Received: from mp.cs.niu.edu (mp.cs.niu.edu [188.8.131.52]) by library.wustl.edu (8.6.12/8.6.9) with SMTP id TAA15983; Tue, 12 Nov 1996 19:03:54 -0600 Received: by mp.cs.niu.edu id AA08261 (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for nepal-dist); Tue, 12 Nov 1996 16:04:34 -0600 Received: by mp.cs.niu.edu id AA08252 (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for nepal-list); Tue, 12 Nov 1996 16:04:32 -0600 Date: Tue, 12 Nov 1996 16:04:32 -0600 Message-Id: <199611122204.AA08252@mp.cs.niu.edu> Reply-To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> From: The Editor <firstname.lastname@example.org> Sender: "Rajpal J. Singh" <A10RJS1@cs.niu.edu> Subject: The Nepal Digest - November 13, 1996 (30 Kartik 2053 BkSm) To: <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Content-Type: text Content-Length: 74583 Status: O X-Status: X-Keywords: X-UID: 212
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The Nepal Digest Wednesday 13 Nov 96: Kartik 30 2053BS: Year5 Volume56 Issue2
H A P P Y D I P A W A L I W I S H E S T O A L L M E M B E R S !
News from Nepal
Dashain celebration in Columbus
Re: The Kathmandu Post -- Suspended
Re: On Young Nepali professionals
Ambassador Bhekh B. Thapa to Speak at UConn
* TND (The Nepal Digest) Editorial Board *
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* +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
* "Heros are the ones who give a bit of themselves to the community" *
* "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
****************************************************************** Date: 7 Nov 1996 To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: News from Nepal
Source: Explore Nepal on-line
Publicity of contraceptive
Nepalis observed the condom day the other day emphasizing the need to use it for fighting the deadly AIDS.
Exposing the male contraceptive in rallies, functions, seminars and meetings, the organizers felt they have made
the prospective users aware of the importance of the birth control means.
The condom fans could not however understand that the display of the contraceptive would be a failure in absence
of a plan. The day should be observed with the agenda of awareness raising and specifying the target.
Most of the Nepalis who fall prey to AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases and who produce babies beyond their
means to support them need to be convinced about the use of the contraceptive. The sense of male responsibility in
birth, sex and transmitting of disease has to be taught and this is not possible through the formal way of rallies
and programmes. Although the day has been observed for some years, it has never been evaluated. The condom
day is actually celebrated with the budget and for the budget. "Stop the flow of financial resources to observe it
and it would not be observed."
What is important is the message behind the condom day. People who are active sexually because of youth or
other reasons have to be taught to be responsible for their act. The contraceptive helps them free themselves from
the consequences of their act. This lesson cannot be taught through the display of the contraceptives.
Marketing the condom as a product is one issue while motivating people to use it is an entirely another theme.
Those who worked hard to observe the day have been right in approach in the former. They have displayed
Dhaal, the Nepali brand of condom, in a very attractive way. But the second theme has been completely ignored.
The organizers appear confused about their target. All men and also women could not be so. Boys under teenage
could not get the message properly. So was the case with girls under 13. The age factor and condom-message
should match for effectiveness.
Serious issues such as the use of contraceptive should be handled properly while saying so the scribe does not like
to be communicative. In the name of being liberal the columnist does not like to misuse the day either. In future
the day should be observed with educational purpose and educational way. Marketing approach is not appropriate
to motivate sexually active couple to use the contraceptive. Sex education needs to be extended. Properly designed
educational scheme on sex could create effective users. This alone would spread the message of safe and
responsible sex. The impact of the observance of the day should be studied and monitored professionally.
Nepali Folk Songs, a neglected subject
- Chirinjibi Paudyal
The popular Nepali folk song echoing in every houses of the villages has been disappearing. The popular folk song
is being replaced by discos, rock and pop music. The Nepali folk song which is also the base of our modern song
and preserved native culture for a long time has not been given any attention.
The history, of Nepali folk song goes back before the unification of the kingdom in the 18th century. People of
various walks of life used to sing the songs during the working time and while traveling and it was the only
medium of entertainment.
The young boys and girls also made this folk song very popular singing during festival and special occasion.
During the unification days the Gaines folk singers made this very popular. They used to walk from one place to
another carrying the message of unification which helped create the support of the people for this great work of
Patriotic feeling was felled by these songs because most of the people used to be convinced by the melodious song.
It was also the medium of communication as there was no any medium of communication like radio, TV and
newspapers. The Gaines singing the Nepali folk songs carried the message.
The first written document of folk song composed in Jhyaure style is Munamadan of great poet Laxmi Prasad
Devkota which is still very popular. But the government has not given any attention for the preservation and
development of these folk songs. No any folk song singer is encouraged.
Dharma Raj Thapa and Tara Devi became very popular after the establishment of Radio Nepal because people
liked folk songs aired by Radio Nepal on their voices. Melwa Devi, who recorded the first folk song and Master
Ratna Das Prakash who recorded the first folk song who devoted his whole life for the preservation and
development of Nepali folk songs are In the heart of the Nepali people.
After the setting up of Radio Nepal many efforts from various institutions and some individual was also initiated
for the preservation and consolidation of the Nepali palpitation folk song.
Developing the Nepali culture, tradition and religion the folk song has played very important role to generate
awareness from ancient time.
Renowned folk singer Kumar Banset says, the government has not given any attention for the preservation of the
folk songs. We have done something on individual basis, without developing the folk songs we can not do
anything for the development of the Nepali culture he added. It can guide us to the right path, he maintains.
Academician Nara Raj Dhakal of Royal Nepal Academy says we are collecting the Nepali folk songs and after that
we will decide on how to develop the songs. Something will be done for the encouragement of Pandav Sunuwar.,
programme producer of Radio Nepal is of the opinion that the folk song is being aired through Radio Nepal and
every year there is the competition of the folk singers.
Ratyauli, Maruni, Jhyaure, Dohori and so many other folk songs are being disappeared from the country and the
government should give proper attention for the preservation.
Lila Singh Karma who has composed many folk songs and written a number of books on the subject says, concrete
policy should be brought and those involved in this field should be encouraged.
The western music and TV programme have also influenced the Nepali folk songs. Nepal TV has not given much
attention for the development of original Nepali songs.
People in remote villages have also started singing western and Hindis songs instead of these popular songs.
Radio Nepal, Nepal Television should take initiatives to cncourage the folk song singers.
National Cultural Centre and Royal Nepal Academy should also organize programmes based on Nepali culture. To
make the Visit Nepali Year 1998 successful by entering half million tourists into Nepal, the Nepali culture specially
folk song should also be preserved.
Moves for a new political equation
- Ram Chandra Gautam
It was October 29, 1996 Tuesday when two vernaculars, one pro-UML weekly and the other pro-Nepali Congress
national daily, simultaneously created sensational atmosphere throughout the kingdom and vicinity or the areas
including the Terai belt by splashing, for the first time, a news item of their first pages. The news that exposed
very surprising activities going on within the ruling and the main opposition parties for establishing a new
equation for forming a new coalition government, proved to be unbelievably a U-turn for the political pundits of
the nation. Many political analysts suddenly extracted a conclusion that the latest political situation was the
aftermath of that incident which was caused by the untimely and unwanted reinstatement of Dr. Ramsharan
Mahat as Finance Minister. Other political experts are of the opinion that the other reasons that forced the RPP to
change its long-standing equation of the existing ruling parties and form a new one with the main opposition
party, UML, might be the various charges of corruption that were leveled against the major ministers from the
The stillness lingering over the political horizon due to a long holiday spanning Bada Dashain and the Festival of
Light, continues to prevail despite the political analysts experiencing signs of a political upheaval signaling a
change of government. Previously, intellectuals were expecting no specific happenings in the political fields
specially until the festival period prolonging till the 15 the of November 1996 because most politicians would be
back to their areas. As the Mahat context appeared as if adding fuel to the already ignited political fire not only for
the main opposition party, UML, but also for the moderate ruling party RPP and the NC president, Girija Prasad
Koirala, the entire political scenario seemed to be changing.
Though the reasons for Koirala and the RPP getting extremely furious with the Prime Minister and Dr. Mahat are
slightly different, still the boiling anger of both seems to be blending into the same point. Koirala is furious with
the Prime Minister because of his disobedience to the NC and the party president of not making any attempt to
seeking permission from him for major decisions. On the other hand, the RPP has become frustrated at not being
consulted before deciding to include Dr. Mahat in the cabinet despite the fact that he was forced to resign from his
post some three months ago on the "basis of morality". Dr. Mahat was forced to quit the position under heavy
pressure applied by the UML and the ruling partner RPP, too. In addition to that , Koirala, by applying pressure
on Deuba for sacking some RPP ministers lopsidedly on corruption charges, has, it is widely speculated, ignited a
spark that seems to be the bone of contention between Deuba and Koirala. Koirala also is said to have pressurized
Deuba for letting the NC ministers, specially considered to be close to Koirala, continue their ministerial duties as
usual despite being suspected to be involved in the corruption on a massive scale.
This has been a serious matter of conflict between Deuba and Koirala. Deuba, despite being heavily urged by the
entire nation to sack all the ministers suspected of having indulged in corruption, and by Koirala to sack only such
ministers belonging to the RPP, still seems not to be ready to sack any minister because by any means Deuba
wants to cling to power, no matter at what cost to the nation. Deuba, despite being threatened by the RPP to break
the coalition amongst three parties in case the ministers were sacked in a discriminatory manner, has started
hectic activities of exchanging opinions with the minor RPP and the main opposition UML so that either the
existing government could be saved or a new adjustment with the UML for forming a new coalition government
led by Deuba could be started immediately. Koirala is trying hard to thwart the attempts of Deuba to form a new
equation between the NC faction, led by Deuba, is trying hard to challenge Koirala by disobeying his order.
Despite being warned and rebuked by Koirala, Deuba seems not to be ready to suspend his move of seeking a
coalition with the UML.
Deuba's Pakistan visit, the Festival of lights being round the corner and RPP chairman Surya Bahadur Thapa
being till the other day away in china, the prospects for forming a new coalition have been suspended at least for a
few days. Thapa, the RPP president and the supreme commander of the advisory committee for the tri-partisan
coalition, is said to be for changing the equation this time with the UML that extended its helping hand in the
parliament last moth to passing to Mahakali Treaty with two-third majority. Newspapers, at least for a few days,
have stopped publishing such stories concerning forming a new coalition. Deuba is coming back today after
spending four nights in Pakistan. Nobody knows precisely how the relationships between Koirala and Deuba,
Deuba and Thapa, Deuba and UML the RPP and the UML, and Koirala and the RPP will shape up in the days
Date: Sat, 9 Nov 1996 14:06:06 -0500 (EST)
From: aiko <gs07aaj@panther.Gsu.EDU>
To: The Nepal Digest <email@example.com>
Namaskar: My name is Anne Aiko Joshi and I logged onto The Nepal Digest
at my school-Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA -about two weeks ago.
I was so happy. Now at last, I have a chance to get news of Nepal, read
responses from Nepalis all over the world, and communicate via e-mail with
Nepali students and others. I am Korean-born Japanese married to a
Nepali, Nirmal Joshi of Dilli Bazar, Kathmandu. I am currently in the
Master's degree program in Women's Studies, and I would like information
on the status of schoolgirls and women in Nepal. I am interested in
pursuing my Ph.D in Anthropology and Asian Studies in Kathmandu in 1998.
Any suggestions and information would be greatly appreciated. Pls. reply
to this e-mail address. If any Nepalese log on here in Atlanta, "Hi!" I
look forward to reading any messages in future. Thank you!!
Subject: Newari Art(ists)
Date: Sat, 9 Nov 96 18:15:49 EST
Cross-posted from SCN:
I am in the process of developing an exstensive Newari Art web site
and CD program. I am looking for any and all information about the
Newaris and their artwork. If you have any information I would greatly
appreciate it. We also are sponsoring a contest called, "In search for
the golden keys".This multi-media CD will also be a a contest to find
some of the keys to spiritual advancement, hidden throughout a
beautiful collection of Newari Art. The GRand Prize is an all expense
paid for trip for 2 to Nepal...Also 100 other prizes!
We are looking for data...sponsors...interested players of the CD...
Thanks for all your help.
From: Puspa M Joshi <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Date: Wed, 6 Nov 1996 19:22:37 -0500 (EST)
Tidbits from Columbus, Ohio
By: Puspa Man Joshi
Subject: Dashain celebration in Columbus
Kudos to Sunil Shrestha who was instrumental for the Dashain festival
celebration in the Buckeye Village Recreation Center. This year we enjoyed
the biggest crowd ever. Although the parents and teachers of the Nepali
language class took the initiative in organizing this party, it was Sunil who
came forward and took full responsibility in the crucial details, calling
participants, and making plan for food and entertainment.
The Dashain party was a great success not only because we had more guests than
ever before but because of the excellence of the food in quality, quantity,
and variety. There were several varieties of achar such as achar made from
tito karela (bitter melon), chatani from LoveSea (tastes like Nepali labsi),
not to mention the plenty of desserts: rasbari, khajuri (roth), yogurt,
cookies and cakes.
After the dinner, there were singing, dancing, and recital of instruments. The
participants were not only Nepali from Columbus and Delaware, but also their
American guests. Many particularly enjoyed the performances by children , such
as Ashish Joshi who sang Ganesh bhajan accompanying himself on the madal,
Robin Baidya who recited the piano, and Biswo Phooyal who told a joke.
At the beginning of the cultural program, Dr. Maheswor Baidya, the President of
Association of Nepalese in Midwest America (ANMA), gave a short speech about
the vision of ANMA and the importance of the Dashain festival. He told the
attendees that the vision of ANMA is to bring all the Nepalese in the region as
close together as possible and enhance the cooperation among them.
During the program, a new Nepali graduate student at the OSU school of
Dentistry, Rupa Hamal, was introduced. One of the attendees in the party was
Mrs. Goma Sharma, the mother of Kuber Sharma. Many at the party felt fortunate
to be in the presence of such an elder who conferred a blessing on the occassion. Other guests included Dr. Arun Gorkhali and his family who were visiting their relatives in Columbus.
For the first time Nepalese from Dayton attended the celebration: Arati Joshi
and her children, and Subarna Malakar and his friend Mitchel. We were happy
that they drove more than one hour from Dayton to join the party. All eight
Nepali students from Ohio Wesleyen University in Delaware arrived, bringing
pops and chips plus ten guests, creating a festive environment.
Subject:Thanks for the gifts
Last year, Mrs. Chamchu Lama from Kathmandu was in Columbus on a business trip. During that time, we invited her to visit and observe our Nepali language class. She was very appreciative of our work to preserve the Nepali language. She is now visiting Columbus with her husband, Dorje Lama, on another business trip.
We would like to thank Mrs. Chamchu Lama for the gifts she brought from Nepal
and has given to our Nepali language class:a large 2ftx4ft Nepali flag and
three Nepali caps. They are wonderful to display during the Nepali cultural
programs. Such support is vital to our efforts to teach these students.
Puspa Man Joshi & Arun Laxmi
Teachers, Nepali Language Class, Columbus
Phone: (614) 688-9624.
We would like to wish all of you and your family members a MERRY DIPAWALI and HAPPY NEW YEAR (for those who celebrate Nepal Sambat 1117).
Puspa Man Joshi, Arun Laxmi
Rummi, Kiran, and Ashish
Date: Tue, 12 Nov 1996 11:16:13 +0100
From: email@example.com (Lazima Onta)
Subject: Reviews for TND
The following four essays/reviews were published in the
Kathmandu Post Review of Books, No. 7, 27 October 1996
Who Has Read Bhanubhakta?
by Pratyoush Onta
I don't know when I first heard the name of Bhanubhakta, but as a
schoolboy I definitely read about him more than once during 1975. My fifth
grade Nepali textbook, Mahendramala, contained not one but two chapters
about Bhanubhakta. One, presented as a letter by a student to his father,
described the celebration of Bhanu Jayanti in his school. The second was a
cameo account of Bhanubhakta's life and work. Both of these lessons, of
course, mentioned Bhanubhakta's rendering of the Ramayana in colloquial
Sometime later I read about how Bhanubhakta's Ramayana, written in Nepali when all the big pundits wrote in Sanskrit, brought about the second unification of the country. The territorial Nepal unified by Prithvinarayan Shah, so that story went, was emotionally unified by Bhanubhakta's Ramayana written in simple Nepali, accessible to all. The same story mentioned that Motiram Bhatta first published Bhanubhakta's Ramayana in the 1880s and had highlighted Bhanubhakta's contribution to the cause of the Nepali language by writing his biography.
In retrospect I see that none of those textbook stories taught me a single thing about how Bhanubhakta's Ramayana had become available to the widely spread population. Nor did they tell me who had actually read it given that levels of literacy were close to zero among large parts of the population. Nor did they teach me how those who could read "read" the Ramayana, or how the experience of reading it has changed over time. In short, those stories taught me nothing about the dissemination or reception of Bhanubhakta's Ramayana, though their claims for its importance depend precisely on widespread dissemination and a homogenous experience of reading.
Twenty years later, after having done some research on the historical making of Bhanubhakta as a national icon (published in the premier issue of Studies in Nepali History and Society) I still do not know the answers to these questions. Reading of the relevant literature showed that Nepali literary historians have paid little attention to such questions. This is a glaring omission since many of them claim that the reading of Bhanubhakta's Ramayana produced the emotional unification of Nepal. Did this happen? There is much to suggest that it did not and that, in fact, trying to create a national sensibility based in language and literature by claiming that it already existed was part of their project of nationalizing Nepali literature.
In the course of promoting a national Nepali culture, Nepali
language and its literature have been nationalized over much of the last
century. Nepali language activists in British India first used literature
to assert a separate identity for themselves early in this century. Within
this project, Bhanubhakta and his Ramayana were rediscovered and made into
the original literary icons of the Nepali jati. The influence of this
language-based activism seeped into the Nepali literary world from the
early 1930s and, through the work of Balkrishna Sama and others,
Bhanubhakta was established as the adikavi of Nepali literature. So much
effort has gone into the making of 'Bhanubhakta' as a national myth that we
know comparatively little about the historical Bhanubhakta as a person.
Similarly much energy has been spent on proclaiming the significance of the reading of Ramayana as a "national" activity that fostered the spirit of the Nepali nation. From the early work of Surya Bikram Gyawali in the 1920s until today, this claim has simply been asserted, without evidence. Yet Ramayana as a carrier of national unity may not have existed outside the imagination of these high priests of Nepali nationalism.
Bhanubhakta completed the writing of the satkanda-Ramayana in
Nepali between 1841 and 1853. We do not know how and if his handwritten
version was reproduced, but Naradev Sharma (biographer of Motiram) has
claimed that Motiram first heard the verses of Bhanubhakta's Ramayana being
sung in Kathmandu around 1880-81. Motiram then searched for the entire work
but found only the Balkanda whose publication he facilitated in 1884 in
Banaras. 2000 copies of the Balkanda were published and available accounts
suggest that they sold out in a few years.
Before Motiram published Bhanubhakta's entire satkanda Ramayana in 1888 Damaruballav Pokharel and two others did exactly that in 1886. Their 2000-copy edition is largely forgotten today because, unlike Motiram's edition, it was not picked up for reprinting and dissemination. According to literary historian Kamal Dixit, in the preface Pokharel wrote that he was publishing Bhanubhakta's Ramayana in the belief that the text would assist all readers to maintain their dharma. He explained that Bhanubhakta had rendered Ramayana into Nepali so that his countryfolk could attain moksha in a state of knowledge. In Pokharel's reading, there is no hint of Ramayana being the carrier of Nepali national unity. Rather, the significance of the work is religious and Nepali is merely a medium to render it accessible.
Although some aspects of the Banaras-based Nepali language publishing industry in the late 19th century are known, we know very little about how Bhanubhakta's Ramayana was actually sold in Banaras and elsewhere, who the main agents or sellers were, and more importantly where in fact those copies landed up. In his memoirs Parasmani Pradhan recalls that his father, who had worked as an intern in a press in Banaras, actually sold a copy of Bhanubhakta's Ramayana to a Newar in Khurseong. But one Khurseong Newar's purchase hardly begins to illuminate the claimed rapid spread of the Ramayana. If we know so little about its sale and reading in British India, we know even less about its dissemination inside Nepal, a process on which the national unification story squarely rests.
Between the 1880s when this Ramayana was first published in Banaras and the early 1930s when the adoption of Bhanubhakata as a jati icon by Nepali language activists in Darjeeling was well under way how in fact did Nepalis who were literate read the Ramayana? And under what conditions did they, in turn, read the Ramayana to those who were not? What was the life of the Ramayana as a text in this era? We don't know.
A History of Books
I have used Bhanubhakta's Ramayana as an example. If we know so
little about how this most famous of Nepali books was disseminated and read
over the last century, it's no exaggeration to say we know very little
about the history of Nepali books and of their reading. History of books
involves, minimally, thinking about the multiple relationships that bind
authors with publishers, publishers with printers and other supporting
industries, these in turn with shippers and booksellers of all kinds and,
finally, with diverse buyers and readers. These elements which describe the
space of circulation of a book as a commodity are the basis for a history
of books in any era. This is not to say that the relationships connecting
these elements will be identical in different times and places. Instead,
reasearching these elements will help us to discover the historical
particularities of our specific case.
Nepali literary historians have taught us a little about some of these relationships with respect to Bhanubhakta's Ramayana, though much remains to be learned about its circulation. However, when it comes to the next step-elucidating the experience of reading Ramayana-they are silent. Their effort has been directed toward establishing the vamsavali of Nepali literature since the days of Bhanubhakta, not toward asking how either the common person or the pundit read the Ramayana and contemporary texts.
The emotional unification of the Nepali people, recognition of a common identity on the basis of a common experience of reading, is a large historical claim. It is a wonderful story, an inspiring foundation for a nation. But does it have any substance? A history of books and a history of reading that does not pay attention to the central activity that creates meaning-that is, the activity of reading itself-is a history that ignores the reader as agent of history, as the creater of the meaning in her universe. Thus literary historians teach us what they think the meaning of reading Ramayana has been (or should have been) for the Nepali public at large. But their analysis of it as a second unification of Nepal, given what we don't know about the history of reading as an activity, is clearly overstated and misleadng.
An impressive team of literary heavyweights led by Kamal Dixit have been convened to prepare a documentary film on Bhanubhakta. Shouldn't some of their energy be spent on asking how in fact their hero's work has been read over the last hundred years? Do they have any interest in the history of meaning creation (and hence of life) through the act of reading? Or will they simply visually reify the mythical story of the creation of a unified Nepali identity through the spread of Bhanubhakta's Ramayana? The latter, it seems to me, would be yet another instance of obscuring heterogeneous historical experiences in the interest of furthering a nationalist agenda, one that illuminates very little of the social history of the Nepali nation.
Onta, Ph.D., is a historian and an editor of Studies in Nepal History and
Writing Women into History
Title: Women and Social Change in Nepal (1951-1960)
Author: Krishna B. Thapa.
Publisher: Mrs. Ambika Thapa, 1985
Price: Rs. 100
by Yasuko Fujikura
In recent years, women's issues in Nepal have often been discussed
within the context of development. In the media, we constantly hear the
term, "the need to improve women's status," which is said to be achieved by
encouraging women to participate in all levels of development processes.
Most of the reviews on "women in development"(WID) state that with the UN
declaration of 1975 as the International Women's Year, the global concern
for women's issues reached Nepal. With the flow of foreign funds, WID
seminars were held, and several organizations and institutions were
established at governmental and non-governmental levels.
However little attention has been paid to the fact that long before 1970s there were women who struggled to change conditions for women in Nepal. They were either forgotten, or simply dismissed as not having any historical significance. In this context, Krishna B. Thapa's book Women and Social Change in Nepal (1951-1960) is a welcome contribution.
As a historian, Thapa views the 1950s as an important period which brought not only political changes but also a significant impact on social conditions surrounding women. He claims that this book is fundamentally different from the well-known study entitled The Status of Women in Nepal which deals with socio-economic status of women of different ethnic groups, with the objective of providing information for national planning. Instead, he attempts to present historical accounts of various factors such as public opinion, education, and women's organizations that affected people's consciousness towards women. The central focus of this book is the detailed study of the emergence and transformation of women's organizations in 1940s and 1950s.
In the Introduction, Thapa points out that the Rana government
(1846-1951) was not in favour of women's freedom and did not permit any women's rights movement within the country. Chapter II deals with various factors that had restricted the freedom of women before 1951, such as legal codes, religious taboos, and "social evils" including sati systems, child marriage, and polygamy.
Chapter III deals with the role of media in forming public opinion which played a significant role not only for making women conscious, but also for creating the condition in which all people including male guardians were urged to support education for women. Soon after the publication of Gorkhapatra in 1901, opinions against child marriage, women's illiteracy, and polygamy appeared in its editorials. Magazines such as Sharada and Bharati also took up these issues and expressed opinions in favour of equal education for women. From 1933 to 1951 literary figures such as Lokpria Devi, Goma, Prem Rajeswori Thapa tried to raise consciousness among women through their poems and writings in different issues of Gorkhapatra and Sharada. Some Nepali women living in Benaras such as Sukhesi, Nabina Devi and Anasuya also wrote poems, calling for education for girls in Nepal. In 1933, the first girls' school in Nepal, Kanya School, was opened by Chandra Kanta Devi. After 1945 more and more schools started girl education.
Perhaps the notable contribution of this book is the detailed accounts (in Chapter IV) of women's organizations that were first formed in the late 1940s. Among them, the author focuses on four relatively strong women organizations. Nepal Mahila Sangha was organized by Mangala Devi in 1947, and later split into two groups in 1951 (Mangala Devi group and Kamaksha Devi group). Two Akhil Nepali Mahila Sangha were formed in 1950 under the leadership of Tara Devi Sharma and Punya Prabha Devi respectively. The author traces their attempts at improving legal and economic conditions governing women. In addition to opening educational facilities, these organizations made efforts toward bringing legal change. As a member of the second advisory assembly, Sharma introduced Nepal Bibah Bill which had provisions concerning widow marriage, property rights, dowry and child marriage. Similar bills were prepared in 1954 by Punya Prabha Devi (Nepal Nari Samrakshana Vidheyek) and again in 1960, but none of them was passed.
Chapter V deals with the government's attitude towards the promotion of women's status. The author explores constitutional provisions, educational facilities, women's representatives in legislative bodies. Although the government showed general support by providing equal rights under the constitution, it refused to pass concrete legislation when the bills mentioned above were introduced.
Although this book contains lots of valuable information, the author's analysis of the series of events is not as illuminating as it could have been. In the concluding remarks, he suggests that despite the efforts of women's organizations, they did not bring about fundamental change especially for the majority of rural women. He lists some of the possible reasons, such as the lack of cooperation among organizations, engagements with 'party politics', or the upper class origin of the leaders. In doing so, his analysis revolves around the outcome, i. e. success or failure of particular programs, in much the same way as the
'evaluation reports' of any development program.
Instead, I would have liked to see discussion of the political culture of the 1940s and 1950s that made possible the emergence of public opinion, party politics, and women's organizations. It was within the overall context of their involvement in the politics of the time that particular projects of women's movement had significance to the activists. Rigorous analysis in this regard would have helped us understand the difference as well as the connections between the political conditions around the 1950s and the present.
Nevertheless, this book is valuable for the following reasons. First, the author makes use of Nepali newspapers, magazines, unpublished documents, and personal interviews, which is rare in English publications. Secondly, while much of the research on women discuss women's conditions as defined by membership in particular ethnic communities, the author focuses on nation-wide public opinion and legislation that affect women across ethnic distinctions. Lastly, as I mentioned earlier, attention to women as subject before the arrival of WID should enrich our understanding of the issues of women and society at large in the present.
Fujikura, M.A., is a social science researcher.
FROM THE WITNESS BOX
by Kavita Sherchan
Title: Kathghara Ma Ubhiyera
Author: Bishnu Bibhu Ghimire
Publisher: Sajha Prakashan
Price: Rs 28
No definition of poetry can limit its possibilities. Definitions try to
constrict poetry. Poetry tries to break free, and in this tussle, poetry
always emerges a winner. In this respect, poetry is a rebellion; it is
freedom and also a symbol of human thinking. Poet Bishnu Bibhu Ghimire's
anthology of poems --- Kathghara Ma Ubhiyera (From the Witness Box ) proves
this point. The poems in this anthology do not conform to any rule or
remain within the boundary of some definition.
Poet Ghimire's poetry has a humane quality. His attitude towards women and
life & its injustices is reflected in all his poems. He is worried about
the wounded future of those with troubled souls and high ideals. His poetry
is about the world of unrequited aspirations. One finds pain, worries and
pathos in his expressions. Ghimire has tried to capture the lost faith and
rebuild ruined lives through his poetry. Six out of 42 poems are dedicated
He has sincerely empathised with the problems of women and portrayed their
pain, anguish and suffering beautifully. In the poem Antar ( Differences),
he shows the difference between a man and his wife thus:
My interest has to be yours too,
You have to embrace my wishes too
We run the life's race and cover equal distance,
I rest when I'm tired
You have rest in your tiredness.
Whatever I say is right
But to accept your truth is my wish,
This is the difference
In me being a husband and you a wife....!
The above stanza shows the exact condition of Nepali housewives who have to
accept their husbands' wishes silently. He has also shown the suspecting
male psychology in the same poetry---
A woman embodies life
She lives tender emotion
She smiles commited patience
Still...her chastity is questioned
When a stupid dhobi
Passes a lewd comment in his drunken stupor.
A woman's pathetic plight is further elaborated like thus:
My dreeams are valued
But it's alright to forget yours.
We are companions of the same journey
Yet you have to take special care of my journey
It's alright for me to neglect yours
This is the difference
In me being a husband and you a wife....!
Ghimere portrays woman's lack of status in the society in the following manner:
Because I'm your husband
You have to fit in the castle of my wishes
Since you are my wife
Your wishes ( if you have any) can be destroyed
Women have no colour
No constitution to live
By accepting to be a wife
You have to forget your nature
No matter how talented you are
You have to find pride in your husband's name
This is the difference
In me being a husband and you a wife....!
Though a man, the poet has picturised the sad state of Nepali women with
great care and understanding. So many of our talented women have withered
by accepting to be someone's wife. So many of our women are compelled to
live with shattered dreams because they have to realize their husbands'
Ghimere's sympathy for the unlucky women is seen in his next poem
Bimalaharu. Therein he regards the downfall of women brought by the society
as sacrilege. He believes that women still live in the glass houses in
Nepal, hinting that a woman's character is fragile and cannot be reclaimed
after it is broken. He has bared the bitter truth of some Nepali women's
lives when he writes,
One cannot be oneself
Without selling oneself
I don't want heaven
One cannot live without sinning!
Ghimire's poems are easy to understand and real. He has not only glorified
women but also shown the frustrations of youths, and the poverty and the
injustice prevalent in the society. He has selected incidents from everyday
life and expressed them beautifully and meticulously through the use of
simple words in a free verse.
Sherchan works for the Kathmandu Post.
Of Women and Soldiers
by Mary Des Chene
Author: Bharati Kharel
Publisher: Deepak Kharel, 2052 v.s.
Price: Rs. 35.
Lahure might well have been called Lahureko Srimati, for the
soldier of the title remains in the background, an absent husband and
father, while the plot revolves around the hardships endured by his wife.
Lahure is, in fact, a women's dukha tale par excellence. It's not a book to
look to for experiments in narrative style or plot devices, but it provides
absorbing reading, for the story is a gripping one.
This novel can offer more than mere entertainment though. Gita Keshari, who contributes a foreword, situates it as a tale of the eternal oppression of women. She also praises Kharel for giving readers the "bitter truth" and the "essential aspects" of the economic, social and domestic life of lahures. I can read the novel in just these ways. But I can also read it as an insulting portrait of the domestic lives of lahures, and a stereotyped picture of women's natures. Read as a representation of Nepali society, the story thus becomes an opportunity for serious reflection.
The central character is Sita. Her absent warrior husband is, surely not accidentally, named Ram. Sita is the ideal daughter, wife, woman, even the ideal human being. She is infinitely kind, good, honest and faithful. Her natal home and village are blessed with bounty by nature, no one lives in need, all live in harmony. The home and village into which she marries include poverty, a harsh environment and human discord. Though these contrasts are rather obvious devices, as the tale of Sita's misfortunes is woven, they become compellingly realistic. Soon after their marriage Ram leaves again for lahur (India), promising to return permanently after one year. He leaves over Sita's protests and at the urging of his parents and unmarried sister. The bulk of the novel recounts the five years that pass before his actual return. Sita bears his son who, along with one female friend, gives her the will to endure as her in-laws become progressively crueler. The novel ends in tragedy-the details of which should be left for readers to discover. When Ram at last does return, he recognizes the futility of having sacrificed years to war and to service for a foreign land. He strikingly renounces that wasted life by giving away all the material wealth he has brought back, and swears to devote himself to the betterment of his son's life and service to his own country.
The force of the story depends on its plausibility. It is its sense of realism that produces emotional involvement. As readers of social realist fiction, we suspend disbelief and adopt the fictive attitude that the author invites us-and depends upon us-to take on: that this is a real story, a real woman, a real tragedy. Whether realist fiction has a responsibility to produce accurate portraits of social life is a topic for literary critics to debate. But as readers, we can ask why we find fictional portraits convincing (or not) and thus bring to awareness our core assumptions about the state of a society and the nature of particular kinds of people.
It is from this point of view that I find the novel troubling. Ram is well-meaning but inexplicably dense (unless one assumes that lahures are unintelligent). He can't see the full extent of his family's cruelty until it's too late; in five years he finds no way to send home any news. His renunciation of his army service as futile is presented as an awakening to his responsibility to his own offspring and own country-as if these things had never occurred to him before. The good woman abused by others is a common figure in fiction. Without doubting that many women are unfairly treated, we can ask for more complex portraits in which no individual is perfect. Ram's mother, in contrast to Sita, personifies cruelty. The author felt no need to explain how she came to be that way. The evil woman is thus presented as a "natural" and common phenomenon. Most troubling is the collective portrait of Ram's family, who simply treat him as a wage-slave to be sent abroad to war for their own advantage. This does no justice to the complex, heart-wrenching decisions that lahures and their families so often make. There remain yet more "bitter truths" about the domestic lives of lahures that have not yet been conveyed in Nepali fiction.
Dr. Mary Des Chene is an anthropologist currently carrying out a
preservation project at Madan Puraskar Library. Her doctoral research
concerned lahure history.
Date: Thu, 07 Nov 1996 13:45:02 +1200
From: G.P.Rauniyar@massey.ac.nz (G.P. Rauniyar)
Subject: Happy Deepawali
We wish all friends and thier families a Happy Deepawali. May this day
bring joy, happiness, wealth and wisdom to all of us.
Ganesh and Durga Rauniyar
11 Sheffield Street
Department of Agricultural and Horticultural Systems Management
Private Bag 11 222
Date: Thu, 24 Oct 1996 16:45:37 EDT
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Purushottam Shrestha)
Grow up Mercantile and TKP. Is not it a childish logic to get the
assurance from the whole wide world ? Do you want assurance from
Bill Clinton or Saddam or Gaddafi or ...........? Can anybody give an
assurance to your own life or property or whatsoever ? Be
practical and matured. Whatever you people were doing was
great. But this does not make any sense. Thanks.
Date: Thu, 24 Oct 1996 16:48:00 EDT
From: "S.M.Sainju" <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: The Kathmandu Post -- Suspended
i don't think there is such thing like copyright over the net. even if
there is, it has never work and will never work.as far as i know, net is
for the free exchange of info. it was not only voluntary service that they
were providing to people like us but also that it was a great publicity
they were getting from it. hundreds of people have links to kathmandu post
and it was good for them and for us as well. i bet it was a very poor
judgement of the kantipur pub to retreat from such a phenomenal on going
event. have a nice life kantipur pub!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! see you in next
new mexico tech
Sanjib Raj Bhandari <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote in article
> Pratap Pradhan wrote:
> > The Kathmandu Post -- ***suspended***
> > What is the story behind this news?
> > Anyone heard from horses mouth from Nepal???
> > I am sure die hard news readers wants to know some facts.
> > Pratap
> The Kathmandu Post page on south-asia.com has been suspended because
> some people were distributing material of The Kathmandu Post with
> permission. Gentle persuasion appears not to have worked, hence the
> It may be appropriate to point out that both Kantipur Publications and
> Mercantile Communications have been posting the newspaper on the Net on
> a *totally voluntary basis* for over a year on the condition that the
> material therein is not used without permission. There is no way the
> Kathmandu Post will appear again on the Net until we are confident that
> this is assured.
> Best regards,
> Sanjib Raj Bhandari
> Mercantile Communications. Pvt. Ltd
Date: Thu, 24 Oct 1996 16:49:51 EDT
From: Prakash Bhandari <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: Suspension of The Kathmandu Post
Some people have said that it is Ktm Post's pettiness that they are not
letting the free distribution of the materials in the net. I think
that is total disrespect of the wishes of the publishers. Okay, Ktm
Post also benefits from the publishing of the news in the net. In the
past year it has gotten a great name for itself. No matter what the
argument is, the news in the Ktm Post is Kantipur Publication's
property. Nobody has paid a dime for it. So, it has the FULL right to
set ANY condition for its readership.
However, as Mr. Sanjib Bhandari is seeking to be "convinced" that the
materials from the Ktm Post not be redistributed. That I don't think is
feasible. There is no realistic way that can be enforced. How can
we possibly speak for all the people in the net? I can say okay "I
shall not redistribute Ktm Post w/o permission" but who knows one dude
from some where the world will heed the seemingly rational wishes of Ktm
Post. And we will be back to square one again. So, I think we need
some understanding from TKP as well.
If Mr. Bhandari's concern is with a particular group, then the
concerned group needs to categorically tell Ktm Post that it will
not act against Ktm Post's wishes while redistributing the news
material. Looks like all Ktm Post is seeking is a simple request. Let's
not answer that with arrogance.
I hope this issue will be resolved soon....
Date: Mon, 28 Oct 1996 13:32:17 EST
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Daniel Tamang)
Subject: Re: Suspension of The Kathmandu Post
Its ludicrous to hear Sanjib Bhandari's request. He just want to
monopolise the ascess to inter net from Nepal. I can do without damn
Kathmandu Post. Waiba
Date: Wed, 30 Oct 1996 09:30:18 EST
From: Shailung Tamang <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: The Kathmandu Post -- Suspended
This is totally archaic, antiquated excuse that I have ever heard. There are
thousends of news papers on-line from all over the world, but I haven't heard
this kind of poor, saggy grumble. In the days of information age, this kind
of excuse is primative. No one benifits from this; moreover, KTm post and
Mercantile have more to lose. I am sure no one is making thousends of dollors
from distributing Ktm post materials without out consent. So what is so
damaging to Ktm post that they have to abandon completely fron the net. I
assume there must be another reason for this lausy action, for it doesn't
make sense. And why did Marcantile supported this ..I don't understand...This
reflects backwardness, and, maybe GREED.. tamang
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (CTHAPA)
Subject: Re: The Kathmandu Post -- Suspended
Date: 24 Oct 1996 13:36:24 -0400
I think this is a poor judgement on the part of "Heroes and Builders" of
KTM Post .
Date: Wed, 30 Oct 1996 09:36:55 EST
From: charles kane <email@example.com>
Subject: Need to resolve The Kathmandu Post issue...
I was in Kathmandu last winter for the first time, and had a
wonderful time. After I returned I have been trying to keep up to
date on any new development in Nepal by reading the Kathmandu Post,
and The Nepal Digest. Therefore, I have been considerably
disappointed to read that The Kathamandu Post has been suspended.
We all know tha t both The Nepal Digest and the internet version of the Kathmandu Post operate with the sole objective of informing Nepalese, and friends of Nepal about news/issues related to Nepal; and their efforts are much more laudatory considering the fact that they both operate on "not-for-profit" principle.
If it is true that the Kathmandu Post was suspended because
some of its news items were reproduced in the Nepal Digest without its
permission, there are a few observations I would like to make:
1) Not all people who access the Kathmandu Post homepage
get The Nepal Digest (TND); therefore it seems a
to suspend the whole undertaking just because of what
the TND did or did not do.
2) It is also true that not all people who read TND
have access to
the web, and therefore TND is providing a valuable service
to those people by collecting all the news/information
in different homepages/newsgroups and sending them
via email to
3) On the other hand,if TND copies up The Kathmandu
who read TND will not have any incentive to go to
The Kathmandu Post homepage.
I can understand the frustration of The Kathmandu
after spending huge amounts
of resources to gather news, hire editors to edit news
internet version, and putting them up in the web,
someone just comes
and copies its contents and reposts them, thus
depriving them of
visitors to their own homepage.
4) But then again, it is unreasonable to expect TND to ask
for permission for reposting each and every news article
that appears in TND because of the volume of the news.
TND, which is run by volunteers, doesn't have time and
resources to do that.
Having said all that, I have following suggestions:
1) Given their common "pro bono publico" service
objectives, The Kathmandu Post should give permission
to TND to repost news items that the editors of TND
of vital, or of general public interest in TND,
a) The news items reproduced in a month should
more than 50% (not necessarily 50%, but it
is easier to work
with 50 %) of the news items posted by
The Kathmandu Post,
and that TND should not repost
editorials etc except for
b) Everytime TND reposts a news article from
The Kathmandu Post,
it should mention at the beginning of each item:
"The following news item appeard in the
of The Kathmandu Post of x/x/x date, and
their homepage can be accessed
The Kathmandu Post could then
view TND not as an adversary, but as a further
extension of itself.
2) Those people who cannot access The Kathmandu Post
because they do not
have proper computer terminal etc. might want to use
called "Lynx." This program--which I believe is
major universities, and quite possibly available for free
downloading--gives the text version of the
If all the people without fancy web-browsers could use
they would not need to rely solely on the TND for news.
3) TND should upgrade itself from being a primarily a
to being a forum where people can discuss issues
relating to Nepal.
Recent articles about the role of Hindu women etc.
that it is excellent for that kind of general issue
Before I end, I would like to thank both The Nepal Digest
editors, and the Kathmandu Post staff for the services they provided
to all the Nepalese and their well-wishers.
Date: Wed, 30 Oct 1996 09:38:50 EST
From: "Machaa Khwaa, Machaa Buddhi" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Kathmandu Post
Opinions expressed here are mine, just mine.
All the discussions on the suspension of the Kathmandu Post on the Web
have been overlooking an important point.
1. Yes. It does not cost the KTM Post anything to put up its newspaper on
the web because Mercantile is doing it for free. And moreover, those who
read the Post on the Web are those who would not be spending Rs 1375 a
year on its subscription anyway.
2. And therefore, yes, Kathmandu Post is getting free goodwill and free
publicity all over the world without forfeiting any potential revenue
3. Yes. Copyright violation by TND (and perhaps other publications), while
not costing anything directly to the Kathmandu Post (or Mercantile for
that matter), only distributes the information more widely --for free.
However, all these arguments miss an important point. Think about it. And
this time, think about Mercantile. Why do you think Mercantile offers this
service free? Goodwill? Naaaah. For goodness sake, they are businessmen
out there! Its the potential to make money off the service. (Wait, don't
Mercantile can make money through placing advertisements on their South
Asia Info page especially catered toward us the "prabasi" Nepali
community. How do you think a travel agent could benefit by posting an ad
on the Mercantile page that offers a special discount NY-KTM airfare
ticket? Or how do you think a hi-tech "halwai pasale" in kathmandu can
benefit by offering to home deliver "mithai" to your beloved brother for
the "bhai-puja" or to your mom for the "aama ko mukh herne din" for
payment ("Jilebi" at a dollar apiece!) through your Visa or Mastercard?
For all this to work, what Mercantile wants is that as many people hit
their page as possible on a regular basis. Maybe TND gives away the news
only to those who have no access to the web, so what? That is still a loss
of readership for Mercantile. What Mercantile wants to tell them is,
"Hell, get access to the web." Mercantile does not care if you are informed of the news from your "matribhumi". All Mercantile wants is you to acess its page regularly. Because, where most of us see goodwill, a shrewd businessman sees money!
Happy Bhai Puja!
PS: Hey, I am sending a copy of this to the guys at Mercantile: perhaps
Sanjib Rajbhandari will read this and think, "Wow! how come I never
thought of this...here is an idea." If he does, maybe I can ask for some
royalty for the idea... :)
Date: Thu, 07 Nov 1996 11:32:06 EST
To: The Editor <email@example.com>
Subject: Re: Aashu-Seira Tamang debate on Young Nepali professionals
It looks like our long time TND debater Aashu Tiwari is back via many
friends in usa who forwarwar his articles from nepal
It is very invigorating to read his arguments and his taking on Seira Tamang
critique of his article on young nepali professionals and their analogy
to Hitler's willing executioners seemed very promising.
However, I was very disappointed with the poor editing that made the piece
very difficult to read and argument thread very difficult to follow.
coming from a email veteran like ashu, he should know that the prolificity
of capitalized invectives amount to shouting, something ashu does
exceedingly infrequently in his well thought out arguments. Worse is
responding to a "old" argument thread without dredging some of the
earlier quotations to make the responses easier to follow. Although i had
read seira and niraj's argument as well as ashu's article, it was
difficult to recreast the nances of the deabate.
I am writing this because this *is* a worthy topic debate i hope will be
From: "K ACHARYA" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Date: Thu, 7 Nov 1996 17:21:44 +0000
Subject: Re: KHOJ-KHABAR
I am a forester studying m. sc. in forest science at the university
of edinburgh. i am from west nepal, parbat, kusma. (near pokhara). i
am interested to find the address of one of my villagers who is
living in usa. his name is Dr C. M. Lammichhane. if any of you know,
please send his address to me . many thanks!!
university of edinburgh
Date: Sat, 02 Nov 1996 15:44:19 PST
To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
From: "Alberto S. Tovar" <blackjax@voyager0.Stanford.EDU>
Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - October 29, 1996 (16 Kartik 2053 BkSm)
Dear Sir or Madame,
I am a Stanford Univeristy student with a stipend to research the
Bhutanese refugees and the camps of eastern Nepal in the spring of 1997.
The information over this subject is scarce on my campus. I would be very
happy if you could post this or provide me with more information over the
situation, however obvious.
Thank you very much,
Alberto S. Tovar
PO Box 2851
Stanford, CA, 94309
Date: Thu, 31 Oct 1996 11:30:33 EST
From: email@example.com (Charles Lin)
Subject: Nepal facts, travel, trekking service
My I introduce my company, Classic Himalayan Trekking
We specialize in organized camping treks in Nepal Himalayas, but also
handle small groups and individual trekkers, camping or tea house
My partner, Jimi Rai, is from the Makalu region of northeastern Nepal.
I have set up a web site at http://www.classichimal.com
Our home page contains not only our 1996/97 programs but also facts
about Nepal and trekking in Nepal. There is also a photo gallery page
with some very beautiful images of Nepal.
You can reach me at firstname.lastname@example.org or Jimi Rai at
Please check out my web site when you have a chance. I am sure you
will be pleasantly surprised and enjoy reading it.
If you need advice, please feel free to contact us even if you don't
want to use our service. We will be happy to help.
Date: Thu, 7 Nov 1996 15:39:15 -0600
From: Nischal Shrestha <email@example.com>
To all netters,
I miss 'Deusi'. Don't you guys'? May be not the girls. I bet they miss 'bhaile', but anyway we miss 'Tihar.'
It is very great for those Nepalese who are in those states where there are many Nepalese. It is because, they can still celebrate 'Tihar' with other Nepalese, but what about the those who doesn't know any other.
But do not worry about that. I have something to say to you all-
University of Alabama at Birmingham
1639 11th place, south
Birmingham, Al 35205.
****************************************************************** Date: Thu, 7 Nov 1996 18:19:29 -0500 (EST) To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Lynne Brennan) Subject: e-mail services/ financial services in Kathmandu
1. I will be going to Nepal soon for 3-4 months. How do I set up an e-mail
account there? I would appreciate hearing people's experience with the
2. How can I transfer funds from home (in this case, Canada)? Are there
banks that will honour a personal cheque, and if so, what is the time lag?
Thanks for your help,
Lynne Brennan email@example.com
Date: Thu, 7 Nov 1996 18:15:18 -1000
From: Mahendra Lawoti <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
Subject: Re: adjective hurling critiques
I am sorry if my words sounded intolerant to my young professional friend.
They were not meant to be that: my concern was that we must recognize that
there are some good old guys as there are some good young professionals.
I pointed out that fact since I did not read it in the whole essay, which
in my limited comprehension dealt mostly with contribtuions of young
professionals. The author says that he did not mean so. I am gratful for
In a country like ours, the least and possibly the only thing we can offer
to those people who tirelessly have contributed thier lifetime to the
nation is recognition and respect for their work. After all, as we,
including my young professional friend, grow old, I dont think, would
mind a few good words from the good young professionals of the time for
our life time work.
EWC Box 1452 Tel: (808) 943 6168
1777 East West Road Fax: (808) 944 7955
Honolulu, HI - 96848 Email: email@example.com
Date: Fri, 08 Nov 1996 08:53:12 CST
From: Satish Mishra <Satish.Mishra@milgrp.com>
While others were done for the day
and gone from the harvest field,
The mosaic created by your sun
burned copper tone skin against
the golden wheat field defied
all the colors of the universe.
The sun was slowly disappearing
behind the mountains.
The Himalayas turned bright
red just for a moment.
Then the darkness
We held each other
feeling the warmth
but we knew
it was ephemeral.
The northern wind would blow soon
chilling us to the bone.
Tears rolled down - like the Ganges
flowing from the Himalayas.
The silence was deafening.
Stars fell from the clear autumn sky
leaving their beloved behind.
Soon I would be the falling star-
thousands of miles away from you.
Date: Mon, 11 Nov 1996 10:20:46 EST
From: "Jeet Joshee" <JJOSHEE@irismonarch.ced.uconn.edu>
Subject: Ambassador Bhekh B. Thapa to Speak at UConn
Would you please post the following announcement in the next issue
of The Nepal Digest.
His Excellency Dr. Bhekh Bahadur Thapa will be making a lecture
presentation on "South Asia in the Global Economy: A Perspective from
Nepal" at the University of Connecticut, Storrs on Tuesday, November
19, 1996. The program will be held at the Konover Auditorium of the
Dodd Research Center at 4:00 p.m. There is a reception preceeding the
program at 3:00 p.m. This is a public program and all are invited.
Those of you who are in the driving distance - Boston, Worcester,
Amherst, New York City and beyond, plase make every effort to attend
this program. There will be ample opportunity to chat and interact
informally with the ambassador after the program during a potluck
hosted by Nepali Community in Connecticut. Dr. Thapa is back from
Nepal just recently and should be able to shed some light on current
events and situation in the country.
This program is sponsored by several departments of the University of
Connecticut including, Asian American Studies Institute, Asian
American Cultural Center, Asian Faculty and Staff Association, South
Asia Study Committee, Division of Extended and Continuing Education,
Division of International Affairs, UConn Nepali Student Association,
and the Nepali Community in Connecticut.
If you need more information or directions to get to UConn, please
call the Asian American Cultural Center at 860-486-0830. Or contact
any Nepali you know in Storrs area.
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