The Nepal Digest - November 23, 1995 (11 Mangsir 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Thursday 23 November 95: Mangsir 11 2052 BS Volume 44 Issue 9

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha rshresth@black.clarku.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "LIFE: Indulgence vs Seeking Truth - Which is your forte?" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 16 Nov 1995 00:53:15 -0500 From: karkis@mail.med.upenn.edu (Sher B. Karki) To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: News 11/16/1995

                     Copyright 1995 Agence France Presse
                              Agence France Presse

          November 15, 1995 Nepal -avalanche-list 09:24 Eastern Time

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 15

 BODY:
   Nepalese officials Wednesday said they had recovered the remains of 21 foreigners who died in weekend avalanches in the Himalayas and had identified 15 of them.

   The following is the list of those identified.

   Canada
  Alan Sordi

   Michael Karper

   Britain

   Nicholas Ellman

   Japan

   Iwao Oki, Eiichi Yamada, Takayuki Nakamura, Mizuno Hariyuki, Horishi Tanabe, Ikuo Irizawa, Imiko Ishii, Shoji Kawata, Isao Fujiwara and Takamo Keiichi.

   Germany

   Armin Schleicener

   Ireland

LENGTH: 360 words

HEADLINE: Nepalese authorities call off avalanche rescue despite reports of missing

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 15

 BODY:
   Nepalese authorities called off rescue operations Wednesday in the country's worst avalanche disaster in history despite reports that many more were missing.

   "As of today, all rescue operations will be stopped but will be resumed if requested by the families of the missing or dead trekkers," said Lieutenant Colonel Bal Bahadur Thapa, head of the rescue operation.

   Asked about an Italian foreign ministry statement from Rome which said 114 Italians remained missing, Thapa said, "they may have come to Nepal for

trekking but we have no record on them so no comment."

   A series of weekend avalanches near Mount Everest has left more than 50 people dead by official count, but the unofficial toll from various rescue sources is more than 100.

   Rescuers on Wednesday evacuated an additional 76 people, bringing the total number of people rescued since the weekend to 517, including 238 foreigners.

   "We combed the Everest region to the Kanchanjunga foothills in the far northeast and Dhaulagiri main peak areas in the northwest, by air, covering a distance of 600 square kilometres (240 square miles)," Thapa said.

   "Now we can declare that the situation in the northeast and northwest or from Kanchanjunga to Dhaulagiri is under control as rescue operations had been timely and effective," Thapa said.

BYLINE: Compiled by Gary Borg. DATELINE: KATMANDU

 BODY:
   Rescuers in helicopters continued the search Tuesday for hundreds of foreign trekkers stranded by heavy snowfall in Himalayan mountains, finding seven more bodies and raising the death toll to 49 in one of Nepal's worst avalanche disasters.

  The bodies of four Nepali nationals were found with the three dead Japanese

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 14

 BODY:
   Hundreds of trekkers stranded by Himalayan avalanches have been taken to safety as authorities turned their efforts Tuesday from retrieving buried bodies to rescuing those trapped by the snow.

   "We have given top priority to rescue operations in difficult and remote mountain terrain rather than air lifting retrieved bodies from avalanche-hit areas," a senior rescue official said.

   Authorities said 175 people were rescued Tuesday, bringing the total rescued to 360, including 178 foreigners, following weekend avalanches near Mount Everest brought on by heavy snow and high winds.

   In addition, 34 Italian and French trekkers reported missing since Friday in Khumbu Valley near Everest were reported safe, a spokesman for the Sherpa Alpine Trekking Service said.

   But 26 have been confirmed dead and nearly 40 others were still missing in three avalanches, authorities said.

   "Some of the trekkers rescued are in a bad shape with minor injuries while some were even sick and had frostbite," said Prachand Man Shrestha, director-general of the tourism department.

   Rescuers who had retrieved the bodies of 12 Japanese trekkers and 13 Nepalese guides found the body of another Japanese on Tuesday in an avalanche that occurred Saturday at Gokyo, 22 kilometres (13 miles) northwest of Namche Bazar near Mount Everest, police said.

   Family members of the dead Japanese were due to arrive in Kathmandu late Tuesday and Wednesday, a tourism ministry source said.

   More than 1,000 Japanese were on registered treks in the Himalayas last weekend, including more than 400 in the Mount Everest region, a Nepalese immigration department source told AFP Tuesday.

   The Japanese embassy in Kathmandu appealed to them through police and army checkposts to report to the embassy or the home ministry as soon as possible.

   Thirty trekkers from Italy and four from France who had been missing in the Khumbu valley, about 18 kilometers (12 miles) northeast of Gokyo, had reportedly made their way to safety, said a spokesman for the Sherpa Alpine Trekking Service, which sent a search team to the region Tuesday.

   Earlier, 65 trekkers were reported dead or missing in three avalanches. The Japanese body found Tuesday was the only one recovered as of the afternoon.

   Mountaineering experts said many of the deaths could have been avoided if trek organisers had asked for a special forecast from the Nepalese meteorolgoy department.

   The experts said the department would have foreseen the approaching bad weather that sparked the avalanches of shoulder-high snow.

   But a department official said it issued special weather bulletins only on request by tour operators. "This time they did not request it," he said.

   "This is the worst avalanche to hit the Nepalese Himalayas in the last 50 years," a meteorologist said.

   kms/ss/lk/gd

   AFP

   (UPDATES with new figures on rescued and confirmed dead, more bodies recovered) By Kedar Man Singh

   KATHMANDU, Nov 14 (AFP) - More than 50 people have been confirmed dead in
 Nepal's weekend avalanche disaster while rescue workers continued their search for stranded trekkers, authorities said Tuesday.

   "We have given top priority to rescue operations in difficult and remote mountain terrain rather than air-lifting retrieved bodies from avalanche-hit areas," a senior rescue official said.

   Officials said dozens were still missing and the toll could top 100 from a series of avalanches in the Gokyo valley, northeast of Kathmandu, and other regions following heavy snow and high winds Friday and Saturday.

   New avalanches struck the region again overnight Sunday in a series described as the worst to hit the Nepalese Himalayas in the last 50 years.

   While the meteorology department could have predicted the avalanches, trek organisers are expected to request weather bulletins and did not do so.

   Seventy-nine people were rescued Tuesday, bringing the total rescued to 418
(eds: correct), including some 200 foreigners, following the avalanches near Mount Everest, said Prachand Man Shrestha, head of the civil aviation and tourism ministry.

   "Some of the trekkers rescued are in a bad shape with minor injuries while some were even sick and had frostbite," he said.

   A group of 34 Italian and French trekkers had been missing since Friday in Khumbu Valley near Everest, he said.

   Rescue workers also found the bodies of three Japanese and four Nepalese porters at the foot of Mount Kanchangjung, at 8,586 metre (28,168 feet) the world's third-highest peak, taking the confirmed death toll from the avalanches over 50.

   "Our rescue helicopter went to look for trekkers in the Kanchanjunga area and found seven dead trekkers and six other Japanese stranded at the base camp due to heavy snowfall," Shrestha said.

   The body of another Japanese was found in an avalanche at Gokyo, 22 kilometres (13 miles) northwest of Namche Bazar near Mount Everest, where the bodies of 12 Japanese trekkers and 13 Nepalese guides had already been recovered, police said.

   Family members of the dead Japanese were due to arrive in Kathmandu late Tuesday and Wednesday, a tourism ministry source said.

   More than 1,000 Japanese were on registered treks in the Himalayas last weekend, including more than 400 in the Mount Everest region, an immigration department official told AFP Tuesday.

   The Japanese embassy in Kathmandu appealed to the trekkers through police and

HEADLINE: report on cause of helicopter accident released

 BODY:
   the crash landing in august of an army helicopter with then prime minister man mohan adhikari on board was caused by the slipping off of the french-made puma's engine cowling, a report released by a special inquiry panel concluded today. the court of inquiry formed to investigate the cause of the accident today submitted its report to the government. according to the report, the erosion of a support pin made the cowling slip off and hit a tail rotor blade of the helicopter, forcing the pilot to resort to an emergency landing in west
 nepal. detailed discussions over the accident between nepalese and french experts and later laboratory tests of the helicopter's equipment conducted in france ruled out any other mechanical causes for the accident, the report said. it also commended the crew of the helicopter for not losing their composure and successfully saving the lives on board. all regular check-up work of the

DATELINE: Kathmandu
 BODY:
    A teacher in a hill town in northwest Nepal punished 17 wayward students by cutting off strips of their hair - a practice which harks back to medieval times, the English-language Kathmandu Post reported Monday.

    Punishment was meted out to the boys at a boarding school in Baglung, some 350 kilometres northwest of Kathmandu, after they failed to bring homework to school.

    The boys were made to stand in line as the teacher cut four strips of hair from each one. According to the newspaper report, an Indian teacher by the name of Eric from West Bengal carried out the punishment.

    The practice of cutting off the hair of offenders was fairly common in
 Nepal from medieval times until about 50 years ago.

    Infuriated parents reported the matter to police and the teacher was

HEADLINE: WORLD NEWS BRIEFS; DATELINE: KATMANDU, Nepal, Nov. 12

 BODY:
   Building collapses caused by heavy rains killed 17 people today, raising to 43 the number of weather-related deaths in the Himalayan region in two days, officials said. On Saturday, an avalanche on Mount Everest killed 26 people, including 13 Japanese.

    The 17 who died today were killed when earth buried houses and trekkers' LENGTH: 68 words HEADLINE: election for upper house seats held in nepal

DATELINE: kathmandu, november 13; ITEM NO: 1113180

 BODY:
   the election for 11 vacant seats in nepal's upper house was held today, with the major ruling party of the nepali congress claiming five of them. two candidates from the national democratic party, the ruling partner of the nepali congress, were also elected. major opposition party of the communist party of
 nepal won four seats in the upper house. a total of 15 candidates took part

in the election.

********************************************************************* Date: Thu, 16 Nov 1995 03:15:53 -0500 (EST) From: Rakesh Karmacharya <karmacha@aecom.yu.edu> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Photographic Exhibition in Worcester,Massachusetts

        Namaste. Images from Nepal: "Seeking the Invisible" Pat Rabby invites Nepalese friends to view her photographs at The Wawrzonek Gallery, 70 Webster Street, Worcester, MA 01603. Some of you may have seen the show in Cambridge, MA, when they were exhibited at the Friends Center (Quakers) during May 1995.
   Images from Nepal: "Seeking the Invisible" offers intimate scenes of Nepali life and worship. In her description of the show, Pat wrote
"the images in this exhibit result from a 1992 journey to Nepal, when I stayed in Patan, a few miles from Kathmandu, and trekked the foothills of the region, visiting and photographing villages and daily life, including weddings, funerals, volleyball games, and building construction."

"Able to see only with my western perspective, my American eyes," she wrote, "I tried to sense something of the spiritual life vital to Nepali believers. Traditional Buddhism and Hinduism, symbolism and practice, have blended into a dynamic, sustaining religious practice. I focused, literally, on how people felt, worshipped, prayed. I have been more interested in the impact of religious practice than on the specific articles of faith."

Technically, her UltraStable permanent pigment color prints are a blend of modern computer graphic process with an early photographic method of layering color by hand. The UltraStable pigment prints are estimated to be color stable for hundreds of years.

Please join Pat Rabby and guests at The Wawrzonek Gallery on Sunday, December 3rd. from 2 -5 pm for a reception and conversation.

You are also invited to enjoy the continuing exhibition. Gallery hours are Tuesday thru Friday, 11 am - 5 pm, Saturday 1 - 5 pm. Other times by appointment. Telephone 508.798.6612

        Directions: From Interstate 290 Westbound--take exit 10 (Hope Avenue, Route 12 North). The Wawrzonek Gallery is 1.2 miles north on Route 12 (Webster Street).
                       From Interstate 290 Eastbound--take exit 11 and then bear left to reverse direction. Take Interstate 290 Westbound and exit immediately onto Route 12 North as above.
                       Parking is on the left just prior to reaching the gallery (watch for the "T&G Printing" sign).

Another small group of Pat Rabby's photographs is currently displayed in the Dunster House Library, Harvard College, Cambridge, MA. These are photos taken during a marriage this summer in Kathmandu.

******************************************************************** Date: Thu, 16 Nov 1995 09:49:57 -0500 (EST) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

Here are the latest updates from Nepal. Three from Reuters including the first first-hand stories from survivors, and today's Kathmandu Post article. Note that the first Reuter's article says 46 trekkers died, but they mean total people (and the toll is up to 50 in the second article, 20 of whom are trekkers).

Subject: Avalanche Survivors Return Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 9:40:32 PST
                    
        KATMANDU, Nepal (AP) -- Tourists who survived a deadly blizzard on some of the world's highest mountains began returning to the capital Wednesday, hugging one another in relief.
        At least 46 trekkers died after a fierce storm late last week set off avalanches and landslides near the base of Mount Everest and other Himalayan peaks. Nepalese authorities rescued 497 others
-- 56 Wednesday.
        Russell Brice of New Zealand was leading a group of trekkers when an avalanche killed 26 hikers nearby.
        ``I was lucky to get myself out and manage to reach a safer place,'' he said. Like many other people, he had to wait a day and a half in six feet of snow before they were spotted by rescuers in helicopters and small planes.
        Brice and other rescued tourists were dropped off in safe areas in eastern Nepal. Wednesday the first groups of survivors were flown to Katmandu.
        Many hugged one another as they walked into the Katmandu airport terminal. Officials from local tourist companies placed necklaces of marigolds over their heads.
        Rod Supple, 62, a retired engineer from Santa Rosa, Calif., was worried about relatives back home. ``Can you let our families know that we weren't trapped by an avalanche, that we're OK?'' he asked.
        Nearby, U.S. Embassy staffers held up large white signs saying
``U.S. Embassy'' and scanned the crowd for Americans.
        Lt. Col. Lok Bahadur Thapa, a director of the rescue operation, said a helicopter had spotted 13 more people stranded Wednesday near an avalanche in the Gokyo Valley -- the worst-hit area.
        ``Our priority now is to evacuate injured people, especially those with frostbite and snow blindness,'' Thapa said.
        It was unknown whether all the tourists and trekkers in the area have been accounted for.
        October and November are the peak months for trekkers in Nepal because the weather is normally clear. Thousands of foreigners had registered to hike through its lower mountains when the unexpected storm was touched off by a cyclone in the Bay of Bengal.

Subject: More trekkers rescued as Nepal death toll hits 50 Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 9:10:07 PST
                    
         KATHMANDU, Nepal (Reuter) - Rescuers evacuated 56 more trekkers, including 28 foreigners, stranded by deep snow in Nepal Wednesday, and officials said others trapped in the hardest hit area of the Himalayan mountains were safe.
         The latest rescue operation raised to 497, including 221 foreigners, the total number of people evacuated since a freak snow storm and high winds last weekend caused the death of at least 50 people.
         One more body was discovered in Manang region Wednesday, raising the death toll to 50. The body was not immediately identified.
         The dead include 20 foreigners -- 16 Japanese, an Irish woman, a German and two unidentified foreigners whose bodies were being kept at the German embassy in Kathmandu.
         Three foreigners whose back packs were found following a landslide in Manang were reported missing -- Canadian Mitchell Karper, German Gernot Selber Mayer and Briton Nicholas Ellman.
         In the deadliest accident, an avalanche buried 25 people, including 13 Japanese, near Mount Everest early Saturday.
         The Japanese hikers were making their way to the popular trekking destination of Gokyo Valley in the region of the 29,028-ft. high peak. The valley is about 12 miles southeast of Everest.
         ``Any foreign trekkers left in Gokyo area are safe,'' Murari Khatiwada, spokesman for the official emergency task force coordinating rescue operations, told reporters.
         Russell Brice, leader of a French team to the 22,343-ft. Ama Dablam peak south of Everest, said 32 foreigners from four expeditions in the region were safe.
         ``All of them are at the base camp and there is no problem with them,'' the 43-year-old New Zealander told reporters after being flown to Kathmandu from the base of Ama Dablam.
         The four expeditions to Ama Dablam included 14 French, nine Spanish, seven Italians and two Swiss.
         There is six feet of snow ``but there are no avalanches and everyone is safe,'' said Brice, whose team was at the expedition's high camp when the avalanche hit the Gokyo Valley.
         Briton John Evans, who returned to Kathmandu after a trek in the same region, told Reuters some British hikers decided to press on despite the avalanche and deep snow.
         ``We told them about the snow but they thought they had experienced leaders with them,'' he said.
         As well as the deaths in the avalanches in the Everest region and landslides in Manang, seven bodies, including those of three Japanese trekkers, were found buried in snow Tuesday near Kanchenjunga, the world's third-highest mountain some 300 miles east of Kathmandu.

Subject: Avalanche Surivors Tell Story Date: Wed, 15 Nov 1995 10:50:20 PST
                    
        KATMANDU, Nepal (AP) -- Feeling uneasy at an unexpected snowfall, the Nepalese guide woke Ron and Deborah Plotkin in their tent in the dead of night and told them pack up.
        Moments later, the mountain toppled with a rumble.
        The avalanche just missed the Plotkins. For the next three days, they and their guide crawled and stumbled through thick banks of snow and waded across icy rivers, trying to reach safety.
        At night, they dug caves in the snow for shelter, and thought of their three children in San Diego: Ian, 14, Rachel, 9, and Melia, 5.
        ``I prayed to God: `Don't snatch me from them, please. They need us','' said Mrs. Plotkin, 41.
        Forty-six people, including one of the Plotkin's six Sherpa guides, were killed in avalanches and landslides this weekend in one of Nepal's worst disasters in decades.
        Another 517 people, including 238 foreigners, have been rescued. But hundreds of hikers and Nepalese villagers may still be trapped in the Himalayan mountains, including more than a dozen Americans. Helicopters rescued nearly 60 people on Wednesday, and were continuing the search.
        The Gokyo Valley trails buried under the avalanches, along the ancient trading route between Tibet and Nepal, are popular with adventure tourists because they offer panoramic views of the world's tallest mountains, including the 29,028-foot Mt. Everest.
        The secretive kingdom opened its borders to outsiders and its majestic mountains to tourism in 1950.
        ``It was a dream trip,'' said Mrs. Plotkin, a teacher. They set off Nov. 1 with six Nepalese porters and guides, and two yaks to carry their baggage, on an expedition to 20,423-foot high Island Peak.
        On Friday, when the couple pitched their tents at 6 p.m., it started snowing.
        ``The little flakes seemed innocuous,'' said Plotkin, a 39-year-old psychologist.
        But at 2.30 a.m., one guide woke them. As they came out of their tent, they heard a rumbling sound, and tons of snow crashed down near their camp site.
        ``Just after the sound, I looked back and saw four of our Nepalese staff gone,'' apparently buried under the snow, said Mrs. Plotkin.
        Snow had piled up to nearly six feet. Even the yaks couldn't move.
        ``And then the crawling started. We could move only 20 feet in one hour,'' said Plotkin. Before dusk Saturday, they and their guide dug a cave in the snow to protect them overnight.
        ``I came out of the snow cave and looked at the sky and I saw one glittering star,'' said Mrs. Plotkin, struggling to speak through tears.
        She remembered telling her youngest daughter, Melia, that when she loses her first tooth it will become a star in the sky. ``It was as if her face was there in the star.''
        After crawling and stumbling for another day, they spent the second night in a makeshift cave. Then on Monday, they found a path in the snow and followed it to the tiny hamlet of Chikoon.
        One of their guides, Ram Kumar, died of the cold. But they learned later that the four who were buried in the avalanche managed to escape.
        ``When I saw people, I ran despite the pain, and we were welcomed by a group of trekkers,'' Mrs. Plotkin said.
        A helicopter rescued them.

------------- Kathmandu Post 8 More Bodies Recovered

KATHMANDU, Nov 14 (RSS) - The bodies of three Japanese and four Nepalese killed in the Kanchanjungha base camp due to heavy snowfall have been recovered today.

The deceased were Fugiware Isao, Kawata Hirosi and Takamoto Keiichi, and Furba Tamang, Suk Bahadur Gurung, Padam Gurung and Pema Sherpa. The bodies of the three Japanese were brought to Kathmandu by helicopter today. According to the spokesman of the home ministry, a rescue team was sent to the base camp by a Royal Nepalese army helicopter this morning.

The body of another Japanese has been recovered from the debris of an avalanche which took place at Khumjung village development committee of Solukhumbu district.

Meanwhile, six Japanese and nine Nepalese stranded there have also been taken to Dhuncha of Taplejung by a helicopter.

***************************************************** Date: Thu, 16 Nov 1995 09:51:20 -0500 (EST) From: Nadav Vissel <nadav@xs4all.nl>

My girl-friend and three other friends left for a walk of a week on friday november 10. They started at Pokhara and where doing a yourney to Annapurna. I don't know if that means the walked around the mountain, or stayed on the same side as Pokhara. All four of them are dutch (Holland). Does anybody which places you pass on this walk or , even better, had seen them or heard from them. I figure from lokking at the map that they could never have arived at Manang when the accident happened. They might even not know something happened. I hope to hear from somebody with answers to any of the questions.

Nadav, Amsterdam

*********************************************************** Date: Thu, 16 Nov 1995 09:52:05 -0500 (EST) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Information on the Kumari From: nalini_shaw@maillink.berkeley.edu (nalini shaw)

I visited Nepal in 1994 and I was fascinated by the Kumari. Since then I have been looking for a book on the Kumari, but haven't found one. Perhaps any books written on the Kumari are still in the original language and unavailable for Western readers. Unfortunately I only know English. If there is a good book in a different language or in English I would like to know about the title, the date of publication and how a copy could be obtained. Thanks for your help. Namaste.

nalini_shaw@maillink.berkeley.edu

*************************************************** Date: Thu, 16 Nov 1995 09:53:38 -0500 (EST) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Visas for more than 30 days From: bm10009@cam.ac.uk (Ben Moseley)

I am planning to visit Nepal for about six weeks - through December and early January. I am slightly confused about the visa requirements - I have been told that I cannot obtain a visa for six weeks - but must get a 4 week one and renew this (which will obviously be difficult if I am not in Kathmandu at the time).

Is this true? Can it be avoided? Can I get a visa in advance (has anyone got the address of the Nepalese Embassy in the UK?)

Thanks for any advice,
 Ben Moseley ** NeXTmail OK **
 Gonville and Caius College. Tel: (+44) 1223 332400
 Cambridge. CB2 1TA. ENGLAND Ben.Moseley@cai.cam.ac.uk

************************************************************* Date: Thu, 16 Nov 1995 09:57:26 -0500 (EST) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Arun III Update with few comments

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

rshresth@course1.harvard.edu (Rajesh Shrestha) wrote:

>You *now* think it's fine having few large projects even if it's going to have
>*SOME* ecological and *OTHER* implications? That's quite a turnaround - I'd
>be interested to know how that happened. I am assuming you have considered the
>implications concerning World Bank conditionalities and loan terms. Learning
>about them caused a turnaround in me - in the direction opposite to yours.

Sorry I was unable to express myself here. I meant it will take hundreds of years to add two megawatts each year or so to reach 200 megawatts.

>From what I remember, there are seven smaller-scale alternative projects
>at this point - one of them (Kali-Gandaki?) is due around the same time
>Arun III would have been. Knowledgeable electrical engineers here could verify/
>correct me on that.

I am happy that opposition to Arun does not mean opposition to all projects. But I am affraid and worried that all people who successfully opposed Arun may not think so. The same arguments can be extended to other big projects (or ANY projects for that matter).

>Now that you've pushed yourself way off tangentially, we might as well talk
>about it.
>What is the "our poor small country concept"? Do all Nepalis suffer from this
>so-called concept?

thank you Rajeshjee,

I must apologige if my writing (or emotions ) have hurt you or anybody else. Non of the comments were meant towards anybody in particular. I must confess I am a novice in expressing myself in a written form and that too in a foreign language. So my choice of words or style of writing have been unsophisticated. Those comments towards the end of my last comments were not really required to convey what I was trying to say, may be being a beginner I was carried away and was trying to appear more intelligent than I really am.

But I still have few questions,

1)As you wrote about the terms and conditions of world bank (I have only very vague ideas of them) being very adverse to us-was the real opposition to ArunIII was due to this? I think the real issues raised were enviornmental and socio-economical.

2) Once we agree that the terms were not favorable to us , so world bank actully did a favour to us by not lending the money then question comes what should we do to get favourable terms for the other projects. The bankers being the same or simillar, we may end up sallowing even worse terms when we are even more dsperate for the fund. Now we are going through a series of short lived govenments ,and one of them or all of them may agree on terms far worse than this to appear development friendly or capable of bringing Bideshi Paisa to the voters. (Right now deuba government must be desperate to somehow sign few new projcts;-))

Rajesh jee, if you are thinking this is a writing of a person who has not read a lot about Arun and just making common man comments then you are absolutely right. All of my reading or ideas are from mainstream news-papers while in kathmandu and TND and SCN once here. When I first wrote I was just writing because fellow members were concerned about lack of postings in SCN. I never intended it to be very serious.

Once again thanks for the interest.

***************************************** Subject: WANTED: Exchange Student Coordinators

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------
 I need some people to send exchange students to the United States. You will be paid according to the number of students you send. The students will come to the Zanesville, Ohio, USA area. We do mainly High School students, but this year we have on college student also. We are looking for coordinators from any conutry, so if you might be interested, E-mail me for more information.

E-mail: peugeot@beta.delphi.com

Thank you, Damian Sherrick

*********************************************** To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Governor's Appreciation Award. From: "Raja KC" <RKC@qcam.quintiles.com>

Dear friends,

Please join me to congratulate Pralhad KC (Boston. Mass), who was honored with 1995 Governor's New American

Appreciation Award on October 19, 1995 by Governor of Massachusetts..

The Award was established to affirm that immigration is a wise investment for Massachusetts and America, in the belief that the time is right to publicly honor the work of those who have chosen to make Massachusetts their new home and those who have welcomed them. Awards was given into two categories. Category One honors five immigrants who have made a significant contribution to their community and Massachusetts, and Category Two honors five native born residents whose efforts have eased the transitions of newcomers to new land and new life.

We should be proud to know and appreciate as Nepali that Pralhad was chosen one of the winner of the Award among hundred nominees of community leaders and activist.

CONGRATULATION PRALHAD DAI!

Thanks. Raja Ram KC. Boston, MASS. RKC@QCAM.QUINTILES.COM

**************************************************************** Date: Thu, 16 Nov 1995 15:58:54 -0800 (PST) From: Durga Dahal <daha9014@uidaho.edu> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>

The Editors of TND and Reality

TND told nothing that Kisunji is in Canada and will be in the east coast of USA. Several interested Nepali will visit him. What a dumb game, it has collected a lot of stuff but national interest.

%%%%%Editor's Note: Thank you for your comments. We hope to get postings %%%%%
%%%%% and news from users like you who can share the news %%%%%
%%%%% with TND. We wish TND had paid journalists to %%%%%
%%%%% provide its members with all the current events. %%%%%
%%%%% Unless subscribers like you post the news, I am %%%%%
%%%%% afraid TND does not have resources to pull it out of %%%%%
%%%%% an empty hat. TND encourges users like yourself to %%%%%
%%%%% contribute and perhaps less finger pointing. %%%%%
%%%%% Thank you. %%%%%
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************************************************************************* Date: Fri, 17 Nov 1995 09:58:07 -0500 From: BAL SUVEDI <BSUVEDI@PHNET.SPH.JHU.EDU> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu
                Dear Rajpalji, Namastey.

The latest issue of the TND has wrong Nepali date, i.e. Ashoj. Actualy it is not Ashoj but Kartik. Similarly, the TND is two days ahead of Nepali Calendar in each issue. Can't it be corrected?

%%%%%Editor's Note: Thank you. Please send the correct dates and we %%%%%
%%%%% will correct it. Apology for confusion. %%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 17 Nov 95 13:05:42 EST From: "Robby Khanal" <RKhanal@state.de.us> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: 'TIMRO YAAD MA' CASSETTE FOR SALE

GANESH GHIMIRE Presents:

    KOSELI GROUP LONDON'S

          T I M R O Y A A D M A

A cassette album full of romantic, fast, and modern Nepali songs. Some of the artists on the album are: Anand Karki, Madan Thapa, Lalita Manandhar, Lasmit Rai, Bhupendra Raimajhi, Locan Bhattarai, and of course Ganesh Ghimire. The album was produced by Ganesh Ghimire in London, England. The album has songs like: YO JIWAN BATA, MAYA-MAYA, NASODA MALAEE, PARKHI BASE and much more. Interesed parties can send $7 per album to:
                                 Robby Khanal
                                 404 Ilse Drive
                                 Newark, DE 19713
 or send e-mail: Rkhanal@State.De.Us
 or call: 302-738-4052 Thank you, and we know you will like the music. Makes a great gift!!
  
******************************************************* From: Rajesh Shrestha <rshresth@husc.harvard.edu> Date: Fri, 17 Nov 1995 17:24:10 -0500 (EST) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Is it now unsafe to trek in Nepal?

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

bm10009@cam.ac.uk (Ben Moseley) writes:

>In light of the recent extremely severe avalanaches in the region I was
>wondering how safe it is likely to be to go trekking in Nepal in December
>/ early January.

December & Jan are not the main trekking seasons which are Sept-Nov and Feb-May.

Dec & Jan will be colder and there will be less daylight.

The recent avalanches were out of the ordinary. Note that villages were effected. I would assume that villages are located in places that are generally safe from avalanches. (Their survival rate would be low if they are build in places that are not safe.)

>Will it be worth taking plastic mountaineering boots and crampons / ice
>axe if I am just planning to do one of the more popular trekking routes in
>these conditions?

These accidents happened on the TWO MOST popular trekking routes. Generally hiking boots and down coats suffice on these treks. I dont know what 'plastic mountaineering boots' are..I would suspect that they would be super warm and probably not the most comforatable for hiking in. If you are expecting more super deep snow perhaps snow shoes would be more appropriate?

The lesson from this storm is not to underestimate the danger of this landscape. It would certainly seem a good idea for trekkers to always carry a supply of emergency food, warm clothing and something to make an emergency shelter out of.
  BTW the official from the weather service who is trying to cover his behind by stating that the trekkers did not receive the weather forecast because they did not ask for it may just be....negligent? I would have t hought it would be part of the job of a national weather service to warn people when unusually dangerous weather threatens.

BTW the locations of the avalanche sites given in the AP reports are incorrect. Perhaps AP does not know the difference between East and West? Gokyo is to the NE of Namche and to the West of Everest. Some of the reports had Gokyo to the East of Everest which would have put it in Tibet. Gokyo BTW is THE most beautiful place I have ever been in my life. The top of (Gokyo) Kala Pattar offers a most incredible view of the huge Cho Oyu Glacier, an enormous bowl of flowing ice and rock that is rimmed by Everest, Makalu and other peaks with less well known names.

Frank

****************************************************** Date: Fri, 17 Nov 1995 17:25:02 -0500 (EST) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Help - Nepali Culture

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

I am the adoptive mother of a beautiful little girl from Nepal (From Chisapani, Birendra Nagar, Surkhet, to be exact). Though I was able to bring home some lovely Nepali things for her, I would like to share more of her culture with her as she grows older...I have a Nepali cookbook that was sent to me by a friend from Kathmandu, and have been experimenting with the recipes. But I would love to know more about Nepali festivals and holidays, customs, and the like.

With any luck, I plan to return to Nepal next summer to adopt a second child. Many thanks in advance for youre help.

Sincerely, PATRICE BUTKIEWICZ GRVK97A@prodigy.com

%%%%%%Editor's Note: Thank you for your kind note. TND would like %%%%%
%%%%%% to request members to help Patrice. Perhaps %%%%%
%%%%%% a Nepali family close by can provide the closeness %%%%%
%%%%%% of an extended family to the lovely little girl and %%%%%
%%%%%% her new mother Patrice. Thank you. %%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

*************************************************************** Date: Sat, 18 Nov 1995 13:50:13 -0500 (EST) From: atuladhar@vax.clarku.edu Subject: oct13_editorial.html (fwd) To: THE NEPAL DIGEST <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>

Source: KTM Post

Prison Of Conscience
   By NAMA
   
   Coming back to our home country, in April, the jam-packed prisoners at
   jail went on strike with 11-point demand related to the poor condition
   of the prison. I called it jam-packed prisoners because, as per the
   report of the Human Rightist Organization based at Biratnagar, the
   prison housed a total of 547 prisoners against the capacity of 250
   persons. Must be a festive life inside!

[Amulya's comments: At least nepal has beaten Gov Weld of Massachusetts in overfilling the jails!]
  
   Similarly, in the same month, Mrs Chakra Kumari Magar and Bharje Rai
   gave birth to a male child at Bhojpur jail. To commemorate their
   immortal love-in-prison, they have named the child as Mr Jail Bahadur.
   The editorial of Kantipur thanked the prison officers for giving so
   much care and regard to human values like filtration, love, sex, birth
   and baptism within the four walls of the prison. The editorial did not
   forget to mention about the possibility of running a family planning
   programme within the prison by the Home Ministry.
   
   Last May, the Community Drinking Water Project cut off the drinking
   water pipeline going to the Dhulikhel prison on the ground that the
   concerned authorities failed to pay water tariff.

[Amulya's comments: Perhaps the jailors think the prisoners are better off than all those hill wives that have to trek 2 hours to nearest kuwa for a gagro of water!}

   These anecdotal informations give us information on human right
   situation inside the prisons in Nepal as well as abroad. Some will
   make us cry, other will make us laugh. The important question brought
   home is the conscience. Here is more factual information on the
   management situation inside the prison walls.
    
   There are 77 prisons in the country. To manage them, the government
   spends around Rs 80 millions every year. The first thing when the
   human rightists came out from the prisons, after the successful
   Peoples Movement in 1990, is that they promised to reform the prison
   houses and their conditions. While in the prison houses, they must
   have had a first hand live experience of life inside prisons.Kudos to
   the old Panchayati days! Subsequently, during the interim government,
   the prison allowance was raised from Rs 8 to 12 per day for Grade A
   prisoners and Rs 6 to Rs 10 per day for Grade B prisoners. Similarly,
   other facilities like daily food and cloth rations were raised by the
   government.
 
[Amulya's comments: This is still cheaper than the average $50 K to support an American prisoner in US. Hey, in these days of comparative advantage international economics, Nepal should seriously consider marketing this gaol service, with 1 million prisoners in US jails the market is limitless. Look where Australia is today after the British sent its convicts down under.]
   
   The reality is much different from what one expects to have inside the
   prison. A sample study of three prisons within the valley, namely,
   Dillibazar prison, Central Jail and Nakhu Jail revealed that Rs 9.45
   million had been spent on food, clothing and cash allowances given to
   1000 prisoners. However, the physical verification revealed that none

[Amulya's calculations: Assuming for one moment that Rs 9.45 million was spent on 1000 prisoners per year, the per capita cost of a prisoner is Rs 9450. In dollar terms, this is about $ 170 !, the per capita gnp of nepal, how coincidental. Given than $170 is the average per capita income of a Nepali, it means half of the Nepalese population earns less than $170 a year. So these prisoners are better off than 10 million nepalese, should we feel sorry or are these prisoners priveleged?]

   of the prisoners were having the cloth given by the government.
   Similarly, very few prisoners were having food rations. Remaining
   majority were having their meals supplied by the relatives. However,
   the full value of the cost is being written off in the books of
   accounts. The generalization cannot be made from the sample study of
   three prison houses in Kathmandu. However, one cannot deny the
   possibility of crook books being maintained in other prison houses.
   Are the human rightists aware of this silent right of the prisoners in
   Nepal? Or the conscience itself is being imprisoned in the four walls
   of the prison house?
   
     _________________________________________________________________
  PRISONERS DEPRIVED OF SUNSHINE
  
   By a Post Reporter JAJARKOT, Nov 16 - Prisoners here have been
   deprived of the facility to sit in sunshine for the last 19 months
   ever since they have been shifted to the new building of Khalanga in
   Jajarkot district jail.
   
   It is because the compound of the new premises are not well protected
   to let the inmates take benefit of the sunshine in the jail compound.
   
   The most adversely affected people are the women, according to the
   inmates. The prisoners are suffering from various diseases like
   swelling, pain in the joints and eye sore round the year and other
   diseases.
   
   Thirteen inmates of the jail have recently submitted a list of demands
   to the jail authorities demanding that arrangement be made for them to
   sit in the sunshine in the compound, freedom to read newspapers, food
   to the minor child (there is a minor child in the jail because his
   mother is a prisoner), warm cloths to cover the body in winter, and
   skill development.
   
   Frequent correspondences to the department concerned for construction
   of compound wall have brought no response.
   
   Chief District Officer Mohan Singh Khatri said necessary action will
   be taken regarding other demands of the inmates. The new jail building
   is made of cement and it is very cold.
   
   The hospital is three kilometres away. Prisoners complain that they
   are taken there for treatment in fetters. They also complain they are
   examined by low level health technicians.
   
     _________________________________________________________________
  WOMEN MINISTERS, OR A MINISTRY FOR WOMEN?
   
   Sir, Women are happy to hear about the creation of the Ministry for
   Women and Social Welfare. They are enthused and hopeful that womens
   problems will now be adequately addressed and they will achieve
   greater equality and empowerment.
   
    But the biggest irony is that in a cabinet consisting of over twenty
   five ministers, there is not a single woman minister. This raises
   serious doubts about the benevolence of creating a ministry for women.
   And why attach Social Welfare to it? Does not this connote that women
   and social welfare are synonymous, or closely related categories? Are
   women still considered to be welfare cases rather than economic actors
   ?
   
   Though initiated with good intentions, the conceptual limitation often
   does more harm than benefit. Did the initiators of the Ministry
   consider that women are just another category for development? If so,
   then the whole construct is wrong. There is a risk of womens issues
   being more marginalised than before and against the spirit of
   mainstreaming. There is a greater risk than this Ministry is going to
   be a ghetto with meagre resources (human and physical), where all
   cases/issues related to womenare dumped. Womens issues are
   multi-sectoral, which cannot be congregated as a single category in a
   single ministry.
   
   So, if there is a real democratic intention behind the initiation of
   this Ministry, the Social Welfare category should be removed and it
   should be renamed Ministry of Womens Affairs. It is expected that this
   Ministry will get a priority classification for human, social and
   economic development for resource allocation, and be headed by a Full
   Minister. Or else, we Nepalese women would rather have Women Ministers
   than a Ministry for Women and Social Welfare..
   
   Chandra Bhadra
   Kathmandu

Controlling Truth:
+++++++++++++++++++++

This is in response to the debate going in nepali journalist circles about the king, the pickpockets, press freedom, govt ham-handedness, INHURED's role in Arun III follow-up, and scn debate on INHURED's legitimacy.

I think all these disparate issues are connected.

First, Gorkhapatra Sansthan, of all the newspapers in a English issue Sunday Despatch, brought out a picture of the King and Queen with the caption, " This is a fertile ground for pick-pockets." And all hell broke loose. Is the King a pickpocket, are the Royals a pickpockets into the national treasury? Five hundred thousand living humanity of Nepali people surging towards the Palace in 1989 think so. Their main slogan was "Where is Nepal's money, Pampha devi?" Pampha devi is said to be pseudo name of the queen in her swiss bank account. The valley was full of rumours that the King had bought an island in teh Mediterranean to retire. Even assuming all that is false, how much is the Palace Worth and the land the royal real estate and shadow holdings? And what does it serve?

Apologists say the King and the Royalty "serves" as the symbol of unity for the country. Even if we bought this argument which the Congress and UML did, more for fear of his hold on the Army and Police and his money than any airy-fairy semiotic luxury, why do we need a rich symbol.

Was not Mahatma Gandhi a symbol of unity for India (until the muslims opted to separate out)? Was not Mao a symbol of unity for China ? How much did it cost India and China to buy this symbolic service? Is the Nepali people paying too much?

This is the first time I have posed this question and all I hear is a deafening silence.

It is especially ironic to hear this roaring silence from those who are obviously very articulate and vocal about equity and justice and economic efficiency of govt projects.

Take for example the contemporary debate about INHURED's role in ARUN III follow-up. A very valid point has been brought about INHURED's class identity as city-elite who unproblematically confer on themselves the legitimacy to speak for the "human rights " of the ethnic people of Arun basin and how they will be damaged by big development but maybe a road is ok.

If we question the class legitimacy of these urban elites, why can we not take this argument to the logical conclusion; the most elite urban elite: the King himself? One wonders.

Surely, one reason is the power of the king. Witness how Gorkhapatra editors have been harrassed in a post-democracy Nepal just like in the Panche days of "rastriya suraxchya ain." This is ironic when the communications minister Chiranjivi Wagle under whom the national newspaper is, is going on proposing to privatise the national papers to look modern: anything for the cosmetics. And Chiranjeevi is a Congress Minister. Well, what would expect, when 7 of the 26 cabinet ministers are heavyweight panches and the coalition depends on them so. Old habits die hard.

If these Editors can be so intimidated for a "blunder" for like all the knowldegeable and proper courtiers in "The Emperor's New Clothes,"
 we see not the naked truth but the invisible dress of "necessary symbol of unity" in the King and any other "Truths" must be suppressed with exclusion and intimidation. Witness how skittish the papers from Nepal has been in alluding to the "blunder" of the caption in Kathmandu Post despatches, without giving the actual quote. I got this quote from a Xinhua news despatch.

Getting back to INHURED again, let me play the devil/s advocate. I ask mahesh Ghimire and other critics of INHURED, what other viable options for successful resistance is there for environmental and development follies like Arun III?

I ask this, without any intention of flaming anyone. I have been a student of social movements in enviroment resistance and I see that the current trends for the relatively most successful ones involve a trans-local alliancing. Whether it is Chico Mendez of the Rubber Tappers Movement in Brazil, Usha (?) Medhkar of Narmada, or Sundarlal Bahuguna of the Chipko in Garwal hills, it is the alliance of local resistance with the international visibility, immunity, and resources of their internaltiona partners in the West that seems to guarantee a measure of success.

Suppose, we have only the local dhendu eating tibeto-burman tribes of the ARun valley opposing Arun III, without city elites to render visible their struggles in the five star hotels of Kathmandu eating chicken pulau and jetsetting from DC to Germany, what guarantee can Mahesh and other critics give that these locals will not be hopelessly crushed by the other city elite, the government in the name of blocking the great path of development as happened to the Bastar tribals in Madhya pradesh when the World Bank came to replace the livelihood of these tribals from "slow-growing indigenous Sal forests" to fast growing Eucalyptus and tropical pines for the resin factories of an industrial India. Where were these pro-locals of Nepal when Asian Development Bank strong-armed Nepal and its forestry department to convert Sagarnath in Janakpur and Mahottari and nepalgung to convert
"slow-growing indegenous sal t rees" to fast growing eucalyptus on the spurious mensuration of White, the Australian expert. This Australian's calculation was spurious because he totally underestimated the cost of holding down tropical grasses, he called weeds, by mechanized traction, by chemicals, and by landless peasants in Taungya. It has been proven by the Forest Research dept now that natural forest growth of sal is everal orders of magnitude better than massively artificial plantation. A visual demonstration of this is apparent in Jogimara Butwal where 4-5 year sal protected for natural regeneraton can be compared with the assiduoulsy and expensively maintained agroforestry of the Butwal Plywood factory run by the United Mission to Nepal.

Yes it is easy to criticize and INHURED does deserve this questioning of its credentials but I would welcome discussion of alternate means of doing things.

I guess you have to use fire to fight fire. When Arun III was being championed by so-called modern intellectuals such as Ram Sharan Mahat who is said to have send a fax threatening to close the offices of ITDG where Bikash Pandey works (see Bikash's article in the latest HIMAL) and where some members of the anti-Arun III group was physically manhandled, I would vouch that without international linkage and immunity, this opposition would have been ruthlessly suppressed instead of being discussed reasonably.

Amulya's note: This is a long, long one, but very very interesting and relevant to many of us , and it is not in legalese, quite easy to understand.
===============ys

Part I

From: OLLIE::JDAVIS Date: 6-NOV-1995 15:49:18 Description: Immigration Changes will hurt us--

WARNING-- this is a long posting. It summarizes succintly some of the most damaging provisions proposed by the new Republican majority. These changes are a concern for foreign students, permanent residents, Business people, and others who are concerned with the health of the economy and the interests of fairness.
 
- Jef
 
[memo]:
  To: Immigration Clients and Friends
  From: Stephen Yale-Loehr, True, Walsh & Miller, Ithaca, NY
  Re: Legislation Pending in Washington Hurts Immigrants
  Legislation pending in Congress would significantly reduce immigration levels and make it much harder for immigrants to receive federal benefits. Summaries of the bills are provided below.
  1. Legal Immigration Reform.
  Legislation just passed by the House Judiciary Committee (H.R. 2202) would slash family immigration by 32%. The bill would impose a cap of 330,000 family immigrant visas a year (150,000 fewer than allowed under current law). It would eliminate four of the current five family immigration categories: adult unmarried sons and daughters of U.S. citizens; adult unmarried sons and daughters of lawful permanent residents who are over 25 years old; married sons and daughters of U.S. citizens; and brothers and sisters of U.S. citizens. The bill also limits the number of immigrant visas for parents of U.S. citizens to 25,000 per year.
  H.R. 2202 would also reduce employment-based visas by 5,000, to 135,000 per year. It would make it harder for employers to sponsor most immigrant workers. Currently, the employment third preference includes skilled workers with two years of training or experience, professionals who have degrees, and "other workers" (including "unskilled" workers). H.R. 2202 would eliminate the last category. In addition, the bill would require professionals who have degrees to also have two years of work experience. Skilled workers would have to show four years of work experience to be eligible for an immigrant visa.
  H.R. 2202 would also make it harder to obtain an H-1B temporary work visa. Employers of H-1B nonimmigrants would be divided into two groups -- dependent and non-dependent. Employers would be defined as dependent if they employ more than 15% H-1B workers. Employers with less than 150 employees could employ up to 20% H-1Bs, and employers with fewer than 21 workers could employ up to 4 H-1Bs. H-1B-dependent employers would be allowed to seek Department of Labor (DOL) approval of a plan to adjust their businesses to non-dependent status; upon approval of the plan, the employer would be allowed a 5 year probationary period during which they would not be subject to the more stringent requirements imposed on H-1B-dependent employers.
  Non-dependent employers would no longer have to post new notices and file a new labor condition application (LCA) when an H-1B worker travels to a city not listed on the original application, unless the principal place of employment changes. Employers would not be required to pay any specific per diem.
  In the case of a lay-off situation, both dependent and non-dependent employers would have to pay the nonimmigrant at least 110% of the last wage earned by the laid off employee in the specific employment. However, only H-1B-dependent job contractor employers would be required get a "joint attestation" from clients stating that they have not and will not lay off any U.S. workers doing the same jobs as the contract H-1B employee. Increased penalties would be imposed on employers that abuse the H-1B program, including increased fines and permanent debarment for multiple violations.
  The House legislation would also create a national data system and require all employers to verify the identity and employment eligibility of every person hired in the United States. The bill would establish a massive and costly data retrieval system to access information from existing data bases at the Social Security Administration (SSA) and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Employers would have to call in to have each new hire approved by the federal government.
  The INS database slated for use in this proposed new system has been found to have missing or incorrect information 28% of the time, while the SSA database has faulty data 17% of the time. In previous pilot projects run by the INS and SSA, over 50% of the people who the systems could not verify were in fact legally authorized workers. Since approximately 65 million people enter the job market or change jobs each year, even an almost impossibly low 1% error rate could still cause about 650,000 Americans to be wrongly denied jobs or delayed in starting work each year.
  Legislation discussed but not formally introduced yet in the Senate would also restrict immigration. Like the House bill, the draft Senate bill would limit family immigration to spouses, minor children and some parents of lawful permanent residents and U.S. citizens. All other categories would be eliminated.
  The draft Senate bill is even more restrictive on employment-based immigration. It would limit such immigration to 75,000 a year, just over one-half of the current 140,000 per year. It would make employers pay a fee equal to 30% of the foreign worker's first year salary to show that they really need the foreign worker. The employer would also have to pay 110% of the prevailing wage. Moreover, most employment-based immigrants would receive only conditional status for two years, and would have to remain with that same employer for the two-year period.
  The draft Senate bill would also impose new experience requirements on most foreign workers. For example, professionals with advanced degrees would have to have three years post-degree experience before they could apply for an immigrant visa. Professionals with bachelor's degrees and skilled workers would have to show five years of work experience outside the United States. The Senate is also considering limiting use of the H-1B visa to a maximum of three years.
  2. Public Benefits.
  Separate welfare reform legislation recently passed by the House and the Senate would restrict the ability of legal immigrants to receive public benefits. For example, the bills would bar most aliens entering the United States after the date of enactment from receiving most needs-based benefits from the federal government, such as food stamps and disability benefits, for five years.
  Among the federal benefits for which new legal immigrants would be ineligible are student grants and loans, including Pell grants and Stafford loans. Pells grants, designed to help the neediest students afford college, have a maximum award of $2,340 per year. Stafford loans allow students to attend school interest free.
  The proposed restrictions would hurt both legal immigrants now relying on such student loans and grants and the universities that such students attend. In California, for example, 34% of Pell aid goes to immigrants.
(In New York, the figure is 29%; New Jersey, 20%; and Massachusetts, 15%.) Public and private schools in California alone could lose up to $196 million if the Pell and Stafford restrictions are approved.
  Moreover, it appears that under at least under the Senate version of H.R. 4, universities and colleges might be required to check the immigration status of student loan applicants to determine whether they are eligible for assistance.
  The welfare reform bills also impose a complicated "deeming" mechanism on immigrant applicants for public benefits that takes into account the income of the applicants' sponsors. Under the bills, to determine the eligibility of an immigrant for public benefits assistance, the federal government would "deem" the income of the immigrant's sponsor to be that of the immigrant. This would effectively preclude most immigrants from receiving needs-based public assistance, even if they are otherwise eligible.
  The Senate version of H.R. 4 is particularly onerous, since it would bar immigrants from receiving most government assistance through deeming even after the immigrant becomes a naturalized U.S. citizen. This would create a two-tiered class of U.S. citizens for the first time. The Department of Justice has raised concerns about this particular provision's constitutionality.
  The House and the Senate need to work out a compromise version of their respective welfare reform bills before a final bill can be enacted. Enactment of a final bill is expected soon.
 
[model letter re H.R. 2202]:
  The Honorable [name of Senator] U.S. Senate Washington, DC 20510
  The Honorable [name of Representative] U.S. House of Representatives Washington, DC 20515
  Dear Senator/Representative xxx:
  I am writing to express my concern about proposed legislation that would restrict legal immigration. I understand that illegal immigration is a national problem, and I support efforts to stop illegal immigration. But it is not necessary to restrict legal immigration at the same time. Bills now pending in the House (H.R. 2202) and being discussed in the Senate are the most restrictive immigration proposals in over 70 years. Penalizing legal immigrants who go through proper channels and play by the rules when the priority concern is illegal immigration is like targeting crime by jailing the innocent.
  Both the House and Senate bills would cut family immigration by over 30 percent. The House bill would eliminate four of the current five family immigration categories: adult unmarried sons and daughters of U.S. citizens; adult unmarried sons and daughters of lawful permanent residents who are over 25 years old; married sons and daughters of U.S. citizens; and brothers and sisters of U.S. citizens. The bill also limits the number of immigrant visas for parents of U.S. citizens to 25,000 per year. These restrictions would mean that most of the parents, adult sons and daughters, and siblings of U.S. citizens who are currently waiting patiently in line to immigrate to this country will effectively be barred from reuniting with their loved ones. In a perverse way, these bills would increase the incentives for illegal immigration by unnecessarily reducing legal immigration.
  The House and Senate bills also propose cutting employment-based immigration. Yet study after study has shown that economic immigrants help, not hurt, our country. We should facilitate, not restrict, access to international employees with the skills to make U.S. firms the best in the world. Trade barriers are falling. Technology, like capital, recognizes neither borders nor nationality. Individual initiative and talent are now the most valuable global resource. We need an immigration system that will guarantee us access to those who have these attributes and are willing to put them to work for America.
  The bills proceed under an erroneous assumption that there is too much immigration to the United States. That is not the case. Immigrants now comprise 8.7 percent of the total U.S. population, while 90 years ago they comprised 15 percent of the population. On an annual basis, the United States accepts 3 immigrants for every 1,000 residents. Immigrants reflect American values and serve national interests. They strengthen families by reuniting close family members separated by borders, and fuel prosperity by attracting hardworking newcomers, skilled international personnel and entrepreneurs. Given the virtual consensus among economists and researchers from across the political spectrum that immigrants are hardworking and talented risk-takers who make our nation richer, there is no objective evidence that we should reduce our legal immigration levels.
  For all these reasons, I urge you to fight against H.R. 2202 and similar legislation.
  Sincerely,
 
[model letter re H.R. 4]:
  The Honorable [name of Senator] U.S. Senate Washington, DC 20510
  The Honorable [name of Representative] U.S. House of Representatives Washington, DC 20515
  Dear Senator/Representative xxx:
  I am writing to express my concern about H.R. 4, the welfare reform legislation that is now pending in a House-Senate conference committee. I am particularly concerned about the bill's proposed elimination of need-based education aid such as Pell grants and Stafford loans to legal immigrants.
  This proposal is penny wise but pound foolish. Nationally, legal immigrants receive less than 10% of Pell dollars, and an even smaller percentage of all student aid. The effect of cutting out such aid would be devastating to both the legal immigrants and the colleges that such students attend.
  Education is not welfare. It is an important investment that, over the long term, pays big dividends to society. Putting roadblocks in front of aspiring citizens who are trying to better themselves through study might appear to save a few dollars, but the federal government cannot expect legal, taxpaying immigrants to become productive if it strips them of opportunities for education.
  I hope that you will urge your colleagues on the House-Senate conference committee to eliminate this provision from the final version of H.R. 4.
 

PART II

From: OLLIE::JDAVIS Date: 7-NOV-1995 12:07:46 Description: RE: Immigration Changes will hurt us--

->I think the Republicans ARE acting in fairness and economic interests. if
->the number of immigrants allowed into the U.S. workforce per year is reduced
->it creates more jobs for the people on welfare. I think the combination of
->the welfare reform acts and the immigration acts are a step in the right
->direction in helping to sustain the U.S. economy.
  Did you read the posting? Study after study has shown that the net effect of immigration is an improved economy. Price-Waterhouse was contracted by the Dept. of Labor to study the impact of immigrants. They demonstrated that immigrants as a group contribute far more to the economy _and_ to the U.S. treasury than they consume. This legislation is a play upon fear and bigotry to win votes in an election year.

============================================= PART III

From: jrgotcher@earthlink.net (Ron Gotcher) Date: 7-NOV-1995 22:02:36 Description: Re: Killer Bill!!! Call for verification!
 
    I got the folloing message from somebody:
    
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
        According to The Washington Post (Nov 4, page A8), Senate Alan Simpson
    has introduced an anti-immigration bill which is far more devastating than
    the one in the House ( Just passed House Judiciary Committee). In
    particular, it proposes that foreign students must leave the US for 2-5
    years before applying for H-1 or Green Card status. This in effect
    will eliminate any chance of employment for F-1 students.
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    Please verify this bill! It really goes too far, doesn't it? If it is true,
    how likely will it be passed???
    
    -wenhui@cs.rutgers.edu

----
I don't know if the Simpson bill has actually been introduced yet.  You can go 
to the the library of Congress Thomas site on the WWW (http://thomas.loc.gov/) 
and download the contents of all legislation for this and the most recent 
sessions of Congress.
 
>From what I have heard, the bill that Simpson has proposed is pretty much what 
you have described, or even worse.  It is bad.  I have been urging my corporate 
clients to call their congressional reps. to tell them what sort of effect this 
legislation (Simpson and the Smith bill, HR 2022) will have on their business.  
I have suggested that they tell them exactly how many US employees will have to 
be laid off as a result of the company being forced to move a division 
overseas.  I have further suggested that they tell their employees that this is 
the case so that the employees can also write.
 
Download the legislation and take a look.
James R. Gotcher               | e-mail:  jrgotcher@earthlink.net

PART IV From: david@eesunw3.njit.edu (David W. Chen) Date: 8-NOV-1995 12:20:12 Description: New bill with Unprecedented Slash on Employment-Based Immigration

I have got this from a friend. Please forward it to your friends and post it to newgroups, and send a fax to Senate Immigration Subcommittee Members. Say no the the BILL S 1394. Thanks. As expected long before, Simpson introduced his bill, designated as S 1394, last Friday, and vowed to get its mark-up complete within one week. IFCSS Headquarters Staff was informed at the Coalition Confer- ences this morning, that Simpson believed it could pass in Subcommi- ttee by November 13th, and then would stride to the Judiciary Commit- tee merging with his famous S 269 with substantial cuts on welfare. Some of main points in this Senate Bill S 1394 include: 1). Worldwide employment-based preference is reduced to 90,000 from current 140,000; 2). Labor Certificate (L.C.) becomes very difficult to obtain because employer must pay 25% fee (value of the annual compensation inclu- ding wages, benefits, and all other compensation) for each appli- cation; 3). Maximal stay for Non-immigrant H-1B and L visas is reduced to 3 years (current 6 yrs for H-1B and 5/7 for L); 4). New fee is imposed on employers who want to employ H-1B applicant which makes employer very difficult to hire aliens. The fee would be 5% first year, 7.5% second year, and 10% last year of stay ( fee = annual compensation including wages, benefits and all other compensation); 5). Additional attestations are required before approval of H-1B: a. must pay H-1B worker at least 100% of the actual compensation paid by the employer or 105% of the prevailing wage level; b. no displacement of U.S. workers (must pay H-1B replacement workers 105% of the mean of the compensation paid the laid-off US worker; 6). H-1B worker must have 2 years experience outside the U.S.in their specialty occupation after obtaining the most recently received degree (it means everyone must leave the U.S. for 2 years before coming back for applying H-1B) 7). Bill will take effect on October 1, 1996... ... Simpson Bill S 1394 has stimulated the vigorous responses in business communities immediately. IFCSS Headquarters issued a note, this after- noon, to Simpson's office, to strongly protest the introduction of this bill, and will contact the Senate leadership in this Committee very soon. S 1394 has gone much farther than H.R.2202 regarding employment-based immigration. We now calls attention from all of you to respond to this aggressive bill immediately without any delay - send your fax messages to the members of Immigration Sub-Committee, or call their offices directly, simply saying: We strongly opposed Simpson's Bill S 1394; Anti-immigrantion bills must be stopped! Senate Immigration Subcommittee Members: Phone Fax Alan Simpson, Chair R-WY 202 224-3424 224-1315 Charles Grassley, R-IA 202 224-3744 224-6020 Jon Kyl, R-AZ 202 224-4521 224-2207 Arlen Specter, R-PA 202 224-4254 224-1893 Edward Kennedy, D-MA 202 224-4543 224-2417 Paul Simon, D-IL 202 224-2152 224-0868 Dianne Fenstein, D-CA 202 224-3841 228-3954 --------------------------------------------------------------------- Cut the follwoing note, fill it out and send it to offices listed above by fax: --------------------------------------------------------------------- November , 1995 Senator__________________________ The U.S. Congress, Capitol Hill Washington D.C. Honorable Senator ___________________________: I strongly oppose Simpson's bill S 1394, and firmly believe it is an anti-immigration bill, which is substantially against immigrants, against business, and against the national interests of the United States. I hereby appeal to you : please vote NO on S1394 ! Sincerely, ______________________ Resident of

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