The Nepal Digest - Nov 18, 1994 (2 Manghir 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Thursday 18 Nov 94: Mangshir 2 2051 BkSm Volume 33 Issue 11

  Today's Topics are:
 
               Election Crunch Time - Apologoies for no topic headers.

  *****************************************************************************
  * TND Board of Staff *
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  * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
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********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 14 Nov 1994 12:17:01 -0600 (CST) From: SUDEEP ACHARYA <sa01@engr26.engr.uark.edu> Subject: Nepali Association in LA? To: The Editor <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Rajesh B. Shrestha's request is: Does anybody know if there is a Nepali Association in LA. or around LA? Please send clues or telephone numbers.

*************************************************************** From: Shailesh R. Bhandari <sbhandar@garnet.acns.fsu.edu> Subject: Choto Kabita To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Mon, 14 Nov 1994 13:47:23 -0500 (EST)

 
                            MAYA

                 Eklai basi timro samjhana gardaa
                                  Timi sanggai bole jasto lagchha
                 Malai dekhera jaba timi lajaaoochhou
                 Timilai
                                  Merai maya le pole jasto lagchha.
 
 

                           AHAMTAA

                  Timro roopko bayan garne kram ma
                  Yo pani vannu parchha ki
                  Youvan basnu parne ti timra ooth ma,
                                  Ahamta ko poko baseko chha
                  Tyahi ahamta ko poko sangga,
                                  Mero maya faseko chha.
 

************************************************************** ate: Mon, 14 Nov 1994 14:55:29 -0500 (EST) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: I wanted to forward this statement thinking it is of interestregarding From: Subhabrata Sarkar <SARKAR_CON@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU>

TITLE=NEPAL/ELECTION CURTAIN-RAISER BYLINE=MICHAEL DRUDGE DATELINE=KATHMANDU, NEPAL

INTRO: NEPAL VOTES TOMORROW (TUESDAY) FOR A NEW PARLIAMENT. CORRESPONDENT MICHAEL DRUDGE REPORTS FROM KATHMANDU THE CONTEST PITS A BADLY-DIVIDED RULING CONGRESS PARTY AGAINST THE COMMUNISTS, THE BIGGEST OPPOSITION FORCE.

TEXT: TUESDAY'S ELECTIONS FOR A NEW PARLIAMENT IN NEPAL WILL TEST A FRAGILE EXPERIMENT WITH DEMOCRACY IN THE POVERTY-STRICKEN HIMALAYAN MOUNTAIN NATION, THE WORLD'S ONLY HINDU KINGDOM.

NEPAL IS SANDWICHED BETWEEN INDIA AND TIBET. IT RANKS AS ONE OF THE WORLD'S 10 POOREST COUNTRIES. PER-CAPITA INCOME IS ABOUT 180-DOLLARS A YEAR. MORE THAN 60-PERCENT OF NEPALIS ARE ILLITERATE AND MOST PEOPLE LIVE IN REMOTE VILLAGES.

NEPAL HAS ABOUT 19-MILLION RESIDENTS AND ABOUT 12-MILLION ARE ELIGIBLE TO VOTE. MORE THAN 14-HUNDRED CANDIDATES ARE RUNNING FOR 205 SEATS IN THE PARLIAMENT, WHICH WAS CREATED ONLY AFTER A BLOODY PRO-DEMOCRACY MOVEMENT IN 1990.

TWENTY-FOUR PARTIES AND SCORES OF INDEPENDENT CANDIDATES ARE CONTESTING THE ELECTIONS. BUT THE REAL RACE IS BETWEEN THE RULING NEPAL CONGRESS PARTY AND THE COMMUNISTS.

THE CONGRESS PARTY WON THE 1991 PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS, BUT IT HAS BEEN BADLY DIVIDED EVER SINCE. PARTY DISSIDENTS ACCUSE AGING PRIME MINISTER G-P KOIRALA OF CORRUPTION AND SABOTAGE AGAINST HIS POLITICAL RIVALS.

MR. KOIRALA CALLED THE ELECTIONS WHEN 36 PARTY DISSIDENTS REFUSED TO SUPPORT HIM IN WHAT AMOUNTED TO A VOTE OF NO-CONFIDENCE IN JULY. IN HIS CAMPAIGN, MR. KOIRALA PROMISES STABILITY, DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT -- SAYING THE COMMUNISTS WOULD THREATEN THE COUNTRY.

THE COMMUNIST LEADER, MAN MOHAN ADHIKARI, CLAIMS HIS PARTY NOW ADVOCATES SOCIAL DEMOCRACY. HE PREDICTS VICTORY, BUT IS WORRIED THE CONGRESS PARTY WILL RESORT TO FRAUD. HE SAYS IF THERE IS SUSPICION OF VOTE-RIGGING, HIS SUPPORTERS WILL REVOLT.

THE COMMUNISTS ARE POWERFUL IN THE KATHMANDU VALLEY, NEPAL'S MAIN URBAN CENTER. BUT, THE CONGRESS PARTY HAS GAINED STRENGTH IN THE COUNTRYSIDE.

POLITICAL OBSERVERS SAY NEITHER MAJOR PARTY MAY WIN AN OUTRIGHT MAJORITY. BUT CONGRESS WILL PROBABLY COME THE CLOSEST, AND IT COULD TRY TO FORM A COALITION WITH THE OLD-LINE MONARCHIST PARTY.

THE ELECTIONS WILL TEST THE COMMITMENT TO DEMOCRACY IN NEPAL, WHERE KING BIRENDRA ONLY GAVE UP ABSOLUTE AUTHORITY IN 1990 AFTER PROTESTS THAT KILLED SCORES OF DEMONSTRATORS.

OBSERVERS SAY THREE-YEARS OF POLITICAL IN-FIGHTING AND POWER STRUGGLES HAVE FUELED DISENCHANTMENT AND FRUSTRATION WITH POLITICS. ONE WESTERN DIPLOMAT REMARKED THERE IS -- AS HE PUT IT
-- "A CLOUD HANGING OVER DEMOCRACY IN NEPAL." (SIGNED).

NEB/MWD/RAE

14-Nov-94 7:14 AM EST (1214 UTC) NNNN

Source: Voice of America

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%%%%% your are "barking" at us. Thank you for the post.%%%%%
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********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 14 Nov 1994 16:25:23 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Asian biking contacts Message-ID: <rutman-0611941303340001@moses.mit.edu>

Howdy. I'm trying to find contacts for a bike tour. If anyone has any suggestions on other forums that may be more appropriate, please let me know. Thanks for your help.

Five friends and I are planning a monster biking trip through Asia beginning May '95. Turkey, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Mongolia - 7000 miles, 130 days. None of us speak Russian, Chinese, etc, and so we were hoping to get a "native" guide to translate and help us get around. The plan is that a Russian would ride with us from Istanbul to Katmandu, where a Chinese-speaking rider would take over for the remainder. We would provide most gear and whatever else was needed, keeping in mind that we want an adventurous cycler type, not a professional tour guide.

So, the point is, I was wondering if anyone could give me any leads as to where I might find such a person: a Chinese biking club phone number, or a cyclist you know from one of these countries who might have contacts back there...

And of course, any advice is appreciated. Thanks for your help.

Nathaniel Rutman please e-mail reponses to rutman@mit.edu 617 225-9143

I used to drive a Heisenberg Uncertainty car, but I could never look at the speedometer without getting lost.

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 02:24:30 PST To: nepal-request@cs.niu.edu From: kshah@makalu.Stanford.EDU (Kishan B. Shah) Subject: request for subscription

Dear TND staff members,

many thanks to all of you for managing the TND. special thanks to Rajpal J. Singh who brought it in to existence.

could you please add a friend to the TND subscription list?
 ek.mxm@forsythe.stanford.edu

thanks again. sincerely, k shah

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 00:48:28 EST To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: CrisCarusi@aol.com Subject: TND database info

Hi,

I'd like to be included in the TND database, if possible. Here's some biographical information about myself:

Name: Cris Carusi Address: RR 2, Box 117, Hartington, NE 68739

I lived in Nepal for three years (1989-1992), while serving in the Peace Corps. I worked for the ADB/N in the Mahakali zone (posted in Patan, Baitadi), for most of that time. I also spent some time working in Surkhet, Dailekh, and Jumla. I am currently the director of a nonprofit organization in Nebraska (the Nebraska Sustainable Agriculture Society). I am new to Nebraska, and would like to meet any Nepalis living here.

Thank you, Cris

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 14 Nov 1994 20:40:55 -0500 (EST) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: temple to all

This is in response to Mr.Bhusan's statement.He has said that why should we let the non-hindus in the Pashupati? And he also has justified his point by saying that what Christians or Muslims do.The point of emphasis is not what others do,but what our judegement is.We need not compare in everything and religion and belief is much above than comparision. Why should we care what the rules of others are?But that does not mean that we too should be limited.Thinking that opening Pashupati for non hindus glorifies the principle of hinduism, I think it is a very positive step. Not,only that many will have a chance to see the beauty of it.In Gita lord Krishna has stated'"No matterwhat path you take it will lead to me." I think God or incarnations always gave us a positive approach,they tried to teach more on unification.But there always has been something against it or someone and things have gone wrong.So, maybe sometimes back someone made this rule that non -hindus must not enter and it just carried on.So, let us try to analyze it with a open mind and big heart.This is something to think about.Thanks.Nirmal
  
*********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 14 Nov 94 20:46:26 EST From: "Scott Justice sejust00@ukcc.uky.edu" <SEJUST00@UKCC.uky.edu> Subject: lookin for help To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

Namaste Youall, First, Kudos for the editors of TND. I have really enjoyed it thus far! Second, I am a anthropology grad student seeking information on cooperatives in Nepal generally and the Terai specifically. Any help or advice would be greatly appreciated. Let the battles rage.
                                                                Cheers, Scott

********************************************************************* Date: 15 Nov 94 01:41:43 EST From: Pawan.Adhikari@Dartmouth.EDU (Pawan Adhikari) Subject: Budhanilkantha School To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

The status of Budhanilkantha School as a recipient of a heavy government subsidy seems to have incited a flurry of comments on the recent issues of The Nepal Digest. In my capacity as a recent graduate of BNKS, I would like to clarify some issues which seem to be misunderstood or misinterpreted.

Budhanilkantha School was established as a model institution for the Nepali secondary education system by the British in 1972. From the beginning, it emphasized on selecting very able Nepali students from a wide range of socio
- economic, cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and from all parts of the country. By and large, this practice is still carried out and an estimated sum of 2 lakhs is annually allotted to select a diverse and a qualified student body. It was in this capacity that the school was officially designated as the National School of Nepal.

The British initially had agreed for a ten year plan to run the school and hand it over to the Nepali government after that. By 1982, however, since many goals the British had envisioned for had not been accomplished, they extended their term for another ten years. During this ten year period, many new facilities were added. In 1983 - 84, the school was converted to English medium, and later in the decade, the GCE O & A levels were added to the curriculum. Contributions for these new programs mainly came from the ODA sources. Since the Gurkha involvement in the Falklands War, during which a prominent member from the Board of Governors lobbied with the ODA committee, there was an increase in British spending, an increase that accounts for not only the establishment of the O & A levels, but also for facilities like the swimming pool, the Saraswati temple, and the science laboratories. However, during the entire period, the British commitment was limited to building the infrastructure, taking care of the payrolls of the British expatriates teaching at the School, and funding a teacher exchange program. In 1992, the British, notwithstanding their earlier commitment to pull out at the end of that year, were crucial in recruiting the first batch of girls in what was to be their last effort at diversification. A year after, in 1993, two girls hostels were built (which, you may have known, was inaugurated by Lady Diana Spencer.) Since the building of the hostels, the British involvement in the school has been officially over. Only a few British teachers have decided to remain since their absence will leave a void that the current Nepali administration is not sufficiently prepared to fill. Now, for the first time in its twenty two year history, BNKS has a Nepali headmaster.

The Nepali government has been committed mainly to running the school. Like other government employees, the entire faculty members, administration members, and the workforce is paid for by the Nepali government. The bulk of the subsidy, however, goes to funding the educational costs of the scholarship students who constitute a third of the total student population. Due to the high residential costs, the cost of the scholarship package is disproportionately high. In the fiscal year 1991 - 92, the Nepali government spent a total of about Rs. 60 lakhs, out of the total of Rs. 160 lakhs allotted for the secondary education in Nepal, on Budhanilkantha School
(These figures also include the payroll of the employees.) The remaining part of the subsidy is spent on maintaining the science laboratories (8 lakhs) and for recruiting new students (2 lakhs.) (Please note that all figures, which are from the fiscal year 1991 - 92, have been approximated.)

Now that the school is effectively in the hands of the Nepali government, there have been debates over its legitimacy as the National School, a status which qualifies for its heavy subsidy. Since the school has been oriented more towards British system of education, especially since the implementation of the O & A Levels, the SLC performance in recent years has been weaker, and thus disappointing. In addition, due to some unverified rumors, the school has also been receiving bad press recently. In the light of these recent negative impressions, the sentiments against BNKS have been running especially high.

However, I feel that the diversity of the student body and the performance of the students are some of the few points that should be taken into account in evaluating the status of BNKS. It is one of the few schools that is not only committed to a diverse student body and an equal opportunity, but is also representative of Nepali students as a whole. So far, it not only has had a notable academic and extra - curricular performance, but also a highly motivated body of students. One of the many activities of the Social Service Club of BNKS has been to run a nationwide scholarship program by finding donations or sponsors on its own. For those living in the cities, it might be easy to denounce BNKS as a prodigal establishment, but it carries strong sentiments in many villages, where teachers and students alike eagerly look forward to its recruitment seasons.

I do not intend to advocate support for BNKS. I personally feel that there are inefficiencies with it, inefficiencies which could be addressed by some financially feasible measures. It post - SLC programs can not only be expanded or diversified, but also changed to fit in with the regional context of Nepal, by basing it on the Indian style of post - secondary education for example. But I find it hard to eschew suggestions of those ideogogues, who, in the name of equity, would like to subject the school to free market. Institutional values are not always a commodity to be traded in a free market. One has to look at the condition of the English boarding schools in Kathmandu before privatizing Budhanilkantha School. Reform is a better alternative to free market.

********************************************************************** Date: 15 Nov 94 15:01:17 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: Election News To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

HEADLINE: Nepal Voting Sees Rioting AP- Nepal -Elections DATELINE: KATMANDU, Nepal

 BODY:
    Police fired shots to disperse rioters Tuesday in southern Nepal, but elsewhere in this mountainous kingdom voters cast ballots without incident to elect a new parliament.

   The Nepali Congress won a majority in the 1991 elections. A rebellion by 36 party lawmakers pulled down Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala's government and forced elections 18 months ahead of schedule.

   Thousands of voters dressed in traditional clothes rang bells and chanted prayers at Hindu temples in the capital before heading to the polling stations. The sound of conch-shell horns, symbolizing an auspicious beginning, reverberated across the valley.

   More than 100 international observers from 29 countries, including the United States and Japan, are monitoring the second elections in the last three years.

   After five deaths in pre-election violence, 100,000 security guards were posted outside polling booths and houses across the kingdom to prevent further violence.

   Tensions between supporters of the governing Congress Party of Nepal and the leftist parties led by Communists caused sporadic unrest. Police wounded one person breaking up a disturbance in Mahotari, 75 miles southeast of Katmandu, said Tek Bahadur Singh Thapa, a top election official.

   Two other incidents were reported in nearby villages.

   The Katmandu valley is a stronghold of the communists who won seven of the nine seats in 1991 elections. Overall, they won 83 seats in the 205-member Parliament.

   Authorities ordered all vehicles off the roads for the day to prevent political parties from transporting people to the polling centers.

   As in the past, Nepal's 1,000-mile-long border with India was sealed for 24 hours. Campaigning by two Indian opposition politicians in support of Nepali candidates drew strong protests from the communists.

HEADLINE: Nepal election marked by scattered violence

 BODY:
    By Nelson Graves

   KATHMANDU, Nov 15 (Reuter) - Nepal voted on Tuesday to choose a new parliament amid scattered violence and anxieties that no clear majority would emerge to guide the new Himalayan democracy out of poverty.

   Despite the deployment of over 100,000 members of the security forces, at least 13 people were injured in clashes between supporters of rival parties, police and local officials said.

   Police fired in the air to disperse a violent crowd in the southern district of Mahottari and authorities cancelled votes at 19 polling stations due to clashes and irregularities, they told Reuters.

   Interior Ministry spokesman Sri Kant Regmi said two supporters of the communist Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) front were stabbed by supporters of the monarchist Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP) and taken to hospital with serious injuries.

   He said the violence broke out in Taplejung district, 200 km (125 miles) east of Kathmandu.

   ''There have been a few incidents,'' a spokesman for the National Election Observation Committee (NEOC) told Reuters, saying police and election officials had received beatings in one district. The 35,000-member army was put on alert.

   The NEOC spokesman said most clashes were near the southern border with India, and that elsewhere voting was largely without incident. Turnout was relatively low, he said.

   In the sun-drenched capital Kathmandu, there were no reports of serious incidents as voters waited quietly in long queues to stamp ballots marked only with party symbols including a tree, the sun, a plough, a drum and a hammer and sickle.

   More than 1,250 election observers, including 130 foreigners from 28 countries, were posted in 205 constituencies for the kingdom's second general election since pro-democracy protests ended an absolute monarchy in 1990.

   The border with India was sealed off to prevent any tampering with the polls, the Election Commission said.

   Squeezed between the world's two most populous nations --India and China -- Nepal is one of the 10 poorest nations with average annual income of $180 a head.

   The polls were not expected to deter Nepal from the neutral foreign policy course it has long followed.

   In 1991 the centrist Nepali Congress party won the country's first free elections in 31 years after King Birendra was forced to relinquish almost all of his power.

   But factional infighting and corruption allegations plagued the ruling party, forcing Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala to call parliamentary polls 18 months ahead of schedule.

   At least six people were killed in the run-up to the elections. Authorities banned all vehicles from the capital except those of diplomats, journalists and election observers. Most shops were shut and alcohol sales were banned for the day.

   A total of 12.3 million people were eligible to vote. Even a rough idea of the outcome was not expected before Friday.

   Political observers and diplomats were split over whether the Congress party, which held 114 of 205 seats in the outgoing parliament, would overcome its wrangling to retain a majority.

   The UML, which had controlled 81 seats, predicted voters fed up with claims of Congress corruption would give it a majority.

   UML's platform closely resembled that of Congress and UML leader Man Mohan Adhikary vowed to defend multi-party democracy and capitalism if thrust into power.

   But a Western diplomat said it was unclear if party hard-liners would follow Adhikary's moderate course.

HEADLINE: Security high as Nepal's second elections open BYLINE: By Nelson Graves

 BODY:
    Nepal voted Tuesday to choose a new parliament amid tight security and concerns that no clear-cut majority would emerge to guide the picturesque Himalayan kingdom out of poverty.

   An estimated 100,000 security personnel fanned out across the nation to head off any violence in Nepal's second free elections since a bloody pro-democracy revolt ended absolute monarchy in 1990.

   The 35,000-man Nepalese army was on alert, and more than 1,000 election observers were posted in 205 constituencies spread from southern plains to the world's highest peaks.

   The border with India was sealed off to prevent any foreign tampering with the polls, the Election Commission said.

   Squeezed between the world's two most populous countries--India and China- Nepal is one of the world's poorest countries, with average annual income of $ 180 a person. Its small economy depends heavily on foreign aid.

   In 1991 the centrist Nepali Congress Party won the country's first free elections in 31 years after King Birendra was forced to relinquish absolute power.

   But factional in-fighting and allegations of corruption plagued the Congress Party, forcing Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala to call elections 18 months ahead of schedule.

   At least six people were killed in the run-up to the polls. The Kantipur newspaper reported Tuesday that more than 10 people were injured in weekend clashes in the remote Tamghas district between supporters of the centrist Congress Party and the Communist Unified Marxist-Leninist Party.

   Voters in the mountain ringed capital, Kathmandu, began lining up two hours before the polls opened, with men and women waiting in separate lines.

   Authorities banned all vehicles from the capital's streets, except for those of diplomats, journalists and election observers.

   About 12.3 million people were eligible to vote for 1,057 candidates from 24 parties. Voting was set to end at 5 p.m. (7:15 a.m. EST), but an accurate picture of the results was not expected for at least two days.

   In several remote mountain regions, porters will take two to three days to carry ballots to low-lying districts to be counted, an Election Commission spokesman said.

   There were concerns that no clear majority would emerge.

   "Most pre-poll projections predict a hung parliament," the respected weekly magazine Spotlight wrote.

HEADLINE: Nepali Communist leader is no enemy to capitalism BYLINE: By Nelson Graves

 BODY:
    Nepal's Communist leader, scenting victory in general elections this week, has promised that the Himalayan kingdom will remain democratic, neutral and wide open to foreign investment if he becomes prime minister.

   Man Mohan Adhikary, chairman of the Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) party, told Reuters in an interview that as prime minister his watchwords would be caution, non-alignment and -- in spite of his party's name -- capitalism.

   "There will be no dictatorial or high-handed methods," said the 72-year-old politician, seated cross-legged on a couch in his party's humble headquarters with the Communist Party's familiar red flag and hammer and sickle at his back.

   Adhikary's party held 81 seats in the 205-member parliament which was dissolved in July, making it the main opposition to the ruling Nepali Congress party which had 114 deputies.

   But political observers and diplomats in this landlocked nation said there was a strong chance no single party would win a majority in Tuesday's elections.

   They said the constitutional monarch King Birendra could be forced to call on Adhikary to try to form a government.

   Adhikary spent 17 years in jail -- 15 in Nepal and two in India -- in the fight to end Nepal's absolute monarchy. Bloody street protests led to the restoration of a multiparty democracy in 1990, ending a 30-year autocratic regime.

   "I am confident that our party has every chance to win a comfortable majority and be able to form a government," said Adhikary, predicting the UML would take 115 to 120 seats.

   Congress party leader Krishna Prasad Bhattarai said voters could not trust the Communists to defend democracy. "If they are put into power through the ballot, that will be the end of the ballot," Bhattarai told Reuters.

   Adhikary brushed aside the comment. "That's an old way of putting things, propaganda to try to tarnish our image. We believe in democratic practices," he said.

   "Once in power we must be very, very vigilant that we do not repeat the mistakes, the unpardonable political repression, sometimes brutality that took place in the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe," he said.

   "Western donors need not have any apprehensions," he said, vowing to make better use of the foreign aid which is a lifeline to Nepal's economy, equal to 14 percent of total output.

   Adhikary said under his leadership Nepal would pursue its traditional foreign policy of neutrality and maintain good relations with its populous neighbours -- China and India.

   "We will not allow ideology to influence our foreign relations," he said. "We know that without western technology, science, experience in management and running a competitive, free-market economy, we cannot survive in the world."

   He denied a UML-led Nepal would swing towards Beijing and predicted China would continue its hands-off policy. "There will be no special favours for China," he said.

   But he pledged to overhaul relations with India by demanding that New Delhi end curbs on the flow of Nepali goods to other South Asian nations and cut its trade surplus with Nepal.

   "There is only one problem and that is India," he said. "They are too big for us. Step by step we must make India realise they must be considerate towards us."

   Adhikary acknowledged that the Communist Party and the centrist Congress were advocating similar programmes. UML's manifesto, for example, says it would promote the private sector, foreign investment and the "national bourgeoisie."

   He said he favoured "modest" land reform including possibly lowering a 16-hectare (39.5-acre) ceiling on landholdings.

   He vowed to encourage joint ventures with foreign firms. "We will open the economy to the world in a competitive manner," he said. "We have to convince and earn the trust of investors that investment is safe in Nepal and profitable."

HEADLINE: India bars activist from monitoring Nepali polls DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 14

 BODY:
   India has prevented a human rights activist from leaving for Nepal to join an international commission monitoring general elections there this week, poll observers said on Monday.

   Ajit Singh Bains, a retired judge from the Indian state of Punjab, was refused permission at the weekend to board a plane in New Delhi for Nepal's capital Kathmandu, the National Election Observation Committee (NEOC) said.

   Bains, who heads Punjab's human rights commission, intended to join 1,025 Nepali and 106 foreign observers who will monitor polling throughout the Himalayan nation on Tuesday.

   A NEOC spokesman said Indian immigration authorities had said Bains could not leave the country because his date of birth was incorrect on departure papers, but the real motive appeared to be to keep him from monitoring the polls.

   "They gave a phony reason," the spokesman said.

   British member of parliament David Young told Reuters that NEOC had approved a resolution "expressing deep concern that Bains was refused permission by Indian immigration authorities to leave India to join the international observers."

   Young, one of five foreign parliamentarians to monitor the elections, said NEOC had sent a message to India's ambassador to Nepal asking the Indian government to reconsider its decision and allow Bains to attend the elections.

   Some 100,000 police and security forces were set to fan out across Nepal to prevent any violence during the polling, the country's second general elections since a bloody pro-democracy rebellion ended absolute monarchy in 1990.

   Army troops were put on alert in case they were needed, the Election Commission said.

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 15:16:33 -0500 (EST) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: amako samzhana

Hey nepal ama, kati samjhanchu timilie,kati samjhanchu timilie sunchu feri dukkha di ye rey timilie ama ti biteka din samjher ansu bharincha anakhama gaun,goath,pandhera,nadi, nala sabi nachdachan mero nayanama

ama,nepal ama, koti, koti,dandwat cha timilie ama, ashirbad deu yo pardesieko choralie

bholiko bhavisya saparna ma yanha aayan tar timro nayno ra pyaro kokhabat banchit bhayanya ama,ayar yenha paraya ra afno bhanne bhinnata thahapyane ama bhaneko ke ho bhanne badi gyan paen

ama, timrai nimti ayako hun ma yahaa kehi sikhu bhaner ayako hun ma yahana ama,ma afno karma chader aun sakdin himmat deu yo parya angananma, hausala deu yo birano nagarma ama,nepal ama, koti koti danwat cha timilie

Thinking that many of us sometimes do feel why we came here? Or we tryto analyze why we come here? We often remeber back home.So, thinking this is some positive step that we all are in,we all are in some process. And knowing that we owe this to our mother land.I,here meaning all of us are conversing with our mother,Nepal

Nirmal

************************************************************ Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 15:36:04 EST From: tilak@UFCC.UFL.EDU To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Sanskrit

Dear Helen Abadzi Jee,
        Please refer to your letter (TND Nov 10, and Nov 14, 1994). It is a pleasure to be corrected by a Yawan Upadhyayas, a worthy descendant of the great Kshatriya Sikandar, and Maharishis like Sukraat and Arastu. As far as Sanskrit is concerned you have written succinctly what I might have written poorly. Thanks and regards. Sincerely yours - Tilak B. Shrestha.

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 16:46:35 -0600 (CST) From: SUDEEP ACHARYA <sa01@ineg2.engr.uark.edu> Subject: To: The Editor <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Punam Panta request's addresses of Reema Jossey- B.S. at Shorter College in Georgia- and Gyanu Pandey(from Gyaneshwor, is on ME program in the US) If you know them please reply to punam@sequent.com

Gyurme Sherpa request's addresses of Sachendra Gurung, Kul Bahadur Thapa, Prajwol Basnet and Pawan Gurung (all from St. Xaviers, they were in Boston) If you know where they are please reply to sherpagy@martin.luther.edu

Thank you Sudeep Acharya TND

************************************************************************ Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 18:35:50 -0500 (EST) From: SUSHAN ACHARYA <sushan@titan.ucs.umass.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - Nov 14, 1994 (28 Kartik 2051 BkSm) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

I would like to get the list of email addresses that the digest circulated sometimes beginning of this year? Could anyone please do me a favor and send it to me? I would really appreciate. Sushan

%%%%%Editor's Note: In respect to members' request we no longer %%%%%
%%%%% post TND member list publicly. If you would %%%%%
%%%%% like to find your long lost friend or family %%%%%
%%%%% send your request to Sudeep Acharya at %%%%%
%%%%% sa01@ineg2.engr.uark.edu %%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

******************************************************************** Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 19:04:28 -0500 (CDT) From: 290406NR@GBVAXA.UWGB.EDU Subject: Request! To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

This is for anybody who 'd be reading this.But I need a help on whatever way if anyone can. Anyway, I'm doing a impact studies in environmental consequences related to the geomorphology and its consequences in physical and biological entity especially related to the ArunIII project. I shall amply appreciate the help or the guideline on this regard.Thanks!

Naresh Rimal 3118 Walter Way GB WI 54311 290406nr@gbvaxa.uwgb.edu

************************************************************************ Date: 15 Nov 94 22:21:26 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: Election update To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

HEADLINE: Low voter turn out marks Nepal's mid-term poll DATELINE: Kathmandu, Nov 15

 BODY:
    A low turnout of voters marked the end of balloting in mid-term polls for the 205 seats of Nepal's House of Representatives Tuesday.

    When the polls closed at 1700 local time (1115 GMT) after nine hours, it was estimated that only about 50 percent of the 12.2 million eligible voters exercised their franchise.

    A low turnout, compared with over 65 percent in the last general election, was seen as unfavourable to the ruling Nepali Congress party because only the leftist parties are known to have committed voters.

    It was the second general election to be held since the restoration of multi-party democracy in 1990.

    A few disturbances were reported inlcuding booth capturing in at least three constituencies of Dhanusha district southeast of Kathmandu, bordering India.

    According to the main rivals of the Nepali Congress, the United Marxist-Leninists, police resorted to firing in the air to disperse clashes in Dhanusha, Argaghachi in mid-west Nepal and in Biratnagar, home town of Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala in eastern Nepal.

    No injuries were reported.

    The Kathmandu Valley which comprises the Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur districts with 12 parliamentary contituencies, had registered less than 50 percent votes by 1600 hours local time.

    Many polling centres in the Nepalese capital had just a few voters casting their ballots in contrast to the last general election when people had to stand in long queues.

    Repolling was expected to be ordered in a number of constituencies where disturbances took place but an announcement from the election commission was expected only later Tuesday.

    Ballot boxes, sealed and under tight security, will be taken to counting centres of each constituency where the slow process of counting each ballot paper will begin after the arrival of all boxes.

    In Kathmadu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur in the Kathmandu Valley, counting was expected to begin from the early hours of Wednesday morning.

    According to the election commission, all results are expected to be officially declared after six or seven days. dpa ba

******************************************************************* Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 22:32:37 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: To Nepali s in San Fransisco Area From: solosher@aol.com (SOLOSHER)

Dear netters,

I will be in San Fransisco for about a week attending The Cell Biology Meeting where I will be give a poster presentation relating to my Thesis work. I need a place close to downtown SF during that time. I would love to stay longer and travel around..but it all depends on whether or not I will be able to stay with somebody. Please let me know if you can help me out. I need to know as soon as possible so that I can make airline reservations at earliest date. My phone # is 215 387 6153 and my email add is karki_s@a1.mscf.upenn.edu

Dhanyabad and Namaste

Sher karki University of Pennsylvania

******************************************************************** Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 22:34:04 -0500 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: jjj@mits.mdata.fi (Joni Jarvenkyla)

In article <Cyp6uy.ABA@uwindsor.ca>, Bocska Steve <bocska@server.uwindsor.ca> wrote:
>How is Nepal handling tourism? I understand that they now get about
>3,000 trekkers a year, and that it is waaaaaay up from years ago. How is
>the economy, society and culture adapting to these changes? Is there is
>big threat from the 'western influence'?

Just go there, Steve. DO not try to remember the past...those times are over. Kathmandu has been a hell for years ;-)

There are also fun sides to it: '92 we went to a nepalese hard rock concert that was in the Hall of Kings, hundreds of wild local fans and a band playing old metal pieces like Black Sabbath etc...the sound was terrible, but the people enjoyed it so much that it was one of the best concerts I've been to! They cheered louder than the band played ;-)

The Himalayas are great, but if you want to "get away from it all", northern hemispheres like Finnish Lappland are more isolated than almost any trekkable part of Nepal.

DMT Finland Oy tuoteluettelo: http://mits.mdata.fi/~jjj Ja uusi puhelinnumero: (90) 458 40 20

************************************************************ Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 22:46:42 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: More on BKS from Ashu From: atuladhar@vax.clarku.edu

Could you please post this on SCN at your convenience? Thank you. SCN seems pretty dry these days!!

ashu
                                                                
>Swarnim Wagle of London School of Economics writes:

>Just one relevant addition to my earlier posting. Gandaki Boarding School,
>a parochial equivalence of the more national Budhanilkantha is doing
>terribly well in Western Nepal and should be a perfect model to follow suit.

Where does the funding for GBS come from? What is their SLC pass rate? What are their graduates doing? Without hard, measurable criteria we cannot say such and such is "doing terribly well" -- no matter how admirable your faith in that particular school might be!

>Ashu raised some points about BNKS graduates, many of which, I'm afraid were
>remotely true.

>ODA funded students (who are nearing extinction in England) do not have to
>go back to Budhanilkantha and teach.This was true for the first two batches
>and the condition has since then be relaxed. They do however need to go back
>to Nepal and this like any other bonds looks perfectly fine to me.

If so, I was not aware of it. Please forgive my ignorance.

>You mention that it's not desirable to have that 'obscure and impractical'
>influence of the secondary school syllabi of British Exam syndicates. Well, I
>dont know what a lucid and practical syllabi looks like but if you are
>referring to the Princeton tests as an example, Forgive me but I do have grave
>reservations.

Apples and oranges. ETS tests are NOT equivalents of O and A levels. Most American high schools do NOT prepare their kids to DO BETTER or WORSE on SAT, like Nepali schools preparing their 10th graders for SLC.

SAT is an APTITUDE test (though recently it has been modified somewhat), meaning that it seeks to measure GENERAL verbal and math abilities; A and O levels are subject-achievement tests in that in order to do well on those, you need to have a good mastery of the materials on the syllabi.

When I said "obscure and impractical", I was seriously questioning THEIR PRACTICAL RELEVANCE to Nepal, especially at a price that comes through the generosity of foreign aid (over which we Nepali citizens have NO say whatsoever!) and state subsidy (over which too we citizens have NO say!). The BKS example clearly shows the dangers of MISPLACED and COSTLY ELITISM in national planning for secondary school education in Nepal.

More to the point, my arguemnt is that foreign aid, which is really EVERY CITIZEN's share, could better used MORE EFFECTIVELY to develop STRONG GENERAL curricula that match Nepal's specific needs for a trained workforce. Nepal's day-to-day needs are NOT served by TRANSPLANTING British courses that only allow a dozen or so BKS graduates to go off to American or British universities.

[Aside: In fact, I would even argue that even the whole system of SLC is absolutely outdated and TOO EXPENSIVE for Nepal to pay for every year. [Serious overhaul of the SLC is LONG OVERDUE, though I lack the expertise to say exactly what; perhaps others can share their opinions on this.]

>Now, the world knows it and the Britons concede that they are in deed a tiny
>nation with a lost empire and a declining economy, no longer THE major
>force in the global political mainstream but if there are two things that the
>British are still proud of, It's their education system and their sense of
>humour. (Note that if people in other countries don't like you they will call
>you names like stupid, foolish, dumb or whatever but in England they would
>say, "You have no sense of humour")

Have you watched the movie "A fish called wanda"?

>Ashu went on to note that professors from Oxbridge and LSE come to America in
>droves. As you wrote this just after mentioning the 'obscure' syllabi, would I
>be correct to assume that you mean they do so because of the quality of
>education back home? If yes, I beg to differ. The one and only reason, I'm
>afraid is money. An average salary of a new Professor here would be like
>40000 Pounds, roughly 65000 US while just for an example, a young and
>upcoming Harvard macroeconomist N.G. Mankiw was paid 80000 US in 1993 (Yes,
>s.b. looked up the files)

FYI, I asked Greg Mankiw whether his salary was $ 80,000 in 1993. He laughed, and said that for Harvard economics professors, there are two types of salaries: 'nominal salary' and 'real salary'.

In other words, his real salary is much higher than what you copied from the book, and whatever that is, Mankiw is not telling. So that's that.

Second, Mankiw is not some "up and coming economist". He's a TENURED professor, for God's sake, and one of the scholars responsible for the revival and remodification of
[New] Keynesian macro. He is NOT some assistant professor still trying to prove his worth. In other words, Mankiw is already UP THERE!!

More than the question of salary, however, British academics are coming to American universities for ANOTHER reason: MORE and BETTER RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES. After all, face it, when it comes to path-breaking RESEARCH, most American universities are way up than most of their counterparts in England -- not because Americans are smarter than the English, but because there are more money and better facilities available in America to do research.

Now, if you had read your Thatcher-economics carefully, you would have known how Maggie cut off funding for academics [and how they decided NOT to give her an Oxford honorary degree and so forth]. More than the British universities, American universities COLLECTIVELY have the money and the resources to do the kind of research in science, humanities and social sciences that extend the boundaries of knowledge. It is in this sphere that COLLECTIVELY American universities have the definite edge over their British counterparts.

In fact, if you think about it, for brilliant researchers, what better place could there be than a major research university in America to build their academic nests, without worrying too much about money?
[I'm simplyfying the case somewhat, but my point should be clear!]

If you are not convinced, go to your library and see the biblio on, for example, economics. Count all the citations of INFLUENTIAL RESEARCH articles in economics, and see how many of them, in the 1980s and 1990s, came from Stanford, MIT, Pennsylvania, Berkeley, Columbia, Princeton, Harvard, Chicago, Yale, Minnesota and many others, how many came from Oxbridge, LSE and other British universities. That should be a revealation for you.

By this I am not saying that American universities are BETTER per se; but that since they can afford to do MORE research, they can also afford to attract talents from all over the world, including England. And guess what, talents ARE coming from all over the world. Brain-drain, remember?

One more note: Amartya Sen, who's came to Harvard in 1987 from Oxford, says that one major reason he came to America was that there was more OPPORTUNITIES to do research in America.

>Now a difference of 15000 US is a lot of money and unfortunately not everybody is like Stephen Hawking (one of the most famous physicists to date, presently
>holding a position that Isaac Newton once held at Cambridge) who turned down
>an astronomical amount for taking up a chair at MIT by saying,"Well, I'm
>sorry but I'm fine at Cambridge)

Hawkings is still young. Don't be surprised if he DOES go to MIT or Stanford by the end of the decade. One reason he wrote "A Brief History of Time" was to earn money to pay his bills!! [For proof, read his biography written jointly by two other scientists; the book came out two years ago]. Besides, even Hawkings has admitted that his sabattical at the California Institute of Technology (Cal Tech) in the mid-70s was a turning point in his research career. [For proof, read Hawkings latest book, "Black Holes . . ." can't remember the full title.]

>So as long as the gas is a quid a gallon and the salary higher, one need not be
>surprised at that. Also, as long as the American students are sick and titred
>of listening to that lousy Arkansas accent of a president who "smoked a pot but
>didn't inhale", thousand times a day on the CNN and there's atleast one English
>lecturer's correct pronounciation to be mused at, Is there anything wrong at
>all? By the way, do note that the "mild exodus" of academics from Britain has
>primarily been from the "red brick" or the new universities. Despite this, I'm
>surprised that the exodus has worked the other way as well. My School, the LSE,
>has 20 plus Americans on the faculty and in a tiny student population of less
>than 5000, 500 plus are Americans.

My question is simple: How many of these Americans stay on for a PhD at LSE? Most leave right after one- or two-year Master's, right? Their younger counterparts who visit the LSE are basically undergradutes on an exchange program at LSE, haina? You know, most American colleges have this thing called "study abroad" program, through which it's not really difficult to spend a semester or two at Oxbridge or LSE!! [But try spending a semester at Princeton or Dartmouth on a similar exchange program; it's next to impossible!]

For most Americans, or at least to a group of my friends (and I agree that's not a GOOD way to draw a generalization!] an LSE Master's is more of a polish on their academic career, a way to see the world, a way to explore a 'foreign country' AND really nothing more . . . and I say this NOT to deride LSE (I have great respect for LSE) but to share with you a common folklore among some of my most accomplished friends.

[Aside: Even Bill Clinton, a Rhodes Scholar from Georgetown University, left Oxford without taking his degree and entered Yale Law School. In fact, last year, a survey published in some magazine (I think it was The New Republic) even showed that the number of American Rhodes Scholars who do NOT earn their degrees at Oxford was very high. And, mind you, American Rhodes Scholars form an intellectually formidable bunch!]

>On a lighter note: Congratulations Ashu for that accurate depiction of an
>English Aristocrat. Unfortunately we dont get to mingle with the fox hunters and are only a recessive part of an overwhelming English mainstream. And we
>dont also hang around Kantipur with tweed jackets and bowler hats, just like,
>I hope you don't hang around New Road with Boston Red sox baseball caps and
>purple Yale Shorts waving Big Mac and fries. (I'm sorry if you do)
>Well, the drinking age is 18 this side of the Atlantic but I don't think we
>differ much on anything else especially Rock n' Roll. After all, the legendary
>Mick Jagger studied at the London School of Economics!

Amusing. Very amusing. The way you've managed to bring in a whole lot of irrelevant materials to shed light upon our original topic!! Oh, well. We'll live.

>(I'm sorry if I have tried to sound pretty British : Actally they do annoy me
>a lot. To make for it though, they do pay me over six hundred quid a month -
>half of it to spend on cheap English lagers so for god's sake how can I not
>be a bit loyal?)

I'm sorry to say that you do NOT "sound pretty British" at all. The British people I admire have much subtler sense of irony, wit, self-deprecation and razor-sharp intelligence . . .

Anyway, I meant the above para in just to pull your leg! So, don't take it personally.

Swarnim, it was fun reading your two postings.

Despite your palpable loyalty to your alma mater BKS, I note that you did agree on the point of
"poor economics" That, my friend, was the crux of my previous arguments. As long as we agree on the crux, I don't care how much we differ on the details here and there.

In summation, I would like to iterate once again and for the last time that for reasons explained earlier and now: BKS, as it stands, IS a case of poor economics with potentially good foreign aid being used up in all the WRONG directions. And I say this from a national [micro] perspective, and NOT out of my own like or dislike for the school, its able graduates, and its colorful headmasters!!

Swarnim, if you have any more questions or disagreements, you may write straight to me.

namaste, ashu

******************************************************************** Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 22:08:44 -0600 From: pahari@ssc.wisc.edu To: "nepal@.cs.niu.edu"@ssc.wisc.edu Subject: Gurkhas in UN

In the past weeks I read with some interest in the TND ideas about a UN Gurkha force. As I am sure most of us realize, there are many ramifications to having Nepali Gurkhas involved in the UN. Some of these cannot even be forseen at this time. However, advocates of a UN Gurkha force, and in fact all of us, must pay mind to some of the negative fallout that may come if Gurkhas "go UN."

One of the things that concerns me most is the danger of accumulating
"enemies" all over the globe on account of "UN Gurkhas'" interventions
(or possible interventions) in the myriad conflicts that define the post-cold-war "order." Meddling in other peoples' fights, which is more or less what a UN force does, is not known to have endeared any- one to the fighting parties as anyone who has observed the Bosnia conflict should know by now. A poor and needful nation like Nepal cannot afford to go around amassing "enemies" across the world EVEN IF IT MEANS SACRIFICING THE FINAICIAL GAINS TO BE HAD BY POTENTIAL UN-FORCE RECRUITS.

This is a changing world and no one knows for sure who is going to be on top a decade, two, or three from now. Nepali citizens are beginning to traverse the globe in search for higher wages (Japan, Middle-East, Germany, US, Vietnam) and it would be a disaster if Nepalis civilians anywhere outside Nepal had to face discrimination/retribution because of a history of "UN-Gurkha" intervention in that particular country/community. Once the UN admits Gurkhas Nepal no longer will control where, when and how long they will be deployed. It is bad enough that over 100,000 Gurkhas serve in the Indian Army. But at least we can assume that Indian-Gurkhas won't be deployed ANYWHERE -- India has a historically limited set of adversaries. The UN, by contrast, can become involved anywhere.

In matters such as this one needs to think of the worst case scenarios. Would Nepalis be prepared to accept being discriminated for visas, foreign-aid, tourism, etc. by states in the future that feel that UN-Gurkhas carried out unjustified mandates/acts in their countries? If not, then there is no sense in pursuing this UN-Gurkha proposal.

Whenever there is the possibility of getting lucrative foreign-currency jobs for thousands of Nepali citizens as in this case, it is always something that Nepal and Nepalis should consider seriously. In this case, however, I believe that the overall risks/costs outweigh the benefits, especially when evaluated with the full scale of impacts in mind.

Anup Pahari Lancaster, PA

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