The Nepal Digest - November 13, 1996 (30 Kartik 2053 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Wednesday 13 Nov 96: Kartik 30 2053BS: Year5 Volume56 Issue2

------------------------------------------------------------------------------ H A P P Y D I P A W A L I W I S H E S T O A L L M E M B E R S !
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Today's Topics:

                     News from Nepal
                     Newari Art(ists)
                     Dashain celebration in Columbus
                     Re: The Kathmandu Post -- Suspended
                     Re: On Young Nepali professionals
                     Re: KHOJ-KHABAR
                     POEM
                     Ambassador Bhekh B. Thapa to Speak at UConn

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 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha mailto:rajs@aleph0.clarku.edu *
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****************************************************************** Date: 7 Nov 1996 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: News from Nepal

Source: Explore Nepal on-line

Publicity of contraceptive By Sanam

Nepalis observed the condom day the other day emphasizing the need to use it for fighting the deadly AIDS. Exposing the male contraceptive in rallies, functions, seminars and meetings, the organizers felt they have made the prospective users aware of the importance of the birth control means. The condom fans could not however understand that the display of the contraceptive would be a failure in absence of a plan. The day should be observed with the agenda of awareness raising and specifying the target. Most of the Nepalis who fall prey to AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases and who produce babies beyond their means to support them need to be convinced about the use of the contraceptive. The sense of male responsibility in birth, sex and transmitting of disease has to be taught and this is not possible through the formal way of rallies and programmes. Although the day has been observed for some years, it has never been evaluated. The condom day is actually celebrated with the budget and for the budget. "Stop the flow of financial resources to observe it and it would not be observed." What is important is the message behind the condom day. People who are active sexually because of youth or other reasons have to be taught to be responsible for their act. The contraceptive helps them free themselves from the consequences of their act. This lesson cannot be taught through the display of the contraceptives. Marketing the condom as a product is one issue while motivating people to use it is an entirely another theme. Those who worked hard to observe the day have been right in approach in the former. They have displayed Dhaal, the Nepali brand of condom, in a very attractive way. But the second theme has been completely ignored. The organizers appear confused about their target. All men and also women could not be so. Boys under teenage could not get the message properly. So was the case with girls under 13. The age factor and condom-message should match for effectiveness. Serious issues such as the use of contraceptive should be handled properly while saying so the scribe does not like to be communicative. In the name of being liberal the columnist does not like to misuse the day either. In future the day should be observed with educational purpose and educational way. Marketing approach is not appropriate to motivate sexually active couple to use the contraceptive. Sex education needs to be extended. Properly designed educational scheme on sex could create effective users. This alone would spread the message of safe and responsible sex. The impact of the observance of the day should be studied and monitored professionally.

                      Nepali Folk Songs, a neglected subject
                                        - Chirinjibi Paudyal

The popular Nepali folk song echoing in every houses of the villages has been disappearing. The popular folk song is being replaced by discos, rock and pop music. The Nepali folk song which is also the base of our modern song and preserved native culture for a long time has not been given any attention. The history, of Nepali folk song goes back before the unification of the kingdom in the 18th century. People of various walks of life used to sing the songs during the working time and while traveling and it was the only medium of entertainment. The young boys and girls also made this folk song very popular singing during festival and special occasion. During the unification days the Gaines folk singers made this very popular. They used to walk from one place to another carrying the message of unification which helped create the support of the people for this great work of unification. Patriotic feeling was felled by these songs because most of the people used to be convinced by the melodious song. It was also the medium of communication as there was no any medium of communication like radio, TV and newspapers. The Gaines singing the Nepali folk songs carried the message. The first written document of folk song composed in Jhyaure style is Munamadan of great poet Laxmi Prasad Devkota which is still very popular. But the government has not given any attention for the preservation and development of these folk songs. No any folk song singer is encouraged. Dharma Raj Thapa and Tara Devi became very popular after the establishment of Radio Nepal because people liked folk songs aired by Radio Nepal on their voices. Melwa Devi, who recorded the first folk song and Master Ratna Das Prakash who recorded the first folk song who devoted his whole life for the preservation and development of Nepali folk songs are In the heart of the Nepali people. After the setting up of Radio Nepal many efforts from various institutions and some individual was also initiated for the preservation and consolidation of the Nepali palpitation folk song. Developing the Nepali culture, tradition and religion the folk song has played very important role to generate awareness from ancient time. Renowned folk singer Kumar Banset says, the government has not given any attention for the preservation of the folk songs. We have done something on individual basis, without developing the folk songs we can not do anything for the development of the Nepali culture he added. It can guide us to the right path, he maintains. Academician Nara Raj Dhakal of Royal Nepal Academy says we are collecting the Nepali folk songs and after that we will decide on how to develop the songs. Something will be done for the encouragement of Pandav Sunuwar., programme producer of Radio Nepal is of the opinion that the folk song is being aired through Radio Nepal and every year there is the competition of the folk singers. Ratyauli, Maruni, Jhyaure, Dohori and so many other folk songs are being disappeared from the country and the government should give proper attention for the preservation. Lila Singh Karma who has composed many folk songs and written a number of books on the subject says, concrete policy should be brought and those involved in this field should be encouraged. The western music and TV programme have also influenced the Nepali folk songs. Nepal TV has not given much attention for the development of original Nepali songs. People in remote villages have also started singing western and Hindis songs instead of these popular songs. Radio Nepal, Nepal Television should take initiatives to cncourage the folk song singers. National Cultural Centre and Royal Nepal Academy should also organize programmes based on Nepali culture. To make the Visit Nepali Year 1998 successful by entering half million tourists into Nepal, the Nepali culture specially folk song should also be preserved.

                        Moves for a new political equation
                                 - Ram Chandra Gautam

It was October 29, 1996 Tuesday when two vernaculars, one pro-UML weekly and the other pro-Nepali Congress national daily, simultaneously created sensational atmosphere throughout the kingdom and vicinity or the areas including the Terai belt by splashing, for the first time, a news item of their first pages. The news that exposed very surprising activities going on within the ruling and the main opposition parties for establishing a new equation for forming a new coalition government, proved to be unbelievably a U-turn for the political pundits of the nation. Many political analysts suddenly extracted a conclusion that the latest political situation was the aftermath of that incident which was caused by the untimely and unwanted reinstatement of Dr. Ramsharan Mahat as Finance Minister. Other political experts are of the opinion that the other reasons that forced the RPP to change its long-standing equation of the existing ruling parties and form a new one with the main opposition party, UML, might be the various charges of corruption that were leveled against the major ministers from the RPP. The stillness lingering over the political horizon due to a long holiday spanning Bada Dashain and the Festival of Light, continues to prevail despite the political analysts experiencing signs of a political upheaval signaling a change of government. Previously, intellectuals were expecting no specific happenings in the political fields specially until the festival period prolonging till the 15 the of November 1996 because most politicians would be back to their areas. As the Mahat context appeared as if adding fuel to the already ignited political fire not only for the main opposition party, UML, but also for the moderate ruling party RPP and the NC president, Girija Prasad Koirala, the entire political scenario seemed to be changing. Though the reasons for Koirala and the RPP getting extremely furious with the Prime Minister and Dr. Mahat are slightly different, still the boiling anger of both seems to be blending into the same point. Koirala is furious with the Prime Minister because of his disobedience to the NC and the party president of not making any attempt to seeking permission from him for major decisions. On the other hand, the RPP has become frustrated at not being consulted before deciding to include Dr. Mahat in the cabinet despite the fact that he was forced to resign from his post some three months ago on the "basis of morality". Dr. Mahat was forced to quit the position under heavy pressure applied by the UML and the ruling partner RPP, too. In addition to that , Koirala, by applying pressure on Deuba for sacking some RPP ministers lopsidedly on corruption charges, has, it is widely speculated, ignited a spark that seems to be the bone of contention between Deuba and Koirala. Koirala also is said to have pressurized Deuba for letting the NC ministers, specially considered to be close to Koirala, continue their ministerial duties as usual despite being suspected to be involved in the corruption on a massive scale. This has been a serious matter of conflict between Deuba and Koirala. Deuba, despite being heavily urged by the entire nation to sack all the ministers suspected of having indulged in corruption, and by Koirala to sack only such ministers belonging to the RPP, still seems not to be ready to sack any minister because by any means Deuba wants to cling to power, no matter at what cost to the nation. Deuba, despite being threatened by the RPP to break the coalition amongst three parties in case the ministers were sacked in a discriminatory manner, has started hectic activities of exchanging opinions with the minor RPP and the main opposition UML so that either the existing government could be saved or a new adjustment with the UML for forming a new coalition government led by Deuba could be started immediately. Koirala is trying hard to thwart the attempts of Deuba to form a new equation between the NC faction, led by Deuba, is trying hard to challenge Koirala by disobeying his order. Despite being warned and rebuked by Koirala, Deuba seems not to be ready to suspend his move of seeking a coalition with the UML. Deuba's Pakistan visit, the Festival of lights being round the corner and RPP chairman Surya Bahadur Thapa being till the other day away in china, the prospects for forming a new coalition have been suspended at least for a few days. Thapa, the RPP president and the supreme commander of the advisory committee for the tri-partisan coalition, is said to be for changing the equation this time with the UML that extended its helping hand in the parliament last moth to passing to Mahakali Treaty with two-third majority. Newspapers, at least for a few days, have stopped publishing such stories concerning forming a new coalition. Deuba is coming back today after spending four nights in Pakistan. Nobody knows precisely how the relationships between Koirala and Deuba, Deuba and Thapa, Deuba and UML the RPP and the UML, and Koirala and the RPP will shape up in the days ahead.

****************************************************************** Date: Sat, 9 Nov 1996 14:06:06 -0500 (EST) From: aiko <gs07aaj@panther.Gsu.EDU> To: The Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Namaskar: My name is Anne Aiko Joshi and I logged onto The Nepal Digest at my school-Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA -about two weeks ago. I was so happy. Now at last, I have a chance to get news of Nepal, read responses from Nepalis all over the world, and communicate via e-mail with Nepali students and others. I am Korean-born Japanese married to a Nepali, Nirmal Joshi of Dilli Bazar, Kathmandu. I am currently in the Master's degree program in Women's Studies, and I would like information on the status of schoolgirls and women in Nepal. I am interested in pursuing my Ph.D in Anthropology and Asian Studies in Kathmandu in 1998. Any suggestions and information would be greatly appreciated. Pls. reply to this e-mail address. If any Nepalese log on here in Atlanta, "Hi!" I look forward to reading any messages in future. Thank you!!

*************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Newari Art(ists) Date: Sat, 9 Nov 96 18:15:49 EST From: rshresth@BBN.COM

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

I am in the process of developing an exstensive Newari Art web site and CD program. I am looking for any and all information about the Newaris and their artwork. If you have any information I would greatly appreciate it. We also are sponsoring a contest called, "In search for the golden keys".This multi-media CD will also be a a contest to find some of the keys to spiritual advancement, hidden throughout a beautiful collection of Newari Art. The GRand Prize is an all expense paid for trip for 2 to Nepal...Also 100 other prizes!

We are looking for data...sponsors...interested players of the CD...

Thanks for all your help. Namaste Jai Hudes jai@wwwebport.com

****************************************************************** From: Puspa M Joshi <pjoshi@magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu> Subject: Tidbits To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Wed, 6 Nov 1996 19:22:37 -0500 (EST)

Tidbits from Columbus, Ohio By: Puspa Man Joshi

Subject: Dashain celebration in Columbus

Kudos to Sunil Shrestha who was instrumental for the Dashain festival celebration in the Buckeye Village Recreation Center. This year we enjoyed the biggest crowd ever. Although the parents and teachers of the Nepali language class took the initiative in organizing this party, it was Sunil who came forward and took full responsibility in the crucial details, calling participants, and making plan for food and entertainment.

The Dashain party was a great success not only because we had more guests than ever before but because of the excellence of the food in quality, quantity, and variety. There were several varieties of achar such as achar made from tito karela (bitter melon), chatani from LoveSea (tastes like Nepali labsi), not to mention the plenty of desserts: rasbari, khajuri (roth), yogurt, cookies and cakes.

After the dinner, there were singing, dancing, and recital of instruments. The participants were not only Nepali from Columbus and Delaware, but also their American guests. Many particularly enjoyed the performances by children , such as Ashish Joshi who sang Ganesh bhajan accompanying himself on the madal, Robin Baidya who recited the piano, and Biswo Phooyal who told a joke.

At the beginning of the cultural program, Dr. Maheswor Baidya, the President of Association of Nepalese in Midwest America (ANMA), gave a short speech about the vision of ANMA and the importance of the Dashain festival. He told the attendees that the vision of ANMA is to bring all the Nepalese in the region as close together as possible and enhance the cooperation among them.

During the program, a new Nepali graduate student at the OSU school of Dentistry, Rupa Hamal, was introduced. One of the attendees in the party was Mrs. Goma Sharma, the mother of Kuber Sharma. Many at the party felt fortunate
 to be in the presence of such an elder who conferred a blessing on the occassion. Other guests included Dr. Arun Gorkhali and his family who were visiting their relatives in Columbus.

For the first time Nepalese from Dayton attended the celebration: Arati Joshi and her children, and Subarna Malakar and his friend Mitchel. We were happy that they drove more than one hour from Dayton to join the party. All eight Nepali students from Ohio Wesleyen University in Delaware arrived, bringing pops and chips plus ten guests, creating a festive environment.

----------------------------- Subject:Thanks for the gifts

Dear Editor:
                    Last year, Mrs. Chamchu Lama from Kathmandu was in Columbus on a business trip. During that time, we invited her to visit and observe our Nepali language class. She was very appreciative of our work to preserve the Nepali language. She is now visiting Columbus with her husband, Dorje Lama, on another business trip.

We would like to thank Mrs. Chamchu Lama for the gifts she brought from Nepal and has given to our Nepali language class:a large 2ftx4ft Nepali flag and three Nepali caps. They are wonderful to display during the Nepali cultural programs. Such support is vital to our efforts to teach these students.

Puspa Man Joshi & Arun Laxmi Teachers, Nepali Language Class, Columbus Phone: (614) 688-9624.

------------------ Subject: Greetings Dear netters:
                      We would like to wish all of you and your family members a MERRY DIPAWALI and HAPPY NEW YEAR (for those who celebrate Nepal Sambat 1117).

Puspa Man Joshi, Arun Laxmi Rummi, Kiran, and Ashish

****************************************************************** Date: Tue, 12 Nov 1996 11:16:13 +0100 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: lo12@cornell.edu (Lazima Onta) Subject: Reviews for TND

The following four essays/reviews were published in the Kathmandu Post Review of Books, No. 7, 27 October 1996

Who Has Read Bhanubhakta? by Pratyoush Onta

        I don't know when I first heard the name of Bhanubhakta, but as a schoolboy I definitely read about him more than once during 1975. My fifth grade Nepali textbook, Mahendramala, contained not one but two chapters about Bhanubhakta. One, presented as a letter by a student to his father, described the celebration of Bhanu Jayanti in his school. The second was a cameo account of Bhanubhakta's life and work. Both of these lessons, of course, mentioned Bhanubhakta's rendering of the Ramayana in colloquial Nepali.
        Sometime later I read about how Bhanubhakta's Ramayana, written in Nepali when all the big pundits wrote in Sanskrit, brought about the second unification of the country. The territorial Nepal unified by Prithvinarayan Shah, so that story went, was emotionally unified by Bhanubhakta's Ramayana written in simple Nepali, accessible to all. The same story mentioned that Motiram Bhatta first published Bhanubhakta's Ramayana in the 1880s and had highlighted Bhanubhakta's contribution to the cause of the Nepali language by writing his biography.
        In retrospect I see that none of those textbook stories taught me a single thing about how Bhanubhakta's Ramayana had become available to the widely spread population. Nor did they tell me who had actually read it given that levels of literacy were close to zero among large parts of the population. Nor did they teach me how those who could read "read" the Ramayana, or how the experience of reading it has changed over time. In short, those stories taught me nothing about the dissemination or reception of Bhanubhakta's Ramayana, though their claims for its importance depend precisely on widespread dissemination and a homogenous experience of reading.
        Twenty years later, after having done some research on the historical making of Bhanubhakta as a national icon (published in the premier issue of Studies in Nepali History and Society) I still do not know the answers to these questions. Reading of the relevant literature showed that Nepali literary historians have paid little attention to such questions. This is a glaring omission since many of them claim that the reading of Bhanubhakta's Ramayana produced the emotional unification of Nepal. Did this happen? There is much to suggest that it did not and that, in fact, trying to create a national sensibility based in language and literature by claiming that it already existed was part of their project of nationalizing Nepali literature.

Nationalizing Literature

        In the course of promoting a national Nepali culture, Nepali language and its literature have been nationalized over much of the last century. Nepali language activists in British India first used literature to assert a separate identity for themselves early in this century. Within this project, Bhanubhakta and his Ramayana were rediscovered and made into the original literary icons of the Nepali jati. The influence of this language-based activism seeped into the Nepali literary world from the early 1930s and, through the work of Balkrishna Sama and others, Bhanubhakta was established as the adikavi of Nepali literature. So much effort has gone into the making of 'Bhanubhakta' as a national myth that we know comparatively little about the historical Bhanubhakta as a person.
        Similarly much energy has been spent on proclaiming the significance of the reading of Ramayana as a "national" activity that fostered the spirit of the Nepali nation. From the early work of Surya Bikram Gyawali in the 1920s until today, this claim has simply been asserted, without evidence. Yet Ramayana as a carrier of national unity may not have existed outside the imagination of these high priests of Nepali nationalism.

Ramayana's Circulation

        Bhanubhakta completed the writing of the satkanda-Ramayana in Nepali between 1841 and 1853. We do not know how and if his handwritten version was reproduced, but Naradev Sharma (biographer of Motiram) has claimed that Motiram first heard the verses of Bhanubhakta's Ramayana being sung in Kathmandu around 1880-81. Motiram then searched for the entire work but found only the Balkanda whose publication he facilitated in 1884 in Banaras. 2000 copies of the Balkanda were published and available accounts suggest that they sold out in a few years.
        Before Motiram published Bhanubhakta's entire satkanda Ramayana in 1888 Damaruballav Pokharel and two others did exactly that in 1886. Their 2000-copy edition is largely forgotten today because, unlike Motiram's edition, it was not picked up for reprinting and dissemination. According to literary historian Kamal Dixit, in the preface Pokharel wrote that he was publishing Bhanubhakta's Ramayana in the belief that the text would assist all readers to maintain their dharma. He explained that Bhanubhakta had rendered Ramayana into Nepali so that his countryfolk could attain moksha in a state of knowledge. In Pokharel's reading, there is no hint of Ramayana being the carrier of Nepali national unity. Rather, the significance of the work is religious and Nepali is merely a medium to render it accessible.
        Although some aspects of the Banaras-based Nepali language publishing industry in the late 19th century are known, we know very little about how Bhanubhakta's Ramayana was actually sold in Banaras and elsewhere, who the main agents or sellers were, and more importantly where in fact those copies landed up. In his memoirs Parasmani Pradhan recalls that his father, who had worked as an intern in a press in Banaras, actually sold a copy of Bhanubhakta's Ramayana to a Newar in Khurseong. But one Khurseong Newar's purchase hardly begins to illuminate the claimed rapid spread of the Ramayana. If we know so little about its sale and reading in British India, we know even less about its dissemination inside Nepal, a process on which the national unification story squarely rests.
        Between the 1880s when this Ramayana was first published in Banaras and the early 1930s when the adoption of Bhanubhakata as a jati icon by Nepali language activists in Darjeeling was well under way how in fact did Nepalis who were literate read the Ramayana? And under what conditions did they, in turn, read the Ramayana to those who were not? What was the life of the Ramayana as a text in this era? We don't know.

A History of Books

        I have used Bhanubhakta's Ramayana as an example. If we know so little about how this most famous of Nepali books was disseminated and read over the last century, it's no exaggeration to say we know very little about the history of Nepali books and of their reading. History of books involves, minimally, thinking about the multiple relationships that bind authors with publishers, publishers with printers and other supporting industries, these in turn with shippers and booksellers of all kinds and, finally, with diverse buyers and readers. These elements which describe the space of circulation of a book as a commodity are the basis for a history of books in any era. This is not to say that the relationships connecting these elements will be identical in different times and places. Instead, reasearching these elements will help us to discover the historical particularities of our specific case.
        Nepali literary historians have taught us a little about some of these relationships with respect to Bhanubhakta's Ramayana, though much remains to be learned about its circulation. However, when it comes to the next step-elucidating the experience of reading Ramayana-they are silent. Their effort has been directed toward establishing the vamsavali of Nepali literature since the days of Bhanubhakta, not toward asking how either the common person or the pundit read the Ramayana and contemporary texts.
        The emotional unification of the Nepali people, recognition of a common identity on the basis of a common experience of reading, is a large historical claim. It is a wonderful story, an inspiring foundation for a nation. But does it have any substance? A history of books and a history of reading that does not pay attention to the central activity that creates meaning-that is, the activity of reading itself-is a history that ignores the reader as agent of history, as the creater of the meaning in her universe. Thus literary historians teach us what they think the meaning of reading Ramayana has been (or should have been) for the Nepali public at large. But their analysis of it as a second unification of Nepal, given what we don't know about the history of reading as an activity, is clearly overstated and misleadng.
        An impressive team of literary heavyweights led by Kamal Dixit have been convened to prepare a documentary film on Bhanubhakta. Shouldn't some of their energy be spent on asking how in fact their hero's work has been read over the last hundred years? Do they have any interest in the history of meaning creation (and hence of life) through the act of reading? Or will they simply visually reify the mythical story of the creation of a unified Nepali identity through the spread of Bhanubhakta's Ramayana? The latter, it seems to me, would be yet another instance of obscuring heterogeneous historical experiences in the interest of furthering a nationalist agenda, one that illuminates very little of the social history of the Nepali nation.

Onta, Ph.D., is a historian and an editor of Studies in Nepal History and Society.

------------------------------------------ Writing Women into History Title: Women and Social Change in Nepal (1951-1960) Author: Krishna B. Thapa. Publisher: Mrs. Ambika Thapa, 1985 Price: Rs. 100

by Yasuko Fujikura

        In recent years, women's issues in Nepal have often been discussed within the context of development. In the media, we constantly hear the term, "the need to improve women's status," which is said to be achieved by encouraging women to participate in all levels of development processes. Most of the reviews on "women in development"(WID) state that with the UN declaration of 1975 as the International Women's Year, the global concern for women's issues reached Nepal. With the flow of foreign funds, WID seminars were held, and several organizations and institutions were established at governmental and non-governmental levels.
        However little attention has been paid to the fact that long before 1970s there were women who struggled to change conditions for women in Nepal. They were either forgotten, or simply dismissed as not having any historical significance. In this context, Krishna B. Thapa's book Women and Social Change in Nepal (1951-1960) is a welcome contribution.
        As a historian, Thapa views the 1950s as an important period which brought not only political changes but also a significant impact on social conditions surrounding women. He claims that this book is fundamentally different from the well-known study entitled The Status of Women in Nepal which deals with socio-economic status of women of different ethnic groups, with the objective of providing information for national planning. Instead, he attempts to present historical accounts of various factors such as public opinion, education, and women's organizations that affected people's consciousness towards women. The central focus of this book is the detailed study of the emergence and transformation of women's organizations in 1940s and 1950s.
        In the Introduction, Thapa points out that the Rana government
(1846-1951) was not in favour of women's freedom and did not permit any women's rights movement within the country. Chapter II deals with various factors that had restricted the freedom of women before 1951, such as legal codes, religious taboos, and "social evils" including sati systems, child marriage, and polygamy.
        Chapter III deals with the role of media in forming public opinion which played a significant role not only for making women conscious, but also for creating the condition in which all people including male guardians were urged to support education for women. Soon after the publication of Gorkhapatra in 1901, opinions against child marriage, women's illiteracy, and polygamy appeared in its editorials. Magazines such as Sharada and Bharati also took up these issues and expressed opinions in favour of equal education for women. From 1933 to 1951 literary figures such as Lokpria Devi, Goma, Prem Rajeswori Thapa tried to raise consciousness among women through their poems and writings in different issues of Gorkhapatra and Sharada. Some Nepali women living in Benaras such as Sukhesi, Nabina Devi and Anasuya also wrote poems, calling for education for girls in Nepal. In 1933, the first girls' school in Nepal, Kanya School, was opened by Chandra Kanta Devi. After 1945 more and more schools started girl education.
        Perhaps the notable contribution of this book is the detailed accounts (in Chapter IV) of women's organizations that were first formed in the late 1940s. Among them, the author focuses on four relatively strong women organizations. Nepal Mahila Sangha was organized by Mangala Devi in 1947, and later split into two groups in 1951 (Mangala Devi group and Kamaksha Devi group). Two Akhil Nepali Mahila Sangha were formed in 1950 under the leadership of Tara Devi Sharma and Punya Prabha Devi respectively. The author traces their attempts at improving legal and economic conditions governing women. In addition to opening educational facilities, these organizations made efforts toward bringing legal change. As a member of the second advisory assembly, Sharma introduced Nepal Bibah Bill which had provisions concerning widow marriage, property rights, dowry and child marriage. Similar bills were prepared in 1954 by Punya Prabha Devi (Nepal Nari Samrakshana Vidheyek) and again in 1960, but none of them was passed.
        Chapter V deals with the government's attitude towards the promotion of women's status. The author explores constitutional provisions, educational facilities, women's representatives in legislative bodies. Although the government showed general support by providing equal rights under the constitution, it refused to pass concrete legislation when the bills mentioned above were introduced.
        Although this book contains lots of valuable information, the author's analysis of the series of events is not as illuminating as it could have been. In the concluding remarks, he suggests that despite the efforts of women's organizations, they did not bring about fundamental change especially for the majority of rural women. He lists some of the possible reasons, such as the lack of cooperation among organizations, engagements with 'party politics', or the upper class origin of the leaders. In doing so, his analysis revolves around the outcome, i. e. success or failure of particular programs, in much the same way as the
'evaluation reports' of any development program.
        Instead, I would have liked to see discussion of the political culture of the 1940s and 1950s that made possible the emergence of public opinion, party politics, and women's organizations. It was within the overall context of their involvement in the politics of the time that particular projects of women's movement had significance to the activists. Rigorous analysis in this regard would have helped us understand the difference as well as the connections between the political conditions around the 1950s and the present.
        Nevertheless, this book is valuable for the following reasons. First, the author makes use of Nepali newspapers, magazines, unpublished documents, and personal interviews, which is rare in English publications. Secondly, while much of the research on women discuss women's conditions as defined by membership in particular ethnic communities, the author focuses on nation-wide public opinion and legislation that affect women across ethnic distinctions. Lastly, as I mentioned earlier, attention to women as subject before the arrival of WID should enrich our understanding of the issues of women and society at large in the present.

Fujikura, M.A., is a social science researcher.

---------------------------------------------- FROM THE WITNESS BOX by Kavita Sherchan

Title: Kathghara Ma Ubhiyera Author: Bishnu Bibhu Ghimire Publisher: Sajha Prakashan Year: 2045 Price: Rs 28

No definition of poetry can limit its possibilities. Definitions try to constrict poetry. Poetry tries to break free, and in this tussle, poetry always emerges a winner. In this respect, poetry is a rebellion; it is freedom and also a symbol of human thinking. Poet Bishnu Bibhu Ghimire's anthology of poems --- Kathghara Ma Ubhiyera (From the Witness Box ) proves this point. The poems in this anthology do not conform to any rule or remain within the boundary of some definition. Poet Ghimire's poetry has a humane quality. His attitude towards women and life & its injustices is reflected in all his poems. He is worried about the wounded future of those with troubled souls and high ideals. His poetry is about the world of unrequited aspirations. One finds pain, worries and pathos in his expressions. Ghimire has tried to capture the lost faith and rebuild ruined lives through his poetry. Six out of 42 poems are dedicated to womanhood. He has sincerely empathised with the problems of women and portrayed their pain, anguish and suffering beautifully. In the poem Antar ( Differences), he shows the difference between a man and his wife thus:

My interest has to be yours too, You have to embrace my wishes too We run the life's race and cover equal distance, I rest when I'm tired You have rest in your tiredness. Whatever I say is right But to accept your truth is my wish, This is the difference In me being a husband and you a wife....!

The above stanza shows the exact condition of Nepali housewives who have to accept their husbands' wishes silently. He has also shown the suspecting male psychology in the same poetry---

A woman embodies life She lives tender emotion She smiles commited patience Still...her chastity is questioned When a stupid dhobi Passes a lewd comment in his drunken stupor.

A woman's pathetic plight is further elaborated like thus:

My dreeams are valued But it's alright to forget yours. We are companions of the same journey Yet you have to take special care of my journey It's alright for me to neglect yours This is the difference In me being a husband and you a wife....!

Ghimere portrays woman's lack of status in the society in the following manner:

Because I'm your husband You have to fit in the castle of my wishes Since you are my wife Your wishes ( if you have any) can be destroyed Women have no colour No constitution to live By accepting to be a wife You have to forget your nature No matter how talented you are You have to find pride in your husband's name This is the difference In me being a husband and you a wife....!

Though a man, the poet has picturised the sad state of Nepali women with great care and understanding. So many of our talented women have withered by accepting to be someone's wife. So many of our women are compelled to live with shattered dreams because they have to realize their husbands' dream. Ghimere's sympathy for the unlucky women is seen in his next poem Bimalaharu. Therein he regards the downfall of women brought by the society as sacrilege. He believes that women still live in the glass houses in Nepal, hinting that a woman's character is fragile and cannot be reclaimed after it is broken. He has bared the bitter truth of some Nepali women's lives when he writes,

One cannot be oneself Without selling oneself I don't want heaven But, here- One cannot live without sinning!

Ghimire's poems are easy to understand and real. He has not only glorified women but also shown the frustrations of youths, and the poverty and the injustice prevalent in the society. He has selected incidents from everyday life and expressed them beautifully and meticulously through the use of simple words in a free verse.

Sherchan works for the Kathmandu Post.

-------------------------------- Of Women and Soldiers by Mary Des Chene

Title: Lahure Author: Bharati Kharel Publisher: Deepak Kharel, 2052 v.s. Price: Rs. 35.

        Lahure might well have been called Lahureko Srimati, for the soldier of the title remains in the background, an absent husband and father, while the plot revolves around the hardships endured by his wife. Lahure is, in fact, a women's dukha tale par excellence. It's not a book to look to for experiments in narrative style or plot devices, but it provides absorbing reading, for the story is a gripping one.
        This novel can offer more than mere entertainment though. Gita Keshari, who contributes a foreword, situates it as a tale of the eternal oppression of women. She also praises Kharel for giving readers the "bitter truth" and the "essential aspects" of the economic, social and domestic life of lahures. I can read the novel in just these ways. But I can also read it as an insulting portrait of the domestic lives of lahures, and a stereotyped picture of women's natures. Read as a representation of Nepali society, the story thus becomes an opportunity for serious reflection.
        The central character is Sita. Her absent warrior husband is, surely not accidentally, named Ram. Sita is the ideal daughter, wife, woman, even the ideal human being. She is infinitely kind, good, honest and faithful. Her natal home and village are blessed with bounty by nature, no one lives in need, all live in harmony. The home and village into which she marries include poverty, a harsh environment and human discord. Though these contrasts are rather obvious devices, as the tale of Sita's misfortunes is woven, they become compellingly realistic. Soon after their marriage Ram leaves again for lahur (India), promising to return permanently after one year. He leaves over Sita's protests and at the urging of his parents and unmarried sister. The bulk of the novel recounts the five years that pass before his actual return. Sita bears his son who, along with one female friend, gives her the will to endure as her in-laws become progressively crueler. The novel ends in tragedy-the details of which should be left for readers to discover. When Ram at last does return, he recognizes the futility of having sacrificed years to war and to service for a foreign land. He strikingly renounces that wasted life by giving away all the material wealth he has brought back, and swears to devote himself to the betterment of his son's life and service to his own country.
        The force of the story depends on its plausibility. It is its sense of realism that produces emotional involvement. As readers of social realist fiction, we suspend disbelief and adopt the fictive attitude that the author invites us-and depends upon us-to take on: that this is a real story, a real woman, a real tragedy. Whether realist fiction has a responsibility to produce accurate portraits of social life is a topic for literary critics to debate. But as readers, we can ask why we find fictional portraits convincing (or not) and thus bring to awareness our core assumptions about the state of a society and the nature of particular kinds of people.
        It is from this point of view that I find the novel troubling. Ram is well-meaning but inexplicably dense (unless one assumes that lahures are unintelligent). He can't see the full extent of his family's cruelty until it's too late; in five years he finds no way to send home any news. His renunciation of his army service as futile is presented as an awakening to his responsibility to his own offspring and own country-as if these things had never occurred to him before. The good woman abused by others is a common figure in fiction. Without doubting that many women are unfairly treated, we can ask for more complex portraits in which no individual is perfect. Ram's mother, in contrast to Sita, personifies cruelty. The author felt no need to explain how she came to be that way. The evil woman is thus presented as a "natural" and common phenomenon. Most troubling is the collective portrait of Ram's family, who simply treat him as a wage-slave to be sent abroad to war for their own advantage. This does no justice to the complex, heart-wrenching decisions that lahures and their families so often make. There remain yet more "bitter truths" about the domestic lives of lahures that have not yet been conveyed in Nepali fiction.

Dr. Mary Des Chene is an anthropologist currently carrying out a preservation project at Madan Puraskar Library. Her doctoral research concerned lahure history.

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Thu, 07 Nov 1996 13:45:02 +1200 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: G.P.Rauniyar@massey.ac.nz (G.P. Rauniyar) Subject: Happy Deepawali

We wish all friends and thier families a Happy Deepawali. May this day bring joy, happiness, wealth and wisdom to all of us.

Ganesh and Durga Rauniyar 11 Sheffield Street Palmerston North New Zealand

Department of Agricultural and Horticultural Systems Management Massey University Private Bag 11 222 Palmerston North NEW ZEALAND

************************************************************* Source: soc.culture.nepal

Date: Thu, 24 Oct 1996 16:45:37 EDT Subject: tkp From: pshresth@acs3.acs.ucalgary.ca (Purushottam Shrestha)

Grow up Mercantile and TKP. Is not it a childish logic to get the assurance from the whole wide world ? Do you want assurance from Bill Clinton or Saddam or Gaddafi or ...........? Can anybody give an assurance to your own life or property or whatsoever ? Be practical and matured. Whatever you people were doing was great. But this does not make any sense. Thanks.

Date: Thu, 24 Oct 1996 16:48:00 EDT From: "S.M.Sainju" <ssainju@nmt.edu> Subject: Re: The Kathmandu Post -- Suspended

i don't think there is such thing like copyright over the net. even if there is, it has never work and will never work.as far as i know, net is for the free exchange of info. it was not only voluntary service that they were providing to people like us but also that it was a great publicity they were getting from it. hundreds of people have links to kathmandu post and it was good for them and for us as well. i bet it was a very poor judgement of the kantipur pub to retreat from such a phenomenal on going event. have a nice life kantipur pub!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! see you in next life.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

s.m.sainju new mexico tech ssainju@nmt.edu http://www.nmt.edu/~ssainju

Sanjib Raj Bhandari <sanjib@mos.com.np> wrote in article
<32680C16.347D@mos.com.np>...
> Pratap Pradhan wrote:
> >
> > The Kathmandu Post -- ***suspended***
> >
> > What is the story behind this news?
> > Anyone heard from horses mouth from Nepal???
> >
> > I am sure die hard news readers wants to know some facts.
> >
> > Pratap
>
> The Kathmandu Post page on south-asia.com has been suspended because
> some people were distributing material of The Kathmandu Post with
> permission. Gentle persuasion appears not to have worked, hence the
> suspension.
>
> It may be appropriate to point out that both Kantipur Publications and
> Mercantile Communications have been posting the newspaper on the Net on
> a *totally voluntary basis* for over a year on the condition that the
> material therein is not used without permission. There is no way the
> Kathmandu Post will appear again on the Net until we are confident that
> this is assured.
>
> Best regards,
> Sanjib Raj Bhandari
> Mercantile Communications. Pvt. Ltd

Date: Thu, 24 Oct 1996 16:49:51 EDT From: Prakash Bhandari <prakash@telcom.byu.edu> Subject: Re: Suspension of The Kathmandu Post

Dear netters,

Some people have said that it is Ktm Post's pettiness that they are not letting the free distribution of the materials in the net. I think that is total disrespect of the wishes of the publishers. Okay, Ktm Post also benefits from the publishing of the news in the net. In the past year it has gotten a great name for itself. No matter what the argument is, the news in the Ktm Post is Kantipur Publication's property. Nobody has paid a dime for it. So, it has the FULL right to set ANY condition for its readership.

However, as Mr. Sanjib Bhandari is seeking to be "convinced" that the materials from the Ktm Post not be redistributed. That I don't think is feasible. There is no realistic way that can be enforced. How can we possibly speak for all the people in the net? I can say okay "I shall not redistribute Ktm Post w/o permission" but who knows one dude from some where the world will heed the seemingly rational wishes of Ktm Post. And we will be back to square one again. So, I think we need some understanding from TKP as well.

If Mr. Bhandari's concern is with a particular group, then the concerned group needs to categorically tell Ktm Post that it will not act against Ktm Post's wishes while redistributing the news material. Looks like all Ktm Post is seeking is a simple request. Let's not answer that with arrogance.

I hope this issue will be resolved soon.... Sincerely, Prakash Bhandari prakash@telcom.byu.edu

Date: Mon, 28 Oct 1996 13:32:17 EST From: waiba@msn.com (Daniel Tamang) Subject: Re: Suspension of The Kathmandu Post

Its ludicrous to hear Sanjib Bhandari's request. He just want to monopolise the ascess to inter net from Nepal. I can do without damn Kathmandu Post. Waiba

Date: Wed, 30 Oct 1996 09:30:18 EST From: Shailung Tamang <tamang@pacbell.net> Subject: Re: The Kathmandu Post -- Suspended

This is totally archaic, antiquated excuse that I have ever heard. There are thousends of news papers on-line from all over the world, but I haven't heard this kind of poor, saggy grumble. In the days of information age, this kind of excuse is primative. No one benifits from this; moreover, KTm post and Mercantile have more to lose. I am sure no one is making thousends of dollors from distributing Ktm post materials without out consent. So what is so damaging to Ktm post that they have to abandon completely fron the net. I assume there must be another reason for this lausy action, for it doesn't make sense. And why did Marcantile supported this ..I don't understand...This reflects backwardness, and, maybe GREED.. tamang

From: cthapa@aol.com (CTHAPA) Subject: Re: The Kathmandu Post -- Suspended Date: 24 Oct 1996 13:36:24 -0400

I think this is a poor judgement on the part of "Heroes and Builders" of
 KTM Post .

Chandrakala

Date: Wed, 30 Oct 1996 09:36:55 EST From: charles kane <kane@nsc.com> Subject: Need to resolve The Kathmandu Post issue...

I was in Kathmandu last winter for the first time, and had a wonderful time. After I returned I have been trying to keep up to date on any new development in Nepal by reading the Kathmandu Post, and The Nepal Digest. Therefore, I have been considerably disappointed to read that The Kathamandu Post has been suspended.
                                                                We all know tha t both The Nepal Digest and the internet version of the Kathmandu Post operate with the sole objective of informing Nepalese, and friends of Nepal about news/issues related to Nepal; and their efforts are much more laudatory considering the fact that they both operate on "not-for-profit" principle.

        If it is true that the Kathmandu Post was suspended because some of its news items were reproduced in the Nepal Digest without its permission, there are a few observations I would like to make:

        1) Not all people who access the Kathmandu Post homepage
           get The Nepal Digest (TND); therefore it seems a
                                                                        
                little unreasonable
           to suspend the whole undertaking just because of what
                                                                        
                the TND did or did not do.

        2) It is also true that not all people who read TND
                                                                        
                have access to
           the web, and therefore TND is providing a valuable service
           to those people by collecting all the news/information
                                                                        
                that appear
           in different homepages/newsgroups and sending them
                                                                        
                via email to
           its readers.

        3) On the other hand,if TND copies up The Kathmandu
                                                                        
                Post newsarticles,people
           who read TND will not have any incentive to go to
                                                                        
                The Kathmandu Post homepage.
           I can understand the frustration of The Kathmandu
                                                                        
                Post people:
                                                                        
                after spending huge amounts
           of resources to gather news, hire editors to edit news
                                                                        
                for the
           internet version, and putting them up in the web,
                                                                        
                someone just comes
           and copies its contents and reposts them, thus
                                                                        
                depriving them of
           visitors to their own homepage.

        4) But then again, it is unreasonable to expect TND to ask
           for permission for reposting each and every news article
           that appears in TND because of the volume of the news.
           TND, which is run by volunteers, doesn't have time and
           resources to do that.

        Having said all that, I have following suggestions:

        1) Given their common "pro bono publico" service
                                                                        
                objectives, The Kathmandu Post should give permission
           to TND to repost news items that the editors of TND
                                                                        
                feel are
           of vital, or of general public interest in TND,
                                                                        
                under following
           conditions:
                a) The news items reproduced in a month should
                                                                        
                                                                        
        not exceed
                   more than 50% (not necessarily 50%, but it
                                                                        
                                                                        
        is easier to work
                   with 50 %) of the news items posted by
                                                                        
                                                                        
        The Kathmandu Post,
                   and that TND should not repost
                                                                        
                                                                        
        editorials etc except for
                   review purposes.
                b) Everytime TND reposts a news article from
                                                                        
                                                                        
        The Kathmandu Post,
                   it should mention at the beginning of each item:
                   "The following news item appeard in the
                                                                        
                                                                        
        internet version
                   of The Kathmandu Post of x/x/x date, and
                                                                        
                                                                        
        their homepage can be accessed
                   at: http://www.xxx.xxx.xxx.xx."
                                                                        
                                                                        
        The Kathmandu Post could then
                   view TND not as an adversary, but as a further
                   extension of itself.

        2) Those people who cannot access The Kathmandu Post
                                                                        
                because they do not
           have proper computer terminal etc. might want to use
                                                                        
                a program
           called "Lynx." This program--which I believe is
                                                                        
                available in
           major universities, and quite possibly available for free
           downloading--gives the text version of the
                                                                        
                accessed homepage.
           If all the people without fancy web-browsers could use
                                                                        
                the program,
           they would not need to rely solely on the TND for news.

        3) TND should upgrade itself from being a primarily a
                                                                        
                news provider,
           to being a forum where people can discuss issues
                                                                        
                relating to Nepal.
           Recent articles about the role of Hindu women etc.
                                                                        
                have proved
           that it is excellent for that kind of general issue
           discussion.

        Before I end, I would like to thank both The Nepal Digest editors, and the Kathmandu Post staff for the services they provided to all the Nepalese and their well-wishers.

Date: Wed, 30 Oct 1996 09:38:50 EST From: "Machaa Khwaa, Machaa Buddhi" <pradhan@email.unc.edu> Subject: Kathmandu Post

Opinions expressed here are mine, just mine.

All the discussions on the suspension of the Kathmandu Post on the Web have been overlooking an important point.

1. Yes. It does not cost the KTM Post anything to put up its newspaper on the web because Mercantile is doing it for free. And moreover, those who read the Post on the Web are those who would not be spending Rs 1375 a year on its subscription anyway.

2. And therefore, yes, Kathmandu Post is getting free goodwill and free publicity all over the world without forfeiting any potential revenue through sales.

3. Yes. Copyright violation by TND (and perhaps other publications), while not costing anything directly to the Kathmandu Post (or Mercantile for that matter), only distributes the information more widely --for free.

However, all these arguments miss an important point. Think about it. And this time, think about Mercantile. Why do you think Mercantile offers this service free? Goodwill? Naaaah. For goodness sake, they are businessmen out there! Its the potential to make money off the service. (Wait, don't laugh!)

Mercantile can make money through placing advertisements on their South Asia Info page especially catered toward us the "prabasi" Nepali community. How do you think a travel agent could benefit by posting an ad on the Mercantile page that offers a special discount NY-KTM airfare ticket? Or how do you think a hi-tech "halwai pasale" in kathmandu can benefit by offering to home deliver "mithai" to your beloved brother for the "bhai-puja" or to your mom for the "aama ko mukh herne din" for payment ("Jilebi" at a dollar apiece!) through your Visa or Mastercard?

For all this to work, what Mercantile wants is that as many people hit their page as possible on a regular basis. Maybe TND gives away the news only to those who have no access to the web, so what? That is still a loss of readership for Mercantile. What Mercantile wants to tell them is,
"Hell, get access to the web." Mercantile does not care if you are informed of the news from your "matribhumi". All Mercantile wants is you to acess its page regularly. Because, where most of us see goodwill, a shrewd businessman sees money!

Happy Bhai Puja!

PS: Hey, I am sending a copy of this to the guys at Mercantile: perhaps Sanjib Rajbhandari will read this and think, "Wow! how come I never thought of this...here is an idea." If he does, maybe I can ask for some royalty for the idea... :)

                                     Rupesh Pradhan
                        email: rupesh_pradhan@unc.edu

****************************************************** Date: Thu, 07 Nov 1996 11:32:06 EST To: The Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> From: atuladhar@clarku.edu Subject: Re: Aashu-Seira Tamang debate on Young Nepali professionals

Dear Editor:

It looks like our long time TND debater Aashu Tiwari is back via many friends in usa who forwarwar his articles from nepal

It is very invigorating to read his arguments and his taking on Seira Tamang critique of his article on young nepali professionals and their analogy to Hitler's willing executioners seemed very promising.

However, I was very disappointed with the poor editing that made the piece very difficult to read and argument thread very difficult to follow. coming from a email veteran like ashu, he should know that the prolificity of capitalized invectives amount to shouting, something ashu does exceedingly infrequently in his well thought out arguments. Worse is responding to a "old" argument thread without dredging some of the earlier quotations to make the responses easier to follow. Although i had read seira and niraj's argument as well as ashu's article, it was difficult to recreast the nances of the deabate.

I am writing this because this *is* a worthy topic debate i hope will be pursued

amulya

****************************************************************** From: "K ACHARYA" <fes96-30@srv1.bio.ed.ac.uk> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Thu, 7 Nov 1996 17:21:44 +0000 Subject: Re: KHOJ-KHABAR

I am a forester studying m. sc. in forest science at the university of edinburgh. i am from west nepal, parbat, kusma. (near pokhara). i am interested to find the address of one of my villagers who is living in usa. his name is Dr C. M. Lammichhane. if any of you know, please send his address to me . many thanks!!

krishna acharya university of edinburgh fes96-30@srv1.bio.ed.ac.uk

*************************************************** Date: Sat, 02 Nov 1996 15:44:19 PST To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> From: "Alberto S. Tovar" <blackjax@voyager0.Stanford.EDU> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - October 29, 1996 (16 Kartik 2053 BkSm)

Dear Sir or Madame,

I am a Stanford Univeristy student with a stipend to research the Bhutanese refugees and the camps of eastern Nepal in the spring of 1997.

The information over this subject is scarce on my campus. I would be very happy if you could post this or provide me with more information over the situation, however obvious.

Thank you very much, Alberto S. Tovar blackjax@leland. Stanford.EDU PO Box 2851 Stanford, CA, 94309

******************************************************************* Date: Thu, 31 Oct 1996 11:30:33 EST To: tnd@nepal.org From: jimirai@mos.com.np (Charles Lin) Subject: Nepal facts, travel, trekking service

Dear readers,

My I introduce my company, Classic Himalayan Trekking

We specialize in organized camping treks in Nepal Himalayas, but also handle small groups and individual trekkers, camping or tea house style.

My partner, Jimi Rai, is from the Makalu region of northeastern Nepal.

I have set up a web site at http://www.classichimal.com

Our home page contains not only our 1996/97 programs but also facts about Nepal and trekking in Nepal. There is also a photo gallery page with some very beautiful images of Nepal.

You can reach me at clin@classichimal.com or Jimi Rai at jimirai@mos.com.np

Please check out my web site when you have a chance. I am sure you will be pleasantly surprised and enjoy reading it.

If you need advice, please feel free to contact us even if you don't want to use our service. We will be happy to help.

Thanks Charles Lin

****************************************************************** Date: Thu, 7 Nov 1996 15:39:15 -0600 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: Nischal Shrestha <mona@uab.edu> Subject: Greeting

To all netters,
        I miss 'Deusi'. Don't you guys'? May be not the girls. I bet they miss 'bhaile', but anyway we miss 'Tihar.'
        It is very great for those Nepalese who are in those states where there are many Nepalese. It is because, they can still celebrate 'Tihar' with other Nepalese, but what about the those who doesn't know any other.
        But do not worry about that. I have something to say to you all-

        "HAPPY DEEPAWALI/TIHAR."

                                             Shrestha Nischal
                                  University of Alabama at Birmingham
                                             1639 11th place, south
                                             Apt# D
                                             Birmingham, Al 35205.
                        
****************************************************************** Date: Thu, 7 Nov 1996 18:19:29 -0500 (EST) To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> From: lbrennan@web.net (Lynne Brennan) Subject: e-mail services/ financial services in Kathmandu

1. I will be going to Nepal soon for 3-4 months. How do I set up an e-mail account there? I would appreciate hearing people's experience with the service.

2. How can I transfer funds from home (in this case, Canada)? Are there banks that will honour a personal cheque, and if so, what is the time lag?

Thanks for your help,

Lynne Brennan lbrennan@web.net

************************************************************* Date: Thu, 7 Nov 1996 18:15:18 -1000 From: Mahendra Lawoti <lawoti@hawaii.edu> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: adjective hurling critiques

I am sorry if my words sounded intolerant to my young professional friend. They were not meant to be that: my concern was that we must recognize that there are some good old guys as there are some good young professionals. I pointed out that fact since I did not read it in the whole essay, which in my limited comprehension dealt mostly with contribtuions of young professionals. The author says that he did not mean so. I am gratful for his clarifications.

In a country like ours, the least and possibly the only thing we can offer to those people who tirelessly have contributed thier lifetime to the nation is recognition and respect for their work. After all, as we, including my young professional friend, grow old, I dont think, would mind a few good words from the good young professionals of the time for our life time work.

Mahendra Lawoti EWC Box 1452 Tel: (808) 943 6168 1777 East West Road Fax: (808) 944 7955 Honolulu, HI - 96848 Email: lawoti@hawaii.edu

************************************************************** Date: Fri, 08 Nov 1996 08:53:12 CST To: tnd@Nepal.org From: Satish Mishra <Satish.Mishra@milgrp.com> Subject: POEM

"LEAVING"

While others were done for the day and gone from the harvest field, we stayed. The mosaic created by your sun burned copper tone skin against the golden wheat field defied all the colors of the universe. The sun was slowly disappearing behind the mountains. The Himalayas turned bright red just for a moment. Then the darkness engulfed us. We held each other feeling the warmth but we knew it was ephemeral. The northern wind would blow soon chilling us to the bone. Tears rolled down - like the Ganges flowing from the Himalayas. The silence was deafening. Stars fell from the clear autumn sky leaving their beloved behind. Soon I would be the falling star- thousands of miles away from you.

Satish Mishra

****************************************************** Date: Mon, 11 Nov 1996 10:20:46 EST To: tnd@nepal.org From: "Jeet Joshee" <JJOSHEE@irismonarch.ced.uconn.edu> Subject: Ambassador Bhekh B. Thapa to Speak at UConn

Rajpalji,

Would you please post the following announcement in the next issue of The Nepal Digest.

His Excellency Dr. Bhekh Bahadur Thapa will be making a lecture presentation on "South Asia in the Global Economy: A Perspective from Nepal" at the University of Connecticut, Storrs on Tuesday, November 19, 1996. The program will be held at the Konover Auditorium of the Dodd Research Center at 4:00 p.m. There is a reception preceeding the program at 3:00 p.m. This is a public program and all are invited. Those of you who are in the driving distance - Boston, Worcester, Amherst, New York City and beyond, plase make every effort to attend this program. There will be ample opportunity to chat and interact informally with the ambassador after the program during a potluck hosted by Nepali Community in Connecticut. Dr. Thapa is back from Nepal just recently and should be able to shed some light on current events and situation in the country.

This program is sponsored by several departments of the University of Connecticut including, Asian American Studies Institute, Asian American Cultural Center, Asian Faculty and Staff Association, South Asia Study Committee, Division of Extended and Continuing Education, Division of International Affairs, UConn Nepali Student Association, and the Nepali Community in Connecticut.

If you need more information or directions to get to UConn, please call the Asian American Cultural Center at 860-486-0830. Or contact any Nepali you know in Storrs area.

Sincerely, Jeetendra Joshee

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