The Nepal Digest - May 30, 1995 (17 Jestha 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Tuesday 30 May 95: Jestha 17 2052 BkSm Volume 38 Issue 13

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma sharma@plains.nodak.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta ponta@sas.upenn.edu *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha rajendra@dartmouth.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 25 May 1995 16:15:41 -0700 (PDT) From: Dahal Durga <daha9014@uidaho.edu> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - May 25, 1995 (12 Jestha 2052 BkSm)

To Anita Regmi. Dear Anita, I do not think there was any thing for lynching! I feel sorry if you were lynched.

************************************************************** Date: Thu, 25 May 1995 22:58:26 -0400 (EDT) From: kenneth pumford <kpumford@umdsun2.umd.umich.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Bhariya baloney

This is in response to Sanjay Kumar's article on the (supposed) racism evident in the relationship between 1st World trekkers in Nepal and their porters. His piece was full of interesting statements, such as "a mere scratch and the racism inherent in the Neo-colonialism of the current world oozes out", but he failed to follow through and prove his case.

Sanjay doesn't say what it is about the relationship between trekker and porter that makes the Western traveler guilty of racism. Are the anecnotes he quoted of trekkers begrudging their porters smoke breaks all the proof he has to bring to the table? As one who has huffed and puffed his way up many a Nepali trail with a heavy load, I doubt that more than a few Westerners who have ventured onto the trails feel anything but awe and admiration at the performance of the porters they hire. If the mere fact that the trekker doing the hiring is a rich Westerner while the poor porter is Nepali is what bother's Sanjay and leads him to cry racist, he has to take a look at what the meaning of racist is. As long as this earth has been spinning around the sun with men on it, people have been born into different economic circumstances. If a rich Saudi prince chooses to buy a Cadillac that an American assembly worker made working at $17/hour (a pittance reletive to the Saudi's millions), it doesn't make the prince a racist, just fortunate.

Based on my own experiences in Nepal, I would argue that the Westerner is actually less racist in his or her dealings with porters than many Nepalis. Many trekkers have no concept of the caste system, and treat their porters as hired help, like a gardener or painter in the West, whereas low caste porters hired by Brahmins or others of high caste can be expected to be addressed as "ta~" like a baby or dog.

************************************************************ Date: Thu, 25 May 95 23:39:48 CDT From: sbshah@gumbo.bae.lsu.edu (Sanjay B. Shah) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay

        In the May 25 issue of the TND concerning the
"White Sahibs and coolies", I found the attitude of the author unjustifiably harsh to westerners. I find that attitude particularly amusing considering the fact that we come to the their countries to study, get financial support from them in most instances and get away with criticizing them for things that happened long ago in the past or for imagined slights. However I am not against healthy criticism that are supported with facts. I can't imagine what could have happened if we did the same things in China or Russia, even if the tools were available.
        However, in this context, let me make the readers aware of certain things about Hillary and Tenzing. Hillary is a New Zealander, who after climbing Mt. Sagarmatha (we do have a Nepalese name for the Everest, Qomolongma is the Tibetan name, and its not even in Tibet), never ended his association with Nepal. He did a lot for the Sherpas, by getting schools, hospitals, etc. built for them through external funding. He still takes a lot of interest in the development of that region which he visits very frequently. As for the `Sir' that was to given him by Queen Elizabeth, I am sure, he did not beg for it. If somebody does not want to address him as Sir, its a free society, he/she does not have to address him as Sir. He also lost a son and daughter-in-law (or daughter and son-in-law) in a plane crash in the mountains.
        As for Tenzing, he was born and he grew up in Nepal. But when he reached the summit, he unfurled the flag of India alongside those of GB, NZ and Nepal. The Nepalese Govt. at the time asked him to stay in Nepal and help promote mountaineering. He would have been awarded Rs. 40000 for that, which was a princely sum in those days. But then he chose to be director of Jawahar Lal Nehru Mountaineering School in Darjeeling and settle in India. I think that was the end of his professional role in Nepal.
        Personally speaking, to me Hillary is a great man . As for Tenzing, I consider him a great mountaineer, period. I leave it to the readers to make their own judgements as to who proved himself to be a worthier son of Nepal, the adopted White sahib or the biological Brown sahib. Sanjay Bikram Shah sbshah@gumbo.bae.lsu.edu
           
************************************************************** From: Tanka Sunuwar <tankas@microsoft.com> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Fri, 26 May 95 01:14:53 TZ Subject: RE: Carpet Factories & Minimum Wage

I missed Mr Shrestha's article, but reading what Mr. Tiwari wrote on the carpet factory, I thought I add couple of lines, too it.

Please, feel free to correct me where I wrong. It's been a long time since last time I was in touch with Carpet Factories in Nepal. So, things might have changed by now. But, from how it was about 7 years ago, I don't think minimun wage will help neither the employee or the employers.

Then, probably still now, people who worked in Carpet factory didn't get paid by neither hours or days or months. They were not salaried employees. Everybody worked on contract (Thegga?). An employee will take a loom, say 3 X6 feet. S/he will finish it on her time, no time pressure, but every one usualy tried to finish earlier than later. They got paid when they turned in the finished product.

So, if the employers start paying their employees on minimum wages, two things would probaly happen.
   1. Employees may lag on their job because it would be like 10-5 like job, resulting in less productiveness
   2. Employees will not have incentive for motivation. But, if they work on contract, they work more when they need more money and take
        of when they want to.

About the child/teen labor, I don't think it is as much as employers' fault than the workers' family and relatives. As I said before employers didn't pay their employees per head. People who are responsible for teen/child labor are the families and relatives
(believe me I know), who barely provide the kids two square meal
(dal-bhat) a day and very little pocket expense in return for their labour. It is very unfortunate, but that's what used to happen.

And again, all of these may have changed by now. I just thought I would put down what learned while I was in KTM.

These are solely my personal opinion.

-Tanka

************************************************************************ Date: Fri, 26 May 1995 05:42:48 -0500 From: Ashok Sayenju <194038@JPNIUJ00.BitNet> Subject: "Nepal Army: Still a Private Club?" To: The Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.mp.niu.edu>

It is interesting to read Amulyaji's piece on the Royal Nepal Army in the last issue of TND. I would like to add some of my own thoughts on the subject.

At least the democratic process of the government selecting the Chief should be considered an achievement from the past practices of direct appointment from the Narayanhiti Palace. As far the appointment goes, there is always going to be favouritism even when the government has a say in the process of selectio n like there would be for any other top prestigious posts. It is certainly true that the Thakuri clan have upper hand when it comes to top positions in the RNA. But it should also be noted that there has been a gradual progress in officers of other clans getting promoted in the last couple of years. I hope this continues as democractic processes are followed. There is a feeling that Army under a martial clan of Chettris is secure since there has been cases of bad apples from other clans.

The reason for other people not getting equal oppurtunity is that their loyalt ies have not been tested so far as ruling clans think. The allegiance to the Crown and the country from the people in the South is also doubted by the ruler s since they can be manipulated by our big neighbor. It will be a long time before these kind of attitudes change.

As for the selection process going to RMA(Sandhurst) for officer training, there is a seat for the top officer cadet of every batch at Kharipati to go there. Again, how the selection process works is a different matter. There are also reserved seats for Royal Palace and the top officers to send their own favourites. If all these seats are scholarships provided by her Majesty's government, it should be open to all. If HMG is paying the bills, the practice should be discontinued.

Everyone knows that corruption in RNA is just as rampant as in Bhansar Bivag. It is just that a civilian government cannot do anything about it since laws are different for them. It is about time that the government as well as high ranking officers if they have any morals left, do something to correct various malpractices of screwing poor soldiers.

Dhanyabad! Ashok Sayenju Japan

********************************************************************** From: bpandey@metro.mccneb.edu (Bhuban Pandey) Subject: Looking for Prashant Raj Pandey (fwd) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Fri, 26 May 95 8:34:36 CDT

Hi Netters!

I'm looking for Mr. Prashant Raj Pandey's present whereabouts. He came to this country about three years ago. He used to be a student at a community college in Wichita, Kansas.

If you have any information about him, please let me know. My phone number and e-mail address are:

402-451-5856

bpandey@metro.mccneb.edu

Thanks. Bhuban Pandey 5730 North 30th., Bldg. 14S Omaha, NE 68111

****************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 26 May 1995 14:09:36 -0800 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: bhushan@tanner.com (Bhushan Mudbhary) Subject: Race wars? Letter to the Editor

This poem I dedicate to all the "race/violence-mongers", here and in Nepal. First, a not so random sampling of quotes from TND.

>PUBLIC LYNCHING
>
>If some body dares to slutter a cow he deserves
>to be sluttered
>
>HINDUISM WAS LITERALLY FORCED
>
>Mongoloid race...
>
>... resulting a death of 5000 muslims
>
>Hindu activists
>
>.. ethnic conflict
>
>"These are indications of ethnic riots,"

                    Dark Thoughts at Noon

                In madness and in rage
                Life seemed so wanting of the
                Cold ravages of death

                Dark thoughts at noon,
                Malignant visions of the damned
                Miserly of life
                Turn to the beast, the keeper of death

                Let wholesale slaughter rule the land
                Let the gullies flow with blood and
                Let the winds carry the stench
                Of rotting corpses, dividends of war

                Seek your suffering,
                Find your death
                Choose your poison

                The shrieks
                The prayers, like
                muffled echoes..
                Morbid lust seeks BLOOD

                YOUR race
                YOUr seed
                YOU

********************************************************************** Date: 26 May 95 13:27:14 -0400 From: "Manish Nandy" <MANISH.NANDY@DOS.US-STATE.GOV> Subject: Kunda Dixit To: <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Does anyone know the current address of journalist Kunda Dixit? Mail addressed to his Manila address has been returned. Manish Nandy Department of State Washington, DC 20520 Internet Address: manish.nandy@dos.us-state.gov

****************************************************************** Date: Sat, 27 May 1995 00:27:30 -0400 (EDT) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: How about Chautari? To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

        Likening TND to Naya Sadak Ko Pipal Ko Bot (I had borrowed the idea from Dr. Gyaneswor Pokharel of Nagoya University, Japan) has been giving me cyber-distress.

        Naya Sadak is in Kathmandu. And Kathmandu is an urban center. And, in Nepal, urban centers are pretty much all-male affairs.

        That is why, through private e-mails, otherwise genial friends have charged me of an insufferable urban bias. Others have pounced on me for interpreting TND's existence through a prejudiced Kathmandu-mindset. And recently Anita Regmi even pointed out that Naya Sadak Ko Pipal Ko Bot is too male-dominated a term.

        O Tempora!! O Mores!! What to do? What not to do?

        In light of these justified criticisms, I hereby humbly submit to TND readers that this Naya Sadak Ko Pipal Ko Bot be changed to Hami Sabai Ko Chautari.

        Chautari seems fairly neutral, even evocative of the warm-fuzzy-togetherness that the Radio Nepal's Phulbari Karyakram tries so hard to capture, but never succeeds!!

        At any rate, this Hami Sabai Ko Chautari would MEAN the place in cyberspace for Nepali men and women and also children from the [global] village to gather at the end of the day's work -- to guff-suff, to argue, to get their news, views and gossip, to entertain and also to infuriate/bore and anger one another.

        Some, like Amulya [who, by the way, does not mind my picking on him like this as long as I do it in moderation :-)] may talk more than others; some like yours truly may have louder and even sillier opinions, but most people like yourself may just prefer to 'listen' than say anything.

        Of course, once in a while, we may get tourists who want to go to Lantang or climb Makalu, and some among us can give them directions.
        
        Sadly, three things we cannot do collectively here is: Sing 'Resham Firiri'; drink Ilam ko tato chiya, watch kancha-kanchi ko 'natch' and take a deep, satisfying puff of a bidi or churot.

                        :-) :-)

namaste ashu

*************************************************************** Date: Sat, 27 May 1995 16:49:18 -0500 From: Arun Dev Pant <pant@uxa.cso.uiuc.edu> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: More on Parijat

Mahesh Maskey's article on Parijat provided excellent reading. The political and literary background to her writings as well as the description of her life has generated enough interest to add her works to the summer reading list. Fortunately, the university library seems to have quite a few of her writings in stock. I was wondering if there is a preferred sequence to reading her works - i.e. in a certain progression regarding development of writing style.

On a different note, I would like to say that TND makes interesting reading and though I do not subscribe it, I access it through Rajendra's wonderful home page. I too would like to express my appreciation to all the people that work to put Nepal on the internet.

Arun Pant pant@uxa.cso.uiuc.edu University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

*************************************************************** From: ponta@sas.upenn.edu (Pratyoush R. Onta) Subject: Discussion To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu (tnd) Date: Sat, 27 May 1995 18:17:52 -0400 (EDT)

Discussion: Gurkhas and Post-Army Jobs

The following statement is posted here in the hope that the large crowd of tnd readers will participate in a discussion that will be informative to all. As someone who is currently thinking and writing on various issues related to Gurkha history, I hope that the information and analysis known to and presented by other participants will augment my own knowledge of the issues involved. At the end of the statement I have attached a few questions as a way to initiate discussion but reader responses need not be limited by them. Please feel free to comment on any and all aspect of the subject. Please note that only the British "Gurkha" identity is important for the discussion below.

Pratyoush Onta

In February 1995, it was reported that about 58 former British Gurkhas arrived in Sierra Leone under a three-month renewable contract to help train the local military government troops (in guerilla and jungle warfare) to fight the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) guerrilla movement. The ex-Gurkhas were hired by the UK-based private company Gurkha Security Guards (GSG) Ltd. set up in 1988 by a group of former British Gurkha officers. GSG is said to have recruited its personnel in Kathmandu using a local employment agency.

British government officials feared that since the Gurkhas were once part of the British army, their presence could be mistaken as military assistance by Britain to Sierra Leone's government and invite reprisals against British and other foreign hostages being held by RUF guerrillas. The Communist Government in Nepal was upset by this use of the ex-Gurkhas even as it admitted that it could do very little to stop it. A government spokesman was quoted as saying that some action against the recruiting agency (in Nepal) was likely even as one former Gurkha in Nepal defended the Sierra Leone contingent by saying that although risky, the job was a form of employment similar to those pursued by many others in the Middleeast and elsewhere.

A UPI report dated 12 March 1995 mentioned that seven Gurkhas had been killed in Sierra Leone but this turned out to be a false report. On February 24, an important official of the military government of Sierra Leone, an American supervisor of the Gurkhas, and one other foreign military advisor had been killed in an ambush by RUF guerillas. Some unconfirmed reports also add that one ex-Gurkha was injured on this occasion. In mid-May the contract that brought the ex-Gurkhas to Sierra Leone where they were reportedly paid between $1,000 and $2,000 per week
(I think this should be per month but I can not be sure) expired and they left the country even as the local government hired a contingent of military instructors from the South Africa-based company Executive Outcomes.

Sierra Leone is not the only place where former Gurkhas working for GSG have served in recent times. For instance, as of November 1988, GSG had hired more than 80 ex-Gurkhas to provide security in oil and mining facilities in various countries in the Gulf and Africa. In December 1991, it was reported that more than 50 ex-Gurkhas had been hired by this firm for a variety of jobs that included mine clearing in Kuwait and guarding tea and sugar estates in Mozambique. Around the same time, the British firm Royal Ordnance had employed an undisclosed number of ex-Gurkhas for mine clearing in Kuwait. In mid-1992 private security firms in Hong Kong, such as Centurion Facility and Jardine Securicor Gurkha Services, a new company started that year by Chris Hardy, a former British Gurkha Officer, were reported to be hiring a few hundred former Gurkhas for security jobs in Hong Kong. Another mid-1992 report mentioned that about 150 ex-Gurkhas hired through unidentified labor contracting agencies were providing security to British diplomats and diamond mines in Angola.

In April 1993, a Hong Kong real estate firm hired several former Gurkhas to guard one of its prestigious estates. Ex-Gurkhas working for GSG got assignments to clear land-mines in Mozambique in August 1993 and in Cambodia in December 1993. By early 1995 former Gurkhas were guarding posh residential estates, industrial sites, banks, retail premises, car parks, stadiums, clubs and utilities in Hong Kong. They were also providing security in Hong Kong's only synagogue. One report indicated that because of their "proven track record as effective security guards" the Gurkhas were in high demand in Hong Kong where it was becoming difficult to hire local young people as watchmen. Another report has suggested that in status-conscious Hong Kong, the latest fashion amidst the rich is to have personal Gurkha bodyguards.

By January 1995, Jardine Securicor was reported to have about 900 Gurkhas in its staff. Some former Gurkhas working for this firm were assigned to secure a Vietnamese refugee centre as part of a plan to eliminate the rampant drug problem in the camp. Almost 300 former Gurkhas with engineering experiences were employed by this firm in the airport project and in the construction of the Tsing Ma Bridge across the Ma Wan channel in Hong Kong. This firm was also involved in the setting up of a new company in Macau so that former Gurkhas could work as security guards in posh residential areas there. A March 1995 report said that under the Hong Kong Government's labor import scheme, about 50 ex-Gurkhas were returning to Hong Kong every month.

To understand this new "deployment" of ex-Gurkhas in the international security-related market, it might be useful to remember some details of the most current retrenchment in the size of the Brigade of Gurkhas in the British Army. In the so-called post-Cold War era that began in the late 1980s, threats from the erstwhile Warsaw Pact countries to Britain and western Europe were perceived to be at a much reduced level than before. Pressured to trim its previously inflated defence budgets, Britain, like some other countries, resorted to military restructuring which included huge cuts in the size of the overall military personnel. While defence needs and spending were intensely reviewed and studied in the four or five years preceding 1991, the actual reorganization in British military has been carried out since 1992.

According to cuts announced in 1991, the size of the British army is being reduced from about 160,000 personnel to about 116,000. As can be expected the Brigade of Gurkhas has also been cut in size. But while the overall reduction in army personnel has been close to twenty five per cent, the size of the Brigade of Gurkhas is being reduced by about 70 per cent to 2,500 men from its previous strength of about 8,000 men. The logic of retrenchment in the number of Gurkhas has been propelled by the impending transfer of British sovereignty over Hong Kong to China in 1997. In the debates about military restructuring and the future of the Gurkhas in the British Army, it is repeatedly pointed out that the Gurkhas have mainly been used for border patrolling in Hong Kong over the past twenty years. Since Hong Kong is to go and there are no other sites for the deployment of the Gurkhas' other main purported skill, jungle warfare, so this argument goes, the huge cuts are immediately justified. However, underlying this calculation is another logic. It is that after Hong Kong, the only other place for the Gurkhas is in Europe but, it is maintained, they are not technically sophisticated enough for deployment in Europe wih complex equipment.

The reduction in the number of Gurkha soldiers began in 1992. The four regiments have been amalgamated (as of July 1994) to form a singe Royal Gurkha Rifles regiment which has three battalions currently. Only two of them will remain when the reduction to a total Brigade strength of 2500 is completed in late 1996 or early 1997.

As the Gurkhas are relieved from the British Army, they and their advocates have been trying to carve for them a second career. In this realm, we have seen a burgeoning market for private security guards in which ex-Gurkhas seem to be finding a role for themselves in an increasing number every month. Although details of this process are hard to obtain, I have tried to provide (above) a brief sketch of what is happening based on published newspaper reports. The Brigade has itself opened a reemployment bureau since Dec 1991 to assist ex-Gurkhas to find international jobs. A few hundred men seem to have been assisted by this office already.

Other commentators have suggested that the Gurkhas being relieved from the British army or the Brigade itseld should be made a central part of a permanent UN peace-keeping force that will do justice to the international organization's increasing commitments all over the world. Although they seldom specify the details of how this could be done (In an article posted in TND some months ago, I discussed some of the details that will have to be figured out if this idea is ever to materialize), it is an idea that seems to find more support as the time goes by.

Some selective points for discussion:

1) Has the British military done justice to the long years of Gurkha service by cutting the size of the Brigade by about 70 per cent? Why does Britain retain the Brigade at such reduced levels? Is it for reasons of sentiment as some advocates of all-British regiments have claimed? Or it is because this arrangement allows it to recruit more Nepali men into its army in case of war in the future as some ex-Gurkhas in Nepal have claimed?

2) If ex-Gurkhas are now in the midst of creating a new international market for themselves as security guards, what should the Nepali government be doing, if anything, to assist them in the process? Since the Nepali government has not been able to control fraudulent labor contracting agencies, should it be not involved in this matter at all? Should labor contracting agencies that are currently providing jobs to ex-Gurkhas, many of which are opened by former British Gurkha officers, be allowed to open branch offices in Nepal to facilitate the process ( I have heard that some companies are interested in doing so)?

3) Why should the Nepali government or the British government have anything to say over any form of employment ex-Gurkhas choose to do, be it in Sierra Leone or Mozambique or Angola or Hong Kong?

4) Why does anyone think that the Gurkhas/ex-Gurkhas can become good security soldiers for the UN as opposed to soldiers from other countries? Why should soldiers from a single country be majorly responsible for carrying out the peace-keeping responsibilities of an international organization with so many member countries?

5) Is Gurkha recruitment an embarrassment for Nepal? If so, for what reasons? Are intermittant calls that demand an end to recruitment voiced only be certain class/caste/communities in Nepal?

6) Should a war memorial be constructed in Nepal in honour of all the Gurkha soldiers who have died in the "line of duty"? (Such a call has been made by the group that organized the first public reception of Victoria Cross winners in Nepal in 1994).

Are there currently serving or former soldiers in the net? Are their children of current or former Gurkha soldiers in the net? If yes, do they have an opinion on any of the above and related issues? What do the rest of think?

************************************************************ Date: Sat, 27 May 1995 16:39:23 -0700 (PDT) From: Jacinda Trielle Mawson <jacinda@leland.Stanford.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: 2: A Caste Question

Hi! I was wondering if I could post a question or if someone you know could answer this. I am writing my senior honors thesis on family planning in Nepal.

Is the name Rajthala a Chetri or Newar name?

Thanks for your help.

Sincerely, Jacinda Mawson

***************************************************************** Date: Sun, 28 May 1995 17:45 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu Subject: Re: The Nepal digest May 26 To: daha9014@uidaho.edu

Dear Mr or Mrs (?) Durga Dahal:

Thank you for forwarding a copy of your letter requesting "censorship" of TND.

I am not connvinced that it is necessary and i will explain why with reference to your letter below":

From: IN%"daha9014@uidaho.edu" "Dahal Durga" 28-MAY-1995 16:45:39.56 To: IN%"atuladhar@vax.clarku.edu"

TO THE TND EDITORS: THE NEPAL DIGEST.

        I wish to request to the editors to censor it. I support A. Regmi, who was the first to propose censorship. I feel shame reading my Sherpa death explanation, Arun III, and the letter to Cornell Lady. They were
============ Durga: If this were "private" communications, how did this get to TND in the first place. If you or any person send a "private Communications" to TNd by computer mistake, you should immediately send a follow-up request requesting the amount of voluntary time he has to skim contributions will try to meet such a request, Otherwise Isee no reason for the Editor to contributions. If there is something I did not understand let me know.

=================

just private communications.

        IF TND IS NOT GOING TO CENCER ALL ITS INFORMATION SOURCES THEN I FELT UNEASY. THERE ARE LOTS OF SCOUNDRELS (BLACK GUARDS) IN PLACE OF NORDICS
============

This makes no sense to me because i do not know what you are referring to and i doubt the Editor knows and yes, this is not enought to persuade me to support censorship in TND.

================= ege TO CASTRATE ITS SOURCES. THERE IS NO TIME TO PAY ATTENTION TO MALICIOUS MASKETIERS FOR ALL. IF THE EDITORS CENSOR TO KEEP TND IT WOULD BE FINE.
============

        IT IS NOT A GREAT EXCUSE TO ME I AM BEING A SINGLE MOTHER OF SIX (HALF A DOZEN CHILDREN)? SINGLE MOM SO WHAT? WHO CARES MY CHILDREN? I HAVE TO RAISE THEM.
========== Durga, are you a single mother and a lecturer of geography at TC a MA from Idaho and planning to go for phd in geography at Cornell? I am totally confused, did your "private communicatins " get routed to TND without your permisssion?

Again total confused, but my sympathis and salutations to you if you are a single mother of six!
========
 
        AGAIN TO THE EDITORS, HERE ARE LOTS OF COW SLUTTERING STORIES, HINDU KING TALKS, AND SEVERAL OTHERS, HURTING THE HEART OF PEOPLE. PLEASE CENSOR THEM AND KEEP THE TND HEALTHY.
==============

Here, I vehemently oppose your censorship request because you are trying to impose your political views on the rest of Nepal and TND readers.

thanks

amul;ya

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*********************************************************************************************** Date: 28 May 95 22:08:47 EDT From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News5/24-26 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

May 24 German mountaineer dies in Dhaulagiri Excerpts from Reuters report

   A German mountaineer, Albrecht Hammann, died on May 19 while descending from Dhaulagiri I, the world's seventh highest mountain, Tourism Ministry said on Wednesday,

   The ministry said Hammann, who scaled the 8,167 metres (26,795 ft) mountain with three others of a 11-member predominantly Swiss team, died after he was taken ill, possibly due to lack of oxygen.

   Hammann, a 45-year-old architect from Schliersee, Bavaria, and his team members had scaled the peak without using artifical oxygen, the ministry said.

   The German climber had earlier conquered the peak with two Swiss mountaineers -- expedition leader Norbert Joos, 34, and Urs Braschler, 43.

Nepal, Tibet to open Public tranportation link Excerpts from Reuters report

    Nepal and Tibet have agreed to start a public bus and truck service between the two regions next month in a move which officials said would boost tourism and trade.

   Currently only western tourists on package tours can cross the landlocked regions' border on the 873-km (542-mile) long highway linking Kathmandu and Lhasa.

   About 10,000 western tourists arrived in Kathmandu last year from Tibet through the Kodari entry point.

   China South West Airlines offers direct flights to tourists twice a week between the two capitals.

   Last year China and Nepal agreed to open up a public transport service along the road built by China in the 1960s, but they did not set a date.

   Nepali and Tibetan transport officials agreed on Tuesday to begin the service on a trial basis in June.

   "The opening of direct road transport service will boost trade, promote tourism and generate employment," said Devi Prasad Bastola, spokesman for the Nepali Works and Transport Ministry.

   Tibet will start regular public bus and truck services carrying tourists and goods across the border next month.

    Nepal's state-owned transport companies, Sajha Yatayat and Nepal Transport Corp, will begin a public bus and truck service to Lhasa once they obtain vehicles able to operate at high altitudes.

   The road's highest point is 5,250 metres (17,220 feet) above sea level.

   Trade between Nepal and Tibet totalled $21.6 million during the 12 months ending last July.

    Nepal could export construction goods and food to Tibet as bringing those items to Tibet from elsewhere in China can be expensive, Nepali officials said.

 May 25 Bride Killed for not brining a jacket Excerpts from UPI report

   A groom who apparently wanted to be well- groomed was not pleased when his bride failed to include a jacket in her dowry, so he and his relatives killed her, published reports said Thursday. Manatoriya Devi was married May 11 to Ram Yadav of Mohottari district in south Nepal, the reports said. Six days later the bride literally met the grim reaper when Yadav and his family hacked her to death with a sickle. The woman had brought along as her dowry $600 in cash, a bicycle, a transistor radio and some clothes -- but not a jacket. The groom's father, Sivha Yadav, was arrested in the killing but other members of the family apparently fled.

 May 26 State Minister Pandey resigns Excerpts from Xinhua report

   State minister Hari Prasad Pandey submitted his resignation through prime minister Man Mohan Adhikari to King Birendra who has accepted it in accordance with the 1990 constitution, according to a notice published by the palace today.

    Pandey has resigned as he is not a member of the upper house or the lower house. According to the constitution, a non member of parliament may be appointed a minister, but he must become a member of the parliament within six months from the date of his appointment or else he has to resign.

   This is the first cabinet member to withdraw from the CPN-UML minority government. King Birendra has, on the recommendation of the prime minister, assigned Minister for Information and Communication Pradip Nepal to look after the affairs of the Ministry of Water Resources.

New RNAC probe panel formed Excerpts from Xinhua report

   The government has set up a new commission under the Investigation Commission Act 2026 B.S. today to inquire into various irregularities concerning the Royal Nepal Airline Corporation (RNAC). The former 3-member governmental RNAC probe commission was dissolved on May 8 after 2 commission members, including the commission chairman, resigned. The new commission will inquire into matters concerning the appointment of RNAC's general sales agent for Europe, irregularities in the sales of Boeing 727 aircraft. Girija Prasad Koirala, former prime minister and senior leader of the main opposition the Nepali Congress, was alleged to have been involved in the case.

*********************************************************** Date: 29 May 95 00:08:26 EDT From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: eco-nepal To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

                    Notice!!!

               An Internet Group for Nepalese Economics

A new internet group, named eco-nepal@lynx.dac.neu.edu, has been started in order to facilitate the exchange of ideas concerning theoretical and applied issues of the Nepalese economy. The focus of this group is intended to be completely on economic issues, with more analytical and elaborated discussion, than the general readers of TND and Soc.Culture.Nepal, would like read. Abstracts of thoses discussions will be posted in both of them.

Suscribers of eco-nepal, may mutually benefit in several ways. First, research papers, proposals, drafts of dissertations, working papers on economic development of Nepal, done around the globe, can be circulated, discussed and commented. Second, the widely and increasingly available data-bases, such as PENN-WORLD Tables, econ-data,available on information highways, that are relevant to analysis of Nepalese economy can be shared. Third, a close academic connection of the members interested in the of Nepalese economy might be very helpful in improving the efficiency of the members of this group in the long run.
  Given those objectives, ff you want to subscribe eco-Nepal, please send an one line message with content, "Subscribe eco-nepal your name", to listproc@lynx.dac.neu.edu, and you will be automatically put in the mailing list. Thanks for your subscription and active participation.]

regards, Keshab Bhattarai

%%%%%Editor's Note: Please send your requests directly to eco-nepal. %%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

**************************************************************** Date: 29 May 95 09:02:17 EDT From: "Chitra K. Tiwari" <74641.3624@compuserve.com> To: TND <Nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: POLITICAL ANALYSIS

                                          
          NEPAL'S DEMOCRACY IN DOLDRUM ?
     
     Six months after the elections and the change of government from NC to
     NCP-UML, Nepali politicians have once again begun to talk about another mid-
     term poll and/or change of government through opposition coalition. Nepali
     Congress has decided to withdraw its support to UML government in the coming
     session parliament and has sought cooperation from the RPP to form the coalition
     government. The RPP, which holds the fragile balance, is sending mixed signals.
     The Thapa group appears to be willing to align with NC for a coalition but the
     Chand group, which commands support of majority of RPP MPs than Thapa
          group, appears to be following a wait and see attitude.
     
     The UML leaders, on the other hand, are seeking support from the RPP
     and other lilliputian parties to hang on to the seat of power. They have, however,
     ruled out the possibility of a coalition with the RPP. In the event of the lack of
     such support, the UML leaders say that their government will recommend the
     King for the dissolution of parliament and a mid-term poll. It may be reminded
     here that Girija Koirala, too, had utilized similar tactics to keep his opponents in
          NC and the opposition quiet.
     
     What's wrong with Nepali politics/or politicians? Why are these politicians
     so fond of elections and governmental changes? Is it a struggle for policy? Is it
          a struggle for ideology? Or is it a struggle for naked power?
     
     I don't see any struggle for policy or ideology in Nepali politics. Is there
     any fundamental difference between the NC, the UML and the RPP in matters of
     policy and ideology? All of them are constitutional monarchists. Both the NC and
     UML are clearly social democrats while the RPP, too, can not be described as a
     rightist party in view of the party's manifesto although many people perceive the
     RPP as a rightist party. The RPP is a rightist party not because it has rightist
          platform in its manifesto but because it is perceived to be so by many people.
      Why, then, should the UML government be toppled? What are the charges against
     it? What has it done or not done to qualify for displacement? Has it brought about
     a fundamental change in the constitutional structure of the country? Or is it
     allowed to do so by the constitution? Is the economy of Nepal worst than it was
     under the NC and the Panchayat governments? Has the UML introduced Stalinism
     and thrown its opponents into the Gulag? Has there been any police shooting over
     the unarmed masses of people as had happened several times during the Panchayat
     and NC governments? Has its actions disturbed the peace and tranquility of the
     country? Has anyone heard of UML ministers taking bribes and commissions as
     had the NC ministers? Is there a major scandal comparable to RNAC scandal of
     NC time? If so, please educate me. Has the UML government fired any
     government employees as had the NC government? My answer to all of these
     question is frankly, NO. I would, however, appreciate if someone could enlighten
     me. I am open to listen and be convinced if anyone could furnish convincing
     arguments as to why the UML government must be replaced by NC-RPP
          coalition.
     
     I don't see any reason behind NC's decision to withdraw support to UML
     government other than a competition for naked power. Former Prime Minister
     Girija Koirala has informed a mass gathering in Rupandehi that K.P. Bhattarai and
     himself have pledged "not to take rest until we went back to our former
     condition." The message is loud and clear. Koirala and Bhattarai want to topple
     the UML government not for reasons of fundamental policy differences but to go
     back to "former condition." Bhattarai has even said that he has no objection to
     RPP taking the Prime Ministership! I had never imagined that Bhattarai could
          stoop so low for power.
     
     Coalition government? Not a bad idea. In fact, I am a supporter of
     proportional representation system of elections which is more often likely to
     produce coalition government. Coaltion government under a PR system is natural
     and that all parties are prepared for it. But coalition government under the Anglo-
     American First-Past-The-Post System (the system that we now have in Nepal) is
     not natural and parties feel uncomfortable to be a coalition partners. The first-past-
     the-post system is a winner take all system and hence there is a very small scope
     for a coalition. The coalition under this system is only a temporary mechanism.
     It does not work. It invites election within couple months. Under the PR system,
     however, coalitions may be formed several times between several parties from the
     date of elections to another election due date but the elections will not be imposed
          upon the people every six months.
     
     We know that NC and RPP had enough opportunity to forge a coalition
     in the aftermath of the November 1994 elections. We all know that they failed
     then. How are we to believe now that they will succeed this time? The assumed
     majority of the combined opposition (NC + RPP=103) is so fragile that
     withdrawal or disagreement by only one dissenting member is good enough to
     make them minority. The likelihood of this scenario is very strong. What
     guarantee is there that the people will not be forced for another election in the
     next six-months? How do we know that NC's Haloween is over? After all, they
     were the one who failed to complete five-year term not because of opposition but
     because of their own internal squabbles. Are there any indicators to believe that
     Girija Koirala and Krishna Bhattarai have glued themselves after the Congress
     Jatra in Pokhara? And what about those NC dissidents who are still rallying
          around Ganesh Man?
     
     Would the RPP fall in the NC trap to be a partner in a coalition? If so,
     would such a coalition last another 4 1/2 years? I honestly don't think so. If RPP
     joins the coalition with NC it will be only to perpetuate the self-serving
     opportunism. It will step out of the coalition the moment it perceives its electoral
     strength to be stronger. It could happen next November. Its slogan will be, "see,
     we gave opportunity to UML. It did not do any good to the country. We tried to
     work together with the NC but they did not allow us to push people oriented
     policies. We had no choice but to withdraw our support to UML and to step out
          from the coalition with the NC."
     
     But before engaging ourselves into the scenario that could emerge in the
     next six months, let us ponder over whether the NC-RPP coaltion is at all possible
     under the constitution. The NC leaders are playing the game of wolves. They want
     to climb the ladder of power without elections. They are provoking the
     intellectuals of the country to explore the possibilities of going back to Article 42
     (1) of the constitution. This article provides for a coalition government from the
     hung-house. The logic here is that once the support to UML is withdrawn, the
     parliament will once again return to be hung-house. In this situation NC leaders
     want to invite RPP leaders to form the coalition government. They argue that the
     King will have to accept the coalition. They have further argued that UML
     government being a minority government has no right to recommend the
          dissolution of parliament.
     
     Well, is there a provision for multiple use of Article 42(1) in the
     constitution? I am not aware of such provision. The process of the formation of
     government starts from Article 36 and then moves to 42(1), 42(2), 42(3) and
     42(4). If the majority government can not be formed under Article 36 the King
     must call upon any member of parliament under 42(1) to appear with majority
     signatures. If it fails ( and it failed in November 1994), the King must call the
     leader of the largest party in parliament to form the minority government. Such
     a minority government is required under 42(3) to command the confidence of the
     house within 30 days. The UML government had received the vote of confidence
     under this article in December of last year ending its minority status. The UML
     government may be a minority government technically but constutionally it is a
     majority government because a minority government can not function more than
     30 days. If the government formed under 42(2) with a support of 42(3) fails then
     the only constitutional choice left for such a government is to move to 42(4) and
     dissolve the house and call for a fresh election. The constitution no where
          provides for a return to 42(1).
     
     The NC leaders and their intellectual apologists know it very well.
     Nonetheless, Koirala group is playing a dangerous game in which NC's defeat is
     inevitable. Koirala group appears to be totally hallucinated by power. They know
     the taste of power and now out of power they have become desperate to regain
     it. They are using all sorts of filthy tricks to return to power. K.P. Bhattarai has
     even said that he has no objection to offer Prime Ministership to RPP. And it has
     raised the ambition of another opportunist, Surya Bahadur Thapa, who has shown
          willingness to participate in a coalition with NC.
     
     The Koirala group wants to return to power without new elections. The
     rank and file of NC, however, know that their party can not win more seats than
     what it now has. It could actually lose a dozen or more seats to UML and RPP.
     That explains why the intellectual apologists of NC are not happy with UML's
     decision to go to polls in the event of passage of no-confidence motion. They are
     putting forward a cunning argument saying that the country can not afford to
     conduct elections every year. Do we have to remind these politicos and
     intellectual apologists that acceptance of democracy also means acceptance of
          elections. Elections come in a package of democracy.
     
     Notwithstanding this constitutional situation the NC has already decided
     to withdraw its support to UML government in the coming session of parliament.
          As a result the following scenario has emerged:
     
     1. NC will table a no-confidence motion. The RPP may or may not
               dance in NC's tune. If it does not follow NC's tune the UML
                    government will survive.
     
     2. If the RPP dances in line with NC's tune it will trigger a
               constitutional crisis. The UML government will not survive. It will
               recommend the King for the dissolution of parliament and call for
                    a new elections;
     
     3. The RPP may or may not accept coalition with NC. If it rejects
               coalition as in November 1994 there will be election without any
                    question;
     
     4. But if the RPP accepts coalition the NC and RPP will present a
               separate petition to the King asking for the formation of a
                    coalition;
     
     5. What will the King do? I think he will not take the pain in his
               head. He will throw UML's recommendation and NC-RPP's petition
                    to the Supreme Court;
        
     6. If the Supreme Court gives its verdict in favor of UML government
               there will be an election in November; but if the SC supports
               coalition seekers the government will be transferred to NC-RPP
                    coalition;
     
     7. The unholy alliance of NC-RPP will collapse in less than six
               months triggering another election sometimes in May/June 1996.
               But here too there will be another constitutional crisis. Who will
               conduct the elections? A demand for a national government
                    including the UML is a logical sequence.
     
     In the short term playing field appears to be wide for politicians. Good
     luck power hungry politicos!! But watch out! When people get tired of your self-
     serving politics they would not hesitate to pat on the back of a strongman who
          will dare to shut the door of political stadium.
     
**************************************************************** From: Sanjay Kumar <sanjay@physics.purdue.edu> Subject: Public Lynching of Hoodlums To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Mon, 29 May 95 10:48:01 EST

I fully support Anita Regmi's call for social action against men tormenting women. Against the melieu which teaches and forces women to be only passive sufferers, her public stand is heartening and should be emulated by all of us. Though society does have some forms of sanctions against other kinds of troture, this particular form of oppression is conveniently overlooked. I would also say that most men get voyeuristic pleasure out of other men oppressing women; how else can one explain the abundance of rape scenes in popular films.

AS A RESPONSE TO ANITA REGMI"S CALL, I URGE ALL RIGHT MINDED PEOPLE ON THE TND LIST TO SEND IN A NOTE DENOUNCING SUCH ACTS. IF THE ALLEGED PERSON DOESN'T STOP HIS ACT IMMEDIATELY THEN A MORE DIRECT FORM OF ACTION SHOULD BE CONTEMPLATED.

I don't personally know Anita Regmi, the woman in question or the alleged culprit Durga Dahal, but from general experience I am pretty much aware that there are lots of men prowling around looking for women victims. Self centered to the extreme, such hoodlums are concerned solely with their immediate sensual gratification. They lack even the basic human capacity to be aware of consequences of one's action. Present sexist society offers enough oppurtunity for such men to oppress and torture women. Its (im)morality is the main cause of these crimes. It idealises women who are dolls for men's indulgences, are passive, obedient and quietly take what comes their way. While it is abundantly clear that only when women openly start fighting back, the oppressing men will be put in their right place. In a crowded bus in Delhi, I once witnessed a middle aged man being publicly slapped by a young working class woman (most likely she was a house maid) for being physically indecent to her. I am sure the man learnt a lesson or two.

Reflecting back on my experinces, as growing up with a bunch of 15-16 year old boys, also teaches a lessor or two. Girls and sexual innuendos were the common butt of jokes. Though some of us were sensitive to other forms of oppression, we never asked ourselves how did grils feel about our bunch standing on a street corner, gesticulating and talking loudly. Those of us who actually took the 'bold' step of going out and actually 'did' something were never looked down, infact they were looked upto.

As an aside, there are two points regarding other issues in Anita Regmi's note. First, I don't think that in any significant way women are different from men. In a very deep sense all humans irrespective of race or sex are equal. In the current Post-Modernist vogue of the academia such humanist position may be passe, but I can't think of anyother argument which can morally justifiy struggle agaisnt all forms of oppression. In the elite circles of the First world, and following them also in the elite classes of the Third world, 'Multi-Culturalism' is the latest craze. This fare amounts to celeberating (mainly ethnic) differences. I don't understand how in a world wracked by oppression there can be any celeberation of'diffrences'. Stemming from the same ideology, though comming and positioning themselves on the other side, some feminist groups (for instance Eco-Feminists) start from the view that women, in their way of thinking, empathising and experiencing, are fundamentally different from men. But I hold what Simone de Beauvior said, " We are not born women, we are made women". An unequal society differentially creates human beings as different kinds of subjects and objects of oppression. Thus, in the current society, not only are the women made to live inhumanly, but also the men of current society are unnatural humans.

Second question deals with the forms of Women's opposition. Upper class/caste women are oppressed mainly be restricting their activities ( when and where can they go, how should they appear, what can they do what they can't, making them a ward of a man, a father, brother or for the most part the socalled husband, etc. etc.) and suppressing their talents by withholding all oppurtunities. Against such form of oppression, individual freedom and equality, within the broad parameters current society, naturally emerge as justified demands. While the upper class/cast women are oppressed as women, they also enjoy certain previliges by being members of their class. But the vast majority of working class and peasant women are oppressed not only by sexism but also as poor workers and peasants in the current society. Struggles of these women necessarily demands equality in distribution of wealth and means of production, hence a deeper restructuring of current society. I would also add, that without articulating their demands within the broader mass based struggles, the upper class/caste women have a little chance of realising them. Condition of women in the West, where a formal equality has has been acheived, is an ample proof. by providing

*************************************************************** Date: Mon, 29 May 1995 15:19:55 -0400 (EDT) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Late graduation-news To: nepal@cs.niu.edu
                                                                
                        All 150-plus members of the
                             Greater Boston Nepali Community (GBNC)

                        CONGRATULATE
        
        Vijaya Halabe on his getting a PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in March '95. Vijaya's field is information technology.

        All in Boston wish him and his wife Versa the best as they move to Houston, Texas, after many years in the Greater Boston area and (then in Amherst, Mass.)

namaste ashu

********************************************************************* Date: Tue, 30 May 1995 20:58:57 +0900 From: GP <g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: for possible publication.
          Study(MADE) in Japan: how, why, who should be stamped ?
                                                this seal.

Several peoples asked me about the ways to come to Japan to study in their field of competence. the following is just a hint. I would further like to say that I cann't send any of you the name of univ. or professor. The following hint is /should be enough from my side.

                        Study in Japan
                        ==============

"Made in Japan" , is the word we used to see from childhood specially in Radio Transister and now in every product from pen to excellent luxurious cars. In near future we will not see this "Made in Japan" in products. It is because of the production cost. Today, many companies like Sony, National (Matsushita Corp.), Toyota have moved their production plant to south east asian countries and India. As I have seen in TIME magazine, that Japan had per capita income in 1994 of US$ 37,700. Highest in the world? The salary of any one
, here, is based on the AGE and for example, a 50year old person has salary US$50,000. (Yen 100 = $1 rate) whether a labour or university teacher or company employee. TIME writes that the per capita income of Japanese will be US$45,000. in 2005. So, it has become today a center of money making. Today, because of Japanese economy, many well reknowned university professor to labour , are attracted in Japan. Now, Japan looks changing the use of seal
"Made in Japan" from goods to the researchers, policy makers to labour and what not? Still, there are many constrained conditions to come to Japan and study. First, is the language and second is the source of tution fee and sustainable money for every day life. Living cost is very high and it is almost impossible to stay for one year in Japan with parent's money. These days there many many private scholarships available in Japan, but, the difficulty is to know where are they and how you can obtain? Monbusho Scholarship (ministry of education and culture) is given to those who get admission in national universities(?). It is almost impossible to get for undergraduate studies. But, for Graduate and Doctoral Research there is high possibility. You will be given about US$2,000. which is quite enough for single students. Not only for Nepalis, but also for Europeans , this money is more than enough especially for students (as single-unmarried). In the first year, allmost all university, provide luxurious (?) hostel with minimum charge , e.g. US$40. So, you don't have to worry about part-time. This time you can devout for making your professional career. Making friends and so on.

        Similarly, private funding is also possible if you can work evening. But, the part-time job (al-beito) is usually the same type as peoples do in America (?), i.e. working as construction labour
(highly paid), to restaurant waiter (least paid, Yen 700,). But, there are many other jobs you can get. Graduate student in the first year can do part-time job , but, in the second year it is almost impossible to find time to do such part-time job because you have to be too busy with your research work, especially , if you are in science and technology
(eng. ?medical) due to heavy work load on computer and exptl. laboratory.

        Almost all foreigner can get scholarship, in the second year of their graduate studies, because there are many scholarship than number of students applying. Only, thing you should do is: make your supervisor (Professor) happy.

        As mentioned before, the first biggest problem is the language. Every Japanese are forced to study upto grade 9, so they know how to write and read their language properly. They hardly want to speak in other language, though, they prefer to know some foreign language to get rid of problems during their travel to overseas. MAsters(graduate) level students have to take course work of 30 credit hours, so, it is all most impossible to get rid of Japanese language to satisfy the 30 credits. Japanese language is essential if you really want to do best in Master level. In Japanese education, you attend classes you complete the requirement. Most of the exams are submission of reports, so you can prepare in English. Second year should be spent on research work which you can do in any language with the permission of your supervisor. One thing, I tell you is, if you satisfy the requirements the trend here is that "you will not be victimised", as I have seen before coming to Japan. Personal ego, between committee members results students in trouble in some other countries, while in Japan such problems rarely observed. Your suprevisor, is your "bidata" as long as future is concerned in getting Masters degree. Students under the same professor have excellent co-operation.

        Doctoral research(Ph.D., Dr.Eng., D.Sc.......) have different approach. Many universities have two kinds of Doctoral programs. First kind of doctor's course is , the unbounded duration of Ph. D. program, especially designed for researchers working in company and universities who are full time employees and are involved in the institution's long term research projects. Second type, is for fresh students under 35 years of age. They are supposed to do research work for 3 years as full time students and then submit a Ph.D. dissertation to the committee which will review the research results. In this second type, most universities demand, 3 point equivalent research papers. They call one full point paper to an original research paper published in a learned international journal on the subject. Conference papers are not usually counted as a full point paper. Such system is to avoid the time required to review the thesis by an external examinier in universities which does not have such 3 point requirements. So, if your research is excellent and can work hard you feel this system is quite better than the system with external examiner who reviews the thesis at the end of the research program. Still there are universities without either of the requirements mentioned above.

(Those who wish to apply for Ph.D. program need not to worry about the Japanese language in day to day research, but, you cann't avoid in your daily life. You can learn J.L. for daily life, like Peace Corps Volunteer in Nepal, i.e. from personal contact in Laboratory).

How to apply?
=============

In my opinion, the quality of university as a whole should be a criterion for undergraduate studies because there are many inter-discipilinary courses you have to study. University is very important for undergraduate course. While for graduate (here graduate means Masters) level you should go for the best school (e.g. School of Eng. in Nagoya University, Medical School in Nagoya University). Similarly, when you want to go doctoral studies, then you should select the best advisor, who can properly guide you in your research matter and provide any resource you need during the Ph.D. program. The advisor should be sound enough in the subject. The professor can be selected by conducting a thorough search in learned journals and conference proceedings in the area of your interest. or, else, you can obtain such idea from the persons working in the same field and are in close contact with you. Thorough study in the present research conducted by the professor is very important, which helps you make right target with least expense of your bullet, i.e. letter of correspondence. So, spend as much time as you can looking/referring journals conference proceeding on your interested topic. Some professor go on changing their research topics based on their project availibility. Famous professors get more fund and also have many reseach areas. they have more capability to hire students. So, I suggest to consult recent journals/conference proceedings and try, rather than random hunting which may result frustration. When you wish to make correspondence to a professor, write a short research program. Better consult experienced person, who may know what can be the appropriate research program. There are some key words which are hot in the subject, e.g. environmental problem, sustainable environment (today envi. is a spice from politics to research---sad?). Research program, is usually a hint to the professor that you are interested in that area, the real research might completely be diferent, but you should present that your interest and the professor's interest are similar.

If a Japanese professor, likes your research proposal, he can hire you. In Japan, if a professor wants to conduct worthful research he won't be said no by the Monbusho (Ministry of Education and Culture).

Japanese Universities
======================

      There are more than 50 national universities which offer graduate and Ph.D. studies. They are distributed all over japan, from Hokkaido
(very cold place) to Okinawa(very hot place). Among them, there are 7 universities called "Imperial University" before second world war
. Theses Universities are Hokkaido Univ., Tohoku Univ., Tokyo Univ.
, Nagoya Univ., Kyoto Univ. , Osaka University, and Kyushu University. Japanese peoples say that these are the best of the best universities in Japan. I was, told that the total fund spent by Monbusho in these universities are much much higher than any other national univ.s. for research, for academic materials and facilities. It does not mean that other national universities don't get. They also have good facility as well as good professors. This is just a general trend, as peoples believe. Some other peoples may have different opinion. i don't know.

Obligation
==========

  The most important obligation in this country is , you can never become citizen of Japan, (in general, though there are some exceptional cases). You can work here, but, you have to leave one day.

Advantage:
===========

    Japanese govt. (Monbusho) feels responsible for your future once you get a degree from Japanese universites. They want to keep you in contact after you leave Japan, too. I have recently heard that Monbusho has started keeping record of every foreign professionals studied in Japan, and will try to employ if the person don't / cann't get job in the home country. It seems true to me. Few guys who completed from my Lab., are getting a descent job in their field of study after going back to their home country. I hope,too .

   There is one more plan, you can return to Japan for about 6 month duration called "TRAINING" period, after 3 years period of last graduation. This may help you to keep you fresh in your profession. there many chances .............

The things I liked, in this country:

1. Nice Woking environment. 2. Security (unfortunately, the gas attack occured in Tokyo. But, I
    consider it just a exceptional.) 3. Transportation (best transporation in the world? Though costly.
   You must have seen the movie "bullet train". You can go to
   Tokyo from Nagoya and do your work and come home for dinner.
   Its possible.

4. Peoples---- Their behave with foreigners is quite better than
   the countries where I had ever visited.

5. CLean air----- Singapore is a fine country and fine for clean.
   Here peoples keep the country clean by heart , not by fine to be fine.

6. Near from Nepal.

7. Like Hillary's comment on Mount. Ev. climbing, I also say liked
   this country because such unique country-people-face do exist here
   in this earth.

8. Hidden reason. No need to explain. If you think of going back
    to Nepal, then come here --study---work for some time---
    get some experience how should you work for the country----
    --you will understand JFK's words ----ask what you can-
    give--- don't ask what the country can give you------- make
    money---good resource to Nepal--- then go back----to-mangal-man
     enjoy life with your friends----relatives----parents----
     no need to be MADAN of MUNA-MADAN-die-ing for money.

Note: These statements are mine, not of my employer. The term 'he' or 'his' refers to any one, shall not be regarded as male gender
, rather applies to both . Unfortunately, the females in this earth are dominated by males, i.e. from animal to human.

Good Luck.

Sayonara.

Gyaneswor

P.S. Persons interested in making flames, I learned from Amulya T. that -- best way to keep away from flames is don't respond them.

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