The Nepal Digest - Oct 26, 1994 (23 Kartik 2051 BkSm)

From: The Editor (
Date: Wed Oct 26 1994 - 11:57:42 CDT

Received: from ( []) by (8.6.9/8.6.9) with SMTP id PAA08388 for <>; Wed, 26 Oct 1994 15:19:20 -0500
Received: by id AA02254 (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for nepal-dist); Wed, 26 Oct 1994 11:57:44 -0500
Received: by id AA02250 (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for nepal-list); Wed, 26 Oct 1994 11:57:42 -0500
Date: Wed, 26 Oct 1994 11:57:42 -0500
Message-Id: <>
Reply-To: The Nepal Digest <>
From: The Editor <>
Sender: "Rajpal J. Singh" <>

Subject:      The Nepal Digest - Oct 26, 1994 (23 Kartik 2051 BkSm)
To: <>
Content-Type: text
Content-Length: 44681
Status: O
X-UID: 43

        % N N EEEEEE PPPPPP AA L %
        % NN N E P P A A L %
        % N N N EEEE P P A A L %
        % N N N E PPPPPP AAAAAA L %
        % N NN E P A A L %
        % N N EEEEEE P A A LLLLLL %

The Nepal Digest Wednesday 26 Oct 94: Kartik 23 2051 BkSm Volume 32 Issue 7

          Table of Contents not available due to time constraints, apologies.
  * TND Board of Staff *
  * ------------------ *
  * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
  * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
  * Editing Editor: Padam P. Sharma *
  * Discussion Moderator: Rajendra P. Shrestha*
  * *
  * Subscription/Deletion requests : NEPAL-REQUEST@CS.NIU.EDU *
  * Provide one line message: sub nepal "lastname, firstname, mi" <user@host> *
  * [OPTIONAL] Provide few lines about your occupation, address, phone for *
  * TND database to: <A10RJS1@CS.NIU.EDU> *
  * Snail-Mail Correspondences to: Rajpal J. Singh *
  * Founding-editor/Co-ordinator *
  * The Nepal Digest (TND) *
  * 502 West Lincoln Highway *
  * DeKalb, Illinois 60115, U.S.A. *
  * Digest Contributions: NEPAL@CS.NIU.EDU *
  * Discussion Topics ideas: RAJENDRA.SHRESTHA@DARTMOUTH.EDU *
  * Contributors need to supply Header for the article, email, and full name. *
  * *
  * Postings are divided into following categories that are listed in the *
  * order below. Please provide category-type in the header of your e-mail. *
  * *
  * 1. Message from TND Editorial Board *
  * 2. Letter to the Editor *
  * 3. TAJA_KHABAR: Current News *
  * 4. KATHA_KABITA: Literature *
  * 5. KURA_KANI: Economics *
  * Agriculture *
  * Forestry *
  * Health *
  * Education *
  * Technology *
  * Social Issues *
  * Environment *
  * Tourism *
  * Foreign Policy *
  * History *
  * Military/Police *
  * Politics *
  * 6. Entertainment (Humor, Recipies, Movie Reviews, Sattaires etc.) *
  * 7. JAN_KARI: Classifieds *
  * 8. Immigration/Taxes *
  * 9. TITAR_BITAR: Miscellaneous *
  * *
  * The Nepal Digest(TND) is a publication of the Nepal Interest Group for *
  * news and discussions about issues concerning Nepal. All members of *
  * will get a copy of TND. Membership is open to all. *
  * *
  * **** COPYRIGHT NOTE **** *
  * The news/article posters are responsible for any copyright violations. *
  * TND, a non-profit electronic journal, will publish articles that has *
  * been published in other electronic or paper journal with proper credit *
  * to the original media. *
  * *
  * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
  * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" - Anon. *
  * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar_RJS_Khalifa *
  * *
********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 24 Oct 1994 16:09:32 +0700 To: The Nepal Digest <> From: Punya Prasad Regmi <> Subject: MID POLL OPINION AT AIT

Opinion Poll (Mid-term Election 1994 - Nepal)

The peace, justice and overall growth and development of the country are obviously very common concerns of all Nepalese no matter whoever and wherever they are. It may not be an appropriate idea of blaming one of many socio-political and geo-physical factors for giving birth of the economic, socio-cultural and political crisis in the country.

With reference to Mid-term Election 1994, we have collected some opinion poll administering attached questionnaire to the sampled AITians. All the respondents have agreed that even after the restoration of democracy in 1990 the nation is still in severe crisis. According to the survey findings, the Nepali Congress
(ruling party) was responsible for all those crisis by 56.44 percent, United Marxist Leninist Party (main opposition party) by 20.43 percent, other opposition parties by 6.00 percent, monarchy by 5.53, bureaucracy by 5.00 percent, and others by 6.6 percent. More interestingly, two respondents came out with different perceptions one blaming to the socioeconomic conditions of the people and another to the nepotism for the crisis in Nepal.

Regarding the parliamentary seats likely to be won by various political parties, no one party has been found able to secure the absolute majority. Although, highest seats (88) to be won are guessed for the Nepali Congress (NC). Likewise, among the remaining seats 68 were guessed for United Marxist Leninist Party (UML), 20 for Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP), 7 for Samyukta Janamorcha, 6 for Nepal Sadbhawana Party (NSP), 8 for independent, 4 for Masal, 3 for Majdur Kisan Party and 1 for Ramraja's Party.

As far as the free and fair election is concerned, sampled population believed that there is a very less chance of free and fair election. Based on their responses, the chance of being free and fair election is only 46.3 percent.

According to the survey finding, no party is found to be able to secure absolute majority. It means that the next government will certainly be of coalition type. However, the majority of respondents (63 percent) thought the government of a single party is suitable to our context. While 30 percent favored for a coalition government. Interestingly remaining 7 percent respondents thought that military type of government is necessary for Nepal.

Majority of the respondents (45.8 percent) have given idea of the possible coalition between Nepali congress Party and Rastriya Prajatantra Part to form the government. The idea of respondents for all possible combinations are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Respondents' View of Possible Combination of Political
               Parties for the Coalition Government
______________________________________________ Possible Combinations Respondents (%)


Majority (48 percent) of the respondents said that no one is really a popular leaders in Nepal. Only 20 percent and 12 percent of respondents mentioned that Girija Prasad Koirala and Ganesh Man Sing, respectively as the popular leader (Table 2).

Table 2: Percent of Respondents for Voting a Present Popular
               Political Leader in Nepal
________________ ___________________ Popular Leader Respondents (%)
_________________ ____________________ None 48 Girija Prasad Koirala 20 Ganesh Man Singh 12 Baburam Bhattarai 8 Monmohan Adhikari 4 Ram Chandra poudel 4 Bal Bahadur Rai 4
_______________________________________________________________ Total 100

Regarding the next prieminister of Nepal, vast majority (70.8) percent have given the name of Girija Prasd Koirala. Whereas 16.7 percent of the respondents couldn't guess even. The rest of the percentage of respondents such as 8.3 and 4.2 have given the name of Monmohan Adhikari and Shailaja Acharay, respectively.


                                 Respondent's Sex: Male [ ] Female [ ] Dear Respondent, Could you please answer the following questions and deliver the completed one to me as soon as possible. Your cooperation will be highly appreciated. You can give it either in office (HSD, Room No. E117) or in my quarter (ST7-17) or mail to AIT Mail # 453. Sincerely yours,

Punya Prasad Regmi

Q. 1. Even after the restoration of democracy in 1990, the
               nation is still in crisis. Do you agree?
      Yes [ ] No [ ]

If yes, what share of responsibility goes to each of followings?
--------------------------------------------------------- Political Parties and Others Share of Responsibility (%)
--------------------------------------------------------- Ruling Party (NC) Main Opposition Party (UML) Other Opposition Parties Monarchy Bureaucracy Others (specify)

                Total 100

Q. 2. To what extent do you think the election will be "Free
               and Fair" ?

                100% 75% 50% 25% 0%

Q. 3. What form of government you think is appropriate?
               One Party [ ]
               Coalition [ ]

Q. 4. Please indicate the no. of parliamentary seats likely to
               be won by following political parties

                Political Party No. of Seats
                Nepali Congress
                Nepal Communist Party (UML)
                Rastriya Prajatantra Party
                Sanyuktta Janmorcha
                Nepal Sadbhawana Party
                Others (specify)

                                Total 205

Q. 5. If one single party fails to get majority to form the
               government then which parties will join together to form
               the coalition government ? Please, specify the name of

Q. 6. Among the present political leaders, whom do you think
               the most popular one? Name:

Q. 7. Who will be the next prieminister of Nepal?

Q. 8. Please, tick off where did you get your high school
               Rural School [ ]
               School in District Headquarter [ ]
               School in Kathmandu Valley [ ]

Q. 9. Could you please, tick off your academic background?
               Engineering [ ]
               Science [ ]
               Social Science [ ]
               Others [ ]
                          Thank you.

**************************************************************************** Date: Mon, 24 Oct 1994 14:18:52 EDT To: From: (Madhav Pandey) Subject: IN SEARCH OF CHILD HOOD FRIEND.

Dear Editor:

            I would appreciate any information or assistance in locating a good friend of mine.
            His name is HEMA KANT ADHIKARI (commonly know as HEMA ADHIKARI). The last time I heard about him when he was in GERMANY. That was 16 years ago. At that time he was working toward publishing a German- Nepalese Dictionary. I have not heard from him since.
            Please forward any information you may have about him to me. My E-mail address is

Best wishes Madhav Pandey West Palm Beach Florida.

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 24 Oct 1994 14:25 EST From: Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - Oct 24, 1994 (21 Kartik 2051 BkSm) To:

Homosexuality in Nepal??

I am glad TND and SCN are beginning to talk about homosexuality in Nepal.

Few points have stood out: The paucity of any data of any studies taken and the confusion of the term in the Nepali context.

Because data from scientific or even anthropological studies are missing(after all anthro are too busy contructing a romantic notion of pre-modern Nepal of noble savages like the Gurungs and Sherpas that they not interested in finding modern social "diseases" in their Shangri-la) we have some anecdotal info volunteered.

These anecdotal info lead to the confusion of definition of homosexuality in nepal. If homosexuality is defined as same-sex sexual and social relationship only, I think there is plenty of that going on in nepal, among boarding schools, chowks, rodi-ghars, monks, army, and other same-sex social institutions where access to partners of other sex.

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 24 Oct 1994 15:35:33 EDT To: Subject: Electioneering Rumors in Nepal From: (VIVEK S. RANA)

                             Election Rumors in Kathmandu

1. Finance Minister Mahesh Acharya's brother allegedly ran any with 200 0000 (2
   Crores) Nepalese rupess allotted for Election Campaign. Nothing unusual for
   the people in this camp, if he didn't someone else would have.

2. Chakra Bastola is in Jhapa constituency has already spent over 40 lakhs..
   will need to see the election results.....

3. Durga Subedi will give a tough fight but Girija has all, the muscles and
   the money....

4. Nepali congress candidates face a very grave challenge in Kathamndu
   district. Even Daman Dhungana is having tough times.....PM Singh's
   position is little better than the others.

5. RPP emerges strong in many places. RPP expected to win about 25- 29 seats
   this term.

6. RPP announced that there candidates will have to spend their own money. No
   money was given out to candidate personally from the party.

7. All the businessmen and local business are backing all the three parties,
   not just one like last time. RPP,NC and UML. But still the UML is least
   financed. As people are not sure who will come to power.

8. Finally as usual, Once gain GIRIJA is collecting more MONEY than votes. He
   knows very well the POWER OF MONEY. In a recent businessmen meeting in
   Candidateiratnagar he said :

               "I will need your money and vote both; as help"

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 24 Oct 1994 19:44:47 +0000 (GMT) From: S DAHAL <> Subject: Acknowledgement (fwd) To:

Dear TND,

Thank you for sending me TND directly. It is valueable means to know about our country. Your effort with other team members are really appreciated. Keep it going.

I presume there is e-mail connection to Nepal also. Can we find somebody who will spare time to summarise news from leading national news papers in a weekly basis from nepal and make them available to TND subscriber?

Thanks, again

Yours S.Dahal

%%%%%Editor's Note: Any response from TND members in Nepal? %%%%%%%%

********************************************************************** From: TND Subscription <> To: The Nepal Digest <> Subject: Subscription

Following subscription were bounced back. Subscription sent to will NOT be entertained. Please send your subscription to is to be used for article contribution. It is very painful and time consuming to sort through all the articles trying to find subscription request.

Would someone tell the members below to send their corrent subscription to

   "Pandey, Umanga " <>
   "Shrestha, Vikas " <>


*********************************************************************************************** Date: Mon, 24 Oct 1994 17:49:10 -0400 (EDT) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To:

I read the statement made by Mr. TilaK and it clearly shows the anger and frustration. Seeing the condition I can understand that. But free speech does not however mean anything one wants to say. Giriza desreves some anger ,but not to the extent Tilak is saying. He has compared him as even worse then some panchas. I do not think he deserves that.We should not forget the past. Past is the foundation of the present as present is to the future. Giriza faught for democracy from a long time back. He really sacrificed histime and did a lot of effort for democracy. Ofcourse I do not know him except that he was our Prime Minister. Tilak criticized him for his time as P. M. wwhich even I do. I just wanted to say that besides criticism we should also give credit if they have done something good. Lets become more positive.He does deseve scoldings but he deserves some credit for hispast work also. let us learn to give some credit as well, it is easy to criticise but difficult to appreciate, let us try this. Thanks Nirmal

************************************************************** Date: Mon, 24 Oct 1994 17:18:00 -0500 (EST) From: Helen Abadzi SA1PH 80375 <> Subject: Entry to all in Pashupatinath To:

        Being somewhat knowledgeable and very respectful of Hinduism and the area languages, I am disappointed at not being able to enter Pashupatinath. But I see the point: If entrance were allowed to everyone, there would be hippies and busloads of tourists permanently going around. The prohibition of non-Hindus in fact applies only to westerners. I have watched buddhist monks enter there.

        Mr. Nirmal Ghimirez (z?) discussion of the issue made me recall a story about entry in the temple. Being Greek, I joke that I am a kshatria. The laws of Manu say that Yavanas are kshatrias if they worship the Hindu gods. My father is from Ionia (Yunan), I come straight from Macedonia, so I say that my gotra is Alexander the Great and I should enter the Pashupatinath temple. One day I was in the grounds with some Indian consultants, and I said that. A little while later we were accosted by a young man who offered to take the group to a tour of the temple. He said everyone else could go in, including an Indian lady (who unkbenownst to him is a moslem), but of course I could not go in. I said why not, I am a kshatria. The entire group agreed and said that certainly I am a kshatria. The poor young man did not know what to do. Of course, I did not want to offend local customs, so I did not insist. But it is quite clear that the prohibition is for westerners, not for non-Hindus.

*************************************************************** Date: Tue, 25 Oct 1994 09:48:00 -0700 (PDT) From: "SHARMA, MANOHAR" <M.SHARMA@CGNET.COM> Subject: Mishra's pontification To: TND <>

Dear Ed,

There's no doubt that women in Nepal are unequally treated, a lot of times cruelly so. (There is an important ethnicity dimension, though: gender relations among some ethnic groups are much more egalitarian than in others.) As I see it, the solution lies in progressive education and important changes in the legal system, specially those related to property and inheritence rights, that put women at par with men. The discrimination has to go and I am sure most are in agreement about this.

What we need less is cluttered-up pieces such as those Mr. Mishra posts.
 The melodrama is getting to be a little too wild, and at times quite sickening. Let's try to think clearly and succinctly about this very very important issue and EXCHANGE IDEAS.

 Language was created to convey thoughts and ideas; an aimless pursuit of literary finesse results in harangue. No one is interested in pontification anymore.

Manohar Sharma IFPRI Washington DC

***************************************************************** Date: Tue, 25 Oct 94 09:55:56 EST From: To: Subject: Acknowledgment of Nepal Digest

     Mr. Rajpal Singh
     Nepal Digest
     Dear Mr. Singh,
     Thank you very much for including my name in the list of subscribers
     for Nepal Digest. I am now beginning to receive it in my e-mail. I
     feel very proud of it.
     With best wishes,
     Sincerely yours,
     Dr. Bhakta Gubhaju
     Population Division
     United Nations
     New York, NY 10017
     Tel. (212) 963-3213
********************************************************************* From: Shailesh R. Bhandari <> Subject: KABITA for NEPAL DIGEST To: Date: Tue, 25 Oct 1994 10:24:25 -0400 (EDT)

      Mantri le sapath grahan gardai vanyo
      jun desko nun khaeko chhu
                      tehi desko lagi bolchhu
      yaha jun des baata nun aaoochha
                      tehe desmaa khaataa kholchhu.

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 25 Oct 1994 12:52:16 -0500 (CDT) From: RKP6723@UTARLG.UTA.EDU Subject: Women To:

I am enjoying getting TND. First, I thought TND was basically for news. Now I have learned that TND is for US who subscribe it, so anything with good taste can be said here. I want to thank Mr. Rajpal J. Singh for two reason. 1. Foundation and maitainence of TND.
        2. Making it democratic, so that we can say what we want.

It was interesting to read Mr. Pramod Mishra's sympathetic article on Women in Hinduism...Well, if we go back in time a littlebit, most of the world was male dominant world. Men are stronger than women, so they did more physical work and able to control women. Men were actually afraid of women's power in giving birth and expand. So if we men can control women we can get what we wt, such as sexual pleasure, a child to keep our name, and use their labor. It's been like this throughout the history of the world, only exception among some elite of the society, such as monarchs.

It all boils down on the role of men to win the bread, and women's role to do the household work. We men did not respect the household work as work because such work did not produce any monetary or something of value. So we men got what we wnated out of women more than what they wanted. It all changed when women started to work and earn money basically in the U.S. after Industrialrevolution. When industries needed maasive labor supply.

Now women can earn money do the job men can do, they became independent. Women no longer have to rely on men for necessities of life. We men are now respectingwomen's work, I mean mainly in Western world. We men have to watch what we say and what we do. We have become conscious about politically correctness, and behaving accordingly because we could get sued.

Well, I watch this about mainly American women and watch Nepalese women. Big difference...I feel strongly concerned for my own sister who lives in California and married. If I hadn't seen American women I wouldn't feel so concerned for her as much. Being a man and raised in male dominant society, sometimes it's hard to deal with American women. They can throw sarcasm right on your face. Oh well, I am learning to deal with that. They say what they want to say, when they want to say. Equality...Independent...women of 90s...Yeah whatever it all boils down to earning potential of women.

Robin Pandey Arlington, TX

********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 26 Oct 94 02:07:00+050 From: <john dana> To: Subject: News

HEADLINE: No Alternative to NC SOURCE: The Trend (Nepali Weekly Press Review), Oct. 19, '94 BODY:

Former Supreme leader Ganeshman Singh has said there is no alternative to the Nepali Congress.

In his message on the occasion of Vijaya Dashami, Ganeshman Singh said there was no alternative to the Nepali Congress although it was suffering from many weaknesses.

Nepali Congress can still contribute in the process of nation building if it roots out corrupt and dictatorial elements from it's organization he said.

Ganeshman Singh, however, maintained that he was still out of the party.

Singh said he had been insisting on change in leadership of the government and overhauls in the party organization from the grassroots.

"I have been saying that the party will not be able to cope with future challenges without changing the leadership and overwhelming the party. The wave of dissidence within the party is a natural result of the internal political problems" he said.

HEADLINE: 10 Rupee Coin Circulated SOURCE: The Rising Nepal, Oct 10, '94 BODY:

Nepal Rastra Bank issues coins in ten rupee denominations from October 10.

This is the first time that a 10-rupee is being minted for general circulation.

According to the bank source, the coin has shankha, chakra, gada and padma encircled by 64 dots, and inscribed in the center is Shree Shree Panch Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev.

The other side of the coin depicts a book surmounted by the words "The Constitution of Nepal 2047".

SOURCE: French magazine "Point de Vue", Oct 4, '94 BODY:

Q: Your Majesty, why have you chosen to visit Burgundy during your visit to France?

A: One of the reasons for visiting Burgundy was that it has played an important role in both the cultural and economic aspects of French history and it is also of of the renowned wine regions of France. We enjoyed our visit there. We found the people very friendly. We were impressed by the way the natural landscape blended with the architechture reflecting it's glorious past.

Q: What has particularly attracted you in our country?

A: France symbolizes a country that has made significant contributions to the advancement of human civilization and pursued an independent foreign policy. It's industrial prowess, sense of values and the creativity of it's people are noteworthy.

Q: What are the similarities or differences between the temperaments of Nepalese and French people?

A: Hard work, sense of national pride and the quest for progress are some of the common characteristics of our two peoples. I think industriousness, committment to excellence, and the preservation of art and culture are qualities Nepalese can learn from the French.

Q: Last July, Your Majesty has taken the decision to dissolve the Nepalese Parliament and announced elections for 13 November. Is it the failure of the democratic process started in Nepal?

A: With the reinstatement of multiparty democracy in Nepal, the present Constitution has provisions for seperate functioning of executive, legislative, judicial and other constitutional organs. The general election scheduled for November this year is in accordance with the Constitution and is expected to strengthen the democratic process.

Q: Is any constructive dialogue possible with the opposition regrouped as United Popular Front, in case this party wins the elections?

A: The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal has laid down the procedure for forming a government including the appointment of the Prime Minister.

Q: What are the roles in the institution of Monarchy for Her Majesty the Queen and His Royal Highness the Crown Prince?

A: They perform their roles in accordance with the Constutution of the Kingdom and the law relating to members of the Royal family.

Q: Would you please explain your wish for your people and for Nepal of tommorrow?

A: I wish to see my country and people prosper and lead a life with dignity, preserving our sovereignty, national integrity, identity and unity, and thereby contributing to peace and prosperity in our region and the world at large.

Q: Your Majesty has often shown interest about the problem of environment. How are you going to promote the protection of nature in the years to come? Are there any big projects for this sector?

A: The problem of environment, like for many other countries, is a matter of great concern for us too. We are aware of the seriousness of the problem. A long-term solution of this problem is possible through an effective and appropriate conservation education at the people's level taking into consideration the management and economic aspects as well. The government and non-government sectors are also engaged in this task.

Q: In particular, Nepal has the priviledge of having the
"roof of the world" , the Himalayas. What are the measures that Your Majesty has envisaged in order to protect this common heritage of mankind against increasing numbers of tourists who are dangerously polluting this unique region of the world?

A: I think there exist some regulations which aim at protecting the fragile Himalayan ecology. The number of expeditions has been limited and clean-up campaigns launched. However, the success of such measures, to a great extent, also depends upon the proper management as well as support, cooperation and understanding of the mountaineers, trekkers and tourists.

********************************************************** From: "D. Karki" <> Date: Wed, 26 Oct 94 10:46:09 +1200 To: Subject: Child Labour in Nepal & India: Kiwi Perspective

WOOL REPORT is a magazine published by the New Zealand Wool Board, or WOOLS of NEW ZEALAND as they are now known.

This story came to my attention. It was published under the CHILD LABOUR section of the October, 1994 issue of WOOL REPORT.


Exaggerated and fabricated news media claims about child labour in Nepal are having the effect of undermining Wools of New Zealand's efforts to combat bonded child labour in the handknotted carpet industry in the region. A German Panorama television programme shown recently was long on claims, but short on facts and explaination. It even went so far as to blame hand knotted carpet makers for the number of destitute children in the Nepalese capital, Kathmandu.

Wools of New Zealand has nothing to gain from bonded child labour. The markets in Western Europe and North America for hand made carpets are very sensitive to stories of child labour exploitation under the virtual slavery that does exist under such bonded systems.

Groups against child labour and charities in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Britain have launched a campaign to boycott Indian carpets. In the United States legislation is mooted which would ban the imports of products even partly manufactured by child labour.

A large scale consumer boycott would hurt New Zealand's wool exports. India and Nepal- combined- make up our second most important export destination. Wools of New Zealand realises therefore that continuing trade relies on the government of the region taking firm action under their laws to prevent exploitive child labour.

However it is a fact of life, like on many New Zealand farms, that family labour is vital to keep much of the Indian and Nepalese carpet making ventures viable. The results of banning such work would be devastating for many Indian and Nepalese families.

The distinction Wools of New Zealand makes, between family and bonded labour, is shared by the campaign group here, Children Free New Zealand.

However, news media fabrications will not help in putting pressure on the Indian government. Wools of New Zealand Group Manager for Fibre Marketing, Roger Buchanan says, "Panorama's programme has dragged Nepal into an issue that has been previously confined to India, since we are unaware of bonded child labour in Nepal."

Roger Buchanon says, "We welcome the serious endeavours of both Nepalese and Indian governments to tighten the application of law, and institute welfare measures. It is an emotive issue where many responsible manufacturers and New Zealand woolgrowers see the risk of being caught in the crossfire."

In India, a recent report from the Carpet Export Promotion Council says the Indian carpet industry acknowledges the existence of child labour in carpet manufacturing, but does not condone it in any way. The report states: "It is a hard reality which cannot be merely wished away, and there is no immediate or one time solution to it. Bonded labour or any form of exploitation of child labour is abhorred by the industry."

The most recent legislation is the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986. The Act bans the employment of children below 14 years in various occupations- with the exception of family based work. This distinction recognises the difference between child exploitation, and where specialised skills pass from one generation to another.

The report accepts that child labour exists in the carpet industry, but says a comprehensive study has not been made before, therefore all figures publicised and printed are based on estimates. The Indian government and carpet industry takes note of one survey from the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER).

Last year this study placed the total child labour component in the carpet industry at about eight percent of the total workforce. About four percent of this figure is family child labour, which is allowed under Indian law. Hired child labour, including local as well as transitory child labour, is between three and four percent.

India is introducing measures to combat child labour. The Indian government is introducing welfare and rehabiliation measures for the children. In the industry, the Carpet Export Promotion Council (CEPC), has registered more than 60,000 loom owners. The owners undertake in writing they will not employ child labour. The government has made CEPC membership compulsary for Indian carpet exporters, which means terminated membership prevents them from exporting carpets. END

*************************************************************** Subject: nepali movie To: Date: Tue, 25 Oct 1994 19:09:05 -0400 (EDT) From: "Pranab Rajbhandari" <>

 I tried sending Bhanu Neupane a direct e-mail. It bounced back. I have a copy of Ujeli with me. Could you pl. get in touch with me? My add is

I am also interested in good Nepali movies with English subtitles. Would appreciate it if anyone out there has suggestions.


********************************************************************* Date: Tue, 25 Oct 94 17:21 EST From: PFC <> To: Nepal-Contribution <> Subject: Dear Editor

Dear Editor
  I recently started receiving the digest and i must congratulate you for doing such a great job. In addition to extremely enlightening comments,reviews,analysis and informative stories why dont you include the news on Nepal from various news agencies,newspapers,magazines or other sources. It would be great if we could have latest news specially the economic news.
  I am a research analyst with Center for Global Trade Development - an research organiz. focused on international trade and economic development and my area is economic development worldwide with special focus on emerging markets.
  I would like to know opinions of readers on any experience related to economic development in various fields of economic activity.
  I am deeply interested in Nepal's economy and its participation in the growing and ever interdependent global economy.
  Women in Hindu Society
  The analysis of Mr.Pramod K.Mishra is very well expressed and i fully agree with his conclusions. I understand that this was "VII" in a serial of articles. Is there any way i can get his previous write-ups on this issue?
  With love from Arizona
  Kumar Kapila
******************************************************************** Date: Tue, 25 Oct 1994 16:27:11 EDT From: pramod@UFCC.UFL.EDU To: Subject: titar bitar
                  Flight from new Nepal

On my way to the United States,the passenger next to me aboard Singapore Airlines was apparently looking hostile but to get over that nostalgia thing i courteously asked him,"how are you"? "i am relieved ",he grated in a manner that very much sounded like a loosing coach's half time dressing room pep talk. I could not interpret what that "relieved" meant. He smirked to see that (?) look in my face."aren't you delighted to see that lightened bulb"?,he pointed up my head to show that feeble bulb above the passenger seat.He further teased me "it's 6:30 and it is still on",he was offensively correct. I tried to console myself by thinking that one day we will start Arun 3,of course our lawyers are designing the rest of the project."So how long did you stay in Nepal"?(i did not want to give up either) "three weeks",his answer was brief,impolite and rebounded so briskly that i had to beg his pardon.He presumed i had a problem with his accent,he raised his both hands showed me his palms and flipped it,Eureka!that's twenty days(i am an engineer i know these multiplications and he was not any finger short,i checked that too).

"So brownouts bothered you,what else"? i asked in a public attorney's tone, his gaze was a portent of something very undiplomatic so i immediately overruled myself and mitigated my interrogation "how did you find the rest of the things there like..........people(bingo!), i had heard a good deal tourists exalt mountains,Pokhara and people.
"Terrible",he spewed.I really felt like a host of a party where a guest leaves saying "i gotta take my mother in law to a movie. I did not want to poke him anymore,i guessed he might have been vexed by our new weekly festival called "Nepal banda" or perhaps too much chemicals(in Kathmandu air) acidified his tongue. I decided i'd rather be "homesick" than be "sick" talking to that uncouth rogue.For a minute he remained dormant too,then exploded"you know my wife got hospitalized in your country just for her slogan."
"what do you mean"?, "her slogan"(the guy was getting on my nerves splitting my brain tissues) "what slogan"?, i demanded."In Nepal do as Nepalese do" he quoted."Wwat did see do"?,he toned down a bit,
"she drank the same water". I felt somehow accountable for his wife's sickness so with the all restrained manner possible i confessed,"it's pathetic that we still have diseases like "jaundice,typhoid and cholera", he added "now you have democracy too".

pramod sagar dhakal university of florida,gainesville.

****************************************************************** Date: Wed, 26 Oct 1994 02:35:37 -0400 (EDT) From: RA3371@ALBNYVMS.BITNET Subject: Kura Kani To:

I am astounded and appaled at how well the editors of Nepal Digest have been able to put together such great work. On numerous occassions I have heard Nepalese complaining about how much the Asian Indians have achieved here in the U.S. and that Nepali people have not done anything but to serve their own needs. The Nepal Digest is a classic example of how certain Nepalese have done a lot of good. Sure the Indians have done a lot but that does not mean we cannot do the same or even more. A lot of us fail to realize that Indians have been here in the U.S. for decades and in huge numbers. Nepalese have been here only for a short period and the population has only recently balooned. By 1990 there were only a total of 10,000 Nepalese in the U.S. I feel that Nepalese are just as capable as any other ethnic group and we must work towards bettering each other rather than complaining and criticizing about each other.

My hat goes off to the staff of Nepal Digest and everyone else involved.


This is regarding the article by Pramod K. Misra. I have not explored Mr. Misra's article in detail but it seems to me that Mr. Missra has portrayed the Nepali society as a very pessimistic one. I do not claim to be a socialogist and may not understand the deep implications of our society, but I cannot refrain from criticizing the author's rather extreme remarks. I wholly agree that women in Nepal carry the burden of society and their status in the family needs to be enhanced. However, this can only occur gradually and I believe it has over the past decades.\ My grandmother was married at age 8, my mother at 14 and my sisters at
 about 20. So the change is occuring gradually. And so has the status in the later generations. My criticism of Mr. Misra's article is that he is judging the Nepali Culture from the prospective of the western civilization. One cannot come to a good conclusion by judging the nepali society by establishing the western culture as a basis of evaluation. The differences in values are just to wide for comparision.
     We must understand that most societies always have an underprevilaged class. For our society it is obvious-women. If you look at the western culure it is not so obvious- but it is the children. How about how the children feel in U.S. when 50% of the time they do not know who their fathers are or who their mothers are. Or how about having to live with strangers who they call stepfathers. It is easy to criticize the nepali society and forget the western countries that have similiar family related problems. Do we want to shift from the society we have right now in Nepal to the one as in western countries?. Should we shift from women being underprevilaged to children being underprevilaged. Neither society is good. We must therefore gradually change the nepali society to somewhere in between these two extremes and shift the burden to all members of society.
      Perhaps Mr. Misra would take a more positive outlook at the place we were born and not be so judgemental and sarcastic. Perhaps you want to take a second look at the western culture( the one you adore), and not use this culture as a basis of judgement of the Nepali culture.

I am Rajesh Acharya. Living in Albany, NY.

%% %%
%% %%

This archive was generated by hypermail 2b29 : Tue Jan 11 2000 - 11:15:31 CST