The Nepal Digest - Nov 16, 1994 (30 Kartik 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Wednesday 16 Nov 94: Kartik 30 2051 BkSm Volume 33 Issue 10

  Today's Topics are:
         1. KURA_KANI Education: Re: Education et. all.
                             Politics: Gimire from Ramechap
                                          Excerpts from politics in Nepal

         2. TAJA_KHABAR News From Nepal

         3. JAN_KARI Info about devanagari fonts
         4. TITAR_BITAR Humor - Top 5 Alu Dum

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******************************************************************* Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 17:08:31 -0500 To: Subject: Jagdish Ghimire representing Ramechhap From: (Frank F Kroger)

In the last few weeks, I think it was, Ashutosh Tiwari who alluded to Jagdish Ghimire running to represent Ramechhap for the Congress party. Since that time I have received an end-of-year report about the doings of Tamakoshi Sewa Samiti. Please see the last paragraph about Jagdish's political aspirations. You can also enjoy the reference to
"push-paper-management-style." For the complete TSS report see my signature file at the bottom for the URL

TSS budget has been multiplied almost nine times, from US$12,000 to US$109,000 in the last four years and the programs have expanded a ccordingly. This is due to the increasing absorptive capacity of the organization. In addition to World Neighbors other organizations have started assisting TSS, including United Nations Development Program (UNDP), World Bank Water and Sanitation Program (JAKPAS) and UNICEF. Jakpas has made substantia contributions to the building of drinking water schemes and sanitation. UNICEF has provided assistance for non-formal education.

TSS has a very positive image in the district and in the country. Side effects of success are beginning to appear with more visitors coming to the sites and offers being made by new donors. Most of the new donors usually believe in what we think is unnecessary paper work or push-paper-management style (PPMS) that indicates no trust in the relationship. PPM bureaucratic procedures place more emphasis on rules than on goals and result in unsustainable and money centred development practices.

During the last several years of work as TSS chairperson, Jagdish Ghimire has earned a good reputation as development/NGO activist in the country as well as in the Ramechhap province, which has a population of about 200,000. One of the side effects is that he is now considered one of the few potential nominees of the ruling party to run for the office of member of parliament from Ramechhap in the general elections due November 13, 1994.

Frank Kroger

World Neighbors: working at the forefront to help the poor of the world help themselves, with dignity and in a cost effective way. World Neighbors Home Page
****************************************************************** Date: 13 Nov 1994 15:40:06 U From: "Hridaya Bajracharya" <> Subject: KURA_KANI To: "Nepal Digest" <>

                       Subject: Time:15:37


REALIZATION: Four decades of development drama and its implication: fading hope of modern development like the clouds and thunders that do not bear rain, and now, we are compelled to reflect on our position as being continuously pulled downward in the swamp of modern development millieu. What went wrong with all those willingness and efforts? It seems ours case is a failure to realize the complex nature of the phenomena of modern development. It seems we now need to shake off the concept of development. What development, development in whose terms and for whom? If we are modelling the development after the industrial giants, we must be forgetting the military muscle and the sucker tentacles necessary for scafolding the structure of development. The internal social, political and economical dynamics is different thing. The currewnt reality is that we are ready to live like a missionary who stake life for a living, or a reckless bharia toiling other's burden, or like the development brokers working mindlessly for the translation of other's whims; for not the real sake of living but for what we cannot have as a feather in the head -- a fancy electronic gadget, a car, construction and living in the other world in miniscule form. If there is "we" at all, we must seek other meanings for development. We have to shake off the dream of achieving developments based on the aids and loans. They are nothing more than a opium dream. It is never late for us to shake off and wake up from the sleep walk and be mindful of the road we are taking and we ought to be taking. It doesn't take a great economist to realize that the country's vitality lies in overall distributive development rather than developing a limb unproportionately no matter how economic it would be to do so. Because it would be efficient to get the flow of blood in one big vein will never justify developing a big vein in place of the clumsy millions in our body. If we value our body as integral part of our being, we must allow everything to grow in most natural way possible. We cannot be apprehenssive of its color, odour, contour etc.

ALTERNATIVE: If industrialized countries attract people with its modern goodies we must attract through our simple, happy, and moral life, harmonious life is something that is becoming illussive quest for many in the so called developed countries. If that were to make the goal of development, we can perhaps still acheive development ahead of many other countries. If we are to make better living places, we could have used that as the asset in excahnage for respect and just economic transaction. Not like the present day when the cost of a cup of coffee in the US would be same as a day's earning in Nepal. We have to be in control of ourselve. We cannot be other's slave for the want of goodies that are not the primary necessity of our life. We should at once stop the dalali mentality of selling our own place and people in exchange for personal acquisition of the goodies and the comforts.

EDUCATION ROLE To be realistic to our situation, we need to work out a different definition of development: contentious, peaceful, and culturally prosperous. We must judiciously use the modern knowledge available in this direction. Our education must be developed with these things in mind. One of the important requirements to get along this direction is to overcome pretentions. The pretentions of scientific, rational knowledge, the pretentions of grammar, the pretention of correct language, the pretention of idealistic norms, the pretention of the inheritance of authority, and the pretentions of so called modern development. In educational institutions we should be able to talk about what we believed, freely without being intimidated by the modern knowledge or by the correctness of the grammar, or by ideological correctness, or by the pretentious authorities. Living, if that is what a nation symbolizes is too complex to understand in a rational language, in gramatical rules, and in ideological discourses. It is not that they are not necessary but that living goes beyond those things to also reflect spirituality, emotionality, and other sensityvities. We seek refuge in the spiritual spaces of Vedas, Upanishads, Gita, and the Buddhist scriptures conceived milleniums ago to get meaning for our want today and wish for future. Even the cumulative experiences, concepts and ideas from that past to the present fall short of an absolute conduct of living practicable for a nation.

What else can we wish from our education for such living as a nation except the three important things -- intellect and wisdom, ethics and moral, community and social relationship? And what else can we expect from the nation except the enthusiasm to to live, to take risk and experience the joy and pain of sucess and failure guided by the above three? We ought to fill vitality in our nation and that can only happen if we have compassionate orientation towards what we are and desire to always situate it in the present with peace and propesrity.
>From this premise I would like to pursue discussion on school science
education in Nepal. I am at this moment tempted to start by saying that in a biology class in a Nepali village it is far more important to talk about pat, shyaula, kanda, and sisnu than teaching of the scientific names and their classifications, it is far more important to talk about what children believed about the animals, what animals are there around them than their specifications. In other word, there should be our own biology to begin with. Same applies in the case of chemical, and physical science. It is far more important to understand the chemicals that we often come across such as milk, fruit juices, water and contaminations, food, etc. than rote learn the abstract concepts. A student should not be laughed at for telling that rainbow sucks water up to the sky to make rain, or that a snake's eye can capture the image of the person who harms it. For they are the beliefs that are there and likely they will exist in some near future as well. How many of us are devoid of concepts that science may not justify? Anyway, how true is science compared to other forms of inunciations? We should likewise view technology from a different perspectives: no matter bullet train exist in the other parts of the world, what may be relevant for us would be to imagine a comfortable and pleasant walking trail, or a very simple means of transport such as a simple ropeway, a simple means of communication and transportation of goods between two villages that are under the control of the villagers. Rocket technology exist does not justify that the villagers should give up living descent life to be enslaved in the whimsical quest of acquiring that technology by themselves or by the authority.

Of course, if there is no such thing as "we" or "nation" then for the peace of conscience there is a need to make this known to all so that no one can sell some one in the pretex of "our". No pretext of nation! No nationalism, national boundaries, nothing! Prepare people to be subsumed in any name form in which the life will be better livable -- Indian, Chinese, American, Japanese, Arabian, African -- and see if they would and we could. If they wouldn't and we couldn't the rule is simple either jungle law: Kill, get killed, eat, be eaten and let the nature in its raw form take its route. Or, continue to spiral down in the tenfold hell of chaos, pain and mental sufferings.

********************************************************************* Subject: News: campainging by Indian politician protested in Nepal To: Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 18:18:14 -0500 (EST) From: "Purushottam Subedi" <>

Source: India News Network Digest


Japan Economic Newswire
  Kathmandu, Nov. 11 Kyodo
   Former Nepalese Prime Minister Kirtinidhi Bista protested Friday about the reported participation of Indian politicians in campaigning for Nepal's midterm elections set for next Tuesday.
   Bista, 75, who is running for a Kathmandu constituency, told a press conference, 'It is regrettable that such a thing should go unprotested openly.'
   Nepalese newspapers have reported that at least four prominent politicians from India were doing door-to-door rounds in Nepalese constituencies near the border wooing voters for different candidates.
   Countrywide campaigning for the polls to elect a new Nepalese parliament for a five-year term will come to a close Sunday morning.


******************************************************************** Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 20:54 EST From: To:

Politics of Underdevelopment in Nepal

[This is an extract from a review article by Dr.David Seddon on two books: the first is "Regionalism and National Unity in Nepal" by Frederick H. Gaige and
"Nepali Politics:Retrospect and Prospect" by Rishikesh Shaha, both published in 1975. This review appeared in the Bulletin #12/13 of the Nepal Studies Association in Winter/Spring 1977. I am posting this here to underscore how so much of the predictions have come true and how the political processes of underdevelopment is still operating in the post-democratic Congress govt that swears by development. Amulya R. Tuladhar , Clark University, MAss.}

"... Nepal is one of the five poorest countires in the world. But not only is it poor, it is also rapidly becoming poorer and less able to maintain itself. Already dependent to an exceptional degree on foreign aid, Nepal appears to be heading for a fundamental economic crisis within the next decade as population growth and ecological collapse in the densely settled hill regions threaten to overtake its weak and predominantly subsitence-oriented agrarian economy. The coming crisis is likely to accompanied by increasing political unrest within Nepal (are not the 1979 and 1989/90 political unrest major disruption, already?) , and the combination of economic and political difficulties may conceiveably lead to the disintegration of Nepal as an autonomous state (that is rapidly happening with Indian police romping at will in Nepal and Girija giving away Tanakpur and the nepal economy to the "private" capital interest of the Indians).

"In this context, the central concern for both authors with the conditions necessary for the creation and maintainence of a viable natioon state in Nepal is particularly appropriate... they confront crucial issues and identify some of teh major structural weaknesses of the contemporary Nepalese state. Each is critical of the feeble efforts made to date by the Nepalese government and the landowning ruling class from which it is largley drawn to transform an essentially extractive and predatory state into a dynamic apparatus for the promotion of economic and social development...{Is the congress any diffeerent now?)

"Each regards as regrettable and potentially dangerous the concentration of power in the hands of a tiny fraction of the ruling class. {Is the cabal led by Girija any different?}.

"Each argues the need for a greater degree of political integration, to be achieved through genuine popular representation and more effective involvement of the mass of the Nepalese in the political life of their country, {have we achieved this with a multi-party elected democracy now?}

"Despite the criticism of the monarchy and the increasing control from center, both Gaige and Shaha conclude that the future direction of politics of Nepalk will be determined by the will of King. {How ironic that the present midterm elections come as a formal will of the King unchallengeable in the Court of the land.}

"During the nineteenth century, although nepal was never colonized, the country was effectively subordinated by the British India. The enforced marginalization served during teh latter part of the 19th century to maintain in power a ruling dynasty of "heriditary prime ministers", the Ranas, whose primary objective was the extraction of taxes and tribute from the peasantry and their overlords, and the control of the long-distance trade from Tibet and British India, for their own personal aggrandizement. The state apparatus under the Ranas was extractive (collection of revenues) and repressive
(maintaence of 'law and order'); its intervention in the economy was minimal and revenues were increased by coercion, the management of trade and the encouragement of immigration and settlement, in the relatively fertile terai in particular, rather than by developing the productive capacity of agriculture. The importation of commodities manufactured in India or in Britain served at the same time to strengthen the position of the ruling class
(guns and luxury goods) and to undersmine local artisan production (cloth and metal utensils). For the British who supported the regime Nepal provided a buffer state, a source of mercenaries (the Gurkhas), a market for manufactured commodities and a source of exotic trade goods.

"Popular unrest and opposition to the Rana regime grew rapidely after Partition and Indian independence in 1947, and 1951 the monarchy, now reinstanted, joined with the new Nepali Congress Party to initiate a decade of political experimentation. Hopes of a rapid transformation of the Nepalese economy and society under the new regime gradually faded as the traditional landowning aristocracy (now masquerading as the Congress Party), the Ranas included, began to organise themselves to resist the threat of major reforms. In the firest ever general elections held in 1959, the Nepali Congress Party, with a moderate socialist programme, won 73 out of the 109 seats in the lower house of parliament; but the conservative forces emerged triumphant when the King abolished teh parliamentary system, imprisioned the PM and reestablished control by the Palace. The Panchayat democracy was entirely ineffectual as a means of promoting anything other than limited participation in local politics and local government.

"Despite the changes that have taken place over the last twenty-five years-and in certain respects these have been considerable- Nepal remains in many ways a prisoner of the past and of a distinctive geo-political situation: a tributary state attempting to transform itself, through the half-hearted efforts of a traditional landowning class controlling a rapidly expanding but still relatively ineffectual state apparatus, and with substantial but strategically determined aid from the great powers on either border, into a modern nation state capable of achieving economic and social development without, however, undergoing radical political change.
"Dominated economically by India to the south, Nepal has been unable, either through private enterprise or state intervention, to achieve any degree of industrial development, and although the nepalese terai produces amajor grain surplus most of which however seeps away intoIndia across the open frontier, agricultural development whether in the terai or in the densely populated hills remains a hope forth future rather than a rality of today.

"It is significant that , so far, political unrest has been most evident among he lower classes in the the terai, wehre such manufacturing as does exist in Nepal is concentrated, where uran development is greatest and where constant movement takes place across teh border with India.

"Terai is heavily exploited serving as both grainbasket and industrial centre, and is thus eclearly to nepal's economic survival, it remains politically marginal, its population unintegrated into the national decision-making process which neverthels affects them directly.


*********************************************************************************************** Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 22:15:22 -0500 To: Subject: info about devanagari font From: subin@uhunix4.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu (Subin Shakya)

Hi there,
        Just wondering if anyone can help me with devanagari font. Question is:
        1) How to type "dha" for "paniko dhal"
        2) How to type "da" for "dashain" this font is for Macintosh Word 5.0 5.1.

Thanks very much.
- subin

******************************************************************** Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 22:15:44 -0500 To: Subject: Girija Hurt : More Election violence From: (VIVEK S. RANA)

        Dhangadhi :

             PM Girija Koirala was adressing a congress ralley when all of a sudden the choas broke out and he was struck my a piece of wood thrown at him from the audience. There was minor bleeding from his nose and his face was swollen up.

        Saptari :

                Jaya P. anand, press secreatry of the PM has been very clsely linked with a murder of a prominent village congressmen's family. Prem Rai the ward charman of Fatehpur district was one of the many congressmen not extending their support to JP Anand.

********************************************************************* Date: Mon, 14 Nov 1994 15:21:24 +0000 (&2) From: Depika Sherchan <> Subject: top five politically correct reasons to eat allu dum. To:

5) Its a flatulence-free product.

4) its culturally sensitive.

3) The Body Shop approves.

2) Potatoes are in harmony with the earth's shifting biorhythms.

1) Its a completely gender-neutral dish, so different from past ones used
   as a sexist tool for the oppression of women.

Disclaimer: The contents of this message do not necessarily reflect the views/opinions/dislikes/wants/needs/wishes/past sexual encounters/desires/writings/readings/vacuous babblings/etc of anyone, really.

Love, A Cunning Linguist.

****************************************************************** Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 17:07:04 -0500 From: (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: Subject: Education, et al... From: (Ashutosh Tiwari)

pant arun dev <> writes:
> I am following up a clarification to an earlier posting on the
>subject. I appreciate some of the comments made by Ashutosh Tiwari
>though I disagree with some of his observations.

Thank you Arun for your clarification. It's good to see concerned people like you coming forward with your disagreements about this important and interseting thread of discussion. Sure, we need not agree on all the points; but we can certainly express all the ideas about we think are good . . .:)

>The idea of a balanced approach to resource allocation for educational
>development is significant in that it trys to address the lack of
>educational infrastructure in a more holistic manner rather than
>concentrate on populist statements like 'education for all' given the
>bitter fact that the resources available fall pathetically short for such
>noble sentiments.

I admit that "education for all" is an empty slogan. But that was NOT my point at all. My point was about DIVERTING the BKS resources to SEVERAL public high schools in Nepal. I am concerned that public high schools across Nepal have been PERSISTENTLY neglected by the state, and this negligence can simply NOT continue.

[Broadly, or at least theoretically, money saved from BKS could also be spent on vocational education, primary education and so on; but that's up to the policy-makers and others to decide.]

Ideas like "in a holistic manner" and so on sound nice but, on the whole, are impractical. For argument's sake, with there being a constant trade-off of resources, no matter what you do in education or in anything, anything
"holistic" is hard to come by.

>This means that it is acceptable (to Nepal's
>development efforts) to proportion resources in other ways than the
>most physically wide reaching manner -- as long as it is within a
>comprehensive national educational framework and that it is aiming
>towards some end goal.

Precisely. But don't you think that whole idea of "proportinate resources" is in conflict with your earlier "holistic" approach? More to the point, isn't it time for the state to DEFINE what "some end goal" is, and come up with CLEAR, though not necessarily perfect, educational policies? So far, it has not even done that!

As things stand, there's absolutely NO POLICY, NO CLARITY about what to do with secondary school education. [Witness the approximately 2/3 failure rate on the SLC, every year, since 1974. This, by the way, is documented.] And there is BKS with no accountability to anybody!

>I doubt that BKS is within this framework
>but disagree that government should pull out purely on the basis of
>equity considerations. Another way of looking at it is:

Like I said before, there ARE ways to privatize things. It depends on HOW you do it. Privatization here does NOT mean running the school like a small company or a firm -- trying to maximize profits. And that's because education has inherent worth for DEMOCRACY that a consumer good does not.

My concern has been with DIVERTING the resources of the state out of BKS into other needed SUBSTITUTES. As a thought experiment: BKS could be run, for example, by committee of public individuals. Socially-motivated doctors, lawyers, social activists and village leaders and so on could be on its board of trustees.
  These public owners, all members of various ethnic, professional and geographic communities in Nepal, could raise funds to help establish scholarship funds at BKS and so forth. [Given the influence of The Lion, The Leo and the Rotary Clubs in Nepal, some of their members could serve on the new BKS's board of trustees. After all, if the more educated citizens don't take time to help out the help educated, who will? The British government? So on and so forth.]

> a) We have the school
> b) It would be inconceivable that under present circumstances,
> govt. and private, another such project could be undertaken.
> c) Unless it is proven that the school is harming an existing
> national education framework, it would be unfair to 'pull the plug
> because:

Thank you for bringing this up. I am sorry, but this is a classic misperception about foreign aid that we seem to have: Here's why.

The school may be neither harming nor helping the existing national educational framework. Empirically, that harm or help can only be expressed in terms of relative deprivation of other schools with regard to the same pot of foreign aid money.

Still, the question here is not of harm or help. The thing is, we, the citizens, never see the money, it's given to us free, and the government decides to use it for this and that WITHOUT our approval or complaint.

Take the garbage example: For a long time, the Germans gave us money to take care of KTM's garbage. Not only that, they had their own technicians and machineries to clean up KTM. And they did a wonderful job cleaning up our mess. All through this, there was NO clear evidence of "harm" to anyone.

Now, the Germans are gone, and the Kathmandu is very, very dirty. Why? No matter what PL Singh may think, both the government and the KTM municipality have failed to take in the reins from the Germans. They simply do NOT know how to handle the mess. Why? For many years, the Germans, with their sincere desire to help, made these officials dependent on German aid. The supposedly "helpful" aid ate up both our PRIVATE and PUBLIC initiativeness. Now we can't even function . . .

And PL Singh is running from country to country looking for aid to clean up KTM. Now, you, and I don't mean just you Arun, is this any way run Kathmandu, on foreign aid? How long will this mess continue. In retrospect, couldn't the German aid have been better spent to TRAIN, say,
"Private Garbage Collection" firms? At least, a whole bunch of people would have been trained and employed, and their enterprise could run either by municipal taxes or the money they would charge to kathmandu residents.

I realize that the problem of garbage is NOT the same as secondary school education, but the classics of foreign aid, i.e. it would make us more dependant on others, holds equally true.

The solution then is NOT to reject aid all together. But to articulate policies that would MINIMIZE the chances of our having to get more foreign aid and therefore more aid LATER. With all of Nepal experience with foreign aid since 1951, is that too hard to do? I think not.

And how do you minimize the dependence on foreign aid. By letting the private sector take care of lots of things UNDER clear regulations and rules. (Remember, I am not saying that let the market run TOTALLY on its own course!)

>PRIVATIZATION is not a panacea and the 'Invisible Hand' surely does not
>take care of everything - even in capitalism.

"Invisible Hand" never claims to "take care of everything" in the first place. It's about what self-interested agents would do under a set of assumptions. At any rate, economists know that almost all markets are IMPERFECT to begin with, and that's that. Market solutions are therefore proposed -- not as "perfect panacea" to problems -- but as BETTER and LESS costly way to get effective results.

Why, even Milton Friedman, while ok-ing 'education vouchers', would stop short of turning all schools at the mercy of the market!

>I encourage development of
>private sector but given the state of affairs in Nepal I would definitely
>be wary of entrusting a good institution to the private sector.

"Given the state of affairs in Nepal"? If we do not trust and have faith in the enterprise and the initiativeness of our citizens NOW, when will we do so? I would think, thanks or no thanks to Girija, the opportunities for the private citizens are booming in Nepal, and that's great.

namaste ashu

I have enjoyed sharing my thoughts with you all, Rajendra, Bhushan, Arun, Pradeep, Amulya and others. Keep such discussions going. . . I'll be back on SCN in January '95. Good-bye.

****************************************************************** Date: 14 Nov 94 00:31:50 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News11/12-13 To:


HEADLINE: Nepal to deploy 100,000 security forces for election


   The Nepalese government said Friday it will deploy 100,000 security personnel for next week's legistlative elections as campaigning becomes increasingly violent.

   The border with India will also be sealed off for 24 hours up until the end of polling on November 15, Home Secretary Boj Raj Pokharel said.

   The action has been ordered following at least three deaths in campaigning so far and an incident in which Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala narrowly avoided serious injury when stoned by left-wing opponents at an election meeting on Wednesday.

   "Movement around polling booths or near the border with firearms or any lethal weapons and sale of alcoholic beverages will be banned before the vote and 72 hours after the election in order to avoid bloodshed," Pokharel said.

   The Home Secretary said three people had been killed and 80 injured in election campaign violence up to now. The opposition says seven have been killed.

   He said only foreigners with valid passports would be allowed to enter Nepal during the election. Only cars with special permission will be allowed on the roads, the Home Secretary added.

   The prime minister stuck to the campaign trail despite his close call on Wednesday at Jhapa in southeast Nepal. Koirala attacked opponents verbally at his latest meeting in Morang in the southeast.

   Koirala said: "I am not deterred by the abusive slogans nor by the showing of black flags. I am also not afraid of the communists but I will not tolerate the act of the communists aimed at creating chaos and anarchy."

   Koirala and the ruling Nepali Congress (NC) have been tempting voters with the promise of stability and development if re-elected.

   But the left-wing opposition is thought to be closing on the NC, which is hit with internal division, and has accused Koirala of corruption and mismanagement of the country.

   Eighty dissident NC candidates are standing. And the Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist (NCP-UML) has expressed confidence of getting a majority in the 205-seat House of Representatives.

   But observers are predicting a closer battle. They pointed out the NCP-UML's weakness in failing to unite all the leftist camps. The NCP-UML has two strong opponents in the United People's Front- Nepal
(UPFN) and the Nepal Workers' and Peasants' Party (NWPP).

   The opposition has accused Koirala of abusing the state-run media and using military helicopters to conduct his campaign. Koirala has faced stormy opposition at many election meetings.


HEADLINE: Electioneering ends in Nepal


   Electioneering ended in Nepal Saturday ahead of legislative polls Tuesday with the running of the economy the main political battleground, local observers said.

   Activists from the ruling Nepali Congress party held a rally outside the capital Kathmandu while the main left opposition party -- the Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist (NCP-UML) -- held its last rally, attended by more than 30,000 people, at the city's Open Air Theatre.

   Addressing the opposition rally, NCP-UML General Secretary Madhav Nepal said that, during its three years in office, the Nepali Congress government had weakened Nepal's economy.

   "A country like Nepal, which is sandwiched between two big countries (India and China), should not have a coalition government because such a government cannot move ahead with developmental works," he said.

   Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala held his last electioneering campaign in his native districts Morang and Sunsari, to the southeast of the capital.

   He appealed to voters to support the Nepali Congress party for the sake of political stability, to safeguard the fledgling democracy and to push the country towards prosperity.

SOURCE: Xinhua

HEADLINE: 22 injured in clash in eastern nepal

DATELINE: kathmandu, november 13; ITEM NO: 1113058

   some 22 persons were injured, four of them serious, when clashes broke out between supporters from three rival political parties in eastern nepal saturday. according to election regulations, all campaign activities would have ended from 24:00 pm saturday in the whole country. the fighting happened between the national democratic party (rpp), the communist party of nepal (uml) and the nepali congress (nc) in eastern nepal's sunsari district when nc supporters were heading for inaruwa to participate in a scheduled campaign meeting to be addressed by prime minister girija prasad koirala at the municipality in sunsari, local english daily "the kathmandu post" reported today. according to details provided by the nc sunsari district committee, rpp and uml supporters pelted a truck carrying nc workers going to sunsari to attend the mass meeting after which the clashes ensued. but local rpp and uml leaders denied this, saying that congress workers had hurried abuses at them. when asked to stop abusing, nc workers pelted stones and bricks and brandished khukuris
(knives). police reportedly had to fire blank shots, lob tear gas shells and lathi charge to break up clashes. reports from dang district near sunsari said that one nc activist was found shot dead near a river close to his house saturday. he is the eighth person being killed during the campaigning period in nepal. it was said that some miscreants had taken the nc worker away from his rice mill saturday afternoon. four persons have been arrested for the killing whereas another is reported absconding.
-------------------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Reuters

HEADLINE: Nepal, new to democracy, is split ahead of polls

BYLINE: By Nelson Graves


   Four years after a bloody pro-democracy revolt ended Nepal's absolute monarchy, the Himalayan nation holds free elections this week with communists hoping to wrest power from a deeply divided Nepali Congress.

   The opposition communists are widely expected to make gains in Tuesday's elections to the 205-seat parliament, capitalising on Congress party infighting and inflation that has slashed purchasing power in one of the worlds' 10 poorest countries.

   Sitting on the flanks of the world's highest mountains, Nepal is sandwiched between China and India.

   The elections this week are the second since the 1990 protest put an end to a 30-year period of no parties. Nepal's only other free polls were held in 1959, but the brief experiment in democracy was aborted in a palace coup in 1960.

   In the outgoing assembly elected in 1991, the Congress controlled 114 seats and a coalition of communist parties led by the Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) party held 81.

   Analysts said there was a strong chance that neither Congress nor the communists would win a clear-cut majority.

   Ironically, that could thrust a third party of monarchists into a bargaining role only four years after more than 50 people were killed in protests to end King Birendra's absolute rule.

   The king remains a constitutional monarch but no longer has the power his father, the late King Mahendra, did between 1960 and 1990 when parties were outlawed.

   Many people in the world's only official Hindu nation continue, as they have for centuries, to revere the king as a living incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu.

   Boosted by dissatisfaction with Congress and uncertainty about the Communists' plans, the Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP), which includes the "panchas" who ruled Nepal from 1960 to 1990, is expected to add substantially to its four seats.

   "The RPP could play a very important role if Congress does not win a majority," said political scientist Lok Raj Baral.

   Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala had to call polls 18 months ahead of schedule after he lost a crucial parliamentary vote in July. "Nobody wanted these elections," a diplomat said.

   Thirty-six Congress deputies refused to back Koirala in that vote, accusing him of corruption and high-handed methods.

   Koirala first raised the ire of Congress colleagues in 1992 when he summarily sacked six ministers. Then he was accused of jealously spoiling Congress chief Krishna Prasad Bhattarai's chances in a by-election earlier this year.

   "It's been open warfare in Congress," Baral said.

   Congress has patched up its splits ahead of the election and has been warning the electorate that the communists, who say they have shed their authoritarian designs and are now more like social democrats, cannot be trusted.

   "The major issue in the elections is political stability," Koirala said.

   But the communists hope to capitalise on allegations of Congress corruption- Koirala himself has been accused of profiting financially from power- and frustration with inflation, estimated at nearly 10 percent.

   "We need lower prices," said communist voter Ratna Kaji Tuladhar, speaking on the fringes of a UML rally in Kathmandu. He said the price of rice had doubled since 1991.

   The communists have also accused Koirala, who approved a deal giving India rights to a small slice of Nepali land for a hydroelectric project, of playing into New Delhi's hands.

   The UML has said that like Congress, it supports a mixed economy and would continue Nepal's traditional policy of neutrality toward foreign powers. But it has promised to reform land laws by capping how much property any one person can own.

   Analysts said ideology was not the crucial question in the elections. "There is no difference in manifestoes," Baral said.

   "What Nepal needs is a government with the political will and stability to carry out economic development," one Western diplomat said. "I don't think any foreign donor will cancel projects just because the Communists came to power."

   Election results were not expected before Friday.

*********************************************************************** From: SOHAN PANTA <> To: Date: Mon, 14 Nov 1994 11:47:00 GMT Subject: Congratulations

Dear Editor,

I have recently been introduced to TND. After finishing reading each issue, I eagerly look forward to the next one. I thankyou for sending me TND issues reguarly. Using this opportunity, I would like to congratulate you and the rest of the team for doing an excellent job of running this. I would be pleased to help in any way that I can.

Few days ago I read that you needed somewhere to store back issues. Let me know if that is still there or any other way that I can help.

Sohan Computer Science, Kingston University

%%%%%Editor's Note: Thank you for your help and welcome aboard! %%%%%
%%%%% Yes, we are looking for an anonymous site %%%%%
%%%%% members can ftp back issues. We have close %%%%%
%%%%% to 200 issues so far and each issue is about %%%%%
%%%%% on an average 800 lines. %%%%%

****************************************************************** Date: Mon, 14 Nov 1994 10:33:16 EST From: mahendradb@UFCC.UFL.EDU To: Subject: Re: Caught Between Cultures

Please try to send more information on Nepalese living abroad.I would like to know about their feelings for their new'motherland' and how they are coping with being the 'lost tribe' feelings.

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