The Nepal Digest - Nov 23, 1994 (7 Manghir 2051 BkSm)

From: The Editor (nepal-request@cs.niu.edu)
Date: Tue Nov 22 1994 - 11:55:51 CST


Received: from mp.cs.niu.edu (mp.cs.niu.edu [131.156.1.2]) by library.wustl.edu (8.6.9/8.6.9) with SMTP id PAA08083 for <huestis@library.wustl.edu>; Tue, 22 Nov 1994 15:06:38 -0600
Received: by mp.cs.niu.edu id AA25337 (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for nepal-dist); Tue, 22 Nov 1994 11:55:53 -0600
Received: by mp.cs.niu.edu id AA25333 (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for nepal-list); Tue, 22 Nov 1994 11:55:51 -0600
Date: Tue, 22 Nov 1994 11:55:51 -0600
Message-Id: <199411221755.AA25333@mp.cs.niu.edu>
Reply-To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
From: The Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu>
Sender: "Rajpal J. Singh" <A10RJS1@cs.niu.edu>

Subject:      The Nepal Digest - Nov 23, 1994 (7 Manghir 2051 BkSm)
To: <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
Content-Type: text
Content-Length: 56220
Status: O
X-Status: 
X-Keywords:
X-UID: 59


        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
        % N N EEEEEE PPPPPP AA L %
        % NN N E P P A A L %
        % N N N EEEE P P A A L %
        % N N N E PPPPPP AAAAAA L %
        % N NN E P A A L %
        % N N EEEEEE P A A LLLLLL %
        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

The Nepal Digest Wednesday 23 Nov 94: Mangshir 7 2051 BkSm Volume 33 Issue 16

                 Election FLASH !

  *****************************************************************************
  * TND Board of Staff *
  * ------------------ *
  * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
  * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha rshresth@black.clarku.edu *
  * Editing Editor: Padam P. Sharma sharma@plains.nodak.edu *
  * Discussion Moderator: Ashutosh Tiwari tiwari@husc.harvard.edu *
  * Looking For Correspondent: Sudeep Acharya sa01@engr.uark.edu *
  * *
  * Subscription/Deletion requests : NEPAL-REQUEST@MP.CS.NIU.EDU *
  * Provide one line message: sub nepal "lastname, firstname, mi" <user@host> *
  * [OPTIONAL] Provide few lines about your occupation, address, phone for *
  * TND database to: <A10RJS1@MP.CS.NIU.EDU> *
  * Snail-Mail Correspondences to: Rajpal J. Singh *
  * Founding-editor/Co-ordinator *
  * The Nepal Digest (TND) *
  * 502 West Lincoln Highway *
  * DeKalb, Illinois 60115, U.S.A. *
  * Digest Contributions: NEPAL@MP.CS.NIU.EDU *
  * Contributors need to supply Header for the article, email, and full name. *
  * *
  * Postings are divided into following categories that are listed in the *
  * order below. Please provide category-type in the header of your e-mail. *
  * *
  * 1. Message from TND Editorial Board *
  * 2. Letter to the Editor *
  * 3. TAJA_KHABAR: Current News *
  * 4. KATHA_KABITA: Literature *
  * 5. KURA_KANI: Economics *
  * Agriculture *
  * Forestry *
  * Health *
  * Education *
  * Technology *
  * Social Issues *
  * Cultural Issues *
  * Environment *
  * Tourism *
  * Foreign Policy *
  * History *
  * Military/Police *
  * Politics *
  * 6. Entertainment (Humor, Recipies, Movie Reviews, Sattaires etc.) *
  * 7. JAN_KARI: Classifieds *
  * 8. Immigration/Taxes *
  * 9. TITAR_BITAR: Miscellaneous *
  * *
  * The Nepal Digest(TND) is a publication of the Nepal Interest Group for *
  * news and discussions about issues concerning Nepal. All members of *
  * nepal@cs.niu.edu will get a copy of TND. Membership is open to all. *
  * THE EDITOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO EDIT ARTICLES FOR CLARITY. *
  * *
  * **** COPYRIGHT NOTE **** *
  * The news/article posters are responsible for any copyright violations. *
  * TND, a non-profit electronic journal, will publish articles that has *
  * been published in other electronic or paper journal with proper credit *
  * to the original media. *
  * *
  * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
  * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" - Anon. *
  * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar_RJS_Khalifa *
  * *
  *****************************************************************************
********************************************************************** Date: Sat, 19 Nov 1994 18:12:23 EST To: nepal-request@cs.niu.edu From: DHRUBAS@aol.com Subject: THE NEPAL DIGEST

TO, EDITOR/CO-ORDINATOR MR. RAJPAL SINGH THE NEPAL DIGEST.

                 NAMASKAR !

All Nepali living in US including me know that you guys are doing wonderful job, for that, I salute you.
        I hooked-up AOL just couple weeks ago. I would really appreciate if you could put my number in your list for The Nepal Digest. My E-Mail number is DHRUBAS@AOL.COM I hope you don't mind introducing my self. My name is Dhruba Shrestha. I'm Ultrasould Tech. Married and three kids. My wife name is ANITA(registered nurse), ROBIN(11), KEVIN(7) and, ANGELA(6). I'm living here in Michigan since 1983. My address is 3535 wheeler road, BAY CITY, MI 48706. Phone# 517 684 8314.

Thanks again.

Yours, Dhruba Shrestha

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 21 Nov 1994 17:53:14 -0600 (CST) From: SUDEEP ACHARYA <sa01@ineg2.engr.uark.edu> Subject: How about some critique on St. Xaviers?? To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
    After hearing all the critic(crap) about the school I graduated from,

that is of course Budhanilkantha, how about some critique on those ST. schools? Can we justify the christian influence they put on the students and others alike, for some good education?? I know the students from these schools might not have felt any pressure to become christians, but I bet they get some influence.
 Education is vital for every citizen of Nepal. I have nothing against St. Xavier or St. Marys school, they are giving a chance to a lot of young people. Budhanilkantha is doing the same, it is competitive and produces very worthy students. There would be lot less students from poor families studying abroad if Budhanilkantha was nonexistant. The expenses beared by Budhanilkantha might be high but the product it's producing is of high quality too. Budhanilkantha is a window of oppurtunity to students from poor families, so it's worth keeping it. Sudeep

******************************************************************************** Date: Sat, 19 Nov 1994 18:50:57 EST To: The Nepal digest Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> From: "Pramod K. Mishra" <pkm@acpub.duke.edu> Subject: Congratulations and Condolences!

Dear Editor,

I must congratulate at this great moment to all Nepalis and well-wishers of Nepal who supported explicitly or implicitly the left lead (can we call it a victory yet?) in Nepal's mid-term polls. The outcome of this election demonstrates that people of Nepal, no matter how illiterate, how ignorant, how deprived of modern means of communication, have the guts to be different, to assert their independence, and to show the world, particularly the Western world of ease and luxury, that they know the issues as clearly as daylight but the members of the Western media and some of their experts do but little understand the hardship of the poor, and their wish to get out of this agony of poverty, in many parts of the world--in spite of the drama of foreign aids played in their soil for these many years. Otherwise, the media in the Western world would not have shown the kind of surprise and misgiving they did as the UML lead began to come out in the world media network.
        Now, at this time when Nepal needs the support of the West more than ever in fixing its myriad problems--poverty, illiteracy, deteriorated environment, town planning, agricultural reform, building of roads and other means of communication, developing energy sources--we first of all must respect the sovereignty of the Nepali people who have chosen the leftist forces to lead them out of poverty. And they should also understand that the victory of the left parties does not mean the world is coming to an end and that all aspirations for democracry will be quashed in Nepal.
        On the contrary, as the leaders of the UML have time and again asserted
  and as their election manifestoes clearly announce, this potential victory has given the left forces in Nepal a challenge they had never had before to prove what they have been preaching so far--that they are the sincere, honest, dedicated, committed, unflinching workers devoted to the upliftment of the Nepali people and society while maintaining all features of radical democracy. I in fact fear that the challenge is too tall and the mandate is not so clear to meet the challenge. I am also afraid now that internal personal squabbles may irrupt and mar realizing the dedication, now that they are close to power. But let us hope and pray that personal interests of the leaders won't come in the way of serving the people.
        Many observers and some diplomats have expressed reservations about the hardliners within the ranks of the UML who may disrupt and pull the party to take drastic steps to curb democractic freedoms. I would argue just the opposite. I would say that these hardliners would function as watchdogs so the more personally ambitiious members of the party will not devote their energy in fulfilling personal ambitions and goals, forgetting the plight of the people.
        And as far as enforcing free market system is concerned, Nepal has always had free market. We always washed our bodies in Lux and Lifbuoy soaps, listened to Panasonic radio, wore proudly on our wrists Seiko watches, wrote with Chinese pens when we grew past the bamboo twig, hid our heads under Chinese and Indian umbrellas, rode Raleigh bicycles, and wore Bata and Shanghai made shoes--and our women flaunted Benarasi silk and Japanese siphon and jorjette saris. The only thing we never did was use anything Nepali--except sometimes eating Gundruk. Even those industries that were established in Nepal in recent years--like soap, jute, cothes, and what have you--most of the workers, materials, factory owners came from elsewhere and took the money elsewhere. Even some Nepalis in recent years began to keep their capital (I wouldn't use the word "loot" here) elsewhere, Hong Kong, Switzerland, and India, to name only the three places. Nepal was used only as a license, a paper work, and hunger raged more than ever in the bodies of my villagers, two-third of whom could eat rice, salt, and boiled vegetable to their fill only during the harvesting season, four months a year. So there is free market and then there is free market. Even Adam Smith, in whose name free market is worshipped as a sacred god, would have been horrified to see what goes in the name of free market in our times. Adam Smith surely meant that free market would bring absolute economic equality if enforced with complete honesty and without constraints; he believed in the free movement of labor and capital. Many of the conditions he laid down don't exist anymore in our modern times. Or if they exist, they do so for the wrong reasons. If you don't believe me, please read Noam Chomsky, and, like any other theory or book, take what he says with a grain of salt.
        So let us not pronounce judgements on Nepali people sitting in our air-conditioned, centrally heated television-fitted rooms or lying in our hot-water bath tubs. Let us respect the wishes and judgements of the people of Nepal. After all, it was they who gave their blood in the streets of Kathmandu and elsewhere in 1990; democracy did not come on a platter for the people of Nepal as a gift from CBS, the BBC, or anywhere else, although most of us did wish for it and offered our good wishes.
        And here I offer my sympathies and condolences who supported the Congress Party and hoped for a Congress government to come to power. It's difficult to say why some one supports one party; someone else another. Many would say it is class interest or personal interest. But the reasons seem to me a little more complex than that. Whatever the reason, I offer my sympathies to those who feel defeated. I ask them not to bang their heads on the walls too much, for they have a more interesting job to do now--to wait like a cat for any mistake, any loophole in the UML policies and jump on it, hungry and ferocious. And of course they have their chance in the next election again. So why moan and frett; why not get on with life. And those who supported the Congress Party but hated Mr. Girija Koirala, their bag is a mix of pleasure and pain. I offer them both congratulations and condolence.
        But I offer nothing to those who supported Ratirya Prajatantra Party. Literally, the name means National Demecratic party. Does it ring ay bell? Well, Hitler's Nazi party had the same name, hadn't it? Maybe "Socialist" also figured somewhere there. But my problem is not in terminology. My problem lies in this party's use of the name of the Palace and the King. Every time someone mentions this party, the Palace or the King is invoked, which is not fair. At this point, both the Palace and the King belong to all the parties; every party has affirmed the role of the Monarchy in the life the Nepal. Now if one party tries to cash in on the Palace, the Palace should repudiate this spurious opportunist allegiance and assert its neutral ground in order to endear itself to all--red, white, and black.
        So, folks, rejoice, moan, and talk. Please don't jump out the window nor go mad with glee.
        
******************************************************************** Date: Sat, 19 Nov 1994 22:23:06 To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: himalaya@ronast.ernet.in Subject: Parliamentary Polls Results

10:01PM 11/19/94

Dear Mr. Singh,

The latest outcomes and analysis are as follows. Maybe of the interest of those
 who cares about Nepal. With best regards,

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

NEPAL ELECTIONS - CPN-UML LEADING

KATHMANDU, NOVEMBER 19: WITH THE RESULTS IN 177 PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCIES DE CLARED BY THIS AFTERNOON, THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF NEPAL (UNITED MARXIST LENINST)
 MAINTAINS ITS LEAD, CAPTURING 84 OUT OF 205-SEAT NEPALESE PARLIAMENT, SO FAR.

THE RUNNERS UP ARE THE RULING NEPALI CONGRESS PARTY WHICH BAGGED 63 SEATS AND T HE PRO-PALACE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY WITH ITS VICTORY IN 17 CONSTITUENCIES.

ING VIRTUAL LEANINGS TOWARDS LEFTIST, RIGHTIST OR CENTRIST POLITICAL GROUPS.

OUT OF THE TWELVE CONSTITUENCIES WHERE THE VOTE COUNT IS CONTINUING, AS THE ELE CTION COMMISSION SAID, THE GOVERNING PARTY IS ON THE LEAD IN TWO PLACES, CPN-UM L IN THREE, NDP IN TWO AND NSP IN ONE.

THE COMMISSION ALSO ADMITTED THAT THE ELECTIONS WERE REPEATED IN 18 POLLING CEN TRES ON SATURDAY AND THE PRELIMINARY RESULTS IN THOSE PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENC IES WOULD BE FLASHED OUT BY THIS EVENING.

NOTABLY, THE ELECTION COMMISSION ON TUESDAY CANCELLED THE ELECTIONS IN 81 POLLI NG STATIONS IN 39 CONSTITUENCIES OF 22 DISTRICTS DUE TO VIOLENCE. END ITEM+

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

PARLIAMENTARY POLLS RESULTS

PN-UML NOR THE RULING NEPALI CONGRESS PARTY (NC) ARE LIKELY TO ACQUIRE ADEQUATE
 SEATS FOR MATERIALISATION OF A SINGLE-PARTY GOVERNMENT.

IT IS NOTEWORTHY THAT A SIMPLE MAJORITY OF 103 SEATS IN THE 205-SEAT PARLIAMENT
 IS REQUIRED TO FORM A GOVERNMENT OF ITS OWN OR TO OPT FOR A COALITION GOVERNME NT, OTHERWISE.

NDS WITH NC, NSP AND NDP AT ANY COST ASIDE FROM DEMOCRATIC GROUPS.

EXCEPT NPLP, THERE IS NO OTHER PARTIES WHICH WON SEATS IN THE CURRENT PARLIAMEN TARY POLLS AND THE CPN-UML CONSIDERS AS DEMOCRATIC ONES, NEPALESE PEOPLE ARE CU RIOUS HOW CPN-UML COULD MANAGE THE DEAL OF FORMING A COALITION GOVERNMENT.

CIPLES OF COMMUNISM.

YMITY) TOLD PTI.
 
IF NEPALS TWO LEADING POLITICAL FORCES (CPN-UML AND NC), THOUGH UNLIKELY, HAPPE NS TO JOINTLY FORM NEW GOVERNMENT, THIS HIMALAYAN KINGDOM WILL BE THROWN TO CHA OS IN THE ABSENCE OF A STRONG OPPOSITION, A POLITICAL ANALYST SAID.

POLITICAL PUNDITS ALSO SPECULATED THAT THE COUNTRY WOULD FACE A FINANCIAL AND P OLITICAL DISASTER IF NO ONE COULD FORM A GOVERNMENT AND THE COUNTRY HAD TO GO T O THE POLLS ONCE AGAIN.

THE ELECTIONS RESULTS OF ALL 205 CONSTITUENCIES WILL BE DECLARED BY THE EARLY H ALF OF NEXT WEEK, ACCORDING TO THE ELECTION COMMISSION. END ITEM+

CPN-UML GOVERNMENT AND INDIA

EN OUR TWO BROTHERLY COUNTRIES HAS NOT BEEN RECAPITULATED FOR SOME FIVE DECADES
.

CPN-UML CHAIRMAN MR. MANAMOHAN ADHIKARI WHO HAS ALSO BAGGED TWO SEATS IN KATHMA NDU IN THE PARLIAMENTARY POLLS MADE THE REMARK IN AN EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW TO PTI
 AT THE PARTYS CENTRAL OFFICE AT BAGBAZAR THIS NOON.

LE BEARDED COMMUNIST FREEDOM FIGHTER WHO IS RUMOURED AS NEPALS FUTURE PRIME MIN ISTER.

L TO NATIONAL DIGNITY AND SENTIMENT.

THER.

RE, MR ADHIKARI RESPONDED WHEN ASKED HOW HIS PLANNED TO SOLVE THE TANAKPUR ISSU E, POSING AS A BONE OF CONTENTION IN THE INDO-NEPAL TIES.

REPLYING A QUERY HOW HIS GOVERNMENTS FOREIGN POLICY LOOK LIKE, HE SAID THAT WOU LD BE INDEPENDENT OF IDEOLOGIES, NON-ALIGNED AND BASED ON THE FIVE PRINCIPLES O F PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE.

THE HEAD OF THE LARGEST COMMUNIST PARTY IN NEPAL DENIED THE GENERAL APRREHENSIO N THAT THE COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT WOULD HAVE LEANING TOWARDS NEPALS NORTHERN NEIG HBOUR CHINA, THE BIGGEST COMMUNIST COUNTRY.

RATION OF DEMOCRACY WITH ACTIVE PARTICIPATION OF COMMUNIST FORCES IN THIS HIMAL AYAN KINGDOM. ISNT IT NOW THEIR DUTY TO CONTINUE THEIR ASSISTANCE TO A COMMUNIS T GOVERNMENT, CAME TO THE POWER THROUGH BALLOTS?

MORE/PAGE TWO PAGE TWO/CPN-UML & INDIA/ NOV. 20/ SICHENDRA BISTA/ KATHMANDU/NEPAL

A POWERFUL COMMISSION WILL BE CONSTITUTED TO PROBE INTO THE CORRUPTION AND COMM ISSION-RELATED CASES IN THE GIRIJA REGIME AS WELL AS IN THE 30 DARK YEARS OF PA RTYLESS PANCHAYAT REGIME AND THE CONVICTED WILL BE PUT BEHIND THE BAR, HE INFOR MED.

ZA WHO IS A CLOSE RELATIVE OF FORMER INDIAN PRIME MINISTER MR. CHANDRA SEKHAR.

AIN LEAD FOR THE FIFTH CONSEQUETIVE DAYS.

SO FAR, CPN-UML BAGGED 85 SEATS, NC 74, THE PRO-PALACE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PART Y(NDP) TWENTY, LEFTIST NEPAL PEASANTS AND LABOURERS PARTY FOUR, ETHNIC NEPAL SA DBHAVANA PARTY THREE AND INDEPENDENT CANDIDATES SIX.

TALKING TO PTI, MR. ADHIKARI HAS EXPRESSED HIS WILLINGNESS TO FORM A COALITION GOVERNMENT JOINTLY WITH LEFTIST FORCES AND DEMOCRATIC-MINDED CONGRESSITES IN CA SE HIS PARTY COULD NOT MUSTER A SIMPLE MAJORITY OF 103 SEATS.

HOWEVER, HE IS OPTIMISTICALLY AWAITING THE RESULTS OF ALL 205 CONSTITUENCIES WH ETHER HIS PARTY COULD CAPTURE ADEQUATE SEATS, REQUIRED TO FORM A GOVERNMENT ON ITS OWN.

RY PROVISIONS IN THEIR MANIFESTO AND ASSURERED NPLP OF PROGRESSIVE CHANGES FOLL OWING THE FORMATION OF CPN-UML LED COALITION GOVERNMENT.

WE ARE WILLING TO SUPPORT PROGRESSIVE PARTIES TO FORM A GOVERNMENT, BUT WE WILL
 NOT HOLD ANY POSTS IN THE GOVERNMENT, HE MADE CLEAR.

SEVERAL TIMES IN THE PAST.

HE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY (UPPER HOUSE) MR. MADHAV KUMAR NEPAL FOR NOT ALLOWING MR. KOIRALA TO REGAIN POWER.

MORE/PAGE THREE

PAGE THREE/ CPN-UML & INDIA/ NOV. 20/ SICHENDRA BISTA/ KATHMANDU/ NEPAL

WHEN ASKED WHETHER THE MERGER BETWEEN ANTI-KOIRALA NC WINNERS AND CPN-UML WAS T HEORITICALLY POSSIBLE.

IONARY FORCES.

NEVERTHELESS, MR. NEPAL FIRMLY BELIEVES THAT CPN-UML WOULD FORM ITS OWN GOVERNM ENT BECAUSE HIS PARTYS ELECTORAL MOTTO THAT READ, CPN-UMLS NEXT GOVERNMENT WAS COINED FOLLOWING ADEQUATE HOMEWORK.

HE ALSO HINTED THAT THE CPN-UML MIGHT JOINTLY FORM A COALITION GOVERNMENT WITH THE CURRENTLY GOVERNING PARTY, NC IF THEY CANNOT WORK OUT WITH OTHER POLITICAL FORCES.

PARLIAMENTARY POLLS WERE HELD COMMENDABLY IN SPITE OF MULTIPLICITY OF PROBLEMS INCLUDING RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS THAT THE ELECTION COMMISSION WAS FACING.

 ELECTORAL LAWS, POLITICAL ACTIVISTS CASTED MULTIPLE VOTES - A FORM OF RIGGING,
 HE ADMITTED HIS FEELINGS.

OLIDATION OF DEMOCRACY IN THE COUNTRY. END ITEM+

******************************************************************* To: nepal-request <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> From: WAGLE@VAX.LSE.AC.UK Subject: Discussing education in Nepal. To: WAGLE Subj: Re: A personal reply "straight to you" From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@edu.harvard.husc>

Swarnim,

Thank you for your e-mail. I regret that we have substantially digressed from the issue that had been the starting point of the discussion, that is, how should Nepal government allocate education aid to get more productive manpower.

Somebody else on the net brought up the point about BKS, and there were a few BKS grads defending their school on, what I thought, purely Pavlovian grounds. Larger issue at hand was what to do with foreign aid that comes for secondary school education.

I had disagreed with BKS's govt. financing on grounds that the govt. can deliver education to more people by making effective use of the resources that go solely to BKS. In a country where 2 out of 3 people fail the SLC every year, and thereby create a drag on the economy, among other educational failures and mismanagement, yes, I would argue, there are OTHER and more important issues that the government must be worried about than funding one school in Kathmandu.

I wanted to address these larger questions of public policy so on . . . and BKS was only a vehicle to move the discussion forward. I would be disappointed if intelligent friends like you thought that the whole SERIES of discussions centered ONLY as attacks on BKS.

You say that there should be smaller BKSes all over the country. I ask: what kind of education for what kind of people? First, we have to define those parameters. After all, not everybody will or even should go off to LSE or Harvard. For most Nepalis, all they need is a set of [vocational] skills that they can apply directly to the now-growing marketplace and make a living. The question is: Is the educational system that is in place in Nepal allows them to do EVEN that? No.

Think, for example, why do you think there are so many Indian laborers in Nepal? For better or worse, these Indians COME with a set of skills, and use them to their advantage in the Nepali marketplace. Nepalis simply cannot compete with these Indians. Now, instead of bashing these Indians, one public-policy way to reduce this problem would be to EQUIP Nepalis with marketable skills at schools. . .

In fact, I would even say why not turn high schools into some sort of "community colleges" where skills such as plumbing, carpentry, and so on can be taught WELL? In other words, give people skills so that they can manage their own lives later. Else, by teaching hugely irrelevant SLC stuff, we run, and have been running, the risk of turning out graduates who are virtually unemployable.

To be sure, Naya Sickcha Yojana tried to do that in mid-70s. But their vocational programs failed in part because they did not allow the economy to exapand. Even for skilled laborers, there were no jobs . . . But NOW the situation has changed, now the economy is MORE open, and now is the time to make sure Nepalis have skills to run their own business or participate more effectively in the marketplace. But is the government doing anything about these? No. Should that be a matter of concern for you and me? Yes.

I am alarmed by the dangerous, misplaced and ultimately COSTLY elitism that is strangling the Nepali educational policies. Witness, for example, there are now THREE medical colleges but NO place to teach public health, which is of primary importance. Witness the rate at which the govt.is spending money on television when that pot of money could be used to reach and influence MORE people by radio [through regional programming and so on] and examples abound everywhere. Consider, for example, the money spent on Sanskrit University when the whole university could have been propped up as a Sanskrit Department under TU in Dang. And there are many other examples.

Broadly, the question is should Nepal try to catch up with the west, or should it develop at its own pace while FULLY utilizing its resoures and manpower? What is our citizens' comparative advantage vis-a-vis their counterparts in India? A good educational system allows MORE people to benefit frm their talents while sharpening skills. . .

All said and done, at the end of the day, the fate of Nepal is determined, not by you and me with our fancy education from Harvard and LSE, but by toiling millions who have become the PASSIVE poor as opposed to active citizens. And EFFECTIVE education, I would argue, is the MOST EFFECTIVE social equalizer that Nepal curretly posseses, and rather than create a
"eduational hierarchy" that schools like BKS promote with taxpayers' money, education money could be used to deliver the maximum to the maximum number of people WHILE the expanding the economy.

Thank you, ashu.

please feel free to share your thoughts on this, or even post this on SCN or TND.

Also, Swarnim, could you please have the LSE send me applications for their graduate school? There's a joint program on economics and philosophy that I am particularly intrersted in. Brochures and info on funding would be great.

My address:
                        37 A Gorham Street
                        Cambridge, Mass. 02138
                        USA

By the way, I will be in London for a week in January: hope to meet you there.

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: himalaya@ronast.ernet.in Subject: News Update

9:11AM 11/21/94

Dear Mr. Singh,

The latest outcomes and news are as follows. Maybe of the interest of those who
 cares about Nepal. With best regards,

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

CLIBERS FOUND DEAD

ON THE FOOT OF 6,091 METRES HIGH PISANG PEAK IN WESTERN NEPAL ON SUNDAY.

LATED FOR NOVEMBER 15, ACCORDING TO A GERMAN TOUR GUIDE MR. HUBER FRIELD WHO AC COMPANIED THE SEARCH TEAM FOR FOUR DAYS.

APART FROM THE HELICOPTER SEARCH FUNDED BY THE DAV SUMMIT CLUB OF GERMANY, TEN SHERPA GUIDES HAD ALSO CLIMBED UPTO 5,600 METRES TO FIND OUT WHERABOUTS OF THE MISSING CLIMBERS BUT FAILED DUE TO DENSE CLOUDS.

MR. FRIELD ALSO INFORMED THAT THE BODIES LYING IN A SINGLE HEAP COULD NOT BE BR OUGHT BACK TO KATHMANDU YESTERDAY DUE TO STRONG WIND AND WOULD BE POSSIBLY RETR IEVED FROM THE SPOT ON MONDAY.

NCE AND KILLED OWING TO VERTICAL PLUNGE.

THE BODIES OF THE CLIMBERS WERE RECOVERED IN A SINGLE BALL CRYSTALLISED IN A BI G SNOW BALL, IT IS LEARNT.

E MR. STEFAN HASENKOPF (25), AND MR. HELMUT KLOPPING (47).

MS. CHRISTINE HAMMI (33) AND MR. CHAYAMBA SHERPA (41) ARE THE SWISS AND NEPALES E CLIBERS WHO SUCCUMBED TO DEATH IN THE DISASTER. END ITEM+

PARLIAMENTARY POLLS

ERS PARTY 4, ETHNIC NEPAL SADBHAVANA PARTY THREE AND INDEPENDENTS SIX.

OUT OF THE TOTAL VOTES CAST IN THE PARLIAMENTARY POLLS, CPN-UML MUSTERED 41.95 PER CENT, NC 37.80, NDP 9.76, NPLP 1.95, NSP 1.46 AND INDEPENDENTS 2.93, THE OF FICIAL RSS NEWS AGENCY REPORTED.

LIKEWISE, FIFTY EX-PARLIAMENTARIANS INCLUDING 33 OF NC, NINE OF CPN-UML, THREE OF NSP AND FIVE OF ULTRA NATIONAL UNITED PEOPLES FRONT HAVE ALREADY SUFFERED DE FEAT IN THE PARLIAMENTARY POLLS. END ITEM+

9:11AM 11/21/94

Dear Mr. Singh,

Attached herein are two items. Maybe of the interest of those who cares about Nepal. With best regards,

FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

KATHMANDU, NOVEMBER 21: FAILED TO MUSTER ADEQUATE SEATS IN THE PARLIAMENTARY POLLS, A HIGH-LEVEL MEETING OF COMMUNIST PARTY
 OF NEPAL UNITED MARXIST LENINST (CPN-UML) ON MONDAY DECIDED TO SEARCH FOR A NATIONAL
 CONSENSUS IN A BID TO FORM NEPALS NEW GOVERNMENT.

POLITICAL SOURCES SAID THAT THE CPN-UML
 LEADERS HAD ALREADY STARTED DIALOGUES
 WITH THE GOVERNING NEPALI CONGRESS
 PARTY (NC) AND PRO-MONARCHY NATIONAL
 DEMOCRACY PARTY (NDP) HIGH COMMAND IN AN ENDEVOUR TO CONSTITUTE A COALITION GOVERNMENT.

BUT, THEY ADDED THAT THE ROUGH
 PICTURE OF NEXT GOVERNMENT WILL COME INTO PUBLIC BY NOVEMBER 23
 AFTERNOON FOLLOWING THE DECISIONS OF
 THE CENTRAL COMMITTE MEETINGS OF NC AND RPP, SLATED FOR WEDNESDAY.

SO FAR, CPN-UML MAINTAINED ITS LEAD WITH ITS VICTORY IN 86 CONSTITUENCIES
 OUT OF 199 DECLARED WHILE NC BAGGED
 80 SEATS, NDP 20, NPLP FOUR, NSP THREE
 AND INDEPENDENTS SIX.

ACCORDING TO ELECTIONS COMMISSION, THE
 LARGEST COMMUNIST PARTY IS LEADING IN TWO PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCIES, THE
 PRO-PANCHAYAT NDP IN ONE, LEFTIST NPLP IN ONE AND INDEPENDENT IN ONE OUT OF FIVE PLACES WHERE THE VOTE COUNT IS CONTINUING.

IN A CONSTITUENCY IN MUGU DISTRICT,
 THE REPOLLING TOOK PLACE THIS AFTERNOON AND THE RESULTS OF
 THE SIX REMAINING PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCIES WILL BE DECLARED BY TOMORROW.

ALTHOUGH THE AGENDA OF THE CPN-UML
 CENTRAL COMMITTEE MEETING WHICH WAS ON-GOING TILL THESE LINES ARE
 WRITEEN, WAS NOT DISCLOSED, IT IS LEARNT THAT THE PARTY HIGH COMMAND MEETING IS LIKELY TO FINALISE THE SHAPE OF NEXT GOVERNMENT AND FUTURE
 STRATEGIES.

THE MEETING ALSO ACCUSED THE
 GOVERNMENT UNDER PRIME MINISTER GIRIJA PRASAD KOIRALA OF INDULGING IN ELECTORAL RIGGING AND IRREGULARITIES IN AT LEAST 30 CONSTITUENCIES AND DECIDED
 TO STAGE A PROTEST ON TUESDAY.

EARLIER, CPN-UML GENERAL SECRETARY
 MR. MADHAV KUMAR NEPAL TOLD PRESS REPORTERS THAT HIS PARTY WOULD GO TO THE COURT AGAINST THE MISUTILISATION
 OF STATE RESOURCES
 BY THE GOVERNMENT AND OTHER
 IRREGULARITIES OF VARIOUS FORMS DURING THE ELECTIONS. END ITEM+

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

KATHMANDU, NOVEMBER 21: FOLLOWING THE DEFEAT OF THE RULING NEPAL CONGRESS PARTY
 IN THE PARLIAMENTARY POLLS, NEPALESE PRIME MINISTER GIRIJA PRASAD KOIRALA ON MONDAY
 REQUESTED NEPAL KING BIRENDRA FOR THE
 INITIATION OF THE NECESSARY PROCESS TO
 CONSTITUTE NEPALS NEW GOVERNMENT.

MR. KOIRALA WHO WAS SUMMONED TO THE MONARCH THIS EVENING AT THE NARAYANHITI ROYAL PALACE EXPRESSED HIS WILLINGNESS
 TO BE FREE FROM ALL RESPONSIBILITIES AS A PRIME MINISTER OF THIS HIMALAYAN KINGDOM.

BEFORE HE LEFT FOR THE PALACE, THE OUTGOING
 PREMIER ISSUED A PUBLIC STATEMENT, SAYING
 THE NEPALI CONGRESS PARTY SERIOUSLY ACCEPTED
 THE OUTCOMES OF THE PARLIAMENTARY POLLS AS A
 WISH OF THE NEPALESE PEOPLE ALTHOUTH THE RESULTS WERE UNEXPECTED AND UNPRECEDENTED
 TO A PARTY WHICH IS THE BIGGEST POLITICAL FORCE.

HOWEVER, MR. KOIRALA STATED IN THE MESSAGE
 TO THE NATION THAT HIS PARTY HAS ACCOPLISHED TO ACHIEVE THE GOALS THAT THE CURRENTLY GOVERNING PARTY HAS BEEN STRUGGLING FOR
 FIVE DECADES TO CONSOLIDATE MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY THROUGH DECENTRALISED REGIME
 WITH PUBLIC FACE.

HE ALSO APPEALED ALL HIS PARTY WORKERS
 NOT TO BE DETEREED WITH THE POLLS RESULTS
 WHICH WENT AGAINST THE FAVOUR OF THE NEPALI CONGRESS PARTY AND REQUESTED TO MAKE A MIND FOR REFORMS AND CORRECTIONS WITHIN THE PARTY.

WITH RESULTS REMAINED TO BE DECLARED IN SIX
 PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCIES OUT OF 205 IN
 TOTALITY, COMMUNIST PARTY OF NEPAL UNITED
 MARXIST LENINIST CAPTURED 86 SEATS, THE GOVERNING NEPALI CONGRESS BAGGED 80, THE
 PRO-PALACE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY WON 20 PLACES. LIKEWISE, HARDLINER LEFT
 WING NEPAL PEASANTS AND LABOURERS
 PARTY BAGGED FOUR SEATS, PRO-INDIA
 NEPAL SADBHAVANA PARTY THREE AND
 INDPENDENTS SIX.

CONGRATULATING ALL WINNERS, THE OUT-GOING
 HEAD OF THE CARETAKER GOVERNMENT HOPED THAT THE NEW PARLIAMENT WILL BE GUIDED BY PEACE AND COORDINATION AMONG THE POLITICAL FORCES.

ACKNOWLEDGING THE CONTIUED COOPERATION AND ASSISTANCE OF THE FRIENDLY COUNTRIES
 AND INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES FOR THE
 DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRY, MR. KOIRALA
 HOPED THAT NEPALS FRIENDS WOULD CONTINUE THEIR ASSISTANCE IN THE FUTURE TOO
 WHICHEVER PARTY CAME INTO POWER.

MEANWHILE, THE PRO-GIRIJA NC ACTIVISTS
 ALLEGED THAT THE PUBLIC APPEAL OF SUPREMO
 MR. GANESH MAN SINGH IN THE VERY MOUTH OF THE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS WAS PRIMARILY
 RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEFEAT OF THE NEPALI CONGRESS PARTY.

IT IS NOTEWORTHY THAT OCTOGENARIAN MR.
 SINGH MADE A PUBLIC STATEMENT ON NOVEMBER 1, 15 DAYS AHEAD OF THE MID-TERM POLLS, APPEALING TO CAST VOTE AGAINST THE
 GIRIJA-BRANDED CANDIDATES AND IN FAVOUR
 OF REBEL PARTY CANDIDATES OR THE CO-WORKERS
 OF THE MOVEMENT FOR RESTORATION OF DEMOCRACY.

THE FREEDOM FIGHTER WHO IS AILING FROM A SEVERE HEAD INJURY TERMINATED
 HIS 48 YEAR OLD ALIGNMENT WITH THE
 NEPALI CONGRESS PARTY IN SEPTEMBER
 FOLLOWING A RIFT BETWEEN HIM AND ANOTHER
 FACTION LED BY PARTY PRESIDENT MR. KRISHNA PRASAD BHATTARAI AND PREMIER MR. KOIRALA.

BUT, FOLLOWERS OF MR. SINGH OPINED THE DEFEAT
 OF THE RULING PARTY WAS RESULTED FROM THE
 MISCALCULATION AND ASSUMPTION OF MR. KOIRALA
 THAT THE VICTORY OF A PARTY IN POWER WAS INEVITABLE.

IT IS NOT THE POWER, BUT THE PEOPLE WHO
 DECIDES THE FATE OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN
 A MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM. THIS IS THE LESSON
 THAT MR. KOIRALA HAS TO LEARN,
 A REBEL EX-PARLIAMENTARIAN COMMENTED. END ITEM+

*********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 21 Nov 1994 16:29:00 CST To: A10RJS1%NIU.BITNET@INTERBIT.UGA.EDU From: DGURUNG@CLEMSON.EDU Subject: (Copy) WTN News 94/11/19 02:00 GMT

4. Confident communists look to governing in Nepal
-------------------------------------------------------------------
(Updates election results) By Nelson Graves

     KATHMANDU, Nov 18 (Reuter) - Nepal's Communist Party was on the verge of victory on Friday in the general election and held talks with a breakaway faction of the centrist Nepali Congress to explore forming a coalition government.

     Madhav Kumar Nepal, general secretary of the Community Party Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML), said he met Congress elder statesman Ganesh Man Singh on Friday morning.

     "The talks were very positive and it (a coalition) can go ahead," Nepal told Reuters in an interview.

     The UML general secretary said he still hoped to win a majority but was preparing the ground for a coalition. "There is no doubt we will be the single biggest party."

     Singh, who spent 15 years in jail during the years of Nepal's absolute monarchy, broke with Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala earlier this year. He said Congress had become an impotent party of selfish people and called on members to get rid of "Koirala brands."
     Koirala was later forced to call snap elections when he lost a parliamentary vote of confidence after a pack of dissidents, some loyal to Singh, abandoned the prime minister.

     With 164 of 205 parliamentary races decided, the UML had won 77 seats compared with 59 for Congress, the outgoing ruling party.

     A splinter communist group clinched four races, assuring the communists of 81 votes -- 22 short of an outright parliamentary majority, with 41 races left to be decided.

     Congress, which had controlled 114 seats in parliament, had been stung by allegations of corruption, bitter infighting and high inflation.

     Nepal said candidates loyal to Singh were expected to win 20-25 seats, enough to give the communists their first chance ever to lead the country which for almost all of its history has been under autocratic rule.

     The UML general secretary said the party's chances of winning an outright majority could be hampered by a "conspiracy hatched in certain quarters."

     He declined to elaborate except to say the Election Commission was baulking at rescheduling polling in areas where irregularities had harmed UML candidates' prospects.

     "They have not been fair, transparent and clear," he said.

     A group of international observers said on Thursday that while the elections were generally free and fair, there were irregularities committed mostly by Congress. Polling in 21 constituencies had to be reset for Saturday, delaying results.

     Staking out a different position from that of UML president Man Mohan Adhikary, Nepal said the communists were not against an alliance with the Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP), whose key figures led the country during three decades of partyless rule dominated by the monarchy.

     The RPP had so far won 16 seats, 12 more than in 1991.

     The UML general secretary said the country's national interest, not ideology, would guide the communists' foreign policy, and it would seek to renegotiate a four-decade-old friendship treaty with India.

     The treaty unnecessarily binds the Himalayan kingdom's security to India and gives special preferences to citizens of each other's country, the general secretary said.

     He said the UML would overhaul land laws, lowering the limit on how much can be held and scrapping dual ownership which allows both an absentee owner and a tenant to claim the soil.

     The UML would protect viable local industries from foreign competition by placing barriers on traded goods and investment, he said.

     It would also not engage in any nationalisations or complete privatisations, although Nepal did not rule out the partial sell-off of state-owned firms.

     "It will be a mixed economy," the UML leader said. "We will give complete help to the private sector in the areas of taxation, interest rates and policy preferences."

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 21 Nov 1994 21:37:07 -0500 (EST) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: poem

Believing that everyone some time in life feels desperate and emptY I am jotting this line of desperation.It is not only you but evryone feels like that.And more important is that everything in life
 is an experience and a process of learning.Influenced a little bit by Satre and Kirkegaard and their Existentialism I am writing this.Basically to give and obtain encouragement from everything.
       
                       OH! SOCIETY

1 Alone,desperate,frustrated I sit In nothingness,emptiness,I find myself fit Surrounded by darkness,and roughness here I am In vain,in pain,aimless and in void I am

Simple,and small,I prefer but never to be a savage In harmony,is my deep and long internal voyage Civilization,is just a vaccum,only a vanity fair For in essence,nothing is real and fair

death is my friend for it is friendly then life darkness is my friend for it teaches me what is light sorrow is my friend for it gives me insight to happiness Pain is my friend for it teaches me goodness

Open wide open, brains I want Open, real and true society I want Seeing this fake,artificial society hurts me Its narrowness,boundaries and limitedness shatters me.

Thanks. Nirmal

*********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 21 Nov 1994 23:52 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu Subject: for Publication To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

Dear Editor:

Since I did not nitice the following article published in the TND, I am resubmitting for publication, assuming thatypur earlier copy was lost int eh coputer transfoer protocol, sorry for the typos, using a new comm software! thnaks amulya

Sex and Nepali women: a Research Report
---------------------------------------

[The following is an extract of a research report by Elaine Schroeder, who completed her thesis on "Sexual Behaviour of Chetri-Brahmin Women in Nepal" for her Masters in Social Work in University of Washington in 1982, Source: Himalayan Research Bulletin, Monsoon 1982, Vol ii, no. 2 pg.47-54]

Amulya Ratna Tuladhar

Have you wondered if there has been a Kinseyan study of sexual behaviour of Nepali women? Well, here it is. Based on a study of 226 samples of married Chetri-Bahun women of Pokhara and kathmandu and in-depth of seven articulate Chetri-Bahun women as well as participant oberservation over a period of 14 months, Elaine has come out with statistical numbers to underscore her findings.

Findings:
---------

"sexual behaviiour is always covert. Even moderate displays of affection between husband and wife are concealed. However, Chetri-Brahmin women freely discuss in public their opinions about sexual behaviour of others, so long as only women are present. [This behavioural pattern of high-caste Brahmin-chetri women by Julia Thompson who studied them for 2.5 years . she found that beauty parlors are sequestered localities that represent traditional Hindu gender ideals, where they indulge in ribald jokes while having facials, in Himalayan Research Bulletin, 1992, 12(1-2):123].

"Women spoke of sex as a marital duty rather than volitional experience. The fertile wife who denies sexual access to her husband may be replaced by a co-wife or lose status in the household.

"It is the male who initiates secual contact, either verbally by calling his wife tohis bed or physically by going to her sleeping place. Chettri-Bahun women are not socially permitted to be sexually assertative or to indicate sexual desire. Women are expected to be reticent and naive about sex.

"There are words in Nepali referring to common female sex behaviour which literally translated mean "log" ("mudha justo?"), "corpse" ("murda justo ?"),
"stone" ("dhunga justo?"). There is not any word in nepali for female orgasm,
{really? I thought Vatsayana 's Kama Sutra and Kok Shastar sexual "all you wanted to know about Hindu sex did acknowledge the existence of a female orgasm, could some of our Nepali pundits couter this, could "mokcha" or
"Chirananda" describe a climax?}, although there is a term for vaginal lubrication which literally translated means "slippery water" ("chiplo, chiplo?").

"Rural Chetri-Bahun couples apart and rarely have a separate bedroom except when they are newly married. An increasing number of urban couples are living in a nuclear family situation and have a private sleeping room, but even then the wife often sleeps on the floor next to her spouse's bed. Chetri -Bahun women remain clothed during sex and during childbirth and bathing. Privacy and clothing restrictions may account for the narrow range of coital positions reported. The "missionary position" or male superior posture accounts for themajority of coital connections. Varitions include the female wrapping her legs around the male ("penchis" or plier position?) while lying beneath him, and occasionally the female superior position.

"Sexual foreplay is minimal among Chettri and Brahmin married couples, according to the indirect interview informants. There may be some teasing, pusing, and smacking on the backside by a husband to his wife before they make love, especially during the early years of marriage. Other, more explicitly sexual behaviours which precede or coincide or coincide with intercourse are few. Kissing, except on the cheek, is rarely practiced by other than highly educated couples. Breasts are only erotic until they become functinal by feeding a baby. If any part of the woman's body is caressed, it will probably be her thighs or buttocks.

"Oral or manual genital stimulation of the female by the male is practically unheard of among Hindu Nepali {It should be more familiar with the ready availability of pornographic "adult" films in Kathmandu and Pokhara now.} Informants said this was because female genitalia is considered unclean, and even manual stimulation would hve overtones of pollution{ probably a good thing in the age of aids where "safe sex" brochures in campus health dispensaries show oral sex with a plastic ceran wrap prophylactic for protection!}. Some women did admit to manual contact with their partner's penis, to assist insertion (many virgin males report prematurely ejaculating between the thighs during the first sex encounter after marriage when they have no help from their partners in navigating through the labyrinth of 12 meters of gold brocaded saree and equally convulted petticoat and with modern women, the final panty). Postcoital (i.e after ejaculation by male) behaviour usually consists of either falling asleep orone of the participants returning to her or his own bed (so children and in-laws will never know!).

Coital Frequency
-----------------
"The mean coital frequency is 7 times a month (about 2 a week), the median frequency (not the same as mean) is 4.2 times a month, with the maximum being 30 times a month (holy cow that is every day!). Coital frequency decreaes with age as follows:

Age group Coital Frequency per month 15-19 9 20-24 9.3 25-29 9.7 30-34 6.8 35-39 4.3 40-44 2.8 45-49 3.3 50-54 1.3
>54 1.1

Mean 7.0

"In Indian Calcutta, mean coital frequency was 6.4 (does that mean Nepali women are "sexier" than the Bengali women?) while another Indin studyof eastern Indian villages reported slightly lower frequency of sex and often lower even than the Muslim.

"Coital frequency also changed with urban and rural, literate/illiterate variables. It is 9.5 or twice a week for urban Hindu women and half of that in rural situations; similarly liteate women had sex 9.3 times a month while the illiterate had half as much.d emi2z fo ain : enta

"The mean monthly coital frequency during the first year was 14.3 (that is every alternate day.) while the median was 11.6. Sexual intercourse more often during the first year of marriage than during the later years because the high sexual expectance is associated with the social pressure for the first child
(to affirm her fertility and not booted out as an inauspicious, sterile one.)accxuaruan was sus

"Agricultural season affects sexual behaviour in rural areas, during teh busiest agricultural cycles, men and women work in the field all day and are too exhausted to indulge in sex in the night (does that mean few childrean are born in march "chait" month which is June/July + 9 months?). Village birth records show cyclical decline in births during those time of the year which follow peak agricultural seasons by about 9 months (can any nepali from the villages confirm or challenge this interesting hypotheses?)

"Women abstain from sex involuntarily when men migrate and voluntarily during the 3 days of menstruation, the taboo number one, and by frequent visits to the maita to avoid sex. Women also abstain from sex about 3.4 months before delivering the baby and after 5.9 months after delivering a baby.

Sexual Feelings
----------------
"The mean DESIRED coital frequency reported was 4.1 times a month, the median was 1.7 (i.e. half the 226 women inteviewed said they wanted it only twice a month, woe to the masculinity of Hindu Chetri-Brahman men of Kathmandu/Pokhara!). The DESIRED coital frequency was far less than the actual sex (7, which means more than half the time they are NOT enjoying sex at all). Women in the late twenties wish sex most at 6.2 times a month relative to 9.7 times they have to indulge in it "involutarily"). Urban and literate women desire sex four times more than rural, illiterate women.

"When women were asked how much they enjoy sex, 36 percent orthe total sample and answered "never", 46 percent "sometimes", and 18 percent "usualy". Younger, urban,and literate groups more frequently indicated that they usually enjoyed sex.

"The reasons given for avoiding or disliking sex was fatigue, fear or resulting bad breadth (hey there is a toothpaste market,there), fear of pregnancy, dislike huband's behaviour, and dysmenorrhea. No respondent was free of complaints about sexual activity. Fatigue was the greatest distraction, followed by fear of pregnancy.

"Women are generally believed to be incapable of enjoying sex, and almost half of the women in the sample responded that they never enjoyed sex. Sexual respnse and enjoyed are culturally determined and some cultures such as Hindu are not supposed to have women enjoy sex. The given data seem to indicate that only an infinitesmal number of Hindu Chetri-Brahmin women have orgasm. Effective and sufficient stimulation is a prerequisite for orgasmic release. In a cultural context where sex equal coition and where direct clitoral (is there an Nepali word for clitoris?, will our Nepali medical doctors help us here?) stimulation is not practiced, few women will be able to respond orgasmically.

"Women are subject to strong sexual controls from pubescence through old age. A double standard certainly prevails in the areas of premarital and extramarital sex, as well as the right to initiate and enjoy conjugal sex.

"In the area of secuality and in other realms of life, the Chetri-Brahmin woman is placed in a rigidly defined role. The wife who is expected to act like a stone in bed and show no secual interest is also permitted to demonstrate autonomy in other apsects of her behaviour. In fact, almost any expression of personal drive and assertiveness is strongly repoved. In most aspects of a Chetri-Brahmin woman's lie there are limitations on expression similar to the ones which exist in the area of sexuality.

Amulya's Postscript: Julia j Thompson, a Lecturer in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin, has just studied Hindu high caste Chetr-Brahman women in kathmandu in the context of post-democratic Nepal after 1990. According to her findings, "Hindu women continue have socially constrained life but they use their daily religious activities, fasts, weddings, and filial rites as social sites of resistance and protest. These protests range from very overt to very covert. They continue to demonstrate that they are not passively conforming to although they continue to participate in Hindu ideals of religious and social rituals.

"Despite this situation, Thompson also found that man and woman also share a common discourse based on common meanings, mutuality, trust, and balance in constructing a life history of a high-caste married couple.

"High caste conservative Hindu women in kathmandu are also sites of interaction for new ideologies in the transition of kathmandu society from a monarchy to democracy. Like the village water spouts, high class women gather in beauty parlors where they negotiate new gender roles from their conservative hindu values to western values such as that espoused by the Cosmopolitan, phoning their lovers while paying the bills. These multiple discourses demonstrate that change does not affect culture uniformly even within class, caste, and gender lines, nor can influence of social change be predicted.

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 21 Nov 1994 23:16:18 -0600 From: sk9999@NebrWesleyan.edu (Sameer Khati) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Visas

I do not necessarily agree with Mr Ghimirez's arguments on the *visa denial of the US immigration to the students in Kathmandu*. Yes, not all the students who apply for the visas are accepted by the immigrigation, but as he has mentioned, I haven't heard of any *qualified* students being denied for the visa. Before putting forth our criticism on the immigration's policy on this issue, I think it is important for us to understand the reasons for visa issue and denials and I don't think if it has anything to do with Nepal's size. First of all, the *qualified, logical and good* students (according to the concerned institution's standard), are generally provided with the scholarships and other financial assistance from the institutions and, to my knowledge, non of these students have ever been denied. For the students who come here on self-resources I don't think economic means should not be considered as the only factor for issuing the visas if economically qualified was what he meant.
   As far has Mr. Ghimirez has complained that *...because our country is small that he (immigration) is not issuing visas, it seems to be his monopoly* it just tells me that we Nepalese tend to have less confidence in what we are. We are definitely small and poor, but if the US immigration should have any perjudice over this why is that every year the number of Nepalese students coming to the US increase. Every administration has its own policy in conducting its duties. It may just be that the Immigration has to adopt the policies set by its government and when following its policies, those of us who meet their requirements are accepted and those who don't, denied.
   Mr. Ghimirez's source must have had the bitter experience of being questioned about his social status by the councellor, but not everyone of us have to go through all those lengthy processes. I don't think it is one of the immigration's new policy to harass the applicants, but what I can tell is that the Nepalese government had recently requested the immigration to make sure some of requirements are fulfilled by the applicant before issuing the visa, and among them was proper academic qualifications (10+2), could be the proper guarantee of the applicant's return to the country fall under those requirements.
   We must also realize the number of applicants the councellor has to go through in one day, especially in the peak seasons (Jul-Aug, Nov-Dec). And many of these applicants come without fulfilling some of the basic requirements, and sometimes with illegal documents. Working in such an atmosphere, providing the informations on procedures to follow for the next meeting to the unqualified applicants must have been tiring job for the councellor. In such situations he could have asked some unneccessary questions, which I think is natural. After all he is a human being.
   In the end I would like to make a comment on Mr. Ghimirez's point that whether the councellor is misusing his power (position). It is up to the US government to regulate the inflow of the foreigners into their country and as the US government employee, the counsellor has every right to deny visas to someone whom he finds unqualified. I am sure these people at the immigration pretty much know what they are doing and we don't need to remind them of their responsibilities. So the easiest solution to Mr. Ghimirez's problem would be to make all our brothers and sisters and friends at home qualified for higher education abroad.--------- (* comments appreciated *)
 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% %%
%% END OF "THE NEPAL DIGEST". %%
%% %%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%



This archive was generated by hypermail 2b29 : Tue Jan 11 2000 - 11:15:33 CST