID 83843 University of Idaho Phone # (208)-882-6452 Moscow, ID 83843

************************************************************ Date: Tue, 3 OCT 95 12:43:20 BST From: WAGLE@VAX.LSE.AC.UK To: nepal <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: BBC Nepali Service.

BBC Nepali Service.

Everything you wanted to know about the BBC World Service's "Nepali Sewa" is now on the Internet. The text prepared by the undersigned this year in August can be found in the BBC Home Page (http://www.bbcnc.org.uk) Or if one fancies reaching the Nepali Section directly, Please try the following: http://www.bbcnc.org.uk/worldservice/nepali/index.html

The Nepali Service is expected to have its own E-mail address pretty soon but in the meantime if you find any of your queries being unanswered by the text, Please reach me at "Wagle@uk.ac.LSE".

S Wagle, London School of Economics & The BBC.

******************************************************************** From: Pokharel Govind <govind@hardy.uni-flensburg.de> Subject: pass time,get kiddy ideas To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu

first happy bijayadashami to all

dear editor

i am very happy after geting chance to have TND

ofcourse i don=B4t know to type still am trying to write something with my=
=20 socalled geringlish(german + english).

Nepal a poor country with lot of water ressources can be made a paradise=20 if u want heartly. it is obvious that we dont have access to third=20 country thro=B4land (here i can add that to second country because of=20 unaccessible himalaya region in north. ).we have to rely on india=20 whatever we want. it is true that without india at this stage we can not=20 survive and because of india we can not develop our country. but i am not=
=20 anti indian and pro china. the only way to restrict indian and chinese=20 influence in nepal i have some idea if some one likes.

1. build roads from dhankutta to surkhet with help of foreign help and=20 peoples participation as well as nepalese army.

2. make connection to this highway with mahendra rajmarg.i. e. north=20 south highway in all development regions.

then india as well as china will consider their security and border will=20 be automatically little bit strict than today.

for that we have execute the projects like arun 3.

what will be the result of these highways

1)tourism will be the main income generating source, people can sell=20 their product. more agro base idustries will be there.

2)Process of decentrilisation will be fast

 3) more hydro power can be developt at low cost..
.................................................................... YOURS

GOVIND RAJ POKHAREL
=20 APPROPRIATE RURAL TECHNOLOGY AND EXTENSION SKILLS

(ARTES INSTITUTE)

FLENSBURG UNIVERSITY

GL=DCCKSBURG GERMANY:=20

*****************************************************************8 Subject: d To: TND Editor <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Date: Tue, 3 Oct 1995 11:18:36 -0400 (EDT) From: "Rajesh B. Shrestha" <rshresth@BBN.COM>

>From SCN
--------

Where can i get information about employment or voluntary positions with ngos or other humanitarian organizations working in Kathmandu, particularly in the fields of HIV education, prevention and treatment, other public health issues,and mental health issues? Respond here, or email mprager244@aol.com. Thank you!

************** Answer to: mprager244@aol.com from D. Van der Herten.

- Rural Health and Education Service Trust (R.H.E.S.T.), P.O. Box 355, Dillibazaar, Pipal Boat, Kathmandu, Nepal
(Tel. ++ 977 1 419 899; fax ++ 977 1 226 590); concerning the field that interests you, it might be worthwhile to contact Dr. Aruna Upraitty, the director of this organisation, who is an authority on Aids in Nepal;
- Child Workers in Nepal (C.W.I.N.), c/o Mr. Gauri Pradhan, P.O. Box N0 4.374, Kathmandu, Nepal (Tel ++ 977 1 271 658; fax ++ 977 1 220 483; fax ++ 977 1 224 466); Mr. Pradhan knows a lot about the subject that interests you;

Other organisations worthwhile to contact:
  
- The Udaya Himalaya Network (director: Mr. Devendra Rana);
- The Hellen Keller Foudantion, c/o Mrs. Dale Davis, Kathmandu, Nepal;

Best regards, Dirk Van der Herten (Belgium).

******************************************************************* To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Origins of The Newars Date: Tue, 3 Oct 95 11:20:44 EDT From: subin@Hawaii.Edu (Subin Shakya)

Namaste Dear Netters,
        I have to write a term paper for one of my core classes. Since the subject of term paper is open, I thought of writing a paper on "The Origins of The Newars". The paper has to be related to the history of before 1600B.C. Since I myself is interested to learn more about the subject, I chose the subject. But the problem is I could not find the materials regarding the subject. I was wondering if there is any kind soul could help me where might I find the materials or anyone did research on the topic. D

hanyabad!!!
- Subin

***************************************************************** To: TND Editor <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Date: Tue, 3 Oct 1995 11:50:37 -0400 (EDT) From: "Rajesh B. Shrestha" <rshresth@BBN.COM> Subject: Origins of The Newars

Namaste Dear Netters,
        I have to write a term paper for one of my core classes. Since the subject of term paper is open, I thought of writing a paper on "The Origins of The Newars". The paper has to be related to the history of before 1600B.C. Since I myself is interested to learn more about the subject, I chose the subject. But the problem is I could not find the materials regarding the subject. I was wondering if there is any kind soul could help me where might I find the materials or anyone did research on the topic. D

Dhanyabad!!!

Subin Shakya

*************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 3 Oct 1995 12:07:52 -0400 From: nshresth@capital.edu (Nischal Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Greetings

                        "HAPPY VIJAYA DASHAMI" TO ALL OF YOU

                                Nischal.

******************************************************************************* Date: Tue, 03 Oct 1995 20:28:53 -0500 From: karkis@mail.med.upenn.edu (Sher B. Karki) To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: News 10/2/1995
                     Copyright 1995 Agence France Presse
                              Agence France Presse

                      October 02, 1995 07:56 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 974 words

HEADLINE: Pollution hits Nepal's tourism industry

BYLINE: Kedar Man Singh

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Oct 2

 BODY:
   Tourism in Nepal, which boasts some of the world's most spectacular natural scenery, is being hit by a rising wave of filth and pollution invading the capital, industry sources say.

   Growing air pollution lingering over Kathmandu and the sight of litter in its streets and near its monuments is repelling tourists -- one of the economy's mainstays -- and slashing the revenues of hotels, restaurants, tour operators and the government.

   "Tourists come to Nepal to see its beautiful landscape, its ancient temples, and historic momuments and not to see the piles of obnoxious garbage everywhere," Bijen Shrestha, a travel agency managing director said.
   "The air pollution is so serious that the sky over Kathmandu is covered by dark polluted clouds and the mountains are hardly visible for 50 days in a year, while only few years back, the mountains were visible for nearly 120 days," he added.

   Hotel industry officials say that so far this year, the number of foreign tourists visiting Nepal has declined by more than 12 percent from last year as factory and car exhaust fumes and garbage push the tourists out of the capital.

   In 1994, 326,531 tourists visited Nepal for trekking and mountaineering trips, for business, pilgrimages and sightseeing, earning the country 165.03 million dollars, a Tourism Ministry official said. Nepal's gross domestic product in 1994 was 3.32 billion dollars.

   That figure was up from 293,567 foreign tourists who visited here in 1993, bringing in 119 million dollars.

   But so far this year, luxury hotels occupancy rates have dropped with less than half of their 6,502 hotel beds filled, hotel officials said, while governent tourism revenue is also expected to be significantly down, according to government sources.

   Official figures will however not be available until January.

   French tourist Jean Vincent, 22, said the foul air in the capital has marred his visit to Nepal: "I travelled to Nepal hoping I would be able to enjoy fresh Himalayan pollution-free air, but after getting to Kathmandu, I saw a different picture," he said.

   "The air pollution here is much worse than Bangkok or any Indian industrial city I've been to," he added.

   A spokesman from Hotel Association of Nepal (HAN) warned the problem will worsen if not tackled fast.

   "If pollution and garbage problems are not solved at a war footing, a day will come when not a single tourist will visit Nepal, " he said.

   MORE

   021247

   AFP

   A hotel owner agreed: "Tourists are drawn towards tiny Nepal for its tranquility and beauty, but the mismanagement of garbage and the indifference shown by the concerned authorities towards the problem have ruined the once beautiful Kathmandu valley."

   Tour operator B.R. Pradhan told AFP that Kathmandu's local authorities had failed to select a proper and permanent dumping site for the garbage which is now spilling out onto the city's streets.

   Hardest hit by the mounting pollution here is the flow of travellers from Japan seeking clean air an stunning scenery in this Himalayan kingdom, famous for its pristine mountain landscapes.

   "In 1993, the number of Japanese visitors coming here was about 20,000 but the number reduced to half in 1994," a tourism agency source said. "This year, the number of Japanese tourists may not exceed 5,000," the source warned.

   Other tour operators agreed, one telling AFP that a group of Japanese Buddhists who had planned a visit here had cancelled at the last minute after hearing reports of "pollution and unsightly garbage in Kathmandu."

   Buddhists traditionally come to Nepal to visit Buddha's birthplace at Lumbini, 345 kilometres (215 miles) southwest of the capital, but are now reducing the length of their stays and are avoiding stopping in the capital, the HAN spokesman said.

   There are 75,000 vehicles of all types, operating in the Kathmandu Valley, causing a toxic pall to build up in the area, Department of Roads official said.

   Environmentalist Anil Chitrakar said the valley was jar-shaped, trapping polluted air around the capital. Doctors say the phenomenon is causing an increase in health problems such as bronchitis, asthma and pneumonia.

   But the pollution has however not deterred youngsters travelling on shoe-string budgets, who are continuing to flood into Kathmandu keen to see one of the most colourful spots on earth, industry officials said.

                       Copyright 1995 Xinhua News Agency

The materials in the Xinhua file were compiled by The Xinhua News Agency. These materials may not be republished without the express written consent of The Xinhua News Agency.

                            OCTOBER 1, 1995, SUNDAY

LENGTH: 202 words

HEADLINE: birthplace of buddha should be on heritage list

DATELINE: kathmandu, october 1; ITEM NO: 1001052

 BODY:
   an international study team in nepal has urged the united nations educational, scientific and cultural organization (unesco) to put lumbini, the birthplace of lord buddha sakyamuni, on the world heritage list. scholars from 17 countries participated in a 10-day buddhist route expedition in nepal organized by unesco and lumbini development trust saturday asked the un agency to urgently consider lumbini in south nepal as a world heritage site. the expedition was part of a 10-year unesco project, the integrated study of silk roads in asia, which would organize indian and pakistani-chinese expeditions next year if all conditions are met, unesco officials said. participants of the expedition made study visits to places of archaeological importance in the kathmandu valley and lumbini. director for international culture of unesco d. diene pointed out the need for unesco to provide incentives to nepal for preservation and management of museums at a concluding meeting held here for the expedition. meanwhile, the participants recommended that unesco grant support, advice and assistance to the nepali authorities for the restoration, conservation and rehabilitation of historic monuments in nepal.

                          SEPTEMBER 30, 1995, SATURDAY

LENGTH: 95 words

HEADLINE: nepal to hold trade fair in london

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 30; ITEM NO: 0930040

 BODY:
    nepal is to hold a trade fair for the first time in london from october 9 to 13 under the joint auspices of the trade promotion center of nepal and the britain- nepal chamber of commerce. 12 private commercial firms in nepal will participate in the event which aims at expanding and promoting bilateral trade between nepal and the united kingdom. principal items to be displayed and traded at the fair will be nepalese handicrafts, idols, silver ornaments, woolen carpets, woolen and cotton readymade garments, traditional costumes, wood carvings and nepali tea.

                           SEPTEMBER 29, 1995, FRIDAY

LENGTH: 189 words

HEADLINE: nepali parliament approves government policy

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 29; ITEM NO: 0929172

 BODY:
   the nepali parliament today approved the policies and programs of the nepali coalition government after a delayed three-day debate. the parliamentary discussions were initially blocked by the communist party of nepal (cpn-uml)
--a major opposition in the country --when king birendra presented the policies and programs last week on behalf of the government. the ruling coalition under prime minister sher bahadur deuba and the cpn-uml reportedly struck an informal compromise on wednesday, which helped secure the house approval. cpn-uml lawmakers had been protesting a house rejection of their impeachment motion against former chief justice bishwonath upadhyaya. the discussions started wednesday after house speaker ram chandra poudel ruled that the rejection
"should not be considered as having established a tradition to bar the right of lawmakers to move an impeachment motion against constitutional authorities." upadhyaya supported a supreme court verdict last month to reinstate the parliament, which led to the defeat of the minority communist government in a no-confidence vote in the house earlier this month.

                         SEPTEMBER 28, 1995, THURSDAY

LENGTH: 99 words

HEADLINE: chinese national day celebrated in nepal

DATELINE: kathmandu, september 28; ITEM NO: 0928190

 BODY:
   nepalese prime minister sher bahadur deuba today congratulated the 46th anniversary of the founding of the people's republic of china and warmly appreciated the traditional friendship between the two neighboring countries. he made the remarks at a reception held here tonight by chinese ambassador to
 nepal shao jiongchu to celebrate china's national day. about 500 guests, including high-ranking officials, political leaders, noted figures and diplomatic envoys in nepal, attended the reception at the international convention hall in kathmandu, which was built with china's assistance.

                       Copyright 1995 Reuters, Limited
                             Reuters World Service

                     September 28, 1995, Thursday, BC cycle

LENGTH: 176 words

HEADLINE: Australia backs battle against Nepal child labour

DATELINE: CANBERRA, Sept 29

 BODY:
   Australia's Labor government will spend A$100,000 (US$75,000) fighting child labour in Nepal, Industrial Relations Minister Laurie Brereton said on Friday.

   The money will go to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), which is running a project in the mountainous south Asian nation against bonded child labour. The ILO groups governments, union and business.

   ''It says in clear terms to the world Australia cares about the problem of child labour,'' Brereton told the annual congress of the country's peak union body, the Australian Council of Trade Unions, in Melbourne.

   ''The fight against exploitation by no means stops at Australia's borders,'' Brereton said.

   ''Through the ILO and other international bodies, the ACTU have put Australia at the vanguard of the battle for workers rights,'' he said.

   There are no statistics available on child labour in Nepal, one of the world's 10 poorest countries.

   But children are used extensively in the carpet-making industry, one of the country's major export-earners.

                      Copyright 1995 Inter Press Service
                              Inter Press Service

                         September 27, 1995, Wednesday

LENGTH: 807 words

HEADLINE: NEPAL -CULTURE: REVIVING CULTURAL CROSS-CURRENTS

BYLINE: By Akhilesh Upadhyay

DATELINE: LUMBINI, Nepal, Sept. 27

 BODY:
   Scholars and specialists from 17 countries flew into Nepal last week to begin a 10-day "mobile expedition" to retrace the spread of Buddhism and study its interaction with other religions.

   Their project forms part of the efforts of the United Nation's Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to study the inter-cultural exchanges on key routes that have connected the people of the world since the ancient times.

   Among these are the "Silk Road" that brought the East and the West together, the "Slave Route" that altered the history of both the African and American continents, the "Iron Road" that formed the benchmark of various African cultures, the routes of Al-Andalus that linked Europe and the Arab world with Africa and the "Roads of Faith" which led three of the world's major religions to Jerusalem.

   At a time when cultural chauvinism threatens to tear the world apart, the project has been launched to study the exchange of ideas through the centuries that have helped all great civilizations grow and evolve.

   Last week the scholars and specialists assembled in the Nepali capital, Kathmandu, to begin preparations for the "Buddhist Route Expedition" from the land where the Buddha was born nearly 2,500 years ago.

   Lord Buddha, a Shakya prince whose father ruled in neighboring India, was born in the sixth century B.C. in Lumbini, a district in southwestern Nepal some 300 kms from Kathmandu, while his mother was proceeding to her father's kingdom in modern day Nepal to give birth.

   Led by local specialists, the international group is visiting ancient temples and monuments in Lumbini and Kathmandu valley during their study tour in the

country.

   The Nepal leg forms part of a 10-year project, the Integral Study of the Silk Roads: Roads of Dialogue. The project, initiated in 1988, aims to make people realize the need to renew the inter-cultural dialogue which took place along the Silk Routes, mutually enriching different civilizations.

   "We don't really know why the peoples of Asia adopted Buddhism instead of Christianity which was travelling the Silk Route at about the same time," says Sue Williams, a Paris-based anthropologist.

   The seventh century also heralded the arrival of Islam which eliminated a number of sects which could have taken any new direction. But Buddhism by then was routed throughout Asia and proved to be more resistant.

   "The numerous Silk Route studies show that cultural identity, seen with the perspective of history, cannot be viewed as an ethnic ghetto," says UNESCO's Doudou Diene.

   "Culture is a synthesis, a product of that mysterious alchemy through which a people assimilate influences from elsewhere," he adds.

   Earlier efforts of the project have resulted in international research program books, documentaries, films and even major exhibitions such as the forthcoming "SerIndia, Land of the Buddha: Ten Centuries of Art" that is expected to be a big draw at the Paris Grand Palais later this year.

   To date, four expeditions have taken place under the project from 1990 to 1992 -- The Desert Route Expedition in China, the Maritime Route Expedition from Venice to Osaka, the Steppe Route Expedition in Central Asia and the Nomad Route Expedition in Mongolia.

   It was the success of these expeditions that led to the Buddhist Route Expedition, UNESCO sources say. "The current tour will study the interactions of Buddhism with other religions and cultures in the regions covered by its expansion over land," they add.

   Starting from Nepal, follow-up conferences along the Buddhist Route will retrace the path the Buddha in India and the spread of the religion from that country through north Pakistan to China.

   The project also aims to develop cultural tourism in a big way around the themes of Buddhism and pilgrims' routes.

  Tourism-savvy Nepal intends to turn this aspect to its advantage and encourage the influx of tourists, specially from the rich East Asian countries to places of Buddhist pilgrimage.

   While welcoming the foreign delegates to the expedition, Nepal's newly elected Premier Sher Bahadur Deuba, appealed to the international community to help complete the ongoing multi-million dollar Lumbini Development Project (LDP) that is expected to transform the Buddha's birthplace into a popular tourist destination.

   "Once the project is complete, Lumbini will become a tourist paradise, besides being a pilgrimage center," the Premier told the delegation.

   Though the initiation of the LDP has already started attracting foreign tourists, the influx is nowhere near the deluge envisioned by Nepal when it started out. It is hoped that projects like UNESCO's will help generate added interest and transform this dry and dusty landscape into a bustling tourist center.

*********************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Devnagari font...Keyboard layout? Date: Wed, 4 Oct 95 10:17:37 EDT From: asherch1@cc.swarthmore.edu (Arbin Sherchan)

Hi, I am trying to use devnagari font [which I just downloaded from http://bass.gmu.edu:80/~sbhattar/misc.html] to write Dasaine greetings. Unfortunatley, I am clueless about the keyboard layout for devnagari font. I will really appreciate if anyone could help me get a keyboard layout, or just provide me with keystokes to write the following greeting:
   "Vijaya Dashmi ko upalachya ma hardic subha kamana.
                                     From Arbin Sherchan [in Nepali, of course]"

Thanks in advance. Arbin

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: UN and citizens Date: Wed, 4 Oct 95 10:28:52 EDT

THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE CITIZENS

It is far from the truth to assert that the United Nations has supranational authority and that it uses it in a peremptory way, as though the United Nations had authoritarian power. The conventions and treaties adopted by the UN are adopted by sovereign states and not by virtue of an imaginary right that the UN would have. The United Nations is only the result of the wishes expressed by the states which are members of it and, particularly by the five permanent members of the Security Council (China, the United-states, France, Great-Britain and Russia).

Since the end of international bipolarity, the United Nations has been subdued to these five countries and especially to the United States which imposes a rule that expresses the North American wishes and not the wishes of the peoples of the world.

Russia and China are not the only countries that deserve the name megamurderers. The United States is responsible for the death of 2 million Vietnamese. Between 1969 and 1975, the United States dropped 539,529 tons of bombs over Cambodia (a figure to be compared with the 160,000 tons of bombs dropped over Japan between 1941 and 1945). For decades, the United-States advised and supported the most bloody military dictatorships in Latin America and elsewhere in the world. As for Europe, it spread war twice all over the world, within half a century. Nobody is entitled to make a judgement on anybody.

The United Nations rule of law model is better than the United States model because it gives a vision of the world which doesn't submit citizens to any particular religious law. The United Nations Charter is more inspired by the Age of Enlightenment and by the secular principles of the 1789 declaration of the rights of man and citizen than by the 1787 American Constitution which is wholly imbued with religious dogma. Nowadays, we know where religious fanatism leads. A world built for everyone must confine any religious and philosophical matter to the private life sphere of every individual. Or else, it would mean that there is just one only world for the Judeo-Christians, one only world for the Muslims,... in short, only one world for the people who believe they are the only ones who detain THE ONLY truth. A world for Manicheans. A world that leads to the rule of jungle and eventually to war. At the dawn of the twenty-first century, a world like that must definitely be banned.

No wonder that the North American right wing, supported by probably the most Manichean population of the world, in their search for a new Devil to combat since communism collapsed, has been denigrating the United Nations. The universal values of the United Nations Charter are incompatible with values such as domination, exclusion, selfishness. Indeed, the United Nations has failed to have all the governments share the values of its Charter. Therefore, the fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations mustnt be an opportuny for official celebrations but rather a chance for a deep thinking and an assessment of its achievements and shortcomings

If one looks at how the United Nations works, at its history and its achievements, only one conclusion can be drawn by anyone who cannot do with status quo: realism calls for a reform of the Institution. Indeed, who would dare to assert that the United Nations fulfills the commitments put down, on behalf of all of us, in the preamble and the first article of its Charter?

The question raised today, not only on the occasion of the Institutions 50th anniversary but especially following the outstanding failures that official discourses can no longer even conceal, is simple: Is the United Nations the most adequate instrument to achieve its priority objectives, e.g. peace all over the world, a fair international order, respect fo human dignity and progress for all the peoples?

This has nothing to do with fashion. On the contrary! A repeated criticism of the Organisation, too gladly supported by some folks, only serves the interests of those - states, firms, transnational financial companies, international crime organisations - who wish to conceal their responsabilities in todays tragedies by loading them onto a scape-goat institution.

Analysing the United Nations involves looking, in the first place, at the external factors that have led to its failure. Even if they still need to be clearly identified, the causes linked to the attitude of the organisations senior excutives are nothing compared with the causes due to the states attitude.

Fifty years ago, the peoples of the world, traumatised by the nameless horrors of he Second World War, entrusted their governments with the task of combining their efforts in order to build a world of peace, the foundations of which would be freedom and justice.

Should the United Nations Charter anniversary make any sense, it can only be that of an opportunity for self-assessment, for accounting for what has been done and for drawing conclusions. The peoples of the world must be given the means to appraise what use has been made of the mandate they entrusted their governments with. Only in that way does the United Nations overall assessment take a dimension that corresponds to reality and needs: an assessment of the international order leaders action.

This appraisal is too often evaded by the triumphalist discourses of leaders who have once and for all self-proclaimed their infallibility. Thus, criticism will not be made by those who bear the responsibility of such heavy liabilities and such light assets. It can only be made by their constituents. And this requires that the peoples themselves take over the responsibility of the relations between them.

Governments action in the international order must be fully examined and criticized by the citizens. As Belgian poltician Roger Lallement writes: We still live as if the sphere of our own responsibility ended where that of our States started.. In fact, this fictitious segmentation affects our democratic values. There can no longer be any head of states private domain. Beyond the democratic gap that this tradition involves, the usage that has been made of it has moreover led, too often, to nothing but tragedies.

As there is no such thing as fatality in the internal order, nor is there such thing as fatality in the international order. Too many choices are made out of any democratic control. Other choices are made with massive efforts to condition public opinion. The peoples suffer because of those choices. Therefore those choices must be discussed by the peoples. With their governments, if that is possible; despite them, if that is necessary.

The real motives and objectives of States are almost always concealed to the public because they are essentially driven, not by the wilingness to meet the common interests of the people, but by either economic interests or the specific interests of international actors.

Therefore it is vital to pronounce the end of government leaders absolutism in international relations and to submit foreign policy to the rules of democracy. It is therefore vital to break down myths and generally accepted ideas used by governments to have their decisions accepted and later to explain their errors and their faults.

Raoul M. Jennar is an analyst of Belgian politics who has just had his book LONU et le Citoyen (The UN and the citizens) published in Paris by LHarmatan.

*************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepa Pasa Pucha Meeting Date: Wed, 4 Oct 95 10:30:34 EDT

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

The Nepa Pasa Pucha of america in Washington DC will be celebrating its 4th annul Bhintuna Celebration on November 4, 1995. If you are interested in participating in this event please contact Tmaharja@sun1.raritanval.edu.us Also if you are interested in writing any articles for the DABU magazine on any Newari culture related issues, plese send me the information.

Pratap Reddy

****************************************************8 Date: Wed, 4 Oct 1995 19:46:23 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: $1:Rs 55, new exchange rate From: atuladhar@jack.clarku.edu

I just heard that the new exchange rate is for $1 is Rs 55. does anyone know if thhis is the "official?" or the [black] "market" rates, when the Kathmandu post was last on line it was Rs 53 per $1 official.

amulya

********************************************************* From: Sunam Prasad Pradhan <t9553310@minyos.xx.rmit.EDU.AU> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - September 30, 1995 (16 Ashwin 2052 BkSm) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Thu, 5 Oct 1995 17:48:12 +1000 (EST)

Hi, Thanks for sending me a copy of your NEPAL DIGEST through e-mail. I look forward to seeing your future NEPAL DIGEST too.

Thank You Very much Sunam Pradhan ROYAL MELBOURNE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MELBOURNE, VICTORIA AUSTRALIA.

********************************************************* Date: Thu, 05 Oct 1995 08:23:20 -0500 (EST) Subject: Some Cultural Anthropology Field Notes of Nepal From: IN%"Anil.Sakya@brunel.ac.uk" 4-OCT-1995 06:25:46.52 Subj: Fieldwork experience

    Thanks for your instant response and for the questions and descriptions relates to my research. Indeed, I do get something from reading your erudite writing. I was quite excited to know another interpretation of <Kohne> or
<Kone> from you as I haven't got that kind of interpretation yet from my last preliminary fieldwork.
    Now let me write something about my own work which I haven't developed it for my own sake yet. However, I have got some vague idea about it. As I told you my dissertation topic will be <Marriage and Kinship in a Buddhist-Hindu city, the Newars of the Kathmandu valley, Nepal> and I have limited myself to research only in the Kone area. Of course, the terminology Kone is very ambiguous among the Newars. However, it is an old way of city division which is still used today in several ritual realms and by old people.
    I think I won't go in depth in the historical fact of it as you may read it from Slusser's book <Nepal Mandala> and several others. Specially, in the Slusser's book she creates and shows old Kathmandu with color map and evidences. I will only give you general ideas of the city division of Kathmandu.
    In early Licchavi period, our Kathmandu was divided into two towns named as Koligram and Dakshinakoligram which also called Yambu and Yangala. For general people it is called Thane and Kone as they are located upstream and downstream of the Vishnumati river. The actual boundary of this old Kathmandu is still visible by tracing the route of Upaku Wanegu. These Thane and Kone are inside in the orbit of Upaku route.
    Now it comes to the big debate of boundary of these cities which I myself still couldn't make any particular decision of it. Through my fieldwork experience what I found was that the boundary of Thane and Kone is depend on each caste and ritual. For example, for Gubhaju and Bare they have list of Bahas and Bahis which shows that which Baha falls in Thane, Dathu, and Kone. Similarly, with the Jyapus they have different division of Thane and Kone. They divide it according to 32 tols and the existent of Dhunya and their main dyo. The tols of Thane Jyapus have Dhunya whereas the tols of Kone Jyapus do not. Likewise, with the Manandhar they also have their actual boundaries of 7 Sa:s e.g. Chasa:, Laykusa: etc. Therefore, the actual boundaries always changed one from the other.
    Some will say the boundary of Thane and Kone is divided by two stone lion scruptures at Makhan Twa: whereas some said the boundary is divided by the main gate of Taleju at Hanumandhoka where one lion figure belongs to Thane and the other to Kone. There is also some others saying that it is the Ganesh statue near Kal Bhairab which indicates the line between Thane and Kone. However, one of the easiest way I was told by some old people that take New Road as a demarcation line. Consider south of New Road as Kone and North as Thane. Therefore, I think we cannot just specify the actual boundary of these cities. However, for your information I would like to quote the list of southern tols which are given in the book <Kathmandu Valley> published by HMG of Nepal in 1975 as follows:
    [In the southern sector] it consists of the following tols and other areas: Basantapur, Jhochhen, Om Bahal, Chikan Mugal, Bhimsensthan, Manjeshewari, Yangal, Lagan, Jya Bahal, Jaisideval, Kohiti, Hyumat, Onde, Brahma, and Gophal Tol.
    Interestingly, in my data collection of the Kone area I found out that the majority of Uray are in Thane. There are only 302 Uray households in Kone area or 6% of 5057 households.
    My interest is to look at the marriage patterns among the Newars. I am looking at how our women are moving from place to place. Is the transaction take place between Thane and Kone in their marriage? So I collected several genealogies to examine this fact and I am still in the process for the actual pattern.
    However, I am thinking that I will focus on only 8 different caste groups of Kone out of 19. They are Gubhaju/Bare, Shesya, Uray, Jyapu, Saymi, Chipa, Bha: and the lower castes including Nay, Pode and Chamkhala. And I will left out Dyo Brahmu, Khusa, Nau, Kau, Gathu, Pun, Dui, Jogi and Dhwabya. These are all castes residing in Kone area only. I think this will also apply to Thane but different in number of households.
    By the way, I think there is also some relations of Thane and Kone division with the caste's residency as most Uray, Dhwabya etc. reside mostly in Thane whereas most Saymi, Chipa etc. live mostly in Kone.
    Another fact I found out in my research is that our old part of Kathmandu is still crowded with our Newar groups although it seems to be invaded by Non-Newars a lot. From the Kone's data I found out that only 5.8% of households belong to Non-Newars which it might be slightly higher in Thane.
    You may know that there is a very good study has been made on the Tuladhars of Asan (Thane) by Todd Lewis. Unfortunately, it is in the form of microfiche.
    I chose Kone terminology just to facilitate my anthropological research area so I'm not going into this historical debates. From the collection of few genealogies my hypothesis has been proved that the marriage of the Newars generally take place between Thane and Kone. However, there are several other factors which affect it. For example, among the Sakya the importance of Baha and Bahi came to play a big role. Similarly, among the Jyapus the Twas is quite important. Another pattern I found out about the Newar marriage is that women are the main key of marriage and they are the vital factor of the future marriage. It is seen from the genealogies and interviews that if a woman was given away to a particular area later she plays a great role to bring new women from her native area to her husband's area.
    Another significant facts I found with wedding ceremony of the Newars is completely different one from Hindu wedding. I think our Newar marriage is more similar to other Nepalese tribes and Dravidian system than the North Indian or Hindu type. Generally, among the Newars it is told that the marriage is not allowed within 7 generations which is the influence of Hindu ideology. But in practice this seems to be not existed.
    Apart from these facts I looked at different rituals performed only in Kone not in Thane and the fact about indigenousness. I consider different myths like the myth of Pachali and Lakhe which are dominate in Kone. From those myths I draw some conclusions in my mind that the Nay and Chipa might be indigenous group of Kathmandu which later took over by the Kirati or Jyapus.
    I also found out something relate with the Amsuvarma's Kailashkut Palace in my field study. I'm guessing that the Kailaskut palace might be in Kone instead of in Hadigaon as most historian claimed.
    In sum, Kathmandu has three spatial patterns all of which operate on the principles of the inside and the outside and the centre and the periphery. The palace is the centre in all three spatial patterns.
    In the first pattern, Kathmandu (includes both Thane and Kone) is conceptually laid out in concentric circles, with the palace and the temple of the royal cult in the centre around which different social groups are ordered. Gutchow and Kolver's remarks about Bhaktapur is equally applicable for Kathmandu. To quote them, "The social status of the inhabitants is expressed by their greater or lesser proximity to the centre of the city", i.e., as one moves away from the palace, one moves down the caste hierarchy. The upper castes live closest to the palace while lower caste live further away but within the city boundary. The untouchable castes live outside the city.
    Interestingly, I haven't found your description of the Kone delineating Kone relates to the lower status or outside the city orbit yet. I think this is quite considerable point to examine it. However, it may be the particular concept of Urays as they are more attached with Thane as their area. I think it would be wrong to translate Kohne as outside. It is more accurate to translate as lower or downwards. And as I mentioned above the concept of upper and lower was according to the stream of the main river. However, I heard somebody teasing something similar like that saying that Thane is areas of deities whereas Kohne is land of demons.
    In the second pattern, which resemble the first, Kathmandu has three boundaries which are ritually demarcated during Indra Jatra. The first boundary is the boundary of the city beyond which untouchable caste live. The Upaku Wanegu procession on the second day of Indra Jatra follows a route which is parallel to the city boundary. The second inner city boundary is demarcated in some festivals, for example those of Janmahadyo Jatra and the chariot processions during Indra Jatra.
    In the third pattern, Kathmandu is divided into three sections: first, the north or the upper section (Thane); second, the south or the lower section (Kone); and, finally the central section (Dathui). More commonly, however, the city is divided into two sections, the upper section and the lower, which were previously known as Yambu and Yangala or Koli and Daksinakoligrama.
    It is true that with the development of urbanisation directly affect the old notion of the city and importance of it. Many Newars moved out of the city and living in the modern luxuries of "cement-concrete ice-boxes called bungalows" and forgetting most of old traditions and festivals (Nakha Chakha) which sometimes relate with particular Jatra according to the residential areas. Actually these Nakha Chakhas bring kins together and keep them tied together and this is directly affected by such moving away in a new residence areas which locate outside the old city orbit. And this trend seems to be increasing more and more. Anyway, I was very surprise to get the lower percentage of Non-Newars households in Kone areas in my field research.
    Concerning this cultural crisis, I found out two contradicting facts among the Newars. Firstly, with the urbanisation the old norms and values seem to be decreasing among the Newars. Secondly, it is also noticeable that after the development of democracy in Nepal and with the awareness and propaganda of Janjati Mahasangha each caste group among Newars itself also awakening with their cultural identities. This is proven by the establishment of different caste organisations e.g. Manandhar Samaj, Jogi Samaj, Jyapu Mahaguthi etc. Therefore, on the one hand it seems to decrease the importance of cultural identity and on the other each caste group is developing and promoting their cultural practice and identities. So we have to watch this closely to see which trend it will take in future.
    Oh! no, I thought I will just write briefly but it seems to be quite long and unorganised. Sorry for this.

With the Dhamma blessings, Bhikkhu Sugandha

********************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Travel to Nepal Date: Fri, 6 Oct 95 9:06:07 EDT From: kenw@pacificnet.net (Ken)

I have been interested in travelling to Nepal for some time now, and would like to hear from anyone who has recently been there. Has anyone gone on a trek with "Above the Clouds?" The reports of pollution, trash, etc. are disturbing--can this be avoided once out of Kathmandu? Is the problem overstated? I would like to travel next year. What is the preferable time? I am also interested in flying to Bangkok via a courier flight, and then into Kathmandu from there to save some $$. Does this sound possible?

Thanks for your feedback...Feel free to mail me directly or post here.

Ken Wallace - Los Angeles, CA

********************************************************* To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Newar Scholar to speak at Cornell.. Oct 22 Date: Fri, 6 Oct 95 9:09:55 EDT From: IN%"og13@cornell.edu" 5-OCT-1995 15:33:16.55

        I am inviting Prof. Gopal Sing Nepali at Cornell to give a talk on the "Family Organization of the Newars". He will be arriving in ithaca on the 22nd of October for his lecture on the 24th. At present, he is staying with his son at San Jose. Any interested persons are welcomed.

Om
[dr. Gopal sing Nepali is the author of the scholarly book, "The Newars" and has continued to make Newars the subject of his research for the last 30 years, I think. amulya]

*************************************************************** Date: Fri, 6 Oct 1995 16:28:40 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Real Wealth of Nations From: t9553310@minyos.xx.rmit.EDU.AU (Sunam Prasad Pradhan)

Adapted from ADAM ZAGORIN WASHINGTON, TIME OCTOBER 2, 1995

Who are the Richest people on earth? The Americans? Japanese? Swiss? No, the surpising answer is the Australians, according to a provocative new study by the World Bank. Australia, a largely suburban, middle-class nation of 18 million, has never been known for great financial wealth, but the Lucky Country came in tops after the bank's economists decided to count natural treasures, ranging from minerals to farmland and even protected zones like the Great Barrier Reef. The Analysis, published last week, ranks 192 countries in all - using a novel yardstick for gauging the wealth of nations and the potential for economic deveopment.

Ethopia, Nepal, and Burundi rank as the world's poorest nation.

The U.S., usually regarded as the world's richest nation, comes in a mere 12th.

        TOP 20 BOTTOM 20

1. AUSTRALIA INDIA

2. CANADA NIGERIA

3. LUXEMBOURG MALI

4. SWITZERLAND KENYA

5. JAPAN CAMBODIA

6. SWEDEN BURKINA FASO

7. ICELAND GAMBIA

8. QATAR NIGER

9. U.A.E. BANGLADESH

10. DENMARK MOZAMBIQUE

11. NORWAY SIERRA LEONE

12. U.S. GUINEA BISSAU

13. FRANCE RWANDA

14. KUWAIT VIETNAM

15. GERMANY TANZANIA

16. AUSTRIA UGANDA

17. SURINAME MALAWI

18. BELGIUM BURUNDI

19. NETHERLANDS NEPAL

20. ITALY ETHOPIA

****************************************************************** Date: Sat, 7 Oct 1995 13:32:32 -0400 (EDT) From: Tulsi Maharjan <tmaharja@sun1.raritanval.edu> Subject: DABU Magazine..

I am in the process of finalizing our DABU Magazine. If you still interested in submitting a special Newari culture related articles you can Email me the information.

Also the DABU will have a special advetizement section. If you want to send a special Bhintuna greetings to your friends and family members. You can have 1/4 page ad for $20. That cost will include one year membership and 1/4 page ad in the DABU Magazine.

Also if you like to be regional representatives for the Nepa Pasa Pucha, please let me know. We are planning to have special membership drive and we need help from our young energetic people like you!!!

Interested??? Call me or send me an Email 908-722-3598

Dr. Tulsi R. Maharjan Vice President Nepa Pasa Pucha

******************************************************** Date: Sat, 7 Oct 1995 16:59:05 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: SUBSCRIBE NEPAL-REQUEST@CS.NIU.EDU From: luciferm@pipeline.com (M. Thapa)

SUBSCRIBE NEPAL-REQUEST@CS.NIU.EDU

>From karkis@mail.med.upenn.edu Sat Oct 7 22:04:34 1995
Received: from NOC4.DCCS.UPENN.EDU by mp.cs.niu.edu with SMTP id AA14587
  (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for <Nepal@cs.niu.edu>); Sat, 7 Oct 1995 22:04:31 -0500 Received: from MAIL.MED.UPENN.EDU by noc4.dccs.upenn.edu
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        id XAA04617; Sat, 7 Oct 1995 23:04:19 -0400 Posted-Date: Sat, 7 Oct 1995 23:04:19 -0400 Message-Id: <199510080304.XAA04617@mail.med.upenn.edu> Date: Sat, 07 Oct 1995 23:05:56 -0500 From: karkis@mail.med.upenn.edu (Sher B. Karki) To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: News 10/7/1995 Newsgroups: soc.culture.nepal Organization: University of Pennsylvania

                       Copyright 1995 Xinhua News Agency

The materials in the Xinhua file were compiled by The Xinhua News Agency. These materials may not be republished without the express written consent of The Xinhua News Agency.

                            OCTOBER 6, 1995, FRIDAY

LENGTH: 352 words

HEADLINE: roundup: nepal hopes to revive major hydro project

DATELINE: kathmandu, october 6; ITEM NO: 1006097

 BODY:
   the nepali coalition government has decided to lobby the world bank for the revival of a large-scale hydropower project in east nepal which was dumped two months ago. the 764 million us dollar, 201-megawatt arun iii project was stopped suddenly earlier august when the world bank announced its withdrawal of its earlier pledged 175 million dollar loan for the project due to its high economic and environmental risks. a nepali delegation led by finance minister ram sharan mahat recently left here for washington to attend the joint annual meeting of the world bank and the international monetary fund (imf) scheduled for next week. it was believed that the finance minister would inform the donors of the policy and programs of the new coalition government in this himalayan kingdom and try to reestablish good relationship with them on the hydro project. the coalition government was formed last month under the nepali congress party leader sher bahadur deuba after the former communist government was defeated in a no-confidence vote in the parliament. after backing the project for nearly 10 years, the world bank in august withdrew its support by stating that one of the donor countries had backed out. but the bank said it proposed to find alternative approaches to meet the energy needs in the country. the nepali government and business circles had expressed their sorrow and surprise over the world bank's decision and claimed it would have a negative impact on the economic development of the country. before leaving for washington wednesday, finance minister mahat said that the large amount of revenue generated from the arun project could be ploughed back to the cash-strapped economy, describing the project as the cornerstone of nepal's development strategy. nepal had the intention to export electricity to neighboring india after the arun project is completed in earlier next century. the arun iii project has been the highlight of all the governments in nepal since its pre-feasibility study began a decade ago. the detailed engineering study of the project concluded in 1992.

                            OCTOBER 3, 1995, TUESDAY

LENGTH: 96 words

HEADLINE: bangladesh okays regional trading pact

DATELINE: dhaka, october 3; ITEM NO: 1003067

 BODY:
   the government of bangladesh monday ratified the south asian preferential trading arrangement (sapta), according to reports reaching here today. the sapta is aimed at boosting economic cooperation and trade among the seven members of the saarc (south asian association for regional cooperation) including bangladesh, india, pakistan, nepal, sri lanka, bhutan and maldives. dhaka's approval left pakistan the only country among the seven saarc members yet to ratify the regional preferential trading pact which is scheduled to come into force on december 8 this year.

                            OCTOBER 1, 1995, SUNDAY

LENGTH: 202 words

HEADLINE: birthplace of buddha should be on heritage list

DATELINE: kathmandu, october 1; ITEM NO: 1001052

 BODY:
   an international study team in nepal has urged the united nations educational, scientific and cultural organization (unesco) to put lumbini, the birthplace of lord buddha sakyamuni, on the world heritage list. scholars from 17 countries participated in a 10-day buddhist route expedition in nepal organized by unesco and lumbini development trust saturday asked the un agency to urgently consider lumbini in south nepal as a world heritage site. the expedition was part of a 10-year unesco project, the integrated study of silk roads in asia, which would organize indian and pakistani-chinese expeditions next year if all conditions are met, unesco officials said. participants of the expedition made study visits to places of archaeological importance in the kathmandu valley and lumbini. director for international culture of unesco d. diene pointed out the need for unesco to provide incentives to nepal for preservation and management of museums at a concluding meeting held here for the expedition. meanwhile, the participants recommended that unesco grant support, advice and assistance to the nepali authorities for the restoration, conservation and rehabilitation of historic monuments in nepal.

               Proprietary to the United Press International 1995

                      October 4, 1995, Wednesday, BC cycle

SECTION: International

LENGTH: 315 words

HEADLINE: U.N. peacekeepers hurt in Lebanon crash

DATELINE: TYRE, Lebanon, Oct. 4

 BODY:
   Ten United Nations peacekeepers from Nepal were injured Wednesday in a southern Lebanon road accident, a spokesman for the U.N. Interim Forces in Lebanon said. A truck carrying the peacekeepers accidentally overturned on a road leading to Henniyeh, a village east of the southern port of Tyre, he said. One of the peacekeepers had serious injuries and was taken by helicopter to the makeshift hospital for the U.N. force in the border village of Naqoura, he said. Nineteen Nepalese have been among 204 peacekeepers killed since the force was sent to southern Lebanon in 1978, after the first Israeli invasion of Lebanon. The 5,000 soldiers, originally sent to monitor Israel's withdrawal from southern Lebanon, have long since been trapped in a role of trying to keep Lebanon's many armed camps from full-scale conflict. Daily acts of violence pit the Iran-backed Hezbollah, the Syria- allied Amal movement and other Lebanon-based hard-line guerrillas that oppose the peace process against Israeli troops and their allied South Lebanon Army militia. Syria bases about 40,000 troops in Lebanon, maintaining a role as the country's major power broker, and nearly 300,000 Palestinian refugees -- many allied with one of the armed factions -- live in Lebanese camps. The chief guerrilla target is Israel's 9-mile-wide (15 km) self- proclaimed ''security zone,'' which was set up inside southern Lebanon in 1985 to protect northern Israel from guerrilla attacks. About 1,000 Israeli soldiers and their 1,800 militia allies control the enclave. Norway is withdrawing 160 equipment maintenance soldiers from the U. N. force between November and the end of the year because the Scandinavian nation has decided it cannot keep paying the $160 million a year it costs to keep them and 600 ground troops in the force. The ground troops are to remain.

*************************************************************** Date: Sun, 08 Oct 1995 11:29:12 -0500 (EST) From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu Subject: Two Environmental Op_ed from Ktmpost: Ktm waste & Ag + For Univ

Amulya's note:

I have extracted two op-ed pieces from Oct 8 issue of the kathmandu Post available on line at www address:
<http://www.cen.uiuc.edu/~rshresth/ktmpost/95/>. These articles are, I believe of general inteerest to our Internet nepali readers interested in contemporary issues of the environment in Nepal.

The first is an insider look into the Kathmandu waste/pollution crisis. The second is a discussion of the proposed Ag+For University. There is plenty of room for information and discussion. Just for starters, re: the new proposed ag+for university is another example of reproducing emppty institutions to socio-techno fix what is essentially a deep political problem. As an insider of the forestry institute, I think this new initiative is intellectually and politically bankrupt and neither will the agriculture productivity will go up nor will forest environment will be ameliorated with "more mechanized production for agriculture" or training more unwanted foresters for forestry sector job.

Please read and come forward with your discussions. Thanks amulya

From: JACK::ATULADHAR 8-OCT-1995 10:05:39.97

                                   EDITORIAL
                                       
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  OH! KATHMANDU
  
   Perhaps most disgusting is the moment when, while in Kathmandu, you
   are in hurry and you happen to be stuck up in the middle of an endless
   trail of two, three, four and even six wheelers inching away slower
   than a bridegrooms entourage. However anxious you may be, you cannot
   discern the cause of the snail-pace motion; for all you can see,
   within the span of your eyesight, are rears of the vehicles preceding
   and windscreen of those following them faithfully. The reason may
   range anywhere from the traffic regulating rhododendron sign to a
   procession of active, rather reactive but manifestly most concerned
   souls who get always out in the street on some pretext or the other. A
   valid, even if unsound, justification can always be discovered or
   invented for whatever the cause. But, what about those who should
   indeed be rushing during the rush-hours? It would be better to get
   aside the issue before it engulfs our delicate equanimity of psyche
   and just rename those crucial O -hours (office-hours) as D -Hours
   (i.e, drag-hours), for even possessing a vehicle does not make one any
   faster than the pedestrians, once the traffic jam sets in. Traffic
   Jams - in Kathmandu? Oh no! Indeed, not very long ago you could have
   safely laughed your heart out at this but no more. Now, you are left
   with no option than to admit that it is an unpleasant truth. And what
   with the smoke stinging your eyes and choking your breath, the
   experience of being caught in one becomes simply unforgettable. The
   uproar of untuned engines further accrues to the frustration from the
   loss of invaluable time. And, it is but natural that you bestow the
   blame for the trauma on the blue Bikrams - the widely accepted cause
   of pollution. Yes, they have certainly earned an ill -repute for
   polluting the environment but equally popular they are for fast and
   frequent service. And the fact is that any of the substitutes
   available is no less a nuisance. The buses do not move until they are
   bursting at the seams, and once packed they can do nothing but drag on
   helplessly with the overload. Then, the wait at each stop far outlasts
   the time taken between any two successive stops. Summing up, no one
   with an iota of sense prefers this means to its alternatives unless
   there is enough time to waste. Taxis could be more convenient if the
   taxi-meter should not cause a pain in the neck. Excluding the more
   affluent ones, a majority of Kathmanduites would not fancy the idea of
   parting with hard earned green. nay, gray notes to pay for a few
   minutes ride.
   
   Lets roll off the matter of wheels - the dynamic part of the city-life
   - and pay heed to the static aspects, or more appropriately, the
   stagnant features. How many times have you been lucky enough to roam
   around any part of the city without encountering a single garbage
   container that did not overflow? Certainly very rare. While few do
   think more constructively, the in-general feeling is that hygiene is
   limited to the confines of boundaries of ones home and that it is not
   in the least illicit to smuggle all sorts of waste matter out into
   someone elses property or , more safely, the public property - the
   road outside. Some have, by and by, come to realize that the big
   containers have been put there by the municipality to collect waste.
   However, it will take time before they can learn perfecting the skill
   to throw the garbage into the container. Until then, the container
   will continue to find itself in the plight of a starving person who
   has food all around and yet cannot satisfy the hunger.
   
   And to top it all, there is the indefinite search for a dumping site.
   Of course, the people in the vicinity of the site shall always
   protest, for good reason, against the imposed hazard when their place
   is being turned into an open garbage stockpile. Their reluctance can
   be negotiated and won over for an adequate compensation. But waste
   management is taken as an imported concept. And paying compensation
   would be a novelty. Perhaps, due to this vicious riddle, now and then
   dumping sites are automatically created even in the heart of the city;
   no one cares if there is a school or even a hospital nearby.
   
   Waste management through establishing a solid-waste recycling plant is
   the solution people have lately been talking about. But good
   discipline is its prerequisite. Could it be expected of the city
   inhabitants, who habitually feel triumphant being able to expel
   garbage from the kitchen window, to sort out the solid waste into
   paper, plastics, wet kitchen wastes etc and throw, nay, store them in
   separate containers? Well, assuming that the discipline can be
   achieved through training - for we all are good citizens, at least so
   we claim to be - still it will not be undertaken for the sake of
   discipline only and it is not feasible unless the plant is made. After
   all, we require foreign aid to construct a plant and perhaps that is
   what many are more interested in rather than in simple solutions to
   waste management. Poor us, we are too poor even to clean ourselves!
   Was there no waste in the good old past? Was there no waste management
   problem in the world before technological advancement made recycling
   possible?
   
   Government and Municipalities continue to wrangle with each other as
   if Kathmandu were the only city to produce waste. Dumping sites can be
   created. You cannot spend ages to discover it. There are far too many
   vast, remote and barren lands to go unnoticed. Actually, what is
   necessary is foresight and not dumping-site.
   
   The problem crops up not only with solid waste but also with sewage.
   Rivers for long have been tolerating constant sewage disposal in them.
   The once holy ones now resemble gutters. With all types of organic
   remains taking refuge in them some have become almost stagnant. Gone
   are the days when the sight of a river was pleasant and refreshing.
   Today a river in the vicinity compels you to cover your nose. We do
   have a sewerage network in the entire city. Perhaps the sewers,instead
   of going through treatment or purification, take a short-cut to the
   rivers. Moreover,the fragile pipes at times surrender against the
   sewage pressure. Outlets are formed and the liquid matter jubilantly
   spreads on the roads having victoriously avoided any treatment plant.
   Also it would be rather unfair not to appreciate sewers' loyalty.
   Contrary to the abundant betrayal and deceit in the society, the
   sewers prove to be a faithful company to the drinking water pipes. And
   such cooperation between the two pipelines is somewhat
   anticipated,since we do not have unwittingly the same corporation for
   both. As the facts remain, water-borne diseases are merely the natural
   offsprings!
   
   Ironical it is that water should create a hassle in the country deemed
   the second largest in hydro-capacity around the world. We may be rich
   in water-resource, at least that is what we have been conditioned to
   believe in, but we are quite good at its depletion as well. The urge
   of declaring ourselves, not without a sense of unique sort of pride,
   as poverty-stricken (to draw sympathy and help, er... aid) is much too
   strong. Little wonder it is that a great deal of emphasis is put on
   tourism industry. Of course, the visitors do initiate a channel
   towards foreign exchange financing. However, rather inconsistently,
   scarcely anything is being done to improve the old infrastructure. Why
   then do we express utter surprise at the steep decline in number of
   tourists coming each year? Even the sons of the soil would have fled,
   had they the choice. And who knows, in the lack of proper statistics,
   how many in fact are emigrating every month?. Who enjoys to live
   amidst dust and dirt substantially exceeding the amount of oxygen in
   the air, stinking garbage, exhausting rivers and innuendo of noise?
   And why not? Life is already too short to be wasted in such dismal
   surroundings; and by living here it would actually become even
   shorter. To make the idea of clean, green and healthy Kathmandu -
   which so far has been the mere motion of debates and seminars - come
   true, we need to eradicate the sheer mismanagement prevailing in
   various areas. We all dream for a better life style and its high-time
   that we came into action - on our own.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
  BETTER LATE THAN NEVER
  
   There is no denying the fact that Nepal is an agriculture country with
   its more than 90% of its population still living by tilling the soil.
   The article Proposed Agriculture and Forest varsity - make it research
   - oriented which appeared in The Rising Nepal of August 10, 1995, has
   well indicated that efforts were made as early as 1924 AD with the
   establishment of the department of Agriculture during the Rana period.
   But on accound of the lack of co-ordination, the research and
   extension programmes launched under different units have not brought
   about any tangible results in the sector yet.
   
   Now that Nepal Agriculture and Reaserch Council (NARC) has been
   established to priorities Research and Development (R & D) in the
   agriculture sector, the backbone of the Nepalese economy and the
   Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) has already been
   generating the middle level manpower in agricultural sector. These two
   infrastructures along with other secondary units scattered across the
   country should be brought under one umbrella, ie, Agriculture
   University. Even the idea of an Agriculture and Forest varsity
   proposed under the committee formed by National Planning Commission
   (NPC) is appreciable provided the two separate facilities are managed
   and developed to generate necessary manpower and to promote effective
   research and development in their respective faculties.
   
   In any planning process, the proverb A well -planned is half done is
   very much applicable. For the successful implementation of any
   project, a sincere desire and a well thought out planning are the
   pre-requisites. Others are secondary and could be managed, if so
   desired. Manpower available in agricultural and forestry sectors of
   our country may not be adequate for the establishment of a university
   initially. But there are many qualified but retired personnels in
   those fields in our country. To avail of their qualifications and
   expertises for the establishment of the proposed varsity will also be
   the good return on huge investment in them. Though most of them are in
   their later part of their lives, they would be only too pleased to
   render their services to the cause of the nation for sometime. Once
   the varsity is established, services of other necessary experts could
   be made available under assistance from our friendly countries. Even
   multinational agencies like UNDP, UMN, FAO, WHO, UNIDO etc would
   readily assist the governments efforts for the proposed university.
   
   As for the basic physical facilities of the proposed varsity,the
   Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) in Rampur could
   provide initially. While on the one hand, our population is increasing
   rapidly, on the other, our cultivable land at our disposal is limited.
   So, the only way out is to increase the agricultural & forest
   productivity by applying the mechanised technology. The proposed
   varsity could do a lot to promote research and development in those
   sectors.
   
   If a nation is to develop industries, it should first lay stress on
   development of agro-based industries and forest products. Such
   industries would go a long way to substitute imports first and then
   would even create an opportunity for exports. Even if only imports
   could be substituted, a nation would save in foreign currency which
   otherwise would have been spent in imports.
   
   Nepal imports agro-products and forest products like sugar, edible
   oil, paddy-products, herbs, rubber etc in terms of several million
   dollars, while on the one hand, jute production has decreased due to
   the non-application of modern technology, on the other, mismanagement
   of our jute mills has heralded the industrial revolution in Nepal. Due
   to the ever-increasing pollution in the world, demand for decayable
   fibres has risen suddenly. But our jute mills are on the verge of
   liquidation. This clearly speaks of negligence on research and
   development of jute production and management of those jute mills.
   
   From the article of Dr KP Sharma, the initial strength of more than 35
   Ph D holders willing to offer their services in teaching and research
   activities of agriculture has dwindled down to a mere strength of less
   than 10. Similar may be the case in the Institute of Forestry (IOF)
   and its other related institutions. Brain drain in those fields could
   be well attributed to the lack of opportunity in Nepal. When countries
   are trying to avail of the expertism from other countries without any
   investment, we are being deprived of the expertism available in Nepal.
   What else could be more pitiable than this sort of situation in Nepal?
   
     _________________________________________________________________
   This service is brought to you by
   Kantipur Publication Pvt. Ltd., Nepal & Mercantile Communications
   Pvt. Ltd., Nepal with the assistance of Rajendra Shrestha.

***************************************************************** Date: Mon, 09 Oct 1995 10:00:59 +1300 From: MADAN K GAUTAM <GAUTAMMK@whio.lincoln.ac.nz> Subject: Re: Tourist Information.

Dear all,

A veru warm greetings from the South.

I would much appreciate if some of you can provide the following information:-

(1) Who are the forest officer/s working currently at Benshi Sahar, Lamjung (Lamjung District Forest office), Chyame, and Jomsom Manag and Mustang.

(2) What is the place called which is one day walk from Benshi Sahar that is on the way to Chyame where trekers generally stay over-night.

(3) What is the name of the little "benshi" (river valley) town between Chyame and the staring point of Thorong-pass.

Regards Madan
  
************************************************************

Whitman College the office of Multicutural and International Club present:

        A Slide Show Presentation
        "Aama In America" by Broughton Coburn

Date: October 17th Time: 7:00 pm Place: Maxey Auditorium, Whitman College, Walla Walla, WA

        This is a slide show presentation based on the book "Nepali Aama, Life Lessons of a Himalayan Woman" by Broughton Coburn. He talks about a visit of Nepali Aama to the States.

Natsuko Kagawa

*******************************************************

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