The Nepal Digest - Nov 14, 1994 (28 Kartik 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Monday 14 Nov 94: Kartik 28 2051 BkSm Volume 33 Issue 9

  Today's Topics are:
 
         1. KURA_KANI Education: Re: Education et. all.
                             Social: Re: Women in Hinduism
                             History: Life of Budha
                             Cultural: Re: Revisiting the past

         2. TAJA_KHABAR News From Nepal

         3. JAN_KARI Biological and Agricultural Engineers
 
         4. ARTICLE Nepal Environmental Update

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********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 11 Nov 1994 12:18:45 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Clarification To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Last night I received two very very weakly argued emails.

In summary, one asked me, "Why did you make fun of Nepali Congress? Do you know what you are doing? It's a serious party."

And another wondered whether I was against Congress as a some kind of
"propagandist in America". [Obviously both were referring to the TND Top Ten list that had made fun of the Congress slogans.]

My response? I just laughed out aloud, and wrote them both that I, as a private citizen, am neither against nor opposed to Congress or Communist or RPP or what-have-you parties. Those parties can do what they want, and I too, like many of you, can do what I want.

In writing that Top Ten list, my intention was ONLY to puncture the vanity, the pomp, the arrogance, the stupidity and the contradictions that surround ALL Nepali political parties, or for that matter, political parties everywhere.

Since I am not a political scientist, I cannot come up with brilliant analyses of Nepali political scenes [Those tasks could better be done by Abi Sharma, Chitra K. Tiwari, Mahendra "Honda" Sakya, Amulya Tuladhar, Nepalis in New York City and and many of you competent Nepalis.].

And so my weapon, as a private citizen, becomes that of humor, wit, sarcasm and irony -- all of which are necessary to maintain a sane perspective on politics.

And also all of which, I'm confident, do provide ENTERTAINMENT, and that's what I'm after here. After all, I said, if you're looking for deep-thoughts on deep-issues on TND Top Ten list, well, all I can say is, "wrong place".

Lastly, for the record, as far as politics is concerned, all my heroes seem to be [political] philosophers of long ago and present: Aristotle, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, John Stuart Mill, John Rawls, Robert Nozick, Amartya Sen, Ronald Dworkin and many others. All of them provide penetrating insights to anlayze and understand NEPALI society and politics, even though they've had absolutely nothing to do with Nepal.

namaste ashu

********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 11 Nov 1994 20:13:00 -0500 (EST) From: Helen Abadzi SA1PH 80375 <HABADZI@worldbank.org> Subject: Use of Sanskrit To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

In response to Hridaya Bajracharya's comments about the dryness of Sanskrit and pundit-ness of correct grammar, it might be useful to give some explanations.

There is no doubt in the mind who anyone who has been through ancient languages in high school how boring, irrelevant, etc the grammar is. I hated ancient greek grammar in school. Furthermore, Sanskrit has religious and caste connotations, and one can imagine that non-brahmins do not learn it very willingly. The Lord Buddha was quite sensible to abandon it in favor of Pali 2500 years ago; yet there are people to this day who live in past glory so much, that they want to speak or write in this totally DEAD language!

In recent years, however, I understood how privileged I was to know enough ancient greek to figure out what was being written in ancient writings. A striking example for me was the Rosetta stone in the British archeological museum, which includes two other languages only specialists can read. A few months ago in Bangladesh someone pointed out to me the site of Greek burials with epigraphs from the 19th century in ancient greek, and I was the only person in the country who could read them. Knowledge of grammar does one thing: it tells the reader who did what to whom. "Satyam eva jayati" and "satya mewa jayate" have quite different meanings. If we ourselves don't know enough to interpret the shlokas, we have to depend on the pundit to tell us. Dependence on priests is exactly what has brought much misery to the poor world-wide. What is the alternative? to scrap the ancient language and lose contact with your ancestral culture?

Rather than scrap the ancient languages, we could make their study more enjoyable and relevant to the children. Research needs to be made to find out what adults NEED to remember and what they DO remember from sanskrit classes. For example, noun conjugations should be known because they are found in prayers and determine meaning: jaya jagadish harE, Om namah ShivAYA, tat savitUR varenyAM, jaya ambE ghori. Then the difficult and boring grammar must be structured in such a way so as to be learned easily and "stuck" in the minds of the children, so that adults can retrieve it at will.

There are innovative means to teach grammar, like an American method that teaches endings in a song. Also, the ancient language can be used in innovative and contemporary ways. In Greece, two issues of "Asterix" recently came out in ancient greek and were an absolute sellout. By reading them and laughing, kids learn ancient greek without realizing it. For example, a popular phrase from "Asterix in Olympia" uses the optative mood, which in the old years we had to recite most boringly. Certainly the same thing could be done with Sanskrit. There are the Mahabharata comics in India, of course, but funnier stuff could be published, that kids would like. (Even Asterix translations, although it's easier to imagine him speaking Latin and Greek than Sanskrit.)

It just remains to be seen whether the countries that have inherited ancient languages can undertake the educational research needed and make the curricular changes necessary to keep them alive.

I have written an article in Greek about the topic. If anyone is really interested in making the instruction of ancient languages pleasurable (or needs an academic reference about this subject) let me know.

***************************************************************** Date: Fri, 11 Nov 1994 13:32:55 -0500 (CDT) From: RKP6723@UTARLG.UTA.EDU Subject: History: Life of Buddha To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu

Hello again! In the last few issues I have shared some of my personal experiences and insights in the topic called "Caught Between Cultures". To help myself function in such a situation I have developed some methods. Which I have shared with you in last TND (Nov. 10). The more I think about it the deeper I sink into it.

I was going through World Wide Web the other day. I was browsing through the History topics. I found the topic called "Buddhist Studies". I was tuned into this topic and learned more about being Genuine as I mentioned in last issue. I am going to warn you that being genuine means not exactly like being Gautama Buddha, but to seek what you truly want to seek for yourself in your mind and heart and give one hundred percent of your energy for your goal that you are seeking. In this story you will see that Prince Siddhartha Gautama gives up everything he has and gives his one hundred percent energy to seek his goal.

                      THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA
 From WWW library and THE TEACHING OF BUDDHA

1. The Shkya clansmen dwelt along the Rohini river that flowed among the southern foothills of Himalayas (now Nepal). Their King Suddhodhana Gautama ruled wisely, winning the joyful acclaim of his people. built a great castle and ruled w

The Queen's name was Maya. She was the daughter of the king's uncle who was also a king of the neighboring division of the same Shakya clan. For twenty-fiveyears they had no children, then after dreaming a strange dream of an elephant entering her side, Queen Maya became pregnent. The King and people looked forwardwith joyful expectancy to the birth of a royal child. According to our custom
(Hindu) the Queen returned to her own home (Maitighar). for the birth, and whileon the way, in the beautiful Spring sunshine, she rested in the flower garden of Lumbini Park. All about here were Asoka blossoms and in delight she reached out her right arm to pluck a branch and Prince was born. All expressed their heartful delight and extolled the glory of the Queen and the princely child, even heaven and earth manifested their joy. This memorable day was eighth day of April. The joy of the King was extreme as he named the child Siddhartha, which means, "Every wish fulfilled."

2. In the palce of the king, however delight was quickly followed by sorrow, for after a few days Queen Maya suddenly passed away. Fortunately her younger sister, Prajapati became the child's mother and brought him up with loving care. A hermit, who lived in the mountain not far away, noticing the glory about the castle and interpreting it as a good omen, came down to the palace and was shown the child. He predicted: "This prince, if he remains in the palace after his youth, will become a great king and rule the four seas. But, if heforsakes tthe household life to embrace a religious life, he will become a Buddha and the world's Savior." At first the king was pleased because of his prophecy, but later he became troubled at the thought of the possibilty of his only son leaving the palace to become a homeless recluse.

At the age of seven the Prince began his lessons in the literature and military arts, but his thought naturally run into other things. One Spring day he went out of the castle with his father and they were watching a farmer at his ploughing; he noticed a bird flying down to the ground by the farmer's plough. He who had lost his mother so soon after his birth, was deeply affected by the tragedy of these two little creatures. He sat down in the shade oo a tree and thought it, whispering to himself:

"Alas! Do all living creatures kill each other?"

This spiritual wound was deepened day after day as he grew up, like a little scar on a young tree, the sufferings of human life were more and more deeply carved into his mind.

The king was increasingly worried as he recalled the hermit's prophecy and triedevery possible way to cheer the Prince and turn his thoughts in other direction.At the age of nineteen, the king arranged the marriage of the Prince to the Princess Yasodhara, who was the daughter of Suprabuddha, Lord of Kalaiya castle and the brother of the late Queen Maya.

3. For ten years Prince was immeresed in a round of music, dancing and pleasure in the different pavilions of Spring, Autumn, Winter, and Summer, but his thoughts reverted to the problem of suffering as he tried to understand the true meaning of human life.

"Luxuries of the palace, healthy bodies, rejoicing youth! what do they mean to me?" he meditated."Some day we may be sick, we shall become aged, and from the death we cannot eventually escape. Pride of youth, pride of health, pride of existence, all the thoughtful people must cast them aside."

"A man struggling for existence will naturally look for help. There are two ways of looking for help, a right way and a wrong way. To look the wrong way means that, while he recognizes that sickness, old age and death are unavoidablehe look for help among same class of empty, transitory things. To look the right way means that he recognizes the true nature of sickness, old age and death, and looks for life in that which trancedents all human suffering. In thisplace life of pleasure I seem to be looking for help the wrong way."

4. This mental struggle went on in the mind of the Prince until his twenty-ninthyear when his only child, Rahul, was born. This seemed to bring things in climaxand he decided to leave his palace home and seek the solution of his mental unrest in the homeless life of a medicant. This plan he carried out one night by leaving the castle with only his personal servent Channa, and his private horse, the snow-white Kanthaka, and even these he left behind him when he had crossed the river at the bounds of his father's kingdom.

But his mental troubles were not an end many doubts best him. "Perhaps it would be better for me to return to the palace and seek some other solution; then the whole world will be mine." But he resisted these doubts by realizing that nothing worldly could satisfy him. So he shaved his head, carried a begging bowl in his hand, and turned his medicant steps to the south (Toward India). The Prince first visited the hermit Bhagana and watched his ascetic practices, then went successively to Arada Kalama and Udraka Ramputra to learn their method of attainment, but after practicing them for some time he became convinced that they would not lead him to enlightenment. Finally he went to the Magadha country and practiced ascetism in the forest of Urumilva on the banks of Nairanjana river where it flows by Gaya castle.

To be continued...

************************************************************* Date: Fri, 11 Nov 1994 16:56:52 -0500 (EST) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: See the positive

This is in response to Amulya. When,I wrote that Mr. Mishra has exaggerated quite too much,I meant that he added more than the truth. I, however have never denied that women have been mistreated. Secondly, I strongly disagree with him when he titles it as Hinduism.It is something dealing with the society but not the religion. Hinduism has been for the upliftment of all .

I have been surprised that we are talking of upliftment of women,but no where have we shown the solution. Mr. Mishra wrote tosuch an extend that maybe
 some women will hate Hinduism. And now Amulya sees this one point of election and comes again to repeat the same slogan.People need encouragement to do something positive. But,ironically by always stating that the conditions of females in Nepal has not changed,aren't you dragging them back once again. Unknowingly,maybe repeating the same mistake.Many are trying to fight back and working for that, and incomes like these statements saying that their conditions have not changed for a long time,they will fall back.Let us try realize that it may affect their psyche. We, all must work for this. But has Mr.Amulya try to see the changes that has come. How there were very few Nepali females in the working field ten years back and how much there are now.How Nepali females have occupied jobsd that only males thought that they could handle.In everyfield Nepali females are coming up.Time,education work and determination will certainly change things.In our country when democracy finally came in, and after sometime the response was that our country could not develop due to the fact of Panchayat for the past 30 years. I guess they reply the same these days aswell. But I guess we are more sensible then those polticians.By repeating that women were degraded,mistreated we are only blaming the past. Past gave us this present and if we still repeat this concept the future will not change.It takes time for things to change,the process isa there let us support it.Nepali females have come out,and started the process. I will only say that Hinduism will not put them down but help them more if they really analyze it. It took many years throughout the world for womens condition to actually change.So, let us work towards it with positive attitude.Thanks .Nirmal

******************************************************************** Date: Fri, 11 Nov 1994 17:55:21 -0500 (CDT) From: RKP6723@UTARLG.UTA.EDU Subject: History: Life of Buddha continued. To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu

5. The methods of his practice were unbelievably intense. He spurred himself on with the thought that "no ascetic in the past, none in the present, and none in the future, ever have or ever will practice more earnestly than I do."

Still the Prince could not get what he sought. After six years in the forest he gave up the practice of ascetism. He bathed in the river and accepted a bowl of food from the hand of Sujata, a maid who lived in the neighboring village. The five companion who had lived with the Prince for six years of his ascetic practices looked om with amazement that he could receive food from the hand of a maiden; they thought of him degraded thereby and left him. The Prince, thus was left alone. He was still feeble but at the risk of his life he attempted a final meditation, saying to himself, "Blood may become exhausted, flesh may decay, bones may fall apart, but I will never leave this place until I find the way to enlightenment."

It was an intense and incomparable struggle! His mind was desperate, was filled with cofusing thoughts, dark shadows overhung his spirit, he was beset with all the lures of evil. But carefully and patiently he examined them one by one and rejected them all. It indeed, was a hard struggle, that made his blood run thin, his flesh creep, and his bones crack. But when the morning star appeared in the eastern sky, the struggle was over and the Prince's mind was clear and bright as the day-break. He had found the path to enlightenment at last. It was eightth day of December, when he was thirty-five years of age that Prince Siddhartha Gautama became Buddha.

6. From this time on Prince was known by different names; some spoke of him as Buddha, the perfectly enlightenen one; some spoke of him as Shakyamuni, the Sage of Shakya clan, and still others spoke of him affectionately as the Blessed one. He went first to Mrigadeva in Varanasi where the five medicants who had lived with him during the six years of his ascetic life were staying. At first they shunned him, but after he had talked with them, they believed in him and became his first followers. Then he went to Rajagriha castle and won over king Bimbisara who had always been his friend.

>From there he went about the country living on Alms and persuading men to
accept his way of life, and men responded to him as thirsty men seek water and hungry men seek food. Two great teachers, Sariputra and Maudgalyayana, and their two thousand disciples came to him. At first Buddha's father, king Suddhodhana, suffering inwardly from his son's retirement, held aloof, but afterward became his faithful disciple; and Maha-Prajapati Buddha's step mother, and Princess Yasodhara, his wife, and the members of Shkya clan, believed in him and followed him. And multitude of others became his devoted and faithful followers.

7. For forty-five years the Buddha went about the country preaching and persuading men to follow his way of life, but at last, Vaisali on the way from Rajagriha to Stavasti, he became ill and predicted that after three months he would enter Nirvana. Still he journeyed on until he reached Pava where he was critically ill by food offered by Cunda, a blacksmith. Then by easy stages in spite of great pain and weakness, he reached the forst on the border of Kuninagara castle. Lying between two largs sala trees, he continued his teachings to his favorite disciples until the last moment. Thus passed into the unknown the greatest of the world's teachers and kindest of men.

8. Under the oversight of Ananda, the Buddha's favorite disciple, the body was creameted by his friends in Kusinagara castle. Seven of the neighboring rulers under lead king Ajatasatru demanded that the ashes be divided among them. The king of Kusinagara at first refused and despute even threatened to end in war, but by advice of a wise man name Dona, the crisis passed and the ashes were divided and buried under eight great monuments. Even the embers of fire and earthen jar held the ashes were divided and given to the others to be likewise honored.

                               The end.

Hope you like this history of a gerat being.

P.S. Diamond Shamsher has a new book called "Dhan ko Dhabba". It was published after the revolution.

Thank you. Robin Pandey Arlington, TX

**************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 11 Nov 94 20:08:35 CST From: sbshah@gumbo.bae.lsu.edu (Sanjay B. Shah) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: Biological and Agricultural Engineers

Dear Editor, Kindly include my announcement in the forthcoming issue. Thanks
                            ANNOUNCEMENT

I would like to establish contacts with Bio.& Ag. engineers who might be
 studying or working here in the US and Canada. I would appreciate if you could contact me via email. Thanks.

Sanjay B. Shah sbshah@gumbo.bae.lsu.edu

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 11 Nov 1994 23:27 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

Environmental Update for Nepal (Nov, 1994)
==========================================

The following is extracted from ESCAP "Environmental News Briefing of the Asia-Pacific Region" Sept 1994.

1. WILDLIFE. A recent rhino survey in chitwan in April 1994 established a population of 450. Since 1980, 23 rhinos have been slaughtered, 11 lost, Poachers sell rhino horns for $20,000 per kilogram, while the Govt has "donated" (some local papers says for a $250,000 commission to Prince Gyanendra via donation to the King Mahendra Trust!) 25 rhinos to foreign zoos.Conservationists think thecurrnet rhino population in Chitwan has reached a saturation point. There is also concern that tourist sightings have tamed the rhinos so that tourists laden can approach "posing" rhinos whose foraging is disturbed and nutrition declined. Since the Army stationed at Tikauli for
"Gaida gasti" has proved useless and in some cases complicit in rhino poaching, the Warden is now using his intelligence network independent of the the army. It is estimated that 80% of the National Park budget of $ 5 million a yar is consumed to feed the Army in various parks in Nepal.

2. POLLUTION IN KATHMANDU. Factors responsible for polluting Kathmandu are listed as increasing population (422,237 in 1981 to 675,341 in 1991), the centralisation of socio-economic and legal institutions, unplanned building boom, increased solid wastes, "momo" meat carcass remains in river banks, carpet washing with acids by riversides (estimated at 10 million literes a day), and automobile pollution (55% of the nation's vehicles are in kathmandu). Other environmental problems of kathmandu valley are the air pollution from the cement and brick factories, indiscriminate use of pesticides and insecticides, deforestation on surrounding hills.
  eoTH

3. SOLID WASTES FOR ENERGY. Kathmandu generates an estimated 500 metric tons of solid wastes a day and less than half is collected to be disposed, the rest is allowed to rot on the streets. These uncollected wastes clog drainages, pose public health hazards, while they can be used productively for compost generation and energy production, reducing the demand for landfill. Pre-treated wastes can generate 250-350 kilowatt per hour per ton, if composted the solid wastes can generate 600-900 kilowatt per hour per ton, if treated in compost digester, the treated solid wastes can generate 1200 kilowatt hour per ton.

4. KATHMANDU, A JUNKYARD. Kathmandu is in dire need of a junkyard to throw all the old vehicles chugging along and polluting the air. It is estimated that breathing 22,000 times a day from all the pollution from 80,000 vehicles in the Valley would result in the inhalation of 16 gm of polluted air a day.

5. CONTROLLING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION. The measures taken to combat industrial pollution are mostly on paper. These include: a) a call in the 1994/95 budget for "balanced, environmentally safe industrial growth"
(industrial sector contributes 6.4% of the GNP, expected to increase to 8.5% in theEight Plan); b) funds and incentives for encouraging the inustries to relocate outside the Valley. The Industrial Act 1992 has identified some of these industries as: cigarette/bidi, tanning, beer, textiles, cement, elctroplating, tyres, pl gas, etc. These natinal priority industries are eligible for 2 years tax debate for solid waste processing. The Industrial Promotion Board can issue guidelines to specifically prevent industries from polluting. Industries can take tax write off for antipolution devices installed. Zoning of industries from 500 to 1 KM from residenctial areas have been passed for selected urban areas. Other measures include the issuance of the National Environmental Impact ASSessment Guidelines, 1993,; set up of a Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Balaju; dust control equipment in Himal Cenment Factory; and allocation of unds for relocating industries outside the Valley.

6. PESTICIDE POLLUTION. Nepal started importing DDT 20 years ago to control malaria and this has laready kille a lot of wild animals. Nepal continues to use DDT despite US banning its use in 1972. A study of pesticide use in Jhapa, Chitwan, and kathmandu reavealed that most users, vendonrs, ad retailers did not know about safe handling of the pesticides and frequenctly exposed themseleves for pesticide hazards. A lot of date expried pesticides were found on the shelf and there is no regulation for safely siposing old pesticides. There is a report that a semi-government organization disposed some old pesticides from New Zealand (Yet new zealand represents itself as a country commited to conservation in Nepal by supporting the training of wildlife Sherpa wardens in Lincoln University in New Zealand) . There is a Pesticide Act 2048 and Pesticide Regulations 2050 which has not been effectively implemented.

7. CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS. In the last 2 decades nepal has increased the use of chemical fertilizers significantly to 250,000 tons a year. The chemical fertilizera aare mostly Nitrogen compounds such as ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium phosphate. But the use of indigenous "chun" Calcium has declined. The chemical fertilizer use is increasing at the rate of 11% a year. It is expected that all these chemcal fertilizers would affect ground water, eutrophy lakes, reduce fertility in the long run.

8. ECO-TOURISM. 300,000 tourists visited Nepal last year, the current year 442,000 are expected. Eco-tourism is characterised as "smokeless industry" that is among the fastest growing industry in the world. In Nepal, children have been skipping schools to sell to tourists, while farmlands in touristic lands are harrassed and expropriated by developers, displacing traditional farm livelihoods as in Pokhara Few Tal area, Sauraha-Chitwan,.There is a big fear of cultural disintegration as the price to pay for the money from eco-tourism.

compiled by Amulya .R. Tuladhar

********************************************************************* Date: Sat, 12 Nov 1994 11:35:10 -0500 From: JaiNepal@aol.com To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Hindu Temples

Namaste!

Hinduism is one of the great major religions of the world. In philosphy, Hinduism along with Buddhism is also the most accepting and all encompassing of religions. In many places however this does not cross over into day to day life. Before the issue of entrance to Hindu temples by non-Hindus can even be addressed, it helps to know who is a Hindu?
     Is a Hindu a member of an Aryan or Dravidian racial group that settled in South Asia? Is a Hindu someone who accpets the Gita as their "Bible"? Is a Hindu someone who worships Lord Siva and/or Vishnu as their God? Very confusing! It cannot be just racial becuase many members of the group are Muslim, Sikh, Jain, Christian, etc. So maybe it is someone who believes in Gita and Vedanta philosphy and worships Siva or Vishnu.
     Than how to decide who goes into the Hindu Temple! Of course, easiest is to use racial criteria because that is visible to the eye. But does not seem to really be true way to decide.
     I am an American of European descent and was born a Christian. About twenty years ago I became invovled with yoga and Hinduism and have since embraced the Hindu philosophy, belief in Hindu deities, do japa with mantra, do kirtan, do puja in private and with groups, and have been most welcome in Hindu temples in America.
    Twenty years ago I went to India with my Guru who is Indian and even with Him we could not go in any temples except for the two that he had been temple manger of. Now twenty years later at least in South India, more temples are open to non-South Asians (for lack of a clearer term). There is a small problem with "just tourists" going into the temples, but that is addressed by restricting cameras, requiring certain dress (dhotis, no shoes, tika on forehead). Not too many tourists will want to do that, which is good and proper.
     America, Europe, North Africa, the Middle East practically all Christian Churches, many Muslim mosques (depending on country), many Jewish synagogues let in anyone interested as long as they are respectful. This is so wonderful. They can even have tika on forehead. People get to see what others do, how they worship, who their gods, sages, saints are. This is great for helping to accept each other and live happily together in the world, even though people have different religions.
     So I am most happy to be able to go to Muktinath and do a small puja and drink the holy water, but I am very sad not to be able to go to Pashupatinath and make my pranams where Lord Shiva, Lord of all Creatures resides . I hope this can change in a way so everyone can be happy and peaceful.
     Om Shanthi, Larry Collins

***************************************************************** Date: Sat, 12 Nov 1994 20:33:44 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepali speakers in bay Area? From: ami@leland.stanford.edu (amitava biswas)

hello all,

sorry if this already got posted...

I did a research project in Nepal a few years ago using a survey instrument that I translated from english. At the time, the backtranslations were only done by people who knew the original english script.

now, I am looking for some nepali speakers to backtranslate without knowing what the original english is. It would only take 15 minutes or so, and I would be glad to meet you any time and place that is convenient - the Stanford area would be ideal.

If you can help me, please e-mail to ami@leland.stanford.edu.

thanks, ami

******************************************************************** Date: Sat, 12 Nov 1994 20:34:03 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Trekking in Nepal From: hdhungel@dolphin.upenn.edu (Himesh Dhungel)

A friend of mine wants to go trekking in Nepal (he does not have access to internet). Could somebody please let me know about the following:

1. Which is the best way to trek, alone or in a group (he will be traveling alone, or most probably with one more person)?

2. Can he make detailed trekking plans (the routes, hotels, etc.) from the US? If yes, where/who should he contact?

3. If answer to point 2 is no, where in Kathmandu should he go first? How long does it take to plan a 2 week trip to say Annapurna or Helambu or the Sagarmatha area?

I would appreciate responses from all, but would like to especially hear from non-native Nepalis, because my friend may want to be prepared for difficulties generally not encountered by Nepalis. Please send your mail to hdhungel@dolphin.upenn.edu.

Thank you.

Himesh Dhungel Center for Energy and the Environment
                                     University of Pennsylvania
                                     Tel: 215/898-7185 hdhungel@dolphin.upenn.edu Fax: 215/573-2034

************************************************************************ Date: Sat, 12 Nov 1994 20:34:54 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Arms to be banned in Dang during elections From: rajendra@coos.dartmouth.edu (Rajendra P. Shrestha)

HEADLINE: FOREIGN RELATIONS; Uttar Pradesh task force to monitor Pakistan's alleged border activities

SOURCE: All-India Doordarshan television, New Delhi, in English 1630 gmt 9 Nov 94

 BODY:
   Text of report

   A special task force is to be constituted in the border districts of Uttar Pradesh to check Pakistan's reported clandestine activities along the Indo- Nepal border. This was decided at a meeting the minister of state for home, Mr Rajesh Pilot, had with senior state and central government officials. Mr Pilot made an on-the-spot assessment of the situation in Bahraich and Maharajganj districts of Uttar Pradesh yesterday [8th November]. The task force to be headed by a senior police officer will be charged with the exclusive responsibility of taking action against smugglers and antisocial elements in the border areas. Yesterday's meeting also decided to provide latest communication equipment, vehicles and arms to personnel working in the border areas of Uttar Pradesh.

   Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Agency, of late, has been using about an 800-km stretch of the Indo- Nepal border as an entry point for trained militants, arms and narcotics.
------------------------------------------------------------------ SOURCE: Xinhua

HEADLINE: arms to be strictly checked in nepal during election

DATELINE: kathmandu, november 11; ITEM NO: 1111064

 BODY:
   an all-party meeting in dang district of mid-western nepal has decided to take stern action against anyone carrying arms and weapons during the electoral campaigns. parties at the meeting agreed to solve such problems through the efforts of a panel representing all political parties, local daily "the rising nepal" reported today. they also called on the police and administrative offices to honestly perform their duties. the meeting held under the supervision of local administration was attended by representatives of nepali congress, the communist party of nepal (uml) and rastriya prajatantra party as well as independent candidates. the general election to the house of representatives will be held on november 15 and the election campaign in all the constituencies of the 75 districts is now in full gear.
-------------------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Xinhua

HEADLINE: media watch program launched in nepal

DATELINE: kathmandu, november 11; ITEM NO: 1111065

 BODY:
    nepal press institute has started a media watch program to analyze the role of mass media in building public opinion in the general election. under the program, a fortnightly magazine will be published in both nepali and english languages, local press "the rising nepal" reported today. the institute has also started taking stock of the problems coming in the way of news reporting during the forthcoming general election to the house of representatives. the media watch program was launched with a view to helping the general election be conducted in a fair and peaceful manner, the paper said.

****************************************************************** Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 01:58 EST From: "UDAY MANANDHAR, CLARK UNIV. To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

>From: tilak@UFCC.UFL.EDU
>To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu
>Subject: Opinions & Comments.
>
>OPINIONS AND COMMENTS.
>
>Gurkhas for UN :
> Please refer to the article by Farrell and Lingle (Send by
>Rajendra Shrestha, TND Sept. 26, 94). Though Uday Manandhar Jee
>makes a case against such step (TND Nov.2, 94). I still like this
>idea of UN having a standing Gurkha army. In my opinion, it is no
>longer the issue of British imperialism or colonization. Those
>days are truely gone. UN is not Britain. The frame of reference
>should be the Nepalese position in today's world, not the
>yesterday's British empire. In my opinion, such UN army is an
>avenue for Nepalese to contribute towards world peace and
>employment opportunity. Perhaps there should be some thoughts on
>the circumstances of their deployment, the chain of command, and
>rules of engagements, etc. I am sure these issues would be worked
>out, in case such UN army is created. Perhaps some kind of
>vocational training of the retiring soldiers should be
>considered, so that they can return back to a productive civilian
>life, and play a leadership role in their respective communities.
>-----------------------------------------------------------------

Dear Editor/s:

I would like to respond to the above comment by Mr. Tilak Shrestha on my article on the Gurkhas. If Mr. Shrestha had read my article carefully he would have realized that I am not against the Gurkhas joining the U.N. In fact I am an
 emphatic supporter of Gurkhas joining the U.N. I am only saying that they be given posts such as Generals etc. so they can also stay at "home base" and give interviews to the B.B.C. and so on.

Furthermore, if Mr. Shrestha had read my article with a little more care he would have realized that my "frame of reference" as he calls it was not one of yesterday. The article by Farrell and Lingle was written just about a month back. Let me once again quote a portion of the article which I had most difficulty with and maybe Mr. Shrestha can decide on the "frame of reference".

"The Gurkhas are ideally suited to take an emergency reaction role. They are superb professional soldiers long accustomed to service for an authority other than the leaders of their homeland."

I hope Mr. Shrestha is not suggesting that the U.N. also should depend on such qualities of the Gurkhas to make their operations successful. That may have been the Gurkha of the British Empire but today's Gurkha is like any human being - they can be loyal and they can also "screw you over", they serve and authority but they can also get "pretty damm pissed off" and demolish an authority.

In the end I find it difficult to understand how Nepal could contribute to PEACE by fighting for some mega organization where it is difficulty to tell the head from the tail. Believe it or not there are many ways to contribute to peace besides fighting some elses war. One suggestion, what not start at your own home (if you know what I mean)!

Uday Manandhar Clark University (umanandhar@vax.clarku.edu)

********************************************************************* Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 02:50:04 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Should I be a guilty tourist in Nepal? From: bocska@server.uwindsor.ca (Bocska Steve)

I'll be going to Nepal in January to do some trekking. But I'm somewhat concerned. I've been to places *before* they became really 'touristy', and I've always been attracted to their charm/innocence.

How is Nepal handling tourism? I understand that they now get about 3,000 trekkers a year, and that it is waaaaaay up from years ago. How is the economy, society and culture adapting to these changes? Is there is big threat from the 'western influence'?

I hope I don't contribute to it when I get there. I've been brushing up on my Nepali customs just to be sure...

*********************************************************************** Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 02:46:10 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: Ashutosh Tiwari Subject: Re: education et.al.

Pradeep Bista <C31CC@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU> writes:

>Although I am quite unaware of the policies etc. in operation of BKS, what
>I presume is that the "foreign aid", in this case the money granted
>by the British gov't, is intended specifically for the use in implementing
>BKS programs.

>How could it be that the Nepal gov't use that money towards other "needed
>programs" that you seem to want, when the donor itself is specific about what
>it should be used towards?

Thank you Pradeep for your excellent question.

If a group of PRIVATE British citizens want to set up a school in Nepal at their OWN expense, I'd have no problem with that, PROVIDED THAT:

        1. They provide the Nepal government with FULL INFORMATION of what
           they intend to do, and get the appropriate approval from all the
           necessary ministries.
        2. Inform the local community AND get the approval of the local
           people.
        3. Submit to periodic evaluation by the Nepali public or the
           government.
        4. Obey Nepal's laws and regulations, and pay taxes.
        5. And so on and so forth . . .

But when the British government, in all its mightiness, with its taxpayers' money, wants to earmark a lump sum of money SPECIALLY to the set-up and maintenance of a high school that's, by all accounts, supposed to be the Himalayan Eton or Harrow, then there ARE issues worth debating PUBLICLY in a country as mired in poverty as Nepal:

First, what does the British government know about Nepal's SPECIFIC educational needs anyway?

Second, even if it does, who is it to tell Nepal that Nepal needs an Eton in the foothills of Shivapuri? After all, if the ultimate goal is to strengthen high school education, why not use a fraction of that aid-money to make the local Shivapuri High School stronger . . . so that at least more than 90 per cent of its tenth graders don't flunk the SLC?
[I am confident that Her Majesty's (Balliol-trained) mandarins in London know more than enough economics to do a simple cost-benefit analysis! :-) before handing out money to Nepal!]

Third, even if the British government thinks that Nepal needs an Eton, should Nepal agree with it, and pocket the money anyway? Couldn't Nepal, as a soverign nation, NEGOTIATE the aid so that the money could be used for purposes that Nepal wants? In other words, why let aid be donor-driven?

Fourth, if Nepal does not like the terms and conditions of the aid, why doesn't it muster the courage to say, "Well, thank you for your offer; but, ke garne, a state-subsidized Eton is not our priority at the momeent. If you REALLY want to help us, give us money that we can use in educational areas that we see fit."

And fifth, if the British government says no to that, then, what's stopping Nepal from saying, "Well then, we don't need your aid. Have a nice day!"

        Of course, what I've outlined above is a set of simplified questions that leave out political, diplomatic and other considerations out of this foreign-aid game. Still, my underlying message should be clear.

        Which is to say: time has come for the next generation of CONCERNED Nepalis -- that is, people like you and me -- to say "enough is enough" to

EITHER: assume leadership positions in the government or in the Nepali
         private sector to help Nepal play the aid-game to its advantage
         (After all, by virtue of our education in the West, we know how
         to talk to the West in its own terms!)

OR: come out of our narrow disciplinary training (be it in medicine,
         engineering, economics, sociology, whatever) to speak out publicly
         against BAD foreign aid programs so that GREATER harm later
         could be prevented, and that both the government and the
         donors LEARN to be accountable to the needs and the wants
         of the "poor and underprivileged" citizens of Nepal,
         in whose name this aid-game gets played . . .

Surely, if we only put together the collective strength of our fancy education for that greater good, we can do BOTH of the above?

namaste ashu

P.S. The debate surrounding Arun III is also of good/bad fortein aid and good/bad economics.

Bikash Pandey, an MIT-trained engineer, [and somebody I greatly respect for his integrity, intelligence and dedication to Nepal] and his group, Allinace For Energry have advanced convincing economic arguments AGAINST Arun III. Unlike those others' their arguments are not based on technical or even environmental grounds, as they are in solid and PRACTICAL economic analysis.

Sure, Nepal needs hydro-power. Sure, Nepal has a tremendous hydro-potential. Sure, Nepal MUST find a way to harness electricity.

BUT is Arun III the RIGHT (in the sense that, giving most value for each aid-dollar spent) project to fulfill the power needs? You bet not.

There do exist OTHER viable and cheaper alternatives to Arun III, and Nepal, instead of being driven by the donors about what it should do, MUST FIRST define how its wants the power-sector to develop.

********************************************************************** Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 16:05:09 EST From: pramod@UFCC.UFL.EDU To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: ?

       WHY DO WE TAKE SO MUCH PAIN IN READING OTHERS ?

Of all our being's worth we so hypocritically attempt to persuade to ourselves or presume to be persuaded that we are worth defying each other.In this effort we usually condone the essence to avoid the self contradiction,what meets the eyes is what we wish to meet and we wish to meet what we could demarcate,it's implicit.You build the words as shields to your virtues, invoking exemptions that you differ,you may sometimes,but without giving him any space where do you expect him to fit in ? he is then compelled to build his own route parellel to yours, leading to a series of conflicts where your ideas never get awarded,if at the best not impugned.

When you read with inclination,conscience usually disfunctions,your interpretation misleads,you take a detour, confused at a point where you have a temptation and you fear too,you may just be sensible if the fear prevails which very seldom does.You condemn him to be irrational, then why are you so eager to respond?isn't that stupidity?,either you want to demonstrate you discern his ideas or you have qualms that he is questioning your simplicity,which here may be defined as the cofinement of your "real self". Everyone is capable of generalizing you

,in many ways and many times he has lived your life. Like you he was joyous and sad, triumphant and loser, friendly and hostile ,and always insecured because you confronted him all along.Why can't you validate the fact that how very much he thinks like you,and how evidently he exposes you when you try to hide.It's instinctual on you to debate on your "sham self",the outbreak may quench you in a way but why do you want to confess every moment you deal with yourself?

He does not judge you logical by how many faults you detect in him,he may by your ingression into his premise and your reasoning for the deviation, not accompanied by your idenitity appetite.On plotting that deviation when you reach the point where you do not seem to accomodate his thoughts, ask yourself "am i rational"? a slight convergence may offset the odds. Uttering Kudos! will not make you a lesser man,run for Kudos! definitely will.

(I wrote this because i am very sympathetic to all the TND contributors, those who are in favor of "Women in Hinduism",and those who defend
"We Men in Hinduism",those who want to widen the gate of "Pashupati" and those who argue that the gate size should remain Hindu dimensional).

**************************************************************** Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 17:07:34 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Looking for Ambika Adhikary From: koirala@timss.ubc.ca (Hari Koirala)

This is a message for Mr. (Dr.?) Ambika Adhikary or for those who know his email address or residential address. His school friend Mr. Naresh Shrestha is now in Vancouver, and is planning to go to Toronto. Naresh is desperately looking for Ambika's address. If anybody can give some clue about Ambika's address, please send that to my email address. I'll pass that to Naresh. Thank you for your help.

My email address is Koirala@timss.ubc.ca

Hari Koirala
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