The Nepal Digest - Nov 21, 1994 (5 Manghir 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Monday 21 Nov 94: Mangshir 5 2051 BkSm Volume 33 Issue 14

                 Election FLASH !

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********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 17:00:37 -0500 (EST) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Message-Id: <941118170037.a15@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> Subject: Visas

HI! I have been hearing a lot abiut visa denial by the visa councellors to many nepali citizens who want to come here.I don't understand why? Many qualified students want to come here for their studies but the visa is not issued.I hear that the councellor says
"What guarentee do I have that You will come back?"He assumes the future and stops many.But why can't he understand that America itself is made by immigrants.Is is because our country is small that he is not issuing visas.it seems to be his monopoly .He even asks your social status.America has been shouting about Human Rights.But what about the people in power over other countries.Is our councellor being to hard,is he trying to misuse his power.I know that everyone can't be allowed the visa.But I have heard some very logical and good people denied.They have the means and the school has accepted them.Why is he stopping?Maybe if i go back he will stop me too for writing this.But isn't the pen greater than the sword.I just wanted to know what yo all feel. Thanks.Nirmal

********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 94 16:18:37 EST From: Shailendra Shukla <SHUKLA@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu> Subject: Kura-Kani To: NEPAL DIGEST <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Some observations on the recent TND postings:

1. Budanilkantha School: Not knowing the actual financial mechanism of the school, it is difficult for me to render an opinion. If it is true, as one of the postings claimed, that Nepal government spends 60 lakh of the total 160 lakh secondary education budget on this one school, it has to stop right now. If it is financed purely by outsiders I really have no objection to it. Although Ashutosh's view that just because one accepts aid one does not have to accept it unconditionally is valid, in my opinion creating an elite school is better than creating no school if that was the donor's condition.

I find it interesting that students of elite schools of the west
(Harvard and LSE, for example) are arguing about the value of "elite schools" of Nepal of which they themselves seem to be the products. A sense of "noblesse oblige" perhaps?. In any case, I am delighted to see that Nepal is producing such "elite" students.

2. Proper English: I am a little confused by Pramod Mishra's and Hridaya Bajracharya's plea for disregarding the rules of languages. While it is true that a language should be dynamic and its rules flexible (French Academy notwithstanding) a total disregard for rules render the sentences ambiguous if not meaningless making communication impossible which I would presume is the main if not the sole function of a language. Regrettably, TND is full of such postings whose actual meanings are hard to decipher. English, being a second or third language for us, is difficult to master and I, for one, am still struggling with its complexity, but I don't think the solution is to disregard the rules.

Here again I find it interesting that two of the few writers on TND who seem to abide by the rules of English language so well are the ones who are pleading for their disregard. Am I seeing some pattern of reverse elitism?

3. Proper Sanskrit: Is not it true that when written in Sanskrit (or Devnagari) the quotation in question becomes: SA TYA ME WA JA YA TE? So the question of Mewa or Ewa doesn't arise?

Incidentally, it has been pointed out by scholars that the original innocuous statement in Rig Veda " A-rohantu janayo yonim agre" (Let the mothers advance to the altar first) was changed later to "A-rohantu janayo yonim agne" (Let the mothers go into the womb of fire) to justify the practice of Sati. See what a slight change in word (from "agra" to
"agni") can do to a society!

DISCLAIMER: Needless to say these observations have been made just to point out a few ironies and not to criticize anybody personally. One wishes such disclaimers would not be necessary, but past experience with
"flamings" (not necessarily to me) in TND guides me to do this.

Shailendra Shukla

********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 17:05:33 -0500 (EST) From: mahesh maskey <mmaskey@acs.bu.edu> Subject: Nepali Novel Translated In English. To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>

In response to Sugan Karmacharya's query about any nepali novel translated in english, the one I know is 'BLUE MIMOSA' the translation of
'Madan Puraskar' winner novel 'SHIRISH KO PHOOL' written by PARIJAT. It is a part of the curriculum in the course concentration "WORLD LITERATURE BY WOMEN IN THE CROSS CULTURAL PPERSPECTIVE" in the University of Maryland, USA. The book is taught by Margaret Sands.

Mahesh Maskey mmaskey@acs.bu.edu Boston University. 18/11/94

********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 94 22:29:48+050 From:sanjeeb@ronast.ernet.in To: kpandey@emerald.tufts.edu Subject:

Following are the election updates as of 18/11/94 10:00 a.m. Nepal Time Declared 146 seats CPN (UML) : 72 Nepali Congress : 52 Rastrya Prajatantra party : 13 Nepal Majdoor kishan Party : 4 Sadbahavana Party : 1 Independent : 4

KAthmandu all 7/7 seats Communist Party Of Nepal (United Marxist Lenninist) Lalitpur all 3/3 seats " " " " Bhaktapur all 2/2 seats Nepal Majdoor Kishan Party (Leftist)

will keep u updated later.Received your mail.
                        SAnjeeb (Kathmandu)

************************************************************************* From: Shailesh R. Bhandari <sbhandar@garnet.acns.fsu.edu> Subject: Sano Kabita To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 18:43:46 -0500 (EST)

                           JAMAANAA

              Yaha sachchai ra e-mandaari ko
                          Kheti garne jamaanaa gai sakeko chha,
              Kinavane,
              Khetima halne mal ma
              Pahilai vrastachar vai sakeko chha.

****************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 18:03:47 -0600 (CST) From:DGURUNG@clemson.edu To: sharma@PLAINS.NODAK.EDU Subject: tourist visa

Dear TND readers:

I need information (latest) on acquiring U. S. tourist visa from Kathmandu. In the past, a letter the affiliated institution (usually international student office at the university); a round trip air ticket; and an evidence of some property under that person's name used to be sufficient. These days, I have heard it has been difficult to get even F1 visa. I would appreciate any information on the subject based on your experience. Please do not hesitate to send information directly to me. Thank you very much. Damber Gurung.

Nepali Delegation Signs Agreement with Lhasa Bank
                    BBC Summary of World Broadcasts
                      November 7, 1994, Monday

SECTION: Part 3 Asia - Pacific; CHINA; internal affairs; FE/2146/G; SOURCE: Radio Nepal, Kathmandu, in English 1415 gmt 30 Oct 94

 BODY:
   Text of report (for a previous report on the delegation's visit to China, see FE/2141 G/1 [3])

   An agreement has been signed between the Nepalese delegation and the officials of the Lhasa-based Bank of China on conducting trade between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China through letters of credit. The letters of credit will be exchanged between Nepal Bank Ltd and Bank of China under the agreement from 1st January 1995 onwards.

**************************************************************** Date: Sat, 19 Nov 1994 11:02:33 +0700 (GMT+0700) From: Punya Prasad Regmi <regmi@emailhost.ait.ac.th> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Election Result

TOTAL DECLARED SEATS; 169

UML : 80 NC : 60 RPP : 17 NWPP : 4 SADBHAWANA : 3 INDEPENDENT : 5
 

Regmi Bangkok

********************************************************************** Date: Sat, 19 Nov 1994 01:16:49 -0500 Mime-Version: 1.0 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: og13@cornell.edu (Om Gurung) Subject: Last election result

       here is the lastest election result (Nov. 18, 6 p. m. Nepal time).

Party declared seats leading UML 77 7 NC 59 3 RPP 16 3 Majdur 4 Indep NCP Mashal 2 Indep diss NC 2 Indep.diss RPP 1 Sadbha 3 Total 164 To be counted 39

********************************************************************** Date: 19 Nov 94 16:06:42 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: Election Update To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

      Kathmandu, Nov 19 (Reuter) - Nepal's Congress party today conceded defeat to its communist rivals in the himalayan kingdom's general elections.
      "We are out of power," Congress spokesman Makesh Acharya told reuters. "The indications are we will have to sit in the opposition."
      With 175 of 205 parliamentary races decided, the Communist Party Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) front had won 83 seats and Congress, the outgoing ruling party, had 62.
      "I think it is very clear the voters don't want us in the government," Acharya said.
      He said the UML-led government would have to respect democracy, the constitutional monarchy and human rights, as well as Congress' economic policies of liberalisation.
      "There is no reason for us to be disheartened," Archarya said. "Congress' policies will be carried out. They (UML) have to be pragmatic."

Communists Win 84 Seats

      Kathmandu, Nov 19 (PTI) With the results in 177 parliamentary constituencies declared by this afternoon, the communist party of Nepal (United Marxist Leninst) maintains its lead, capturing 84 out of the 206 seats in the Nepalese parliament.
      The runners up are the ruling Nepali Congress party which bagged 63 seats and the pro-palace National Democratic Party with its victory in 17 constituencies.
      The leftist Nepal peasants and labourers party as well as the ethnic Nepal sadbhavana party remained stagnant since last evening with their victory in four and three seats respectively.
      Six seats have been occupied by independent candidates, having virtual leanings towards leftist, rightist or centrist political groups.
      Out of the 12 constituencies where the vote count is continuing, the governing party is in the lead in two places, CPN-UML in three, NDP in two and NSP in one, according to the election commission.
      The commission said the elections were repeated in 18 polling centres today and the preliminary results in those parliamentary constituencies would be flashed out by this evening.
      Notably, the election commission on tuesday cancelled the elections in 81 polling stations in 39 constituencies of 22 districts due to violence.

HEADLINE: Nepalese communists edge closer to reins of power BYLINE: Kedar Man Singh

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 18

 BODY:
   The communist opposition edged closer to winning Nepal's general election on Friday as ballot counting continued.

   The Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist (NCP-UML) had 73 of the 149 seats counted, at the latest toll given. It already exceeds the number obtained in the country's first elections in 1991 with 55 still to be decided.

   The president of the ruling Nepali Congress (NC), which had 54 seats, conceded Friday that his party would not be able to govern alone. But Krishna Prasad Bhattarai added: "Nevertheless, without the Nepali Congress, no government can be formed and that is also obvious."

   And with polling having to be rescheduled in at least 30 constituencies around the country because of irregularities, no definitive makeup of the next government will be decided until next week.

   But the NCP-UML led the NC in 10 constituencies were counting was going ahead. And it can count on a smaller communist faction which had four seats assured.

   Despite the spectacular communist gains, many analysts still believe they will not get the 103 seats required to form a government. The communists had 69 seats in the parliament dissolved in July. The NC had 110 seats.

   The NCP-UML will probably have to form a coalition with the Congress or the right-wing Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP), which had 14 seats in the partial toll, analysts said.

   NCP-UML central committee member, Pradip Nepal, was confident of victory. But he acknowledged that a coalition was possible if his party did not get a clear majority of seats. He would not say with whom an alliance was likely.

   Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala appears to have paid the price for criticism of his government's management of the economy and corruption.

   Though he regained the two seats he was allowed to contest, the NC had some notable election defeats. Speaker of the lower house Daman Nath Dhungana and chief whip Tarani Dutta Chataut were both defeated.

   Thousands of jubilant communists in the Kathmandu valley, where all 12 seats went to the communists, went on a victory parade on Thursday night chanting: "Death to Koirala," "Down with Koirala, "Villain and traitor Koirala quit Nepal. "

   International observers said late Thursday that Tuesday's polling, in which two people were killed and 15 injured, was marred by irregularities.

   A preliminary report said most of the irregularities were committed by the NC.

   But it added that this did not mean that the "parliament elected would not reflect the wishes of the Nepalese people."

   The communists have sought to reassure Nepal's international donor countries, that it supports the monarchy and would run a fully democratic government.

   They say they want continued good friendship with giant neighbours India and China and that safeguarding Nepal's national interest will be the top priority.

   NCP-UML chairman Man Mohan Adhikari told AFP that any communist government would pursue a liberal economic policy and encourage industry and foreign investment.

   Adhikari said a property tax established by the Koirala government would be scrapped. Land reform acts will also be amended.

   King Birendra is not expected to take any special action if a communist government is established, a highly placed royal palace source told AFP.

   KATHMANDU, Nov 18 (AFP) - The opposition Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist (NCP-UML) charged Friday that the ruling Nepali Congress (NC) was trying to rob it of electoral victory.

   NCP-UML General Secretary Madhav Nepal told AFP Friday that he felt the Election Commission "was deeply involved in a conspiracy with the Nepali Congress" to prevent the communists from getting a sufficient majority to form the next government.

   The communists are still leading as results from the November 15 polls trickle in.

   He alleged the commission was repolling in areas were the NC was about to lose and had refused to do the same in constituencies where
"irregularities had taken place against the NCP-UML."

   Following several incidents, the Election Commission has directed fresh polls be held at 85 polling booths.

   The new votes which affect more than 30 constituencies, started Thursday and will continue until Sunday, which will delay the final results and the consequent formation of a new government until next week.

   With 158 seats declared so far, out of 205, the NCP-UML has 75 seats, while the NC has 58.

   A Royalist party, the Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP) has secured 16 seats followed by the pro-Indian Nepal Sadbhavana Party (NSP) with one seat. Another communist faction, the Nepal Workers' and Peasants' Party (NPWP), has four seats with the remaining four held by independents.

   Based on the results so far the NCP-UML look set to emerge as the largest party in parliament, but analysts said it was unlikely to win a majority.

   "It is going to be a dangerously hung parliament", the outgoing Speaker Daman Nath Dhungana told AFP.

   Dhungana, who belongs to the NC, lost his seat to the NCP-UML in Kathmandu. He said it was doubtful that either the communists or the ruling party would get a majority and predicted that Nepal was heading towards a coalition government.

   NPC-UML Secretary General Madhav Nepal also acknowldeged that the communists might have to enter into a coalition.

   "Alliance will depend on the situation after all the votes have been counted, but our door is open to anyone who wants to collaborate with us in the interest of the nation," he said.

   "We are still not sure with whom we will merge to form the government," Nepal said, but he did not rule out an alliance with the rightist RPP.

   NC President Krishna Prasad Bhattarai conceded that his party might not be able to govern alone.

   "Things are very fluid right now and it is getting obvious that we may not get the majority to form the next government but nevertheless, without the Nepali Congress, no government can be formed and that also is obvious", he said.

   The mid-term polls were called after Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala lost a crucial parliamentary vote in July.

HEADLINE: 11 missing climbers found dead in Nepal

DATELINE: (UPDATES with death of climbers)

 BODY:
   KATHMANDU, Nov 18 (AFP) - Ten German and Swiss climbers have been found dead along with their sherpa guide by a rescue mission on Mount Pisang in Nepal, mountaineering sources said Friday.

   The rescue team, led by German mountaineer Huber Gottfried, found the bodies of the nine Germans, one Swiss and the guide in a deep, rocky crevass, the source said, adding: "It is not possible to retrieve the bodies."

   The climbers appeared to have been some 100 metres (330 feet) below the summit when they were struck by rocky debris which broke away due to strong winds, pushing them into the crevass.

   In Munich, the German Alpine Federation confirmed the 11 mountaineers' deaths.

   The German climbers, belonging to the federation's summit club, and the Swiss national went missing along with their Nepalese high altitude sherpa guide on November 13 after failing to reach the summit of the mountain.

   Another German climber, Klaus Kolb, was rescued Wednesday an brought back to Kathmandu by helicopter in a state of shock. Kolb, who had not attempted the summit climb, was flown back to Germany on Friday, the sources said.

   The 6,091 metre (20,000 feet) high Mount Pisang is considered a minor peak and is open to trekkers with permission from the Nepal mountaineering association.

   Two members of the summit club, Arnold Hassenkopf and Zbigniew Sigi, had come to Nepal to take part in the rescue efforts.

   Hassenkopf is the father of one of the dead climbers, the sources said.

HEADLINE: 11 missing mountain climbers found dead in Nepal

DATELINE: Kathmandu/Munich, Nov 16

 BODY:
    Searchers Friday found the bodies of 11 mountain climbers - nine Germans, a Swiss woman and a Nepalese Sherpa guide - missing in the Himalayas since Sunday.

    They had apparently plunged into a crevasse after the collapse of a cornice, mountaineering sources said in Kathmandu.

    The climbers, members of a group organised by a German tour operator, had failed to return to their base camp from a bid to scale the 6,091-metre Pisang Peak in the Annapurna range.

    Their deaths were confirmed in Munich by the organisers of the climb, the Summit Club, a subsidiary of the German Alpine Association.

    The climbers were all described by the club as experienced mountaineers.

    The mountain is a relatively small one by Himalayan standards, in the Manang district in northwest Nepal, about 350 kilometres from Kathmandu.

    A 13-member search team, backed by a helicopter, had combed the mountain on foot since early Thursday.

    The climbers, who have not yet been named, had set off for the peak from their base camp at 5,000 metres on November 13.

    After reportedly nearly reaching the summit, they had been forced to turn back because of bad weather conditions, with temperatures of minus 25 degrees Celsius.

    The manager of the Summit Club, Guenter Sturm, said in Munich it was not kown when the bodies could be recovered. "It is possible that we may have to wait until next year" because of weather conditions, he said. dpa pt

************************************************************* Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 00:30:14 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Entry to Pashupati To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

        I have been following the discussion on Pashupati with interest, and thought I'd share my doo.e-paisa ko opinion:

        It's obvious that those who have been arguing in favor of or against allowing tourists (or,non-Hindus) into Pashupati have not been to the temple for a long,long time.

        Based on my visit there last July, I would argue, somewhat tongue in cheek, that even pure, full-time or otherwise healthy Hindus should be BARRED from entering the temple. Why? Serious public health concerns have started to outweigh any probable spiritual nourishment.

        The Bagmati river has been reduced to a thin, trickling stream of black sludge and sewer -- thanks, in part, to Bauddha's booming carpet factories. Not only that, slimy garbage piles up high on the dry patches of the river-bed, making normal breathing on the banks a Herculean task. In fact, filthy have the surrounding ban-kali and gauri-ghat areas have become that [according to the Kantipur daily of sometime in June] even monkeys and pigeons that normally cavort up and down the temple have started to die off in large numbers.

        So out of hand was the situation that even the normally meditative sadhus and usually quiet jogis gave up their puja for a day last summer to take part in a slogan-chanting julus-protest against the government's inaction.

        And two indignant yogis even went on a hunger-strike for about 20 days. Their starving wish? That the government clean up the vicinity of the temple and the river. But, alas, nothing, absolutely nothing came through; and the yogis, perhaps reluctantly aware of their own mortality, gave up the strike. [I was amazed that most "educated and aware" people in Kathmandu did not give hoots to the yogis' demands, nor to the conditions of the temple.]

        And so the vicinity of the temple is still in pitifully dank conditions, nested amidst squalor, filth, garbage and slime . . .

        But, who knows, perhaps Bhole Baba, being Bhole Baba, likes it that way :-) !!

        Anyway, now tell me, 'progressive' arguments notwithstanding, which tourist in her right mind would want to visit Pashupati? More to the point, ten-plus years of Pashupati Bikas Kosh under the auspices of Her Majesty the Queen, and is this what "the greatest temple of the Hindus" should be left with?

namaste ashu
                                                                
********************************************************** Date: 20 Nov 94 11:41:39 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: Election Update To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

Sent by Abi K. Sharma

The following is the election results (PST 3.45 am, Nepal time 4.o pm approx, 20th nov., sunday).

UML 86 NC 76 RPP 20 NMKP 4 SADV 3 IND 6

************************************************************** Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 13:04 EST
>From " "Neal Cohen" 19-NOV-1994 20:14:33.26
Subj: Election Results 6am Sunday

party declared percent
                        declared
                 UML 84 46.7% NC 66 36.7% RPP 17 9.4% Workers 4 2.2% Indep 6 3.3% Sabav 3 1.7% TOTAL 180 100.0%

UML+Workers 48.9% (left leaning) NC+RPP+Saba 47.8% (right and center leaning)

Earlier estimates of seats remaining and candidates leading, were emphasizing Congress. However, at the 6am broadcast there was no additional word.

     Neal

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: 20 Nov 94 15:02:50 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: Election Update To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

SOURCE: Reuters

HEADLINE: Nepali Communists say vote rigging has cut lead

BYLINE: By Gopal Sharma

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 20

 BODY:
    Nepal's Communist Party accused the ruling Congress party on Sunday of extensive vote rigging to cut the Communist lead in near-complete election results.

   ''There has been extensive rigging during polling, repolling and counting,'' said Madhav Kumar Nepal, general secretary of the Communist Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) front.

   ''There is a conspiracy against the party and the government was afraid when UML started getting popular support,'' he told a news conference. ''We will go to court against this rigging immediately.''

   The Communists led Congress by 86 seats to 75 with only 12 seats in the 205-seat parliament yet to be decided, meaning neither could win the 103 seats needed for an outright majority.

   Congress had been as many as two dozen seats behind the Communists following Tuesday's voting but gained ground in late results at the weekend.

   King Birendra set up a special tribunal before the elections to judge any complaints of polling malpractices.

   An international group of observers invited by Nepali human rights organisations to monitor the elections released a report last week saying while the polls were generally fair and free, there had been irregularities, committed mostly by Congress.

   ''In some constituencies in five districts, because of the malpractices of the government, the victory of the opposition (UML) has been converted into our defeat,'' Nepal said.

   ''According to our information, the Nepali Congress in its defeated psychology tried to create trouble,'' he said, claiming election authorities had barred the UML from observing vote counting and bundles of votes had been found in ballot boxes, many without signatures.

   Without an overall majority in parliament, the Communists continued to pin their hopes on attracting dissident Congress lawmakers who abandoned Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala in a vote of confidence last July, triggering the snap polls.

   The Communists sounded out Congress chief Krishna Prasad Bhattarai as well as elder statesman and former Congress leader Ganesh Man Singh, to whom many of the anti-Koirala Congressmen are loyal, about joining a coalition.

   ''How to break this stalemate is a pertinent question,'' UML president Man Mohan Adhikary, widely expected to become the next prime minister, told Reuters in an interview.

   ''We are constantly in touch with Ganesh Man Singh,'' Adhikary said. ''If he and his supporters can come out and support us, then it would be good.

   ''Bhattarai is ready to cooperate with us but he told us to wait for a few days for all the results to come in,'' Nepal said.

   The UML general secretary said the Communist Party was ''ready and its doors are open'' to talks with all groups.

   ''If other political parties are not going to support us to form the government, then there will be no alternative to going to another poll,'' Nepal said.

   Under Nepal's four-year-old constitution, in the event of a hung parliament King Birendra names as prime minister the parliamentarian he considers able to form a workable coalition government.

   If no lawmaker can command a majority, then the king must choose the leader of the parliamentary party with the most seats. If a coalition fails to win a vote of confidence within 30 days, fresh polls must be called within six months.

   Despite its eleventh-hour gains, Congress, which conceded defeat on Saturday, showed no eagerness to try to form a coalition government given the deeply divided parliament.

   ''Since the people have voted us in a minority, they want us to go and sit in the minority,'' Congress spokesman Mahesh Acharya said. ''We will do that.''

   Congress, badly stung in the polls by internal squabbling and allegations of corruption, would make a stab at forming a coalition only if the communists failed, Acharya said.

SOURCE: AFP

HEADLINE: Communists emerge as largest party but need partner to govern

BYLINE: Kedar Man Singh

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 20

 BODY:
    Nepal's communists were in a position Sunday to form a government for the first time in the country's history, but finding a suitable coalition partner was proving difficult.

   With only eight out of 205 parliamentary seats still to be declared, the Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist Leninist (NCP-UML), with 86 seats, was guaranteed to be the nation's largest party. But it failed to muster an outright majority to form a government of its own.

   The communists' closest rival, the Nepali Congress (NC), held 75 seats and could not overtake the communists. Final results of the November 15 poll were not expected until late Monday.

   The NCP-UML is already seeking the support of other parties to form the next government, party sources said.

   The communists have started talks with a former leader of the NC, Ganesh Man Singh, who heads a group of Congress dissidents, to discuss a possible coalition, sources close to the dissidents said.

   A coalition with the NC dissidents would give the communists the 103 parliamentary seats necessary to form the new government. But Singh has so far been unable to convince his followers to join with the communists, the sources said.

   The rightist Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP), which holds 20 seats, is also in a position to bargain with the communists, an RPP source said.

   But RPP President Surya Bahadur Thapa told AFP, "we are not making a hasty jump into the NCP-UML camp to form a new government."

   NCP-UML General Secretary Madhav Nepal earlier told AFP that "It is still premature to talk about our final negotiations with any particular political parties including the Rastriya Prajatantra Party or the NC dissidents."

   He stressed, however, that a coalition between his party and the pro-Singh NC dissidents would be the best to help revamp the deteriorating national economy and safeguard the fledgling democrecy.

   Analysts felt the NCP-UML wanted to win the support of Singh to form the government in order to convince western governments and other aid donors that a communist-led governement would not adopt hardline communist policies.

   NCP-UML sources said the party's chairman, Man Mohan Adhikari, had met King Birendra earlier this week to assure him that if his party formed the new government, it would "firmly support monarchy in Nepal as a symbol of unity" and "pursue free market economic policies".

   Sources in the NC dissidents group did not rule out the possibility of an alliance with the NCP-UML but said they wanted first to settle scores with Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala by ousting him from the party as a punitive action for reducing the NC to a minority.

HEADLINE: Communists seek coalition after failing to secure majority

BYLINE: Kedar Man Singh

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 20

 BODY:
   Nepalese communist leaders sounded out possible coalition partners Sunday after failing to win a controlling majority in general elections five days ago, party sources said.

   With only 14 out of 205 parliamentary seats still to be declared Sunday, the communists had the biggest number at 85, but this was far short of the required 103 seats to form a government on their own.

   Final results of the November 15 vote were not expected until late Monday following repollings in 30 constituencies.

   The Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist Leninist (NCP-UML), which led the opposition to the outgoing administration, has so far bagged 85 seats. But even if it were to win all 14 undeclared seats, which is highly improbable, it would still be four short of a majority.

   The ruling Nepali Congress (NC) party has 73 seats, the royalist Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP) 20, while the pro-India Nepal Sadbhavana Party (NSP) has three.

   Another communist faction, the Nepal Peasants' and Workers' Party
(NPWP), has won four, and independent candidates bagged six.

   The NCP-UML has begun seeking the support of other parties with different ideologies to form the next government, party sources said.

   The communists have started talks with a former supremo of the NC, Ganesh Man Singh, who heads a group of Congress dissidents, to discuss the possibility of a coalition, sources close to the dissidents said.

   So far, 21 pro-Singh dissident NC candidates have won seats, and about four more are expected to win. Their support would give such a coalition a comfortable majority.

   Communist party General Secretary Madhav Nepal earlier told AFP that such a coalition would stabilize democracy in this tiny Himalayan kingdom, but cautioned that it was still premature to talk about negotiations.

   He stressed, however, that a coalition between his party and the pro-Singh NC dissidents would be the best suited to help develop the deteriorating national economy and safeguard the fledgling democracy.

   Analysts also felt that the communists wanted the support of Singh to convince western governments and other aid donors that a communist-led governement would not adopt hardline marxist policies.

   NCP-UML sources said the party's chairman Man Mohan Adhikari had met King Birendra earlier this week to assure him that if his party formed the new government, it would "firmly support monarchy in Nepal as a symbol of unity" and "pursue free market economic policies".

   Sources among NC dissidents did not rule out the possibility of an alliance with the NCP-UML but said they wanted first to settle scores with Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala by ousting him from the party to punish him for the NC's loss of support.

   Koirala has been flayed from all political sides for failing to curb corruption, control inflation and maintain law and order in this tiny Himalayan kingdom.

   The mid-term polls were called after Koirala lost a crucial parliamentary vote on his government's annual socio-economic and political programmes, due to the defection of members of his own party.

   Koirala asked the King to disband the parliament and was named by the monarch to head the caretaker government that oversaw the vote.

HEADLINE: Ruling Nepali Congress heading for defeat

BYLINE: BY BHOLA RANA

DATELINE: KATMANDU, Nov. 20

 BODY:
   The ruling Nepali Congress party appeared headed toward defeat Sunday and the Himalayan kingdom toward uncertainty, as opposition communists emerged as the dominant force in parliamentary elections. Of the 191 seats declared so far in last Tuesday's elections for the 205-member House of Representatives, the Nepal Communist Party (United Marxist Leninist, or UML) had taken 85 seats, the Nepali Congress, 73 seats, and the conservative Royalist Rashtriya Prajatantra party, 20 seats, the Nepal Laborers and Peasants party, four seats, Sadbhavana party, three seats, and independents six seats. The vote count is continuing in eight constituencies and it is too early to predict which parties will coalesce to form the next government. ''We are keeping every avenue open. To keep options closed would be politically unwise and undiplomatic,'' Madav Nepal, secretary general of the UML said Sunday in a newspaper interview. The president of the UML and a contendor for premier, Man Mohan Adhikari said Sunday in another interview, that his party respects the monarchy and will abide by the constitution. ''We are still waiting for the final results to come in. We also need to know what other parties or groups think about joining us in a coalition government.'' But with 20 seats the RRP holds the key in forming the future government. In a message to the nation Sunday, Adhikari also said ''the people have given us an opportunity to form a government...communists must now prove to the world that they are committed to democracy and improving the lot of the people. The world is watching with interest.'' The president of the Nepali Congress, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai told the weekly newspaper Deshantar on Sunday, ''We lost because of our own internal reasons. We now have to improve our organization.'' Bhattarai dismissed the possibility of a split in the party or forming a government with the communists. ''The party will not split. There is no question of some congressmen joining hands with the communists. The congress will stay in the opposition and lend constructive help to the next government.'' Adhikary said that the communists ''will adopt a truly non-aligned foreign policy. Ideology will not be allowed to interefere with our foreign policy.'' He also said the party sought good relations with India. ''We are for bettering relations with our neighbor through negotiations, not for breaking them.'' Elections were held Tuesday, 18 months ahead of schedule. Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala called elections in July when 36 members of his party voted with the opposition to defeat a government motion of thanks to King Birendra, who earlier addressed parliament outlining the annual program of the Koirala government. The normal tenure of parliament is five years. Complete election results are not expected until Monday.

HEADLINE: Attempt to retrieve bodies of dead trekkers fails

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 20

 BODY:
   Bad weather hampered attempts to retrieve the bodies of 11 trekkers killed on 6,091-metre (19,983-foot) Mount Pisang last week, a member of the DAV Summit Club of Munich, Fritz Maerz, said Sunday.

   Further attempts would be made Monday to retrieve the bodies, which are trapped at 5,100 metres (16,731 feet) on the northern slope of Pisang, which lies near Mount Annapurna, 260 kilometres (162 miles) northwest of Kathmandu.

   "We presume the accident occurred when ... an avalanche apparently swept down all eleven trekkers, who were roped in three separate groups and were buried in the avalanche debris," said Sigi Rohlingshofer, a member of the DAV rescue team.

   He said one of the German trekkers, Huber Gottfried, was rescued at the mountain base camp.

   "Gottfried was luckily saved because, while climbing the Pisang peak, he suffered from high altitude sickness and was obliged to descend with a Sherpa cook," Rohlingshofer said.

   Another rescue team member, Manfred Huber, said the team was dropped by helicopter on the mountain November 18 to look for the missing trekkers from the German club.

   "After climbing nearly 200 metres above the point ... we had to climb down due to bad weather conditions," he said.

   "Though all the trekkers have now been found dead in a group, the retrieving of the bodies will be done as per the wishes of the family," he said.

HEADLINE: Mountaineers' Bodies Found on Himalayan Peak

DATELINE: KATMANDU, Nepal

 BODY:
    A rescue team found the bodies of 11 members of a German expedition huddled together on a Himalayan mountain Sunday, the group's leader said.

   The trekkers were lying together on the snowfield ''like a big ball,'' and they had apparently died Nov. 13, said Gottfried Huber who landed on the range by helicopter.

   ''Only this morning we saw the people ... There was no sign of life,'' Huber told The Associated Press after returning from the mountain.

   The rescue team landed near the bodies and walked up from the spot. They saw the bodies of the climbers along with their rucksacks and three pieces of colored rope, he said.

   The expedition to Mt. Pisang consisted of nine Germans, a Swiss and their Nepalese mountain guide.

   Huber, a professional guide from Fridolfing, said the accident might have taken place while the trekkers were descending from the 6,091 meter (20,100 ft) peak.

   The cause of the accident is not known, but Huber said the mountaineers ''might have slipped on the ridge and fallen down about 500 meters (1,650 ft). I think they must have been killed immediately.''

   On Friday, Huber and seven Nepalese mountaineers spotted some colored stuff on the mountain but could not approach it.

   The rescuers are again going to the area monday in a bid to retrieve the dead bodies.

*********************************************************** Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 23:20:22 +0000 From: NAME <rasuwa@vax.ox.ac.uk> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Budhanilkantha School

Like a lot of TND readers, I too have been a silent observer. Recent publications on the TND concerning Budhanilkantha School have been quite entertaining and educational. I would like to add a few remarks on the obviously debatable subject of government funding for this school.
  i) The scholarship scheme bringing people from all over the country, specially those that cannot afford any of the good schools in Kathmandu, should receive its due credits. I would like to add at this point that I am one such student who is extremely grateful for the wonderful oppertunity.
  ii) I wonder how "economical" we can be AND produce the high standards this school has been achieving. A comparision with comparable schools in Kathmandu
(and elsewhere?), St. Xaviers for example, would provide a rough idea. I do not know what costs are involved at other schools to make such a comparision.
  iii) The suitability of the O and A Level programmes seems to have been a hot topic for some. The costs of running those programmes are no doubt higher than say running a 10+2 programme but given the achievments of the O and A Level programmes, we should consider it seriously before saying no. I would disagree entirely with those who believe that those programmes are unsuitable at Budhanilkantha school because of some presumed elitist aura to the whole concept of Budhanilkantha school and that the money could be better spent somewhere else. Budhanilknatha should not be considered a case of transported elitism, it is far from it. One only has to look at some other schools to realise that it is not more nor less elitist. The point about government spending on the school is not the only factor, shouldn't we try and make use of the huge overseas support too? I welcome the suggestions and discussions on how the school could be managed/funded. I believe the O and A level studies should be continued, just look at what this has done for oppertunities for the students. I would be happier if ALL participants in the discussions were constructive but not caustic and personal.
  iv) The circumstances are as they are, needing review and alternatives but it would be a shame not to acknowledge what Budhanilkantha School has done so far, anti-Budhanilkantha sentiments should be put aside for a bit and the school commended. How many schools in Nepal are able to bring students from some of the poorest families in the country, give them an education of the highest calibre and watch them go overseas to further their education? That should be at the heart of every one concerned.
  v) I think Pawan did an excellent job clarifying some points, thanks Pawan.
   T. P. Devkota

*************************************************************** Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 18:10:06 -0500 (CDT) From: 290406NR@GBVAXA.UWGB.EDU Subject: Democracy perishes or not....? To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

   The bazaar scene of Nepal's politics is a specctacle of mother's cry. After the restoration of dem. in the country,the country has been whisked into the pool of problems and into the tug of war between party's. The vested interest has tremendously mounted where as people's outcry due to economic paralyses has been increasing. To make the long story short, It seems the present result of the election will make it worse as country's resources are depleting day by day. In the sense of democracy it is good to practice all these kind of democratic rules but who pays the the price is my concern may be others too. What are the parameter of honesty, integrity and other likewise so as as to make the dream of the country get going on is always the question. How the things has been dealt in past in pragmatic level has not justifiably called upon. No matter what people who are not at all affinated with the kind of partys' that mushroomed aftermath of democracy or not been appealed with those manifestos are simply a nation lover and hard worker. To those who believes how their country should look like should be are always backward, who knows why. Love to nation has to be endorsed in order to suffice all those and to answer to the cry of mother. Will that make , how much percent of the country? Well any way Hope Nepal be a better place on coming future ahead. But it is a must requirement for those who come as a Leader in the country to see back(past) and to make move(future). Thanks!

Ankeey Remael,

**************************************************************** Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 20:48:18 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: JOBS...IMMIGRATION...NEPAL From: timjonson@aol.com (TIM JONSON)
          JOBS... IMMIGRATION...NEPAL

As the Fall semester draws to an end, another breed of students complete their degrees and venture to the brave new world of the unemployed! While some lucky ones manage jobs with temp (temporary) agencies, the vast majority of students make "finding a job" their primary career! The job description for this high pressure, no pay career includes designing and redesigning the cover letters and resumes, attending career fairs in the near vicinity of 250 miles, sending thousands of job applications on resume quality paper and then waiting -- waiting for the rejects that follow! Some are even using sophisticated software packages to their advantage including:

o Softkey - (Ph. 617/494-1200) $40 - Resume & Job Search o Winway - (Ph. 1-800-494-6929) $50 - Interviewing
   While leading employment indicators revel that the unemployment is down below 6% for the first time in several years and the jobless claims are at record low, most students other than computer science majors continue to face difficulty in locating productive careers. The problems worsen for most of the 438,000 international students including the Nepali students studying in the USA. Not only do these international students have to find jobs but they also have to do so in the limited one year practical training period allowed by the Immigration and Naturalization Service
(INS). If they are unable to get a job, then, they must return to their home country. Even if they are the lucky few who find some meaning-full employment in their practical training period, their chances of continuing to live and work in the USA after the practical training period depends on the mercy of the employer and the INS. The employer should be ready and willing to file for the H1-B and the Permanent Residency Permit (Green Card) and then the INS must approve the whole process. Not only is this process quite costly with immigration lawyers charging between $1000- 2500 for H-1 and $3000-5000 for Green Card, but the approval rates are also much lower since the immigration phobia hit the U.S.

With this unpleasant scenario what are the students doing? Well many are returning to Nepal. Others are exploring the opportunity to immigrate to countries such as Australia that are accepting many young, American trained and educated students by offering permanent residency permits. Making an application for immigration to Australia under certain categories does not require a job offer from an Australian employer or an Australian sponsor! There is even a company called:

         International Opportunities Center,
         Suite 160,
         4410 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
         Washington DC 20016.
         (Internet address: int-opp@access.digex.net)

which provides easy to use guides on immigration and employment to Australia which one can order for around $40!

************************************************************************ Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 20:49:38 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Mercantile Office Systems From: rajendra@coos.dartmouth.edu (Rajendra P. Shrestha)

I periodically receive queries about internet services in Nepal and their cost. Here's an e-mail (that someone else got) from Mercantile concerining their e-mail service rates.

From: root@mosnepal.ernet.in

Namaste,

 Nice to know that you are interested in communicating with friends here in Nepal via the Internet. We would be willing to provide a mailbox. However, it would not be possible to inform them by phone when they have received mail. But they can access the mailbox using a computer and modem.

 As of now we are providing only e-mail services but we will be providing other servies like telnet, ftp etc. very soon. The charges for our present services is attached below. If you have any further questions do contact us.

P.S. : To contact a person through Global Communications you could send a mail to glocom@globpc.mosnepal.ernet.in

Regards,

Postmaster Mosnepal.

     RATES
     -----
     Type A
     =======
                    6 Monthly Yearly

Subscription per e-mail address Rate in Nepalese Rs. 3,000.00 5,400.00

Transaction Charge Rs. 25 for the first 2K (2048 bytes)
    Rs. 20 per every additional 1K (1024 bytes)

     Type B
     =======

                      6 Monthly Yearly Subscription per e-mail address Rate in Nepalese Rs. 5,000.00 9,000.00

Transaction Charge Rs. 20 for the first 2K (2048 bytes)
    Rs. 15 per every additional 1K (1024 bytes)

    Type C/Corporate Rates
    ==================

                    6 Monthly Yearly Subscription per e-mail address Rate in Nepalese Rs. 5,000.00 9,000.00

Transaction Charge Rs. 20 for the first 2K (2048 bytes)
    Rs. 15 per every additional 1K (1024 bytes)

   1-3 users 4-15 users 16-50 users 100/more users Discount on Subscription Rates NA 50 % 70 % 80 %

** Security Deposit Nrs. 3000 applicable to all types of rates.

1. The rates are applicable for e-mail routed international only. E-mail to other users on MosNepal is free. 2. The rates apply for e-mail received also. This does not apply to e-mail received which have been locally routed. 3. The calculation for each e-mail will be done independently. 4. Installation of the communication software will be provided free of cost ( within Kathmandu Valley). 5. Bounced e-mail will be treated as a normal e-mail and charged likewise. 6. If Nepal Telecommunication Corporation provides new services or changes the telephone tarrif, the transaction charges will be changed to reflec the change. 7. There will be no connection time charge.

***************************************************************** Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 20:49:56 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: Neal Cohen Subject: Election Results 6am Sunday

party declared percent
                        declared
                         UML 84 46.7% NC 66 36.7% RPP 17 9.4% Workers 4 2.2% Indep 6 3.3% Sabav 3 1.7% TOTAL 180 100.0%

UML+Workers 48.9% (left leaning) NC+RPP+Saba 47.8% (right and center leaning)

Earlier estimates of seats remaining and candidates leading, were emphasizing Congress. However, at the 6am broadcast there was no additional word.

 Neal

***************************************************************** Date: Mon, 21 Nov 1994 00:00:01 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Election Update - from the New York Times From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha)

Nepal's Ruling Party Yields to Communists

KATMANDU, Nepal, Nov. 19 (Reuters) -

The liberal Congress Party conceded defeat today in Nepal's general elections as the Communists tried to assemble a governing coalition.

"We are out of power," said a spokesman of the Congress Party, Mahesh Acharya.
"The indications are we will have to sit in the opposition."

With 175 of 205 parliamentary raced decided, a leftist alliance called the Communist Party (United Marxist and Leninists) had won 83 seats. The governing Congress Party won 62.

The Congress Party and the Communists fought side by side for decades against the kingdom's absolute monarchy and won in 1990 with pro-democracy demonstrations in which more than 50 people were killed.

The two parties participated in an interim Government before multi-party elections in 1991, which were won by Congress.

Source : The New York Times, INTERNATIONAL, Sunday, November 20, 1994

**************************************************************** Date: Mon, 21 Nov 1994 00:13:31 -0600 (CST) From: RKP6723@UTARLG.UTA.EDU Subject: Buddhism To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu

Hello TND members!

Anybody out there practices Budhhism or interested in Buddhism? I would like to exchange informations and ideas. Thank you.

Robin Pandey e-mail: rkp6723@utarlg.uta.edu

I had sent one article about Life of Buddha in the last TND. I am sending one out today.

                               ABOUT BUDDHISM
                               **************

       (This article is excerpted from WWW Library, Buddhist Studies)

Buddhism is a philosophy of life expounded by Gautama Buddha ("Buddha" means
"enlightened one"), who lived in Nepal and taught there and Northern India in the 6th century B.C. The Buddha was not a God and the philosophy of Buddhism does not entail any theistic world-views. The teachings of Buddha are aimed solely to liberate sentient beings from suffering.

Gautma Buddha taught the four Noble Truths:

   1. There is suffering among human beings (DUKKHA).
   2. Suffering has an end (SAMUDAYA).
   3. The end of suffering (NIRODHA).
   4. The Path to end of suffering (MAGGA).

      ***DUKKHA, SAMUDAYA, NIRODHA, and MAGGA are Pali words***

Buddha saw that all phenomena in life are impermanent and that our attatchment to the idea of substantial and enduring self is an illusion, which is the principle cause of suffering.

Freedom from self liberates the heart from greed, hatred, and delusions and opens mind to wisdom and the heart to kindness and compassion.

                                The End.

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