The Nepal Digest - Nov 20, 1994 (4 Manghir 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Saturday 20 Nov 94: Mangshir 4 2051 BkSm Volume 33 Issue 13

  Today's Topics are:
 
               Election Crunch Time - Apologoies for no topic headers.

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********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 11:36 EST Forwarded by:UDAY MANANDHAR Subject: as of 5:00 pm friday from neal cohen usaid, ktm To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

Date : 18-NOV-1994 11:35:52 Subj: Friday 5pm results

The last results for the USAID workday are:

party declared percent leading percent
                        declared declared
                                                        plus leading UML 76 47.5% 8 46.9% NC 58 36.3% 5 35.2% RPP 16 10.0% 4 11.2% Workers 4 2.5% 2.2% Indep 4 2.5% 2 3.4% Sabav 2 1.3% 1.1% TOTAL 160 100.0% 19 100.0%
                Left to decide 26 UML+Wokers 50.0% 49.2% NC+RPP+Saba 47.5% 47.5%

The General Secretary of the UML said that they are talking with RPP about a government; but the President of the UML said that they would not form a coalition with NC, RPP or Sabavana.

What does it mean? Read the document we e-mailed earlier on the manifestos of the different parties and then interpret whether they will do what they said they would do. USAID has a roundtable discussion on Monday to discuss the results and what they mean. I shall summarize that before COB Monday.

Enjoy the weekend.

Neal

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 17 Nov 1994 12:43:13 -0600 (CST) From: RKP6723@UTARLG.UTA.EDU Subject: A View Toward American History II by Robin Pandey. To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu

                         The United States
                         -----------------

What was the United States all about? Who was behind forming this nation? As I mentioned in last (Nov 4, TND) that from the time of Christopher Columbus, the motive behind financning the exploration was to make profit, either from trade or from invading new land. Here I am going to narrow down the topic to stick with just the United States. First English colony was Virginia, named after the joint stock company established in England by wealthy stockholders to make profit from the new found land. The Virginia company was successful and expanded as they made profit from tobacco farming, and invaded Native People(American Indians). As time passed away the colonization expanded and divided into thirteen colonies in North America. The colonies were still und authority of the government of England until 1776 when the elites from the colonies named the colonies the United States and declare the Independece of the nation.

There are few reasons why the colonies prosper.

1. People worked for Individual benefit when private enterprise was introduced
   to make people work harder and smarter. 2. There was less government regulations in the colony, so people worried about
   their work and business rather than politics. 3. People who came to the colonies were frustrted from homeland England and
   other European nations either from government regulations or from poverty
   were determined to do well for themselves, so they did nothing else much
   than work, and of course there was plenty of invaded land to work on. 4. From trades of fur and tobacco, which created service type of work and
   attrcted more educated people from Europe.

Most of the people who moved to the colonies were better off than they were back home. Still there was social classes. As Dr. Alexander Hamilton (Scottish born Physisits) saw the people and put them into two classes; "Better Sort", merchants and professionals, "Rabble", ordinary folk in the colonies. This brings to attention of "Elite Theory": A. Every society is divided into 2 groups of people.
   a. Those who have power. b. Those who do not have power. B. Elites are different from the masses, they are better educated and have
   better jobs. C. Disagreement among Elites are disagreement of degree not the kind. D. They argue that anybody can be Elite. This is slow upper movement, and
   people have to conform. E. Public policy is made by Elites. They think that masses are empathetic and
   do not care much. F. Elites influence the masses.

Few reasons to declare the Independence of the Colonies. 1. England was regulating too much on Colonies, such as putting Stamp A, that is the pople in the colonies would have to pay taxes on most printed materials. In the Colonies, Elites were the people who used printed materials more than ordinary folks. Thus, they were hurting form this regulations and rules. They wanted to get out of this regulations. 2. England was sending appointed officials to govern the colonies. These appointed officials were neglecting landowners requests. Landowners, also powerful Elites wanted to get rid of appointed officials and put pepople from colonies. 3. Sugar and Currency Acts was put on customs regulations and laid new duties on certain foreign imports, which hurt the traders, also Elites of the society. They wanted to get rid of these regulations. 4. These Elites' request were denied by the Parliament, so the Elites wanted to restore their own government.

Interestingly enough only forty percnt of Colonists, most of them Elites supported the Declaration of Independence, other forty percnts ordinary folks were opposed to the Declaration of Independence, and rest didn't care. In order to get support Elites got together and tried to win the support for the sake of their economic well being from the ordinary folks. There were two Elites chosen to write the Article. This Article (Declaration of Independence) was addressed to: 1. Ordinary folks
    2. Foreign nations
    3. Parliament of England
    4. Rest of the people

These two Elites were John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. John Adams was a successful businessman and Thomas Jefferson, a lawyer. They chose Thomas Jefferson because he was creative.

Thus, Thomas Jefferson designed the Article to win over all the people's support. "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and pursuit of Happiness." This moral document won over a lot of people's heart because it does not talk about business or Elites or anything like that, simply "all men are created equal". Thus, the United States is build for the Elites by the Elites for the Elites.

Thank you.

Robin Pandey Arlington, TX

********************************************************************* Date: Thu, 17 Nov 94 17:49:06 EST From: Rajeev Karmacharya <RXK0992@SRUVM.SRU.EDU> Subject: Election and its aftermath To: TND <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Now that the election results indicate that a hung parliament is inevitable, I could not help wondering what such a situation would mean to Nepal and Nepalis in general.

For a country that is ranked one of the poorest countries in the world, political instability could only mean "disaster." A reelection, or another mid-term poll, for that matter, could only worsen the situation because the country cannot afford another election financially. So, the only solution that I can see is if the parties involved work together. But then, that is far from reality... UML has already announced its unwillingness to cooperate with "Girija-type" congress and RPP. What is UML's strategy in this respect remains to be seen.

If, on the other hand, NC forms the government, it will have to count on the cooperation of RPP, other smaller parties and independents. The situation, on the whole, therefore, seems precarious.

One can only hope that whoever forms the government will be able to reduce inflation and to improve Nepal's economic situation.

- Rajeev Karmacharya
    SR Univ of PA

***************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 01:19:11 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) Subject: Election News - from VOA

Please do not mind the cases. RS

DATE=11/15/94 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-169294 TITLE=NEPAL/ELECTION (L) BYLINE=MICHAEL DRUDGE DATELINE=KATHMANDU, NEPAL CONTENT= VOICED AT:

INTRO: THE HIMALAYAN MOUNTAIN KINGDOM OF NEPAL IS VOTING FOR A NEW PARLIAMENT, BUT OBSERVERS SAY APATHY AND DISENCHANTMENT WITH POLITICS HAS DAMPENED THE TURNOUT. CORRESPONDENT MICHAEL DRUDGE REPORTS FROM THE NEPALI CAPITAL, KATHMANDU.

TEXT: NEPALIS VOTED TUESDAY IN THE SECOND GENERAL ELECTIONS SINCE 1991 FOR A NEW 205-SEAT PARLIAMENT. THE ELECTION IS A CONTEST BETWEEN THE RULING NEPAL CONGRESS PARTY AND ITS MAIN OPPONENT, THE COMMUNISTS.

ELECTION OFFICIALS SAY TURNOUT WAS LOWER THAN THE 65 PERCENT VOTING IN 1991'S FIRST ELECTIONS, AFTER A VIOLENT PRO-DEMOCRACY MOVEMENT FORCED KING BIRENDRA TO RELINQUISH ABSOLUTE POWER.

THE GOVERNMENT DEPLOYED ABOUT 100 THOUSAND SECURITY FORCES ACROSS THE HIMALAYAN MOUNTAIN KINGDOM TUESDAY TO KEEP ORDER. PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION WAS BARRED IN KATHMANDU TO PREVENT PARTIES FROM TRUCKING IN VOTERS FROM OUTLYING AREAS. NO SERIOUS INCIDENTS WERE REPORTED.

THE ELECTIONS WERE CALLED 18 MONTHS AHEAD OF SCHEDULE, AFTER PRIME MINISTER G-P KOIRALA LOST WHAT AMOUNTED TO A NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE IN JULY.

INTERNATIONAL ELECTION OBSERVERS SAY THEY HAVE DETECTED APATHY AND DISENCHANTMENT WITH POLITICS AMONG NEPALIS.

MARTIN FREEMAN OF THE U-S / BASED INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR ELECTORAL SYSTEMS HAS BEEN AN OFFICIAL OBSERVER OF BOTH THE 1991 AND 1994 ELECTIONS. HE SAYS NEPALIS HAVE NOT GOTTEN MUCH OUT OF DEMOCRACY.

            ///FREEMAN ACTUALITY///

         PEOPLE'S EXPERIENCE WITH DEMOCRACY HAS NOT BEEN
         PARTICULARLY HEARTENING. THE PEOPLE WE HAVE TALKED WITH
         HAVE SEEN LITTLE CHANGE SINCE 1991. DEMOCRACY BUSTING
         OUT ALL OVER HAS NOT REALLY TRANSLATED INTO THEIR
         PERSONAL LIVES EITHER ECONOMICALLY OR SOCIALLY. AND
         THEREFORE THERE SEEMS TO BE A LEVEL OF DISENCHANTMENT
         WITH THE FRUITS OF THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS.

            ///END ACTUALITY///

POLITICAL SCIENTISTS HAVE FORECAST A LARGE INCREASE IN SEATS FOR A CONSERVATIVE ROYALIST PARTY -- WHICH COULD BECOME A COALITION PARTNER IF NEITHER THE COMMUNISTS OR CONGRESS PARTY WIN AN ABSOLUTE MAJORITY.

FINAL RESULTS ARE NOT EXPECTED UNTIL LATE THIS WEEK. (SIGNED).

NEB/ / WOD

15-Nov-94 6:02 AM EST (1102 UTC) NNNN

*************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 01:19:53 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) Subject: News on Election

Pl. do not mind the uppercases - news extracted from VOA's Gopher server.

Rajesh

DATE=11/17/94 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-169440 TITLE=NEPAL/ELECTION (L-ONLY) BYLINE=MICHAEL DRUDGE DATELINE=KATHMANDU, NEPAL CONTENT= VOICED AT:

INTRO: ELECTION OFFICIALS IN NEPAL SAY THE COMMUNIST PARTY HOLDS NEARLY A TWO-TO-ONE LEAD OVER THE RULING CONGRESS PARTY, WITH 40 PERCENT OF THE SEATS DECIDED IN ELECTION FOR A NEW PARLIAMENT. MEANTIME, INTERNATIONAL ELECTION OBSERVERS SAY THE CONGRESS PARTY RESORTED TO VARIOUS FRAUDULENT TACTICS. CORRESPONDENT MICHAEL DRUDGE REPORTS FROM KATHMANDU.

TEXT: ELECTION OFFICIALS SAY -- ALTHOUGH THE COMMUNISTS WERE HOLDING A LEAD THURSDAY -- IT IS STILL TOO EARLY TO SAY WHICH PARTY WILL CONTROL THE NEW 205-SEAT PARLIAMENT.

ANALYSTS HAD EXPECTED THE COMMUNISTS TO DO WELL IN THE KATHMANDU VALLEY, WERE VOTE COUNTING HAS ALREADY BEEN COMPLETED.

MANY OBSERVERS PREDICT NEITHER MAJOR PARTY WILL WIN AN OUTRIGHT MAJORITY.

A TEAM OF 127 INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS HAS ISSUED A PRELIMINARY REPORT CONCLUDING THERE WERE MANY IRREGULARITIES MARRING TUESDAY'S VOTING -- ALTHOUGH THE ELECTIONS WERE, FOR THE MOST PART, FREE AND FAIR.

OBSERVERS SAY THEY WITNESSED CASES OF PROXY VOTING, UNDERAGE VOTING, MULTIPLE VOTING, THE SALE OF VOTES AND THE ENTRY OF UNAUTHORIZED PERSONS INTO THE POLLING STATIONS.

MARK FREEMAN OF THE WASHINGTON-BASED INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR ELECTORAL SYSTEMS SAYS THESE ELECTIONS SAW A LOT MORE IRREGULARITIES THAN THOSE IN 1991.

                     ///FREEMAN ACTUALITY///

         BASED ON THE INFORMATION THAT THE OBSERVER TEAMS BROUGHT
         BACK THERE IS: A. THE FEELING THAT IT WAS A FREE AND
         FAIR ELECTION. BUT: B. CITING MANY, MANY MORE
         IRREGULARITIES AND VERY SEVERE IRREGULARITIES, INCLUDING
         IN ONE CASE A MURDER AT A POLLING STATION.

                       ///END ACTUALITY///

MR. FREEMAN SAYS THE OBSERVERS CONCLUDED THE RULING NEPALI CONGRESS PARTY WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR MOST OF THE IRREGULARITIES.

                     ///FREEMAN ACTUALITY///

         THEY CITED AND REPORTED IN THEIR REPORT, THAT THE RULING
         PARTY -- THE NEPALI CONGRESS PARTY -- HAD IN MANY
         INSTANCES IN TERMS OF THE OBSERVERS OBSERVATIONS ENGAGED
         IN ALL MANNER OF IRREGULARITIES, INCLUDING BOOTH
         CAPTURING, MULTIPLE VOTING, PROXY VOTING, ETCETERA.

                       ///END ACTUALITY///

THE OBSERVERS HAVE RECOMMENDED NEPAL REVISE THE VOTER REGISTRATION LIST; PROVIDE VOTERS WITH IDENTITY CARDS; AND IMPROVE SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BEFORE THE NEXT ELECTION.
(SIGNED).

NEB / WOD / WOD

17-Nov-94 7:12 AM EST (1212 UTC) NNNN

Source: Voice of America

****************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 02:43 EST Subject: election results (from neal cohen usaid, ktm) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu
>From Neal Cohen (usaid, ktm)p,

UML 73 declared + 9 ahead = 82 NC 53 declared + 7 ahead = 60 RPP 14 declared + 6 ahead = 20 Workers and Peasants
     4 declared + 0 ahead = 4 Independent
     4 declared + 4 ahead = 8 Sabavana
     1 declared + 0 ahead = 1 total
   149 declared + 26 ahead= 175 (thirty to go)

UML has a natural alliance with Workers and Peasants that has 86 at present. NC may be able to work with RPP and could easily work with Sabavana
(their manifestos are similar) and combined they have 81. So at present the control is with the independents. For the most part these are Congressmen who were denied tickets (some are "dissidents"). For many the complaint was with the PM, not with the policies. Maybe they will work with Congress if GP steps down (he has said he will not be part of a coalition). UML will also make a strong pitch for their support.

The Sabavana winner was previously a Communist.

Neal

*************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 05:00 EST Forwarded by: UDAY MANANDHAR Subject: election resluts To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: IN%"ncohen@usaid.gov" "Neal Cohen" 18-NOV-1994 03:29:38.94

Results at 2pm (see earlier e-mail for leading, and other information)

UML 75 48.4% NC 56 36.1% RPP 15 9.7% Workers 4 2.6% Sadv 1 0.6% Ind 4 2.6%
                                                --Neal

************************************************************ Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 02:54:06 To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: himalaya@ronast.ernet.in Subject: More information on Elections

Dear Mr. Singh,

The latest outcomes are as follows. Maybe of the interest of those who cares ab out Nepal. With best regards,

Sichendra Bista Journalist and Interdisciplinary ecologist himalaya@ronast.ernet.in Snail mail address: Post Box 6734 Kathmandu, Nepal

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAl

ELECTIONS OUTCOMES

KATHMANDU, NOVEMBER 17: WITH THE RESULTS IN 106 PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCIES OU T OF 205 DECLARED, THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF NEPAL (UNITED MARXIST-LENINIST) HAS S ECURED MORE THAN HALF (55) OF THOSE SEATS.

7 THE RUNNERS UP ARE THE RULING NEPALI CONGRESS (NC) PARTY WITH 32 SEATS SECURE D, THE CENTRIST NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY (NDP) 11, LEFT-WING NATIONAL PEASANTS
 AND LABOURERS PARTY(NPLP) THREE, ETHNIC NEPAL SADBHAVANA PARTY (NSP) ONE AND I NDEPENDENTS FOUR.

7 IT IS NOTEWORTHY THAT THE GOVERNING PARTY CONTROLLED 114 SEATS IN THE DISBAND ED PARLIAMENT, THE CPN-UML 68, NDP FOUR, NPLP TWO, REPUBLICAN UNITED PEOPLES FR ONT NINE, NSP SIX, AND COMMUNIST PARTY OF NEPAL (DEMOCRATIC) TWO.

7 REVIVAL OF THE RESURRECTING FORCES AND SMALL POLITICAL FACTIONS AS WELL AS UN PRECEDENTED VICTORY OF CPN-UML IN MOST OF THE PLACES SUGGEST THAT THE NEPALESE PEOPLE WANTED A CHANGE IN THE GOVERNMENT IN LESS THAN THREE YEARS, POLITICAL AN ALYSTS OPINED.

7 MENTIONABLY, THE MID-TERM POLLS ON NOVEMBER 15 WAS HELD ABOUT A YEAR AND A HA LF AHEAD OF THE GENERAL ELECTIONS DUE TO THE RIFT IN THE RULING PARTY.

7 AFTER KING BIRENDRA RELINQUISHED HIS ABSOLUTE POWER AND RESTORED MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN 1990, THE GOVERNING BIGGEST POLITICAL FORCE IN NEPAL ACQUIRED MAJ ORITY IN THE PARLIAMENT.

7 IT IS WIDELY SPECULATED THAT THE CPN-UML WILL ACQUIRE A SIMPLE MAJORITY, AT L EAST.

7 BUT, SOME POLITICAL PUNDITS SAID THAT THE FATE OF THE BIGGEST COMMUNIST PARTY
 WOULD DECIDED ONLY AFTER THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE RESULTS OF 39 PARLIAMENTARY C ONSTITUENCIES WHERE THE ELECTIONS ARE YET TO TAKE PLACE.

PEATED IN THOSE SENSITIVE PLACES WITHIN A WEEK.

7 IN FOUR POLLING CENTRES TWO EACH IN EASTERN TERAI DISTRICTS OF SARLAHI AND B ARA, THE REELECTIONS HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED ON THURSDAY.

R AND EX-PARLIAMENTARIAN MR. HIRANYA LAL SHRESTHA FROM MAKWANPUR 3, CONSTITUTIO NAL LAWYER MR. BHARAT MOHAN ADHIKARI FROM MORANG 2, EX-LEGISLATOR MR. JAGRIT PR ASAD BHETWAL FROM CHITWAN 1 OF THE CPN-UML.

7 LIKEWISE, NDP LEADER AND FORMER MINISTER FOR WATER RESOURCES MR. PASHUPATI SH UMSHERE AND NSP CANDIDIDATE MR. HRIDAYESH TRIPATHI HAVE ALSO BEEN ELECTED FROM SINDHUPALCHOK 3 AND NAWALPARASI 3.

EMENT IN FURNISHING REGUGE TO ABSCONDING CRIMINALS FROM INDIA IN KRISHNANAGAR, HIS RESIDENTIAL AREA.

S IN BAITADI 1 AND 2.

FORMER MP AND AN INDEPENDENT CANDIDATE MR. SHARAT SINGH BHANDARI HAS BEEN ELECT ED FROM MAHOTTARI 2. FORMERLY AN ACTIVE SUPPORTER OF THE DISBANDED PARTYLESS SY STEM, MR. BHANDARI ENTERED INTO THE NEPALI CONGRESS AFTER THE RESDTORATION OF D EMOCRACY. END ITEM+
(Message inbox:508)
 -- using template mhl.format -- Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 16:49:00 EST To: The Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu>

From: "Arun R. Joshi LA3HR 35549" <AJOSHI@worldbank.org> Subject: RE: The Nepal Digest - Nov 19, 1994 (3 Manghir 2051 BkSm)

Mr-Received: by mta WBHQB1; Relayed; Fri, 18 Nov 1994 15:57:45 -0500 Mr-Received: by mta EARTH; Relayed; Fri, 18 Nov 1994 16:57:54 -0500 Alternate-Recipient: prohibited Disclose-Recipients: prohibited Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; CHARSET=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7BIT Posting-Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 16:57:00 -0500 (EST) Importance: normal Priority: normal X400-Mts-Identifier: [;54755181114991/1859124@WBHQB] A1-Type: MAIL Hop-Count: 2

        Dear Editor:

                Could you please post this in your next TND.

                                WANTED

                A brilliant, young, social scientist with background
                in sociology and/or anthropology and/or psychology to
                collaborate in launching and then directing a non-profit,
                research and advocacy center that focuses on the health,
                psycho-social and developmental issues of infants and
                children in Nepal. Renowned scholars in the advisory board.

                Please call Arun at (703)- 883-2542 (evenings)

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 11:48 EST Forwarded by: UDAY MANANDHAR To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

  Economic Elements of the Election Manifestos 1994

Introduction

The first General Election after the restoration of democracy was in 1991. In that election, Nepali Congress Party received 110 out of 205 seats, followed by United Marxist Leninist (UML) which received 69 seats. The second election, scheduled for November 15, 1995, resulted from the failure of government to receive a majority vote for their proposed programs for 1994/95. There are 1,446 candidates from 24 registered parties with 387 independent candidates. The Congress Party is the only party that has nominated candi- dates from all 205 seats. There are 16,000 polling centers with 71,000 employees.

Each party's election manifesto is a comprehensive document covering social, economic and political issues. We summarize the economic aspects of the three major parties: the Congress Party of Nepal, United Marxist Leninist (UML) and the Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP). Other than the next section, Comments, we present as accurately as possible the actual statements of the parties.

Comments

There is a change in the policy of Congress from a "mixed economy" to an "open and liberal economy". In their previous Manifesto, they emphasized government interventions more than now. The role of government receives less emphasis in this Manifesto thereby changing the definition of democratic socialism to social justice achieved through liberal economic policies.

UML envisages a more controlled economy where the role of the government is more pronounced. They propose radical changes in land reform. They propose expanding the existing planning mechanism to the grassroots level. They will limit foreign investment to areas where there is no local producer. They propose to increase government revenue through greater reliance on direct taxes, they are against more indirect taxation.

UML lists privatization as an anti-national activity of the Congress Party whereby the nation's industries are handed over to foreigners. It claims that there has been corruption in privatization. National industrialists have been discouraged. Some other anti-national activities of Congress are, Tanakpur Agreement, increase in land-taxation thereby bur- dening farmers, price increases on basic commodities (drinking water, health services, education, electricity, fertilizer, seeds and medicines), adoption of liberal economic policies even when it gave the slogan of socialism, and misuse of government media. There has been a decline in the local industrial production of the country and the burden and misuse of foreign loans has increased.

RPP envisages government to be a regulator as it believes that state interventions in the market system disturbs competitiveness. They complain about the lack of clear direction, and policy confusion of Congress; inadequate controls on spending and corruption. While in favor of privatization, they feel it promotes concentration and propose to emphasize privatization through selling shares to the general public.

There was little difference in the policies of Congress and the UML in their manifestos for the first General Election. The present manifesto of Congress reflects its change to liberal economic policies and thus the macro-economic and land reform policies of Con- gress and UML have become strikingly different.

The common ground of all parties is the alleviation of poverty through rural development; the methods differ.

Nepali Congress

Reasons for Voting for Nepali Congress

1. Commitment to Healthy Nationalism

The Congress Party believes only it represents the interests of all Nepalis with pragmatic policies.

2. Democratic Socialism

The philosophy of the Party rests on the belief that social and economic justice cannot be provided through government controls.

3. Achievements of Three Year of Rule

(i) Health, Drinking Water and Education

The 1992 Health Policy was adopted with 26,000 women health workers posted in wards; 1,300 villages health posts and 40 health centers have been established.

To develop the skills needed, the B.P. Koirala Health Research Institute has been established. In Bharatpur, the B.P. Koirala Cancer Hospital is being constructed. Hospitals in Kathmandu have been expanded. The government is allowing private medical colleges to be established.

While Congress pledges to provide drinking water to all within ten years, it has provided, in the past three years an additional 3 million people with drinking water. By strengthen- ing and repairing existing water supply systems an additional 10 million litres of water are being supplied. There is provision to increase supply by another 10 million litres a day by constructing a water processing plant in Bansbari. Feasibility studies have been completed on Kodku, Chakhel and Melamchi projects.

Secondary schools have been made free up to class 8. Work is under way to start 10+2 programs so high schools are within easy reach. Over 100 new high schools are proposed. 12,000 additional teachers have been provided to public schools.

In one year 400,000 have become literate under the literacy program.

Money is set aside every year for scholarships for girls and deprived children. Policy requires at least one woman teacher in each public school, thus, government has appointed 1,400 women teachers in the last two years with 1,300 new positions added this year for women teachers.

(ii) Agriculture, Land and Forest

An Agriculture Enterprise Project has been started to make agriculture attractive and a means to alleviate rural poverty and unemployment. Laws have been drafted to resolve land problems. For the benefits of farmers, the Agriculture Development Bank and other banks have lowered lending rates. Compound interest has been ended [adding interest to principle due]. Agriculture loans have doubled to Rs2 billion.

A process has been started to lease government forests to people living below poverty. Land will be distributed to landless people through an already formed "Committee for the Landless". The Committee has distributed land to 15,000 landless families. 150,000 bighas of land has received additional irrigation; programs to increase milk production have started and a milk power factory established in Biratnagar. Provision has been made for grants for gobar gas and small electrical plants. Government will assist establishment of 6,000 gobar gas plants.

(iii) Transport, Communication, Hydro-electricity

To expand hydroelectricity, the Nepali Congress government has established large, small and medium electricity plants in the government, private and community sectors. Big projects like Arun 3, Kali Gandaki A and West Seti A, medium projects like Khimti and Bhote Kosi and small projects like Modi, Puwakhola, Achham, Tatopani, Kalikot, Dolpa and Diktel are in various stages of implementation. Hundreds of hydro projects in the pri- vate sector for urban areas and rural participation for the rural areas have received government grants.

(iv) Trade, Industry and Tourism

Healthy trade practices began since Congress came to power.

    exports to India have increased dramatically as Nepalese goods find their way into Indian market since the new Trade and Transit Treaty was signed;

    trade controls have been removed;

    the New Industrial Policy provides incentives to businesses in backward and remote areas; cottage industries are exempt from taxes;

    to increase economics competitiveness, the private sector has been permitted to operate domestic airlines which have made travel easier and increased tourism earnings.

(v) Rural Development and Decentralization

Rural development is the central policy of Congress. 70% of the development budget is spent on rural sector Two rural banks, one each in the East and the West have been established.. Provisions have been made to exempt 80% on loans up to Rs5,000 and of the interest on loans up to Rs15,000.

(vi) Other

The Congress Government has provided relief to victims of natural disasters; flood victims were provided with livestock; loans were written off for earthquake victims.

    families of martyrs have received financial support.

    distribution of citizenship has been simplified.

4. Promises

1. To Raise Income and Productivity

    widen avenues of employment of the poor;

    expand economic reforms;

    promote competition in the private sector but take care to provide protection to domestic products;

    adopt ways to make shareholdings broad-based (cooperatives will be developed as an instrument);

    strengthen tourism to provide employment.

2. Rural Development

Nepali Congress plans to provide drinking water, electricity, transport, free education, develop business-oriented farming, irrigation and health services. This year 600 small posts and 20 primary health centers will be established.

Land and property taxes collected in a district will be allowed to be spent on development works in that district.

3. Manpower Development

In the next five years there will be one primary health center with at least three beds in 150 election regions. High standard hospitals and nursing homes will be developed in the private and government sectors. Family planning use will be increased to 40% in five years from the current 24%. Primary schooling will be provided to all primary aged children in the next five years and 2.5 million illiterate people will be made literate.

4. Special Programs for Poverty Alleviation and Employment

    poverty alleviation will include agro-enterprise and forestry;

    expansion of the Small Farmer Development Program (SFDP),

    women development programs,

    small and cottage industry,

    rural banking,

    food for work,

    literacy,

    rural health and

    rural communication programs.

Special attention will be given to rural infrastructure since most of the unemployment and under-employment live in rural areas. The Party plans to train people for employment in foreign countries.

5. Other

a. Agriculture, Land Reform, Forest and Irrigation

    implement Long-term Agricultural Perspective Plan;
    encourage use of fertilizer to increase agricultural production;
    build rural and feeder roads, electrify production centers and encourage cash crops in the hills;
    end dual ownership within five years for which changes will be made in the Con- stitution;
    improve utilization of river and ground water for irrigation;
    involve farmers in constructing, maintaining and managing irrigation systems;
    give priority to programs like I.L.C., Irrigation Sector Project and those run by Agriculture Development Bank;
    transfer to user groups irrigation systems that provide water to 2,000 hectares in the terai and 500 hectares in the hills;
    develop ground water irrigation where surface systems are not feasible;
    repair and maintain completed projects.

b. Roads

    link all 75 districts to national highways;
    provide all Village Development Committees with postal services.
    expand telephone services to 20 districts (in the last 3 years 142,000 new telephone lines have been added; a three fold increase);
    give priority to remote area road construction and repair;
    link villages to market centers to market products;.
    build tractorable roads in the hills where feasible and trails where not;
    construct the Bardibas-Sindhuli-Kathmandu Highway.
    expand trolley bus services to keep the environment clean and construct the inner ring roads in Kathmandu;

c. Power and Energy
    encourage small hydel projects in rural areas in the hills and mountains by providing grants to the private sector;
    give priority to private sector development of Khimti, Modi, Bhote Kosi, and West Seti projects; 50,000kw will be imported from India and diesel plants will be started to meet immediate needs; reconstruct Trisuli-Devighat and Sun Kosi Pro- jects and repair smaller projects.

d. Trade, Industry and Tourism

Government will continue liberal economic policies adopted earlier.

e. Environment and Urbanization

Promote planned urbanization taking into account environmental factors.

f. Foreign Aid and Its Utilization
    give attention to project selection;
    identify areas for foreign loans, their economic impact and relationship to internal resource mobilization.

United Marxist-Leninist (UML) 1. End the Feudal Land Ownership System, Modernize Agriculture with Foodgrain Self- Sufficiency

The backbone of Nepal is agriculture. However, feudal land ownership, increasing popula- tion, deteriorating soil fertility, inappropriate agricultural technology, faulty pricing and grant policies have made Nepal an importer of foodgrains. To make agriculture people- oriented, the Party will:

 protect rights of tenant farmers and end "dual ownership";
 end the system of landlords and bonded laborers. Birta, guthi and kipats lands will be transferred to tenants;
 determine realistically and scientifically the upper and lower limits of land ownership;
 provide land-ownership identification to each Nepali;
 provide lands to landless farmers;
 introduce revolutionary land reform policies to reduce the rich-poor gap;
 provide no compensation to landlords for lands held illegally;
 adopt a policy of one person one job to reduce agricultural dependence;
 develop appropriate fruit, fodder and forest farming based on local endowments;
 develop community plots to reduce the impact land fragmentation has on agricultural production;
 start programs co-ordinating agricultural research, extension and education;
 establish an agricultural university;
 establish chemical fertilizer factories after feasibility studies;
 provide ag-technicians to villages to make farmers efficient and modernize agriculture;
 strengthen agricultural groups and cooperatives to modernize agriculture;
 develop cooperatives to provide all agricultural services;
 grow agricultural raw materials needed for already established industries;
 fix interest on credit for agricultural sector and provide small farmers with interest-free loans;
 develop a relationship between the price of fertilizer and foodgrains;
 promote agricultural products with international markets;.
 fix work-hours and wages for agricultural laborers sufficient for livelihood.

2. Agricultural Productivity to be Increased by Expanding Irrigation

To make the country food self-sufficient, the Party will:
 utilize existing irrigation systems at the maximum by repairing or through alternative management;
 provide grants to irrigation systems constructed by farmers and repair and maintain them.
 give priority to multi-uses which increase irrigation when developing big water projects;
 give equal priority to crop technology for irrigable and rain-fed lands;
 expand irrigation that provides maximum benefits.

3. Forest Conservation and Protection: Regulatory Supply of Forest Based Products

To reduce deforestation and to keep the balance of socio-economic development, the Party will:
 conserve natural forests, with open lands re-forested;
 provide employment opportunities to those dependent on forests.
 make institutions conserving forests effective and resource-rich.
 develop effective programs for community and private forests.
 end deforestation for political or other reasons;
 start integrated forest, water resources, soil conservation, agriculture, fuel, wood, herbs, flood erosion, soil loss, river control and environment programs;
 protect forests through electrification and alternative energy development.

4. Planned Development for Socio-Economic Equity and Regional Balance

To bring equity, the party will:
 develop a data collection system which will make planning more scientific;
 make changes in planning to accelerate economic growth with equity;
 base the Five Year and Yearly Plan on a long-term master plan keeping in mind available resources;
 make decentralization a backbone of planning;
 base project selection on economic, social, environment and regional balance factors;

5. Right Use of Government Revenue: End of Corruption and Distortions

To end current distortions, corruption, mismanagement, the lack of expenditure transparency, the Party will:
 reduce indirect tax collections as they have a negative impact on the general people;
 make the tax system progressive based on a "just" principal;
 broaden direct taxation to support increased productive investment;
 reduce tax evasions, through improved tax administration; tax due made transparent;
 develop the tax system to maintain economic independence;
 control unproductive government expenditures;
 introduce a modern budget system by eliminating vagueness in the division of regular and development expenditures;
 make government expenditures more transparent with accountability in implementa- tion;
 adopt strict regulations against commission agents and the institutionalized corruption of Congress;
 draft laws on commissions so they go into the Treasury; and
 revise the privatization policy (it is an anti-national activity of Congress for handing over the nation's industries to the foreigners; there has been corruption in the process and national industrialists have been discouraged.

6. Use of Foreign Aid According to Country's Need

To utilize foreign aid for economic independence:
 receive foreign aid on a national priority basis;
 use capital formation for economic social infrastructure development;
 bring into the auditing system, projects operating with full donor funding;
 give priority to foreign assistance that brings new technology;
 adopt policy to use local resources and skills in foreign-aided projects;
 establish a high level unit to look at reducing the need for foreign aid; this unit will coordinate assistance and programs coming to non-governmental agencies.

7. Industrialization for the Development of the Independent Economy

To industrialize and develop an economic independence:
 end foreign monopolistic capital;
 make the economy self-sufficient and independent, through development of competitive and export-oriented industries;
 determine industrial sectors for government, private and foreign investment;
 protect agro-industries to increase self-sufficiency;
 develop sericulture, cotton, livestock and fruits in appropriate regions after feasibility studies;
 give priority to industries based on indigenous raw materials and skills;
 change taxes, customs and other policies having adverse effect on the growth of "national capitalists";
 promote labor-intensive industries with pro-small and cottage industry policies;
 control illegal flow of goods as they adversely effect production;
 provide facilities through the "one window system";
 promote national industries through cooperatives with help from the banking system;
 adopt integrated policies on financing, technology, pricing and marketing of cottage industry.

8. Trade Diversification: Promotion of Exports
 trade with neighboring countries will be done based on comparative advantage;
 improve competitiveness for internationally exportable products;
 resolve problems of child labor in the carpet industry;
 revise the Trade Treaty with India making it mutually beneficial;
 end the present 2% export fee.

9. Foreign Investment for Self-Sufficiency and Technology Development Foreign investment will be permitted where it does not affect indigenous industry.

10. Effective Supply of Basic Goods and Price Control Cooperatives will be involved in the import of essential goods. Supply and demand will be regulated.

11. Client-oriented Banking Services and Credit Without Collateral to the Poor Concessional loans will be provided to small farmers and industrialists. Deposits in banks and financial institutions will be supervised and insured. Foreigners will not be allowed to carry out illegal financial transactions. Joint venture banks will be made rural and service oriented.

12. Other
 encourage national capital formation and development of a national capital class;
 provide employment to the unemployed;
 provide shelter to the landless;
 encourage tourism;
 provide literacy to all as a right;
 develop a transportation network;
 develop water resources in keeping with national interests;
 provide inexpensive health services to all;
 end corruption and make government people-oriented;
 establish rule of law;
 establish equality for men and women;
 provide rights to laborers by revising existing laws.

Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP)

Economic Policies

RPP will give a clear direction to the economy after the present confusion. The Nepalese are facing hunger, disease, illiteracy, un- and under-employment. The population in poverty are increasing. Government's economic management capability is very low and prices of goods supplied by the government sector have tripled in the last 3 to 4 years.

There is a lack of controls in government expenditures and not much improvement in revenue collection, dependence on foreign grants and loans has increased. Because of gov- ernment inaction to spend foreign assistance, project implementation has been pushed back and expenditures on these projects increased sharply.

There are no policies to lift the standard of living in poverty. The situation is worsened by growing unemployment and underemployment especially in rural areas.

The biggest challenge is the imbalance between population growth, landlessness and the deteriorating environment. If timely policies are not introduced, many areas will be desertified in the next 10 to 15 years.

There is an imbalance between government expenditures and revenue. If appropriate solutions are not made, money supply and inflation will increase because of increased dependence on external resources. There are gaps between supply and demand, and exports and imports. The gap between exports and imports has reached a non- manageable stage.

1. Objectives

The challenge of development is to close the gap between the few urban rich and the millions of rural poor. As one policy will not resolve this problem, a package must be adopted. The Party will fight poverty and adopt liberal policies to increase productivity.

Equity will be the main driving force. About 82% of the population are backward living in villages. They speak different languages and are of different religions, races, cultures and traditions. The most backward, poor people are hungry, inadequately clothed, home- less, unemployed and illiterate. The economy must lift the standard of living and self- image of these people through participatory policies and programs.

Specifics

1. Industry, Trade and Modern Sector Development

The primary vehicle for modern sector development will be non-governmental. To promote private and non-governmental organizations there is a need for liberal, open, market-led policies. To develop an open economy there is a need for policies comparable to the outside world in customs tariffs, interest rates, tax system and rates, foreign ex- change rates, money and financial policies, industrial and trade policies. There is a need to remove internal controls, rules and directives that are obstacles to open market.

RPP believes to discourage monopoly and centralization of economy, there is a need for government regulations at the policy level and not at the administrative level as state interference in the market disturbs competitiveness.

There is a lack of confidence and confusion in the industry and trade sectors. Government has a large loss from government enterprises run inefficiently where government interferes in operation. Though RPP believes privatization is necessary, it disagrees with the modes currently used which allow for long payment periods and low valuation. This promotes monopolies by certain people. RPP will privatize by selling shares to the general public. The funds raised will be used to write-off internal loans. Loan payments on these loans account for one-third of the regular budget.

It is impractical to forcefully re-locate important industries like garments and carpets which are earning needed foreign exchange. It is natural for industries to be located where they have sufficient infrastructure like roads, electricity and water. RPP will try to formu- late policies to expand exports. It will work with garment exporters and provide facilities and incentives to make them competitive when the quota system ends in 10 years.

While the country is producing very few basic goods, it is being swamped by luxury goods which create a trade imbalance.

The Trade Treaty with India was appropriate in the past, but given the large trade deficit now, a new Treaty is needed.

RPP objects to trade policies that levy higher taxes on raw materials than finished products and will immediately change such policies. Industries producing basic goods will be protected and cottage industries promoted. All manpower needs of the industries will be fulfilled with unemployed Nepalese.

2. Agriculture and Rural Development

RPP will implement social programs to uplift the standard of living of rural people and give priority to income redistribution and increasing production.

More resources will go to social sectors than currently. The primary objective is to provide employment and food to every Nepali. RPP believes that agriculture development is the key to economic development. Appropriate technology, chemical fertilizers, seeds, insec- ticides, agricultural tools, and credit facilities will be provided at the farmers' doorsteps. An appropriate fertilizer policy will be developed and current corruption in chemical ferti- lizer distribution ended.

Analysis shows that 70% of development budget is not going to the rural sector as said by Congress. The Economic Survey of the last three years shows that loans going to small farmers are decreasing. Because of the re-introduction of compound interest on loans given to small farmers their land and houses are being auctioned off. RPP will end this. Two bighas of land will be exempt from land tax in the Terai and 25 ropanis will be ex- empt in the hills. Landless farmers and laborers will be given free land and Rs5,000 in interest-free five year loans. Forty percent of agriculture loans will go to small and landless farmers. Emphasis will be given to irrigation and hydro-electricity. RPP will provide leadership to develop river traffic to the sea, and will revise the Tanakpur Treaty.

3. Land Reform and Decentralization

To provide land to poor farmers living below subsistence, RPP will
 end the dual land ownership system;
 provide loans to farmers to buy lands;
 revise the decentralization policy to end distrust between government officials and elected people and thus bring effective district development.

4. Introduce Urbanization Plan

The population in urban areas is increasing at 7-10% per year. Steps will be taken to remove garbage from urban areas and eliminate pollution. Urban development is needed for nation building. RPP will urbanize other cities to reduce the pressure on Kathmandu but also improve urban life in Kathmandu.

5. Education

Secondary schools will be made free in a phased manner and with special attention given to backward children and girls. Tribhuvan University Law School will be made more independent.

6. Health

The slogan will be "health for all". RPP will improve services provided by hospitals and health centers; make some hospitals modern so all sicknesses can be treated; and take health services to the doorsteps of the poor through mobile teams.

7. Communications and Press

RPP will adopt policies to stop current government interferences in Radio Nepal, Nepal Television and other government media; it will treat government and private media equally.

8. Landlessness Problem

Register land, start education, health, communication, transport, cottage industry pro- grams.

9. Programs on Tourism

RPP will decrease visa and mountaineering fees; simplify regulations regarding entry and exit policies; keep Himalayan tourism clean. RPP will develop a Master Plan to keep Kathmandu, Bagmati and Bishnumati Rivers, temples, churches, gombas, masjids clean and maintained.

10. Transportation

 emphasize suspension bridges, rope-ways and trails in the Hills;
 construct a hill road from Mechi to Mahakali;
 develop waterways to link hills and terai;
 explore expansion of railways as they are cheaper to operate and maintain;
 expand electric trolley buses for urban areas; trolley buses on ring roads in Kathman- du, Dharan-Biratnagar, Hetauda-Birgunj, Butwal-Bhairahawa and Kohalpur-Nepalgunj;
 develop air services; and
 maintain existing transport system and to construct new ones.

11. Drinking Water

 improve management of existing water supply systems to reduce leakages,
 import water processing technology to make drinking water safe.
 reduce the water tariff
 develop a drinking water Master Plan
 make water available in rural areas through wells and tube-wells in the terai and other systems elsewhere.

12. Price Control

Bring balance between demand and supply. Goods will be imported from countries with the cheapest prices.

13. Social Insecurity and Corruption

Corruption and commissioneering has become characteristics of Congress. RPP will end corruption.

14. Women

 formulate laws for women rights and freedom;
 women will be represented in political and economic decision making;
 awareness will be brought against dowry;
 make changes in existing laws to provide women equal rights
 promote women's development through non-governmental institutions which will be provided with adequate resources;
 provide training to women; and
 education of women will be compulsory with scholarships provided.

15. Labor

 revise policies regarding labor in industrial, agricultural and other sectors;
 increase salaries, allowances and bonuses according to inflation;
 protect jobs in privatized enterprises;
 eliminate child labor;
 determine agricultural labor wages;
 organize laborers in the unorganised sector;
 create amicable atmosphere between management and laborers, assist laborers to buy shares in the enterprise.

********************************************************************* Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 22:29:41 From: himalaya@ronast.ernet.in Subject: Latest developments

Dear Mr. Singh,

The latest outcomes are as follows. Maybe of the interest of those who cares ab out Nepal.

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

CPN-UML STILL FORERUNNER

TUENCIES ONLY.

LIKEWISE, THE CENTRIST NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY SECURED 14 SEATS, THE LEFT WIN G NEPAL PEASANTS AND LABOURERS PARTY FOUR, THE ETHNIC NEPAL SADBHAVANA PARTY ON E AND INDEPENDENTS FOUR IN THE 205-MEMBER NEPALESE PARLIAMENT.

IN THE DISBANDED HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, THE RULING PARTY CONTROLLED 114 SEAT S, THE CPN-UML 68, NDP FOUR, NPLP TWO, REPUBLICAN UNITED PEOPLES FRONT NINE, NS P SIX, AND COMMUNIST PARTY OF NEPAL (DEMOCRATIC) TWO.

LEADING IN TWO CONSTITUENCIES, IT IS LEARNT.

FORMER PRIME MINISTER AND NDP CANDIDATE MR. LOKENDRA BAHADUR CHAND HAS BEEN ELE CTED FROM BAITADI 2, REPORTS REACHING HERE LATELY SAID.

ACCORDING TO ELECTION COMMISSION, THE REPOLLING QUIETLY TOOK PLACE IN FOUR CENT RES IN THE EASTERN TERAI DISTRICTS OF BARA AND SARLAHI ON THURSDAY.

IT IS NOTEWORTHY THAT THE ELECTION COMMISSION POSTPONED THE ELECTIONS ON NOVEMB ER 15 IN 81 POLLING STATIONS IN 39 CONSTITUENCIES OF 22 DISTRICTS DUE TO VIOLEN CE.

THE ELECTIONS ARE BEING REPEATED IN FOUR POLLING STATIONS THREE IN SARLAHI AND ONE IN NUWAKOT ON FRIDAY.

THE COMMISSION ALSO SAID THAT THE REPOLLINGS WILL BE HELD ON SATURDAY IN TWO PO LLING STATIONS IN GORKHA, TWO IN LAMJUNG, ONE IN TANAHUN AND THREE IN RAUTAHAT DISTRICTS. END ITEM+

AMADABLAM SCALED

KATHMANDU, NOVEMBER 18: SIX AUSTRALIAN MOUNTAINEERS INCLUDING THREE WOMEN CLIMB ED THE 6,812 METRES HIGH MOUNT AMADABLAM VIA SOUTH EAST RIDGE, THE MINISTRY OF TOURISM AND CIVIL AVIATION SAID ON FRIDAY.

THREE FEMALE SUMMITEERS INCLUDING VERA WONG, ANDREW MCAULEY AND ROD WILLIARD RE ACHED ON THE TOP ON NOVEMBER 8 WHILE THE REST INCLUDING TEAM LEADER ARMANDO COR VINI PERCHED ATOP TWO DAYS LATER.

ANDREW BURNS AND DAVID SMITH ARE THE TWO CLIMBERS WHO ACCOMPANIED EXPEDITION LE ADER CORVINI TO THE SUMMIT ON NOVEMBER 10, THE MINISTRY SAID. END ITEM+

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

ELECTIONS UPDATE

KATHMANDU, NOVEMBER 18: THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF NEPAL IS STILL AHEAD OF THE RULI NG NEPALI CONGRESS PARTY IN 18 PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCIES WITH 158 OUT OF 205
 RESULTS DECLARED SO FAR.

D SEATS IN 16, FOUR AND ONE CONSTITUENCIES RESPECTIVELY.

INDEPENDENT CANDIDATES HAVE ALSO WON IN FOUR COSTITUENCIES INCLUDING TWO DISSID ENT NEPALI CONGRESS MEMBERS WHO WERE DENIED OFFICIAL TICKETS FOR THE PARLIAMENT ARY POLLS BY THE PARTY HIGH COMMAND, AND THE REST HAVING INCLINATION TOWARDS CE NTRIST NDP.

POLITICAL OBSERVERS PRESUMED THAT THE BIGGEST LEFT WING GROUP IN THIS HIMALAYAN
 KINGDOM MIGHT FORM A GOVERNMENT OF ITS OWN, PROVIDED THE CPN-UML MAINTAINS THE
 LEAD TILL THE END.

MR. NAWA RAJ SUBEDI, ONCE INFAMOUS HEAD OF THE NOW-DISMANTLED PANCHAYAT POLICY AND INVESTIGATION COMMISSION AND CHAIRMAN OF THE DISBANDED RASHTRIYA PANCHAYAT,
 HAS BEEN ELECTED FROM SALYAN 1.

AS BADLY DEFEATED BY A RULING PARTY FEMALE CANDIDATE MS. MINA PANDEY.

ANOTHER NDP CANDIDATE AND FORMER MINISTER DURING THE PANCHAYAT REGIME MR. PADMA
 SUNDAR LAWATI HAS BAGGED A SEAT IN PANCHTHAR 2 BUT HE FAILED TO WIN IN PANCHAT HAR 1.

 2.

LIKEWISE, VICE-CHAIRMAN OF THE NATIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION AND A NC CANDIDATE DR. RAM SARAN MAHAT WON IN NUWAKOT 2.

IT IS NOTEWORTHY THAT SOME 70 ELECTED CANDIDATES ARE NEW FACES AND THE REST CON STITUENCIES RETURNED OLD FACES. OUT OF 158 DECARED ELECTED, FIVE WINNERS ARE WO MEN INCLUDING THREE CPN-UML CANDIDATES AND TWO CONGRESSITES.

CPN-UML PRESIDENT MR. MANMOHAN ADHIKARI WHO TOPPLED IN BOTH OF THE PRESTIGIOUS KATHMANDU 1 AND 3 CONSTITUENCIES, IS THE ELEDEST CANDIDATE ELECTED. MR. ADHIKAR I IS OF 72 (SEVENTY-TWO).

MR. GANGA PRASAD CHOWDHARY OF CPN-UML AND MR. HOM RAJ DAHAL OF NC, BOTH OF 27,
 ARE THE YOUNGEST CANDIDATES DECALRED ELECTED. END ITEM+

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

LATEST RESULTS OF PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS

T OF ITS OWN. SO FAR, THE RULING NEPALI CONGRESS PARTY BAGGED 59 SEATS, PRO-PALACE NATIONAL D EMOCRATIC PARTY 16, LEFTIST NEPAL PEASANTS AND LABOURERS PARTY FOUR, ETHNIC NEP AL SADBHAVANA THREE AND INDEPENDENTS FIVE. OUT OF 12 CONSTITUENCIES WHERE THE VOTE COUNT IS GOING ON, THE CPN-UML IS LEADI NG IN SIX PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCIES, THE GOVERNING PARTY IN TWO, NDP IN THRE E AND AN INDEPENDENT IN ONE PLACE. AN NC STALWART AND STATE MINISTER FOR HOUSING AND PHYSICAL PLANNING MR. DILENDR A PRASAD BADU HAS BEEN DEFEATED BY CPN-UML CANDIDATE MR. PREM SINGH DHAMI BY A MARGIN OF 4,097 VOTES IN THE MOUNTAINOUS DISTRICT OF DARCHULA IN FAR WESTERN NE PAL. IKEWISE, MINISTER FOR WATER RESOURCES MR. LAXMAN PRASAD GHIMIRE WAS NARROWLY CO NQUERED BY A CPN-UML CANDIDATE WITH A MARGINAL 11 (ELEVEN) VOTES IN RAMECHHAP 1



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