The Nepal Digest - May 8, 1995 (25 Baishakh 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Monday 8 May 95: Baishakh 25 2051 BkSm Volume 38 Issue 4

 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * SCN Liaison: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 4 May 1995 13:17:23 -0700 (PDT) From: Sujata Rana <> To: Subject: Re: sexist education ?

I use TND to get information about Nepal and see what issues are being discussed. I do not access TND to get personal criticisms - if you think that I am being ignorant and making baseless statements, I would prefer it if you said this in the forum of TND where it is possible for other people to respond. I will attempt to give you an idea of my thougths underlying my "allegations", as you put it.

I am not going to start an argument about the merits and demerits of BKS - contrary to what you say, I do applaud change for what is and appreciate what BKS has done. The ONLY point that I was trying to make is that the Nepali education system, overall, has been sexist and will probably continue to be so for some time yet. I know that for the last 10 years or so, the government have come up with programmes to encourage school going girls and I think that this is great but largely, people's attitudes about education and its utility remain sexist - the value of educating a son vs. educating a girl who is going to be married outside of the family. So, in essence, my remarks about BKS were not directly criticising the school so much as the system. When, 10-12 years from now, BKS graduates a sizeable number of girls from different parts of Nepal, these graduates can discuss the merits and demerits of BKS schooling for girls. Bks has already started doing something for girls education but there are a lot more schools in Nepal that need changing - that should perhaps be the focus of efforts to change the gender imbalance in schools.

Sujata Rana, Seattle.

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************************************************************************ Date: Thu, 04 May 1995 16:48:39 +0000 From: deschene@JHUVMS.HCF.JHU.EDU (Mary Des Chene) Subject: America-Bhutan Council To:

This is a reposting. Just a few lines appeared in the 3 May TND due to transmission problems.

I have just received the The Thunder Dragaon: Newsletter of the America-Bhutan Council, Vol. 1, No. 1, March 1995 in the mail. The organization is described as "a North America based association chartered by the Royal Government of Bhutan". It appears to be organized by Karl G. Springer who is Editor-in-Chief of the newletter. In a photo caption he is described as working for ABC. Below I have reproduced his article from the newsletter on Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. For anyone who wants to respond directly to this propaganda, the address of this organization is The America-Bhutan Council. 423 East Ojai Ave., Suite 107-108. Ojai, CA 93023. Tel/Fax is 805-646-6390.
>Mary Des Chene
>by Karl Springer
> The Himalayas have been home to many ancient Buddhist kingdoms which
>have flourished peacefully for centuries. This region, however, has seen
>tremendous political, social and cultural changes in the last fifty years and
>the world has watched in silence as these cultures and kingdoms slowly
>disappear, being overrun or absorbed by other countries. In addition to
>political changes, explosive population gowth in the region and an inundation
>of neighboring countries have led to serious demographic changes in the
>region. The population explosion has endangered the fragile Himalayan ecology,
>creating widespread poverty and threatening the cultural and social balance.
>This is increasingly causing political instability and creating turmoil among
>the various peopoles and communites that have for a long time lived in
>harmony. The Kingdom of Bhutan, once the remotest and most tranquil country in
>the region, has over the past five years begun to feel the strain of these
>changes and is being shaken by political agitation and violence previously
> The origin of Bhutan's current problems can be traced to the
>large-scale Nepalese immigration to the southern part of the country. Bhutan
>started to exert some control over its borders and in the mid-eighties began
>to carry out a proper census to determine the legal status of the population
>residing in or migrating across the border. This was met by fierce opposition
>by some groups of ethnic Nepalese extremists.
> Enouraged by the successes in Sikkim in the seventies, the Gorkhaland
>movement in the Darjeeling hills in the eighties and recent political changes
>in Nepal in 1990, these extremists initated a regin of terror in southern
>Bhutan carrying out numerous terrorist attacks against residents and public
>facilities. Their original objective was to try and bring down the Government
>of Bhutan by creating choas and initiating a large-scale political movement by
>ethnic Nepalese in Bhutan as well as those living in adjacent areas. Their aim
>was to bring about permanent demographic and political changes through
>uncontrolled immigration. When this approach did not get support, they
>initiated a campaign of terror directed at intimidating and forcing many
>ethnic Nepalese into fleeing Bhutan to camps already set up in Nepal. Having
>built up a significant number of people in the camps with Nepalese of various
>origins, they started to conduct a propaganda campaign to make the issue one
>of "human rights" for ethnic Nepalese citizens of Bhutan. This political ploy
>has had some success and the anti-Bhutan propaganda continues.
> Bhutan on its part has moved quickly towards resolving this difficult
>problem. His Majesty the King has personally traveled to the southern border
>areas repeatedly to bring calm to the area and has pardoned many Bhutanese
>Nepalese responsible for terrorist activities. Bhutan has also been bringing
>to the notice of the international community the actual facts of the
>situation. Bhutan's only interest is to preserve its political sovereignty and
>protect the interests of all its citizens including those of Nepalese
>origin,the majority of whom continue to live peacefully in Bhutan.
> To resolve the current situation, the governments of Bhutan and Nepal
>are engaged in active negotiations in finding a long-term solution to this
>painful problem. The following article is an anlaysis of the ongoing
>negotiations between the two Governments by Dr. Leo Rose who is a leading
>academic and specialist on both Nepal and Bhutan. The article is followed by
>the recent editorial in Kuensel [Bhutan newspaper] on the same subject. [End
>of Springer article; Rose and Dorji editorial not reproduced here]

*********************************************************************** From: uc_ece_1167 <> To: Subject: Re: sexist education ?

On Thu, 4 May 1995, Sujata Rana wrote:
> I do applaud change for what is and appreciate what BKS has done. The
> ONLY point that I was trying to make is that the Nepali education system,
> overall, has been sexist and will probably continue to be so for some
> time yet. I know that for the last 10 years or so, the government have

        I just thought that your allegations about BKS being sexist was baseless. Your asumption that "people's attitudes about education and its utility remain sexist" has absolutely nothing to do with BKS. Then you continue to point out the value of educating a girl vs. that of educating a boy. I still don't understand what BKS has to do with all this.

All I am saying is that you cannot say BKS is sexist just because the socio-cultural environment in Nepal does not promote the education of girls. When people like you make write such things it takes away from the discussion at hand. When somebody pointed out that BKS was co-educational, you said it took them long enough and still claimed that BKS was sexist. Yet you could not back that up with any facts or proof. Pointing fingers at BKS has been very popular on TND. It seems that it is alright for you to blindly attack BKS for being sexist but I cannot point out that your comments were baseless.

I do care how you and a lot of other people feel about BKS. Ashutosh and others have legitimate argument against BKS but the BKS bashing has really become too, too much. When people start writing BKS when they really mean " the educational system in general".

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%%%% to general TND readers included. %%%%%

******************************************************************** Subject: Assistantship at MSU To: Date: Thu, 4 May 1995 20:28:04 -0400 (EDT) From: "Anil Shrestha" <>

To: The Editor, TND From: Friends of Nepal at MSU

Michigan State University has a research assistantship for a student who wishes to pursue a Masters or PhD degree iin Conservation Biology or Wildlife Ecology and Management, with a specialization in modelling and simulation. Benefits include annual salary ($12,000), tuition waiver, and health insurance. The candidates are expected to have 1)strong quantitative background and skills in computer programming and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and 2) interests in integrating ecological, economic, and social factors for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation on multiple scales (local, landscape, and regional). Interested students should send: 1)A letter of application 2)A description of research experience 3)A statement of professional goals 4) Curriculum vitae 5) Transcripts 6) GRE scores (TOEFL scores for international students0 7) Names, addresses, and phone numbers of atleast 3 references to:

Dr. Jianguo (Jack) Liu Dept. of Fisheries & Wildlife 13 Natural Resources Building Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824

students here have no further information than the stuff mentioned above. However, questions about East Lansing and MSU are most welcome! GOOD LUCK!!! PS: Contact the concerned department if you have further questions. We Nepale

*********************************************************** Date: Thu, 4 May 1995 17:17:10 -0800 To: From: (Marsha Greer) Subject: Schroeder's Study on Sexual Behaviour of Women in Nepal

In response to the December 1994 article concerning Schroeder's study on sexual behavior of Nepalese women....Mail comments to Prabha Thacker at this email address.

I feel compelled to react to the piece of study on the sexual behaviour of Brahman and Chetri women. To the majority of men and women in Nepal such a study provides little or no valuable input either into Nepal's academic or development program. The obsession with sex in the United States and the constant need for men to prove their sexual prowess and with academic feminists to research into the realm of "sexuality" as a determining factor upon which to weigh women's worth seems to be almost short of an obsession. We may acknowledge that sex in the western paradigm is looked upon as an oppressive tool used by men to oppress women, as evidenced by sexual horrors perpetrated by husbands on wives, by men on their female partners by fathers on their daughters etc. Spouse abuse is more common in the United States than automobile accidents and cancer deaths, according to a 1992 Judicial Committee report. When one reads that only 2% of intrafamilial child abuse, 6% of extra familial sexual abuse are reported to the police and that most abusers of this kind occurs within homes, one can understand the implications of sexual behaviour and violence arising from such behaviour. The concept of sex is very ingrained in the Eastern philosophy as an altruistic partnership - rather than a negotiable bargain. This is exemplified in the concept of 'adhrangani' or the other half, signifying the importance of both female and male energy which makes up a total energetic force. Commoditization of sex within a market framework is based on negotiations and power, and sex becomes a marketable commodity. Prostitution and the sex industry in the South, fed by consumerism values is such a model. The sexual behaviour of Nepalese women within the household should not be put up for laundering to imply their subordinate role. Sex is not the overriding factor that reflects women's status in countries like Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, or elsewhere. Such a study may fulfill the need for academic research where this is an intriguing untrodded area. But, in the context of so called Third World
'sexual behaviour' is the last thing we want to know. If Nepalese women whether Brahmin, Chetri, Newar, Tamang, Gurung, etc. interpret such a study as a reflection of their status and sexual freedom became a way of Nepali life...the implication of AIDS, STDs which are already glaring us in the face, would be alarming. Moreover, why should Nepali women feel they lag behind Western women because they don't enjoy sex? They enjoy motherhood and the power they gain in motherhood, whether biological or fostered. What if they don't enjoy sex? Again, western models of 'joy in sex' may not fit into the way sex is interpreted in Eastern cultures. Why is it necessary to fit into the western model of sexuality? Feminism needs to accommodate diversity and learn from it. Empowerment strategies vary in different contexts and sexual feats of women do not reflect our superiority over men.

********************************************************************* From: S Hrestha <> Subject: Politicians Vs Controversy To: Date: Fri, 5 May 1995 12:49:38 +0930 (CST)

                Padma Ratna and Pradeep Nepal Issue
                        Politicians Vs Controversy

                                                Kumud Shrestha, Australia

        Because of their speaking and working styles, two senior politicians of Present Nepalese government are in controversy. Pradeep Nepal, communication Minisster of present govt. and influencial UML leader is in controversy as a result of Sanskrit news broadcasted by Radio Nepal. Non Hindu communities are against this action. Similarly, Padma Ratna Tuladhar, Health minister of present govt. and very influencial political figure in Kathmandu, is in controversy in connection with " Beef eating issue".

Often immature politicians would prefer to be in controversy for knowing them to the bigger mass. But, let us not think so with these very senior poiticians. We think this is purely due to accidents. But, let us analyse their popularity resulting from toese controvsersy.

        Pradeep Nepal who was trying to stand for MP in future election from Western Hill district constituency, it is a big advantage. Because, it is likely that he will pull at least some congress ballet papers of his constituency resulting from this controversy. "Hindu votes" are going to make his conditions better to some extent. Similarly, Padma Ratna Tuladhar will attract more Non Hindu congress votes of his future constituency. So, it is certain that both of them will gain from this controversy.

        If so who is the looser? The looser is whole UML party. Because of this action, it is likely that UML has to loose its populartiy among Non Hindu population out side the Kathmandu valley. Those who goes outside UML camp because of these issues will never come back, specially senior citizens. Religion is very sensitive issue even in todays world. It is dividing Arabs and Israel. It is eating up Yogoslavia. So, even if UML loose its popularity by 0.5 percentage it can make big difference in the future election. Because in last election many MPs were elected by less than 5000 margin and went down only up to 9 in Ramechhap district.

        So, in such a situation what UML "politburo" will do? Will those senior politicians will decrease such controversy to make their party strong? Let us see how UML "politburo" will control such controversy in future or they would rather be quite.

****************************************************************** From: Dare Koslow <> To: The Nepal Digest <> Subject: Re: Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal

To all students interested in finding out more about the Bhutanese refugees in Nepal, please send letters to:

                Vishnawath Chhetri
                c/o Jaya Clinic
                Damak - 13

Vishnawath is a Bhutanese refugee student in Nepal attempting to reach out to other students around the world to promote awareness for the refugee issue. He would welcome all letters of support or questions about the situation. Also, if anyone is planning to visit Jhapa, Vihnawath is always available to show visitors the camps and discuss the current situation.

>From my conversations with Vishnawath and the people I was introduced to,
I learned a great deal about the situaton and feel better able to judge the actions of the governments involved. I encourage anyone interested in the subject, to write to Vishnawath or, if possible, go visit him in Jhapa. The experience should open your eyes to what the refugees have been forced to endure as the governemtns continue to pan what is now their seventh round of meetings.

********************************************************** Date: Fri, 5 May 1995 06:45 EST From: U <> Subject: Help needed with question To:

Date : 5-MAY-1995 06:43:38

In her book titled "Nepali Women Rising" (1993) Prativa Subedi says that the sixth amendment of the civil code in 1975 brought about the following changes:

-women, who were not previously allowed alimony at their divorce, were entiled to alimony for a peroid of five years or until they remarry. They were also allowed custody or their children as long as they did not marry

-Previously, a daughter was not entitled to inherit the parental property if a husband, wife, son, son's son and other male relative of the deceased were surviving. The amendment allowed the daughter to inherit in absense of the husband, wife, son or son's son. Other male relatives of the deceased would be able to claim any right to propery as long as the daughter of the deceased is surviving.

to alimony for a peroid of five years or until they remarry. They were also allowed custody or their children as long as they did not marry

-Previously, a daughter was not entitled to inherit the parental property if a husband, wife, son, son's son and other male relative of the deceased were surviving. The amendment allowed the daughter to inherit in absense of the husband, wife, son or son's son. Other male relatives of the deceased would be able to claim any right to propery as long as the daughter of the deceased is surviving.

Furthermore, the Subedi says,

"Under section 9 of the chapter on marriage no man can marry another's wife or keep another woman as wife when his wife is still living or until the husband and the wife are legally separated, except under th following conditions:

- when his wife has an incurable sexually transmitted disease
- when the wife goes insane and there is no hope of recovery
- when no child is born (or was born and dies) within ten years or marriage
- when the wife becomes blind
- when the wife stays separately with her share of property according to section 10 and section 10 (a) of the chapter "on partition of property."

Subedi says that despite the democratic changes in Nepal the above amendment of 1975 has still stayed the same and has NOT been modified. Is this true? If you believe it is not I would apprecitate it if you could explain why?


Date : 5-MAY-1995 06:59:44 In a previous article, (Ashutosh Tiwari) wrote: TEXT DELETED

-> In other words, how come most of the Top Ten SLC "Board" positions
->-- and, one suspects, most of the first-division ranks -- are
->consistently dominated by bahuns and newars, mostly males? Does SLC itself
->have, as American liberals would say, an ethnic bias? Or, as Clark
->University's Amulya and Uday would perhaps say, a gender bias?

...I guess I am saying a bit more than that. Not only the the SLC but the entire Nepali state is gender biased, including the so called new democratic state of Nepal (post 1990). i.e. The whole Constitution Drafting Committe that drafted the 1990 Constitution of Nepal was ALL MALE despite the fact that there was a lot of input from Nepalis living abroad including the United States. As a result an example of what we get: In a previous article, (Ashutosh Tiwari) wrote: TEXT DELETED

-> In other words, how come most of the Top Ten SLC "Board" positions
->-- and, one suspects, most of the first-division ranks -- are
->consistently dominated by bahuns and newars, mostly males? Does SLC itself
->have, as American liberals would say, an ethnic bias? Or, as Clark
->University's Amulya and Uday would perhaps say, a gender bias?

...I guess I am saying a bit more than that. Not only the the SLC but the entire Nepali state is gender biased, including the so called new democratic state of Nepal (post 1990). i.e. The whole Constitution Drafting Committe that drafted the 1990 Constitution of Nepal was ALL MALE despite the fact that there was a lot of input from Nepalis living abroad including the United States. As a result an example of what we get:

Official Translation: The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990 Lawbooks Management Board, Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs.

Page. 5 Part 2

9. (4) "After the commencement of this Constitution, the acquisition of citizenship of Nepal by a foreigner may be regulated by law which may, inter alia, the fulfillment of the following conditions:

(a) that he [sic] can speak and write the language of the nation of Nepal;
(b) that he [sic] is engaged in any occupation in Nepal;
(c) that he [sic] has renounced his [sic] citizenship of another country; and
(d) that he [sic] has resided in Nepal for at least fifteen years.
(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (4), a woman of foreign nationality who has a matrimonial relationship with a Nepalese citizen

(right here it is assumed that the so called man is going to be a MAN. I guess the constitution drafters could not possible a conceive a WOMAN to WOMAN relationship even though it was the 1990s. I wonder if a foreign woman marries a Nepali woman as is possible in some conuntries, that woman will be given a Nepali citizenship. From what it says here it should be possible shouldn't it?)

and who has initiated proceedings for renunciation of her foreign citizenship, and any other person, who has renounced the citizenship of Nepal and has gone to a foreign country but who has renounced his [sic] foreign citizenship, may acquire the citizenship of Nepal."

We all already know that if you are a Nepali WOMAN trying to get Nepali citizenship for your foreign husband it is going to be a bit troublesome isnt't it?

Flames, spams and comments can be directed to:
  Uday Manandhar Clark University

************************************************************** Date: Fri, 5 May 1995 10:22:23 +0500 From: (Nischal Shrestha) To: Subject: Poem

        I was studying Humanities. I was preparing for the finals. Then I came across one of the poem, which I think was short, sweet, and nice. Here it goes:

                        YOU ARE JUST LIKE A FLOWER

                YOU ARE JUST LIKE A FLOWER
                SO FAIR AND CHASTE AND DEAR;

                I FEEL I SHOULD BE FOLDING
                MY HANDS UPON YOUR HAIR,
                SO DEAR AND CHASTE AND FAIR.

                                Heinrich Heine.

        ` Shrestha, N.

Date: Fri, 5 May 1995 18:06:08 -0400 To: From: Subject: Economic Policies of the UML Government

     For those readers of TND who, like myself, are interested in the current economic policies of the UML, I thought it might be helpful to provide the whole April 7 government paper referred to in Neil Cohen's revealing analysis of April 21 carried in the May 3 TND. While the document defers repeatedly to the "freemarket" jargon made compulsory by the IMF and the triumphant power that Mr. Cohen represents, it is at least arguable that the crucial price control/subsidy program for essential goods represents the greatest degree of resistance to "liberalization" and the structural adjustment program possible in the present conjuncture. The paper follows:
               Economic Policies of the Present Government Background:
     The main objectives of the Government of the CPN (UML) are to create an equitable society by uplifting the economic conditions of the disadvantaged section of society, developing national capital in the country, increasing the national production rapidly and making the national economy independent and self-reliant. The steps to be taken by the present Government in the coming days will be guided by these objectives.
     In this context, HMG wants to uplift the living standard of the poor and the deprived people by solving their bread and butter and livelihood problems through the reforms and changes in the policies to overcome existing distortions and weaknesses in the economy. In order to expedite the industrialization process as a national campaign, the present Government wants to encourage investment, and believes that in such national investment private sector plays a key role. For promoting private sector investment the Government also wants to create an environment in which a balanced role is played by market forces. While creating liberal economic atmosphere, the Government will pay due attention to avoid the emergence of problems of growing poverty, rising inflation, increasing scarcity of goods, widening unemployment and marginalization of the disadvantaged section of society.
     On the whole, the present Government wants to emphasize the balanced role of the government and the private sector in the economy within the framework of the Guiding Principles of the Constitution of Nepal by making basic reforms and changes in the existing economic structure.
     The macro-economic policies of the present Government will be as follows:
  1. Fiscal Policy
     For macro-economic stability, a proper balance between government expenditure and revenue is crucial. The high level of budgetary deficit leads to the expansion of the money supply and exerts an adverse impact on prices, balance of payments, exchange rate etc. Therefore, the policy of borrowing from the banking system within the limits set by the budget will be strictly followed. In order to control the deficit from the resources side, emphasis will be given to the mobilization of internal revenue and steps will be taken to increase the absorptive capacity of foreign aid.
     The Government will take the steps necessary for strengthening the revenue administration and increasing tax compliance. The Government will follow a policy of increasing revenue by expanding the tax base rather than by raising tax rates. Hence, policies will be adopted for the reduction of peak custom duty rates. The customs duties will be used in a limited way only for encouraging domestic production of some selected goods. In this way, custom duties will be fixed to create a competitive environment in the economy. The encouragement to be given to domestic production will be limited only to a fixed period.
     Regarding Wealth Tax, the decision will be taken on the basis of the recommendations of the Tax System Review Task Force.
     Regarding Income Tax, the Corporate Tax rate will be kept in the level of other South Asian countries. The highest rate of Personal Income Tax will not exceed the prevailing rate of 35 percent.
     The Octroi System will be phased out by making alternative arrangements for financial resources required by municipalities for carrying out development activites.
     Value Added Tax (VAT) can play an important role in widening the tax base, in increasing tax elasticity through controlling tax evasion and mobilizing additional revenue. This tax can also be helpful in removing the defects of the present sales tax system and in making customs, excise and income taxes more effective. However, adequate preparations are essential before the implementation of this tax. Moreover, additional problems may arise due to the open border system. In order to introduce this tax, an efficient tax administration is necessary and it is equally necessary to develop a consensus and willingness among tax payers as it adds responsibilities on the tax payers. Hence, necessary environment will be created for the implementation of VAT and for the time being the policy of enhancing revenue collection through the improvement of the customs valuation system, expansion of the income tax base, adjustment in the valuation of house and land for registration purposes will be adopted.
     In order to augment revenue mobilization, a simple, pragmatic and transparent tax system will be formulated and implemented effectively. The Government will take action, without any discrimination or consideraton, against those who evade taxes or those tax payers or tax officials who go against the law. Tendency to disobey the law of the land will be firmly discouraged. Special attention will be paid on the formulation and implementation of tax laws, taking social justice into account.
     It will be necessary to mobilize sufficient resources to enhance savings and improve the expenditure management system for expanding the priority programs in the areas of socio-economic infrastructure, local development and poverty alleviation. Therefore, for the implementation of big projects in the area of infrastructure development, for ensuring availability of counterpart funds in the foreign aided projects and augmenting the programs in education, health, drinking water, local development and poverty alleviation, top priority will be given to the mobilization of internal resources which will also help to reduce gradually the dependence on foreign aid. Similarly, Three Year Rolling Expenditure Plan (TYRP) will be implemented to make the expenditure program more balanced and well-managed. Besides, the projects and plans will be classified into core and non-core and a system of allocating adequate funds for core ones will be initiated.
     The Government will provide subsidy in a limited way, for the relief of low income people and for the growth and development of backward areas.
 While providing subsidies, emphasis will be given for bringing about overall stability in the economy by controlling the prices of daily necessities. Those subsidy components which cannot be sustained and do not encompass the targeted groups will be phased out.
  2. Privatization Policy
     HMG attaches greater importance to the role of the private sector for the rapid economic development of the country. Accordingly, the government's policy is to promote the role of the private sector in the development and expansion of overall economic activities in the country. However, in a mixed economic system, the public sector has also a significant role and responsibility in the society to ensure equitable distribution and to promote economic and social development. Therefore, while pursuing privatization policy a selective approach will be followed.
 In this regard, selected public enterprises not suitable to be retained in the government sector will be transferred to the private sector. As the privatizaton processes and the priority settings followed in the past were not appropriate, initiatives have already been taken to review the overall privatization process.
     In this context, the government will initiate a program of either privatizing or liquidating the enterprises not necessary to keep in the public sector. However, the public enterprises fulfilling social responsibilities and having national importance and engaged in the production and distribution of goods and services for the well-being of the common people will remain in the public sector. The private sector participation will be encouraged in the industrial sector reducing the involvement of the Government. As and where merger is necessary, enterprises will be merged.
     While privatizing public enterprises, specific policies will be followed such as converting the public enterprises into cooperatives, leasing the property of the enterprises, involving the staffs and workers in equity, inviting the private sector in the management of public enterprises and selling the shares to the public to ensure mass participation. If necessary, amendments will be made to the existing Privatization Act.
  3. Industrial and Foreign Investment Promotion Policy
     Liberal policy will be adopted in the industrial sector and the system of license requirement will be relaxed. The Government will pay necessary attention to expand the activities of the private sector by developing infrastructure, providing tax rebates and other facilities. For the rapid pace of industrial development, the Government may establish industries in those areas of national priority where the private sector is not prepared to invest. Such enterprises will be gradually handed over to the private sector after they have reached the break-even point and the capital received will be invested in other industrial activities. Top priority will be given to the development of cottage and small scale industries with emphasis on agro and forest-based industries. The ultimate objective of the industrial policy will be to promote exports and achieve self-reliance.

     Hundred percent foreign investment, on a selective basis, will be permitted in large and medium scale industries and in case of cottage and small scale industries, foreign investment will be encouraged for the transfer of technology. The present lower limit of Rs. 2 crore will be withdrawn in small and cottage industries on a selective basis to attract foreign investment. In the course of inviting foreign investment, preference will be given to such industries as enhance productivity, promote exports and generate employment opportunities. Industries established with foreign investment will not be nationalized and both dividend and share capital wil be fully allowed to repatriate. The exisiting Industrial Enterprise Act, Foreign Investment and Technology Transfer Act, Industrial Policy, Foreign Investment and Technology Transfer Policy and One Window Policy will be amended accordingly.
     For domestic investment also, One Window Policy will be formulated and implemented to facilitate domestic investment.
  4. Financial Sector Reform Policy
     Financial sector reform program will be carried out seriously. In this context, the system of determining the interest rates by commercial banks will not be disturbed. But HMG will provide concessional loans to the targeted areas and the weaker sector of society. The difference between the concessional and prevailing bank interest rates will be borne by the Government. But the loans to be provided on a concessional basis will be directed towards the upliftment of the targeted groups and areas.
     In the case of the Directed Credit Program, the existing provision of 12 percent of the total loan to the priority sector and 40 percent
(including 12 percent) to the productive sector will remain for a few more years. Commercial banks, as they also have some social responsibility, will carry out this program for some years in order to ensure that the core sectors like agriculture and industry are not deprived of bank loans as all areas have not yet been covered by Grameen Banks and other similar financial institutions.
     The performance of the two state-owned commercial banks will be improved to make them profitable and competitive. For this, arrangements will be made to expand the capital base of these banks, and improve their management by involving the private sector. In order to augment competiitive environment in the financial sector, the Government will pursue a liberal policy and allow new banks and financial institutions to enter into the financial market. Thus, the Financial Sector Policy will be directed towards regulating the activities of financial institutions rather than discouraging the new entries. Commercial banks will also be allowed autonomy gradually in foreign exchange dealings. The Government will not interfere in the day-to-day operations and the management of commercial banks.
     The capital market plays a crucial role in mobilizing resources for promoting investment in the industrial sector. Therefore, the present Government will make institutional arrangements for the healthy development of stock market and improve the functions of the institutions involved in regulating the capital market activities. The Company Act will also be amended accordingly.
  4. Foreign Trade and External Sector Reform Policy
     As foreign trade on imports side affects supplies, prices and pace of industrialization, imports will be taken as a means of improving the supplies, price stability and accelerating the industrialization process of the country.
     While the import of luxury items will be discouraged, the import of items of mass consumption, and raw materials and capital goods required for the industrialization of the country will be encouraged through tariffs only.
     The export trade of Nepal is concentrated on limited countries and items, in the absence of commodity and country diversification. As a result, the trade imbalance with the neighboring countries is widening every year. The Government will address this problem on a priority basis.
  In this regard, separate arrangements of export promotion will be made for the commodity and country diversification.
     The Government will pursue liberal policies on the foreign trade front. The service charge being applicable to exports will be phased out.
  As in the trade account, liberal policies will be adopted in the services and transfers account. So far as the full convertibility on capital account is concerned, measures will be taken after considering carefully the financial situation of the country, fixed exchange rate system with neighboring countries, price situation, government finances, open border system and also the overall foreign exchange policy of the neighboring countries. The floating exchange rate of the Nepalese currency vis-a-vis convertable currencies will be continued.
     Before obtaining membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), Nepal may need some changes and improvements in areas like tariffs, subsidies and bilateral trade arrangements. Therefore, the decision on WTO membership will be taken after the report of the recently constituted task force.
  6. Price Policy
     Normally, the Government will not interfere in the market for the fixation of prices of goods and services. But in order to stabilize the prices of essential commodities, and to keep the prices within limits, the Government will take bold steps to improve the production and supply system of the country. Necessary arrangements will be made to maintain a buffer stock of essential commodities for ensuring the regular and adequate supply of these commodities. Monetary and fiscal policies will also be utilized to stabilize these prices.
     In order to control the artificial price hike, the existing price monitoring agency will be made more effective.
     Fair price shops will be opened to make the items of daily necessity easily available to low income people. For the management of such shops, the users' cooperatives will be established in addition to promoting and strengthening the dealership system. In the beginning, fair price shops will be opened in the Kathmandu Valley.
     Thus, the economic policy of the present Government will be directed to uplift the living conditions of the people at a faster rate by bringing about overall changes and improvements in socio-economic conditions of the country so that the objectives of creating an equitable society and a welfare state could be realized. END


*********************************************************************************************** Date: 5 May 1995 17:46:38 U From: "Hridaya Bajracharya" <> Subject: Language, Nation and String To: "The Nepal Digest" <>

                  Subject: 8/27/56
                  Language, Nation and String 18:58

One interesting thing that I came across while in this faraway land is the way tiny tots from day care are taken around: a long string held at two ends by two day care givers, the nannies, and the tots holding the string with one hand. I enjoyed the scene--tots making giggles, fuss, dragg, and attempting to stay at colorful windows, the nanneis at the two ends either chating to each other in casual ways, taking a quick chance of staring at the colorful dress stalls, and occasionally shouting in lovely voices at the kids who wanted to get attention by making playful troubles. I said to myself: wah that is interesting. Children could enjoy the otherwise hazardous walk with such ease because of the string and the nannies. Then I went further into my imagination-- isn't this how we stroll attached to an invisible string called nation? Oh, yeah. But wait, some strings could be stronger and rigid like that of the army. I don't like that: that would be like a stern nanny trying to march the children in strict discipline. It would not have given me the pleasure and emotional melt of looking at those playful and lovely tots which I myself wanted to be one. Language is another invisible string. With the help of this string one could make journey into the land of dream and imaginations and artful conception of our realities, and share it with the others with giggle, kick, joke, hark, etc. Again, I would caution against the stern gramaticians who like in the case of military string would try to form a rigid march. Or the politicians who like tanan kishi would run into trouble spots to get their own enjoyment of rendering others into trouble, making people squabble mindlessly.

Oh yes, I love to travel with the newari string I am so fluent with, I could be little bossy with this string because of my confidence, being born to this language and brought up with. Nevertheless, I also enjoy being with the string that now claim the name "nepali." I have a small grudge though, I want to call my newari as the authentic Nepali "the Nepal Bhasha" but then I don't see many who would agree to me so I settle to the game and respond to the unspoken rule, though still with my personal grudge for I know from the history that mine was actually the authentic nepali. Well, some sympathetic friends call it that way and I blush with flattery and pride. But the new
"nepali" string has become somehow more long and elaborate and there are lots of people who hang on to this and it is more fun to be with bigger crowd. Sanskrit of course is another string that promises of taking into the spiritual land and the land of once upon a time. Those who have walked with it really loves to walk with it. Certainly there seems to be lots of fun and pleasure being with it. Well, but that has been not in our daily sight and practice so much, and has been abandoned for ages, don't know why. So many people are really warry of whether it could take to the promised land. But then how about if the nannies are real weird, jerks or even mad, or rakchhesh that would like to take the group into a cave and devour them? Oh yeah, I fear being taken by the jerks and the mad, and of course by the rakchhesh. Prhaps that was how it was abandoned in the past. But that is no point in saying that the strings should be torned into pieces or burnt. Is not it a fun to have more options? Of course, it was not easy for me to come to this stage of walking with this English string, but I certainly enjoy now having this more fabulous option. Of course, I could have lived without it. and I would certainly hate if it comes with a compulsion of having to walk with it even when I don't wanted to. Want is again another problem area. These later issues bring the whole critical questions: who to decide to give the prominent route for a particular string, who should lead the string, where should the string be walked to, why should it be wanted to etc. It would be interesting to reflect on these things. I would leave this portion open for our netter friends to join and to stake for the positions of lead.

************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 5 May 1995 16:51:19 -0700 (PDT) From: Dahal Durga <> To: The Nepal Digest <> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - May 5, 1995 (22 Baishakh 2052 BkSm)

Who ever top ten India reason provoker is bark in New Road. Why are you in TND? We have exams, Silly?

Dear, Bagh player, Imay tell you how to play this. HWhere are you?

********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 5 May 1995 20:44:54 -0400 (EDT) From: Tara N Niraula <> To: The Nepal Digest <> Subject: inquiry

Dear TND Editor,
        I would be very thankful, if you could kindly post the following message to your forth comming issues of The Nepal Digest.
     I am a graduate (doctoral) student at columbia university. I am working on my dissertation at the moment. My area of concentration is in
"educational administration".
        I am interested to establish contact with graduate students or former graduate students who are currently pursuing their degrees or wroking in related professional field, particularly in education. If any one is currently studying or working in the specified field, please kindly contact me at the following address:

        Postal address:
                Tara Niraula
                512 West 122nd Street, Box 104
                New York, NY 10027
                or E-mail to:
        The purpose is to establish a dialogue among each other, so that we can share our knowledge and skills and benifit from it greatly. I am also personally interested to exchange ideas on how we can improve our education system in nepal. Any one interested in improving education in nepal can also join our group. I am open to any good and constructive, and innovative ideas. Please feel free to contact me. thanks in advance tara

****************************************************************************** From: (Sanjiv Shrestha) Subject: To: Date: Sat, 6 May 1995 00:52:37 -0700 (PDT)

  This is in response to Sujata Rana's persistent accusations directed towards bks regarding sexism. She obviously seems very upset about sexism in the education system of Nepal as a whole. What I am really getting sick of is people choosing bks as a scapegoat to vent out their frustrations with the education system of Nepal as a whole. If you dislike something about the education system of Nepal strongly, go complain to authorities directly instead of using bks as a vehicle to express your dissatisfaction and learn a little bit of netiquette. By this, I mean give consideration to other netters who are already getting sick and tired of discussions related to bks. Can we please stop targeting bks?
                                                -Sanjiv Man Shrestha
                                                 Pasadena, California

***************************************************************** Date: Sat, 6 May 1995 03:37:05 -0500 From: 194038@JPNIUJ00.BITNET

Here's an interesting piece of recent news I read that I would like to share wi th our TND readers.

    Indian suspect to oppose extradition from Singapore

    SINGAPORE, April 28 (Reuter) - One of India's leading criminal suspects, held in Singapore police custody, is a holder of a Nepali passport and will oppose his extradition to India for trial, his lawyer said on Friday.
     New Delhi is expected to apply to extradite suspect Om Prakash Srivastava next week, lawyer S. Radakrishnan said.
     "I have not seen the papers and therefore do not know the charges against my client for extradition," he told Reuters.
     A diplomat at the Indian High Commission in Singapore said Srivastava, 35, was wanted in India on charges of murder, attempted murder and kidnapping.
     "There is no evidence that he committed the crimes. He is a respectable Nepalese businessman," Radakrishnan said.
     "He is based in Dubai and engaged in electronics exports business. Srivastava arrived here from Dubai in connection with his business," he said. "India's demand for extradition is political and we will oppose it."
     Senior officials and lawyers from India's Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) have arrived in Singapore seeking Srivastava's extradition, he said.
     A CBI spokesman said in New Delhi on Sunday that Srivastava, a former president of the Lucknow University Students' Union, was charged with the 1993 murder of a senior customs official and the kidnapping of Delhi hotelier Sikander Lal Pahwa last year.
     Pahwa was released after a huge ransom was paid.
     The CBI spokesman said Srivastava went underground in 1992 and was believed to have stayed in Nepal and Dubai.
     Indian authorities had offered a $6,400 reward for information leading to Srivastava's arrest.

I wonder how these crooks get Nepalese passports from our Foreign Ministry. It is about time the bureaucrats there wake up and realize what had happened. It is the Nepalese politicians, CDO's, former anchaladhis, some Police officia ls themselves who knowingly give shelter to these crooks on the run from neighboring Indian states. There is rampant fraud and corruption by own officia ls in bordering districts that allows people like the one mentioned above to ge t Nepalese citizenship and soon passports. I hope the new citizenship study gro up look into these kinds of practices before relaxing the rules for citizenship I am personally against these people keeping two different passports and enjoying the benefits from both countries. If anyone wants to become a Nepalese citizen, he/she should be made to renounce their other citizenship and vice ver sa. It is about time HMG take some bold policies to tighten the conditions for citizenship (even an ammendment in the constitution if need be).

Please press your scrolldown key if you are tired of reading about BKS:

As a BKS alum myself, I have been reading numerous pieces on TND for some month s now. Yes, I agree fully that taxpayer money should not be funding only one school in the country. Once again it is the sheer mismanagement by the Educatio n Ministry bureaucrats who cannot think for ways to utilize foreign aid effectively. When the school was to be established in the '70s, it was the British governmen t's decision to support this one school. As beggars cannot be choosers, HMG probably did not have the guts to request funding for other schools as well. HMG funding as well as British aid has helped many bright students from remote areas of the country who otherwise is unable to get such education. Even though some of our TND readers have accused BKS graduates of being cheats, etc. most students on scholarship from outside KTM Valley have been well deserving(that i s from my own experience). Of course there has been and will always be a few cases of fraudulent practices by eager parents who see their chances limited. I think things like that are engrained in most Nepalese whether it be educatio n or jobs. The practice of natabad, kripabad, corruption, communialism, etc. is rampant everywhere in Nepalese society. I am not trying to justify these practices here, just merely mentioning what everyone well knows but would not want to hear or acknowledge.

As far the the HMG funding goes, the school can do without it should it decide to take only fee paying students and run as any other independent school. But our TND readers should also realize that how it is going to affect poor student s from remote districts who will miss their only chance until HMG comes up other oppurtunities for them. From what I have seen, most students who were on scholarship is already starting to contribute to the country in some ways. BKS alums are today working in remote disticts with some NGO's, HMG, Royal Nepalese
 Army, Nepal Police, etc. Some have even managed to get graduate education at elite institutions such as Ivy league schools in the US, Oxbridge in UK, Tokyo University in Japan, etc. on scholarships. I am not trying blow the trumpet on BKS alums and their achievements but showing how BKS have opened avenues for poor students from remote areas of Nepal.

As for the sexist nature of the school, TND readers should not blame the alums for the ills of much of Nepalese society as well. It was the British decision t o make it a male only school in the first place and Nepalese govt. did not raise any objections that time. I believe, Princess Di's visit to Nepal and the school some years back made it possible to become coeducational. Once again it shows what HMG has been thinking and doing all these years. I am sure all the BKS graduates before it became co-ed would have welcomed the decision unlike some male only institutions in the US where students have resisted becoming co- ed. The first few batches of graduates were deprived of higher studies than SLC such as the much talked about Univ. of Cambridge GCE O and A levels by the ineptitude and the negligence of HMG as well as the British. It is certainly a good oppurtunity for students to be able to take those exams now,not that we missed them. Those who missed that have also done equally well as I have seen. Students from other schools who join BKS later should consider themselves fortunate for their certificates received there that increased their chances of getting further education abroad.

I am thinking about doing research on Nepal Bhutan refugees issue and would wel come any suggestions, help, ideas on collecting relevant materials published so far from anywhere (Nepal, Bhutan, US, India, etc.) from our TND readers. Also any criticisms on the above BKS posting is more than welcome. Would love to hear from alums as well as non-alums alike.

Personally, I commend the efforts and time our editorial staff had put for the TND to make it a worthwile electronic journal to read. My sincere gratitude goes to Rajpal and the editorial staff as well as the TND readers who provide intersting pieces of thought time and again. I would imagine if only our HMG policymakers read TND pieces by the likes of Amulya, Ashu, P.Sharma, P.Mishra, and others they could have some free sincere genuine opinions, advices that they cannot obtain from their paid and inefficient advisors.

Would like suggest Kura-kani coordinator to begin discussions on the six year old Nepal-Bhutan refugees issue among our TND readers. The six rounds of talks have gone nowhere and what is with our chimeki mitra rastra's attitude? Has anybody being following the SAARC Summit in New Delhi lately?

La ta aja lai yetti nai!! Dhanyabad!

Ashok Sayenju Japan Email: 194038@jpniuj00.bitnet

***************************************************************************** Date: Sat, 6 May 1995 14:51 EST From: To:,,,


This is to thank and congratulate Mahesh Maskey for contributing an extremely thougghtful and sensitive piece on Parijat, one of the leading contemporary female intellectual leaders of Nepal.

Before I begin my own ruminations about Parijat, let me admit that I have not read a single book of hers but i have been pretty familiar with her writings and late activism as they are commented in contemporary life. I know for instance, that she suffered from an incurable arthritis which while it made her terribly fragile and perhaps dissuade her from taking up a married life, rendered her with the indomitable spirit to survive and thrive, a spirit she not only sublimated in her personal journey but also in a social-literary journey of sharing with other sufferring humanity.

Yes she was a beautiful woman by any standard of reckoning if one saw her photos from her younger years and this epidermal beauty settled like a bed of feathers in her soul while cruel infirmity conspired to distort her face in her later years.

I have known her take part actively in multiparty politics daring to lead and challenge the Panche regime despite her physical frailty and I have followed periodic commentary on her writings which kind of lionized her for expressing existentialism through the Nepali metaphors of "Sirish ko phool" or "Blue Mimosa". And this is where i will attempt to take issue. I leave the judgment on her literary accomplishment to more expert commentators.

Let me begin by a real dumb question. What is this "Sirish ko phool?" Can anyone tell me what plant or tree this refers to? "Sirish" to this literary-dumb forester refer to 3 species of leguminous tress belonging to the genus "Albizzia": the seto siris or Albizzia procera; the kalo siris or Albizzia lebbeck; and the rato siris or Albizzia julibrissin. None of these sirises are blue or nilo: they are white "seto", black "kalo", or red "rato", referring to the color of their flowers. Considering that Parijat used theword
"sirish" in her original text, I am wondering if she was referring to a definite species found only in Darzeeling area.

Who took this literary license to translate the name of "Sirish" to "Blue Mimosa?" I am wondering, not having read this book, did the translator go to Parijat with a flower and ask her, "is this the "blue" sirisi or "mimosa" she was referring to ? did she write this book after she was in Nepal or kathmandu? In that case, I am wondering if she was referring to the violet blue flowers of Jacaranda mimosifolia the gentle low tree that encircle the Tundikhel and the exotic flower that seem to flower in the dark overcast days of Late May, lending a sort of melancholy and poetic ambience of sadness and the promise of bountiful of monsson winds, the violet almost dissolving in the grey background of the overcast cold skies?

What was Parijat referring to in her text and i think literary figures take damn seriously what metaphors they use. They also assume that the reader shares and engenders his or whole slew of meanings based on the innuendos and subtelties of particular referents. I remember in a literature class i was reading a short story of the "Chrysanthemum and the Sword" and the whole story never used the two words in the entire text and i wondered what the connection of the title was to the text. It was much later that i found that Chrysanthemum and the Sword referred to the opposite essences of japanese character and sensibility: chrysanthemum, the Japanese national flower, symbolized fineness and toughness to survive a harse winter; whiel the sword represented their nearness to definitiona of natinalhonor in the vocabulary of violence as in harakiri, gutting open one's stomach and taking out one's entrails as an honorable way to die for the Emperor, for Japan or for personal honor.

I am wondering if Parijat was referring to the indigenous, fairly hardy, not quite glamourous trees that grows on the low subtropical lands of Nepal and Darzeeling or to the fragile, exotic, perhaps alienated, beautiful, sad and hopeful, very much there but very much not thereness of jacaranda blossom, did she identify her existential angst with this flower, Jacaranda, which if true implies that the English title , "Blue Mimosa" is more accurate than "sirish ko phool" which Parijat uses.

Perhaps, Parijat did not care too much and just used the word siris generically to the jacaranda which is in the same family as Albizzia in terms of height and nature of the crown. jacaranda has no Nepali name for it, being a exotic tree imported from Brazil, originally by the Ranas along with the splendid Eucalyptus that grace the Post office in Dharahara. The chamchas of the King named this tree, "birendra phool" which i am sure progressive Parijat would have reeled away from; the newars name it, "Chakhooncha swan" or sparrow's flower.

Amulya Tuladhar Clark University, USA


This is the second part of my response to the thoughtful tribute of Mahesh Maskey to Parijat. In the first part, I took a dumb issue of the meaning of
"sirish" and "blue mimosa" , both the literal meanings and the literary metaphors. In this part, i would like to use case of Parijat to discuss how intellectuals of Nepal are judged by Western philosophical/political categories such as "existentialism" and "progressivism."

Mahesh made a clear point of how Parijat was first lionized as the Nepali literary voice of existentialism in her award winning book, "Shirish ko phool," and how Parijat herself try to distance herself from the "reactionary political implications of frustration, moral void, individualism, or meaninglessness or "nisarthabad" " after she converted herself to
"progressivism". This is perhaps an accurate potrayal of Parijat's philosophical-political stance.

However, in this essay, I would like to take issue with the use of western standards to judge Nepali intellectuals:painters, writers, artistes, sculptors, and political thinkers. With no personal animus against Parijat, let us analyze to what extent does Parijat deserve "credit" for her existentialist and progressive expressions through her literary productions in Nepal.

I say not much. Not much credit also for B.P. Koirala and his "Colonel ko ghoda" and Dhooswan Sayami's "The Eclipse" who explore like fashionalble kosher freudians of that time into women's sexuality: the first in the case of woman who dares to think the revolutionary thought of a woman's right for her own culmination of her sexual pleasures when confronted with an impotent partner in her fantasizing and projecting her desires in the sinewy muscles of the colonel's horse and the in latter, a prepurbertial girl who is torn between displaced electra complex or attraction of old men who molest and pleasure her in a confused congeries of feelings.

Not much for the Andy Warholish abrstract art of Lain Singh Bangdel or the copycat cubism of young artiste, Krishna (i think, that is his name) Manandhar.

Not much credit for the "progressive" modernist female Newari authors who introduced westen notions of education as emancipation for women as well as greater individualism for women as an unproblematized critical good for Nepali women.

Upon close examination of these individual "intellectuals",it is apparent that they have had certain privileged exposure and access to Western values and concepts which they have uncritically accepted as the latest, the best, the universal, and proceeded to translate these concepts somewhat crudely in Nepali metaphors. Not surprisingly, these authors are lionized and glorified by the middle and upper sections of Nepali society that have been bought into the great "modernization and development" unquestioned project of contemporary living and credited accordingly. They make no difference to the larger masses with whom they do not share common pool of semiotic meanings that are generated and maintained byu a particular geography and history.

Let me explain this a little further with reference to existentialism and progressive with which Parijat is credited.

Existentialism as a philosophy says that the fundamental reality is existence: neither good, nor god, nor utopia, nor equality. As a modern philosophy, it is associated with Sartre in France but the roots bear philosophical genealogy with religious leap of faith of Kierkegaard and the god-challenging self courage of Nietzche. However these philosophical and political stances had a very particular geography and historical medium where they flowered best and and waned since. Geographically this occurred in Europe, more particularly France and German. Historically they occured after World War II as a result of two major sources of political disaapointments shared by the population at large. One, the leftist intellectuals were thoroughly disaapointed with failure of Marxist promise of revolution when the object conditions predicted were most right, a ripe capitalism of working class labor in the industrial sectors of Europe that, contrary to internationalism of pan-national working class solidarity, succummebed to ideologies of fascism in Italy (this gave birth of theories of hegemony enunciated by Gramsci's "Notes from the Prison") Nazism in Germany (this gave birth to the Frankfurt School of Critical Theoriest who looked into ways culture was being colonized by the capitalistic machine to normalize the masses). The leftist were also disillusioned by the rift of Sino-Soviet communist alternate to capitalism, the suppression of Czechslovakia nd Hungary as well as theCultural Revolution, and the general failure of the working class, symbolized by trade unions, to spearhead social change and emancipation that crystallized into the \May 1968 student rebellion of France that basically overthrew and delegitimized Sartre's existentialism and Althusser's structuralism as usable political strategy for emanciapation.

It is in this shared community of geographical and historical meaning that Sarte's existentialism or Leftish progressivism makes sense not in nepal where the bulk of the population and i insist even 90% of her literary admirers do not have access to this pool of meaning to make much use of her exotic and uncritical deployment of existentialism in |nepali context.

Even Parijat's more recent embrace of progressivism is problematic. "Progress" is defined as the fence crossing from the duality of tradition to modernity. This is the subject of acute soul searching by postmodern theorist who are problematizing whate we think are unquestionable good of modernity and development. i may mention only Pramod Parajuli and Stacy Leigh Pigg as two such postmodern critiques that are trying to map out how ideology of development and modernity has created the so-caled "modern subjects": of the liberal democrat and the progressive activist. They point out how uncritical acceptance of the discourse of modernity and development necessarily means an abnegation of traditional values and prospectives, how even more persistent problems are inextricably embedded in the tautology of the Enlightnement discourse of "progress" and "rationality". Both liberal and progressivism for instance still depend ontechnology to release the productive capacity of nature and people, a concept that is deeply challenged by ecocentric philosophers.

I find Guru Prasad Mainali's "Naso" and Laxmi Prasad Devkota's "Muna Madan" much more replete with indigenous reference that make them more meaningful as a literary and political project though this does not mean i endorse their political objectives.

I am sympathetic to the emancipatory motivations that characterize artistes that are credited as modern but I maintain that many of them do more aping without much critical analysis of modern categories of thought and values and show less than virtuoso mastery of indigenous discourse to create a truly original [piece of art that has something to offer both to the world and to Nepal. From what i have heard of Parijat's works, i do not think she is that original.

But then this is presumptuousness on my part or those that have written about her works have not done much convincing to me and i am open to later persuasion of the original quality of her works. Still, from what i have heard of her, i do admire her for her efforts and committment.

Amulya Tuladhar Clark University


Thanks to people like Ashu of Harvard who had so little faith in the communists (witness his sour-grape caricatures of UML in his funny Top Tens...), the UML are actually doing quite well in foreign policy.

Doing well is a relative term and UML is doing well is relative because so little was expected of them; in fact everyone expected them to have a major debacle with the rest of world shutting them off or shutting their development dollars off. In particular, most political observers were anxious at how India and USA would view the communist government and their views would be a bellweather of how the rest of donor community would behave with a UML government of Nepal.

Well, six months into the government, the UML has actually done very well. Instead of being ostracized as an international pariah, which the Nepali Congress darkly hinted to the electorate, like Myanmar, Cuba, North Korea, Iran, Cuba, or Albania, the world governments have shown a willingness to talkand do business, although not without waiting out at first.

It was not that the UML leadership did not try. Aside from toning down their anti-USA aand anti-India and anti-Market rhetoric, they have made foreign visits high on their priority. This is because the UML government suffers a legitimacy and credibility crisis: they want be legitimately accepted as an
"elected government" and they want to be credible to the nepal by actually staying in the government and delivering "development" for which foreign capital and support is needed.

More than any foreign policy success is Nepal's relation with India, the relationship that matters most. India has the ego trip of having both the defacto leader, Madhav Nepal, and the de jure leader Man Mohan Adhikari visit her before China and was flattered that Madhav nepal visited as a personal temple visit giving India plenty of political space of deniability without feeling like being pushed to the wall.

Indeed, the Indian and Nepali Press that assessed the deputy PM visit as tentative at best, has unequivocally characterized the PM's visit as a
"success." This is apparent in the following abstracts from "India Abroad" a newspaper published in New York . The April 21, 1995 edition gave front page coverage with generaous 3 page write up in the middle describing the success of the visit as follows:

1. The report acknowledged that PM Adhikary criticised the security clause of the Nepal-India Treaty as putting Nepal unfairly under the Indian security umbrella. This is a highly significant public acknowledgement that can be read as India's willingness to give political space to at least engage in public debate, in the past this was summarily dismissed and rendered invisible in the cryptic cliche of "age-old, special relationship."

2. What Nepal seems to have given India in return, and happily acknowledged, is a promise to not let Nepalese soils be used for anti-India terrorist activity of Sikhs and Kashmiris, a threath that seems more real in post - cold war south asia that the threat of China and the justification for a security treaty to meet China's threat...

3. India, to show its happiness with PM Adhikari and the UML stand towards India, agreed to take up 6 new projects for rail and bridge links and expanding a hospital n Nepal.

4. India will also supply petroleum products, salt, sugar and rice at subsidized prices. This amounts to political subsidy of UML when we recall that the withdrawal of these basic urban necessities fueled urban unrest that ultimately dislodged the Panche government in 1988/89.

5. "Adhikari's visit was seen in India as a breakthrough since it meant the warming of relations between the governming Nepali Communist Party and India."

6. "Nepal PM's Realistic Tone Wins Concessions" was another story. His conciliatory tone and realism has won Nepal additional transit facilities in the ports of kandla, Gujarat, and Bombay. Nepal has sought these facilities to reduce the trade deficity with India.

7. On the political side the Indian side "accepted" the need for a review of the 1950 Ind-Nepal Treaty and Adhikari said publicly, that there was a greater "appreciation" of nepal's position by India, somethin which he dared not not do or would have been quickly denied and amended if India disagreed.

8. In relation to arms import, Adhikary said Nepal would maintain transparency in its weapons import and India would be both informed (1965 treaty obligatin signed by Kirti Nidhi Bista) when arms are brought are routed through India. [I am wondering if the public statement by a Rana general that
\Nepal was going to buy Swedish arms was in a perverse and oblique way bowing down to India by way of publicly informing them instead of bringing them in the sly as in Marich ||Man's time.]

9. Adhikary also sought the introduction of "work permits" to Indians workking in Nepal while not wanting the same for 600,000 Nepaliw working in India and he is described as taking a turnaround from his earlier demand for the abrogation of the 1950 treaty, "That would send a bad message," to demanding, "certain clauses in the treaty would have to be updated to reflect present reality." This is far cry from Krishna Prasad Bhattarai's success in bringing back the ~status quo ante" after the treaty was suspended in 1988 and Girija "selling out " Tanakpur to ingratiate his govt to India. At least UML tried to creat some sovereign distance withing the stiffling brotherly embrace of India's special relationship of geographical proximity.

10. The trade deficit of Rs 700 million with India is a nagging issue. India contends that this deficit "looks huge" because it includes the value of items supplied by India at subsidized prices in the trade basket. This includes medicines (Rs 1.53 billion), cotton fabrics (rs. 1.65 billion), raw alcohol (rs 23 million), raw cotton (rs 2.5 million), sugar (63.5 million rs) and rice (rs 35 million). Nepal earns Rs 5.45 billin fron Indian tourist in the first 9 months of 1993-94 and 60,000 Indian Gurkhas remit Rs 1.25 billon every year. Indian officils also estimate upto Rs 100 billion flowing into Nepal through "havalas". There is a glut of Indian rupees in Kathmandu that 100 Indian ruppes fetch only Rs 157 in the open market as opposed to Rs 160 official rate. Indians also maintain that Nepal has not used rs 500 million of revolving credit New Delhi has provided Nepal.

11. Indian economists say nepal's export to India increased by 51% in 1993-94 when the export with the rest of the countries were declining. They maintain that the 1950 treaty provides that nepal give Indian businessmen national status but despite 40% of the foreign investment, they cannot own property nor import indian skilled workers and denies tax concessions availabe to locals.

12. Nepal desperately needs 200,000 tons of rice before the monsoon season and india has already provided 70,000 and the madhav nepal asked japan some money to buy thai rice.

13. Nepalis are complaining over unkept promises read another story. This reports mentions how UML is systematically appointing its cadresand supporteres in key departments to counter earlier "congressization of bureaucracy" while the promised rs 3 lakh per village has materialized. Nine ofthe 15 ministers have gone abroad costing the national exchequer Rs 40 million or one minister foreign visit every 11 days! Indecision seems to be the hallmark with the appoint ment of commissions n taskforce and little else to show.

compiled by Amulya Tuladhar Clark University

****************************************************************** Date: Sat, 6 May 1995 20:00:17 -0500 To: From: (Dan Monahan) Subject: Non-Verbal Communication and Gestures

         Hello there!

         I am a student doing a project on symbols and/or signs in different
 cultures. I would greatly appreciate it if you know of any hand signs,
 gestures, facial expressions, or body language that you know of in the
 culture of Nepal and what they mean.

         Thank you very much in advance!

                                         Dan Monahan

***************************************************************************** Date: Sun, 07 May 1995 01:25:39 -0500 (CDT) From: Subject: Kathmandu, who sang it? To:

There was a dispute among a couple of people about "Katmandu" song, and it was posted on SCN. Since I could only read SCN through WWW, and not able to post something. Here we go Great TND.

"Katmandu" was sang by Bob Seger, telling folks in the USA, that he would rather be in the valley of Kathmandu.

Cat Steven also sang a song about Kathmandu, I do not recall the title correctly, but I think it is also "Katmandu". I am not sure he is still alive. He quit singing a long time ago, man he sang beautifully.

Talknig about Kathmandu, there was a heavy metal band name Kathmandu. Their popular song is "I believe in love", but they were not that popular. In the cover of their album, there is picture of Kala Bhairava.

Robin Panday (Swayum Bhu) Arlington, TX

********************************************************************* From: sgautam@neoucom.EDU (Shiva P. Gautam) Subject: Buddhism/Hinduism/oppression/whining To: Date: Sun, 7 May 1995 12:28:06 -0400 (EDT)

In the context of my comments- Buddhism is an offshoot of Hinduism- Raju Tuladhar starts his response by declaring 'Truth is bitter'. It looks I must have said the truth that's why Tuladhar is so Bitter at my comment by saying
 *This is another example of oppression of minority from the majority
 * Another example of snubbish attitude (or very close to that)
 My simple answer to Mr. Tuladhar could have been (please notice the language)
  * This is another example of minority whining. But I refrain from saying that and try to understand his comment, and want to show how an irresponsible remark like that can come right back at you and bite you (the word 'you' here is used as a synonym of 'one'). I find Tuladhars accusations as insulting, irresponsible, and violence to my integrity, if they are directed personally towards me. He seems a knowledgeable person on Buddhism - did not Buddha teach non-violence? I have the guts not accept any of those accusation. Once again for a knowledgeable person on Buddhism it is not difficult to figure out what happens to those mean spirited words if I don't take them.
 Tuladhars opening remarks did not deserve any response, because they do not require any thoughts. An irresponsible remark could be responded by many irresponsible remarks, like I already gave one. Another response could have been
*here goes another political rhetoric. Any insult from a person can generate insult from another person in the form of a response. Whatever you through it comes right back at you including love and smile. These are not lines from a text book, these are my real experiences. I never understood why Christ answered 'You said so' to the Roman accuser. May be he was saying those untruthful words or accusation or lies were spoken by you not by me so you are a liar not me etc. etc. I don't know. Tuladhar says *This is an example of oppression I say 'you said it not me'.

If one fosters evil (Bhut saadhanaa)it you will eat you up if you could not feed the evil - the rumor goes. I refuse to be be the food of the evil hurled at me. But I must confess, I let it scratch by reacting this way. I am doing this hoping that some good might come out of this. If I was sallowed by the evil, I would have step down to dirty accusations. This are just examples how things can go.
 The whole thing was about religion but it got translated into oppression and I was identified as a member of oppressing majority group and Tuladhar representing oppressed minority group. Now as I said before, in Nepalese context a certain group can be majority or minority depending how you define it and who defines it. To make the argument shorter, in the eyes of Terai people both Tuladhar and I fall in the group of majority and represent the oppressing group. I say that because I spent a chunk of my life there. There is even phrases for these two groups (in eastern Hills)that manifests the frustration and being oppressed by these two groups. You must have heard the phrase-or you may not have if you have not been outside KTM for considerable period of time. The phrases are -Bahun ko chitta, maakhaa pitta (bahun's heart, a fly's bag of piles(?)), and -Baau dushta hundaina, Newar ishta hundaina (you don't find evilness in father, you don't find friendliness in newar). Of course both Tuladhar and I know these sayings (unofficial) are simply not true. In Terai some people who work in your land call you Maalik (master). I have seen these master who belong to Tuladhar's group and who belong to mine.

So to terai people Tuladhar also represents a member of oppressor. Welcome to the family, my brother. How does it feel being a symbol of oppressor?

However, it seems that the majority group I was included in by Tuladhar is religious one (because the topics was religion) Tuladhar representing minority Buddhist.

In my comment (Buddhism is a offshoot of Hinduism) Tuladhar sees oppression. Should I see blood in his hand for the murdering of Hindu minorities by mainly Buddhist government in Sri Lanka? Should I blame him for my grandparents' living of their motherland Sikkim because of the atrocities of then Buddhist minority government? No, it will be stupidity to do that. See, where such extrapolation could lead to?
 Tuladhar maintains that practice of Buddhism by Newar Buddhist is not by books and I might have got the idea from them and he explains some important things. He asks me questions which were very good but he himself supplies the answers too. In the meantime, somebody else responded him on the whole subject. How nice it would have been if it was asked me about my comments-like why I said it- without those extrapolation and accusation.
 Buddhist used to be treated (they might still be) in Pakistanis courts. Because two non-muslims statement in a court is used to be considered equal to one muslim's statement. There is oppression to fight.
 In the US and In Japan there is a religious group which believes (as I was told by a member of this group) that Buddha's original teachings are not useful any more. So they consider a Japanese religious (?) person born around 1200 AD as true (?) or practical Buddha. In other words they follow his teachings and considered themselves as Buddhist. I forget their group but they chant like this 'Naamyo ho ryenge ko ..' a Japanese mantra (?). They are misleading and mispractising Buddhism.

Now real response. Above I just gave examples of how things can go wry if one instigates an irresponsible behavior, how the other party can also play with words.
 I think I understood the allegations of snubbishness by reading the last paragraphs of Tuladhars response. My comments could easily be misinterpreted as Tuladhar points out that it sounds that Hindus owns Buddhism. It sure does sound like that. My sincere apologies. Similarly, if it owns it my be superior. Once again it does and I am sorry. What I wanted to say was many ideas of Buddhism had seed in Hinduism, and Hinduism precede Buddhism not the other way around. I was pointing towards similarity. Tuladhar pointed to dissimilarity. If two religions are identically the same then there would be no two religions. I am not convinced that Buddhism did not borrow any idea from Hinduism by Tuladhars clarification and accusations. Of course, Hinduism later borrowed Buddha himself (but not all of his teaching) although Buddha was declared as atheist and Buddhism an atheism by the Brahmins.

We all are oppressed and oppressor to some extent. In the chain of this oppression, the group labelled as untouchables are at the bottom. Even the there is oppression amongst the untouchable. One group of untouchable generally does not eat Bhat cooked by other untouchable. Not eating Bhat symbolized who one is superior to other. Women as in any other group are oppressed by males in untouchable group. Women constitute 50% of the population, are not they oppressed? I did not see Tuladhar expressing any outrage about Nepalese girls being sold to prostitution in India. Terai people are oppressed by Hilly people. They feel that they are second class citizen in their own country. You may not believe I have shared the same feeling now and then when I was in Nepal. Uneducated people may feel the same way about educated people. After all educated people have better to eat cleaner to wear than uneducated. If the ratio of educated people to the the total people in a ethnic group is calculated then one can say that certain group of people have more chance for better education than other. People with less chance may feel oppressed. Poor feel oppressed by rich. The list goes on.

Now serious talk. If one has some problem like oppression by majority then a solution must be sought. If majority (minority) is a part of the problem it also must be a part of the solution. Without including this group you can not solve the problem. To do this you may have to knock at the conscience. But you should not try to knock off or blow up the conscience, Because if it is blown out there is no conscience left and only god knows what happens then. Accusation,innuendo, sarcasm by one group to another results the same from the other. It takes us no where. In Nepal there is a tendency not to pay much attention to minorities complaint-thinking that all the complaint are rhetoric. The may not be. A rhetoric should be met by a rhetoric. A problem should be solved. If one is not a part of solution then he/she is a part of the problem. Posing a problem is easy, cry foul is easy solution may not be easy. We have a tendency just to see a problem but if some one challenges for a solution we are like a lute kukkur. I would like to see Tuladhar suggesting a solution and put on the table so that every body likes it. I have seen a syndrome not only in Nepal but in other countries as well- a syndrome characterized by majorities' thinking that there is less oppression than it really is, and by minorities' always thinking that there is oppression more than it really is. Long gone are the days where majority exploited minority every possible way, and about to be gone are the days where minority thrive by imposing past guilt and morality on the majority. Sitting together and talking can bring a golden future to all. Throw smile it comes back at you. Throw hate it also comes back at you.

This will be the last response on the subject. Thank you.

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