The Nepal Digest - May 26, 2000 (13 Jestha 2057 BkSm)

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    The Nepal Digest Sat May 26, 2000: Jestha 13 2057BS: Year9 Volume97 TIssue448

    Today's Topics (partial list):

           Kathmandu Prostitutes: A Study
           120 Classic Nepali books
           UN declare the Vesak Full Moon Day as a UN holiday.
           Can you help
           KHOJ_KHABAR
           PoloElephant.com
           AFVs News
           Assumption Church in Kathmandu

     ******************************************************************************
     * TND (The Nepal Digest) Editorial Board *
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     * Coordinator: Rajpal JP Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
     * Editor: Pramod K. Mishra pkm@acpub.duke.edu *
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     * Dr. Krishna B. Hamal HamalK@dist.gov.au *
     * Chapter Coordinators - Canada Chapter (TND Foundation) *
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     * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
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     * "Heros are the ones who give a bit of themselves to the community" *
     * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
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     ******************************************************************************
    ****************************************************************** From: "Amulya Ratna Tuladhar" <amulya@infoclub.com.np> To: "TND" <Nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Kathmandu Prostitutes: A Study Date: Fri, 26 May 2000 00:20:26 +0530

    KATHMANDU PROSTITUTES: A STUDY

    Source: Journal of the Nepal Medical Association, July-September 1995, 32(111): 191-203.

    Why this for TND?

    Amost all that we know about Nepali prostitutes are hearsay, salacious boasts, anecdotal reports we have no idea about how representative or objective they have, yet prostitutes are a very real presence that refuses to go away. The following is one of the rarer studies partially sponsored by USAID and conducted by a team of doctors and family planning consultants in Kathmandu. Some of the findings will alter or dispel some of our fantasy "facts" about Kathmandu prosititutes.

    The Study

    341 prostitutes, called commercial sex workers, were studied by getting their references from police arrest records or contacts such as nanglo pasales, bus conductors, hotel waiters, IV drug users, hotel employees, and/or further contacts of other prostitutes.

    Prostitute Pickup Points

    Ratna Park, Bir Hospital area, Hong Kong Market, Bhadrakali, Shaheed Gate, Rani Pokhari, Hanuman Dhoka, B us Park, Old Baneshwor, Sinamangal, Pashupati area, Gaushala, Baudha Bus Station, Chabel and Kalimati and some mid-to upper class hotels.

    Not covered in the study are the many lodges surrounding Dharahara, Chetrapati-Thamel circuit, and Gongabu Bus Stop.

    Prostitute Profiles

    About 75% of the prostitutes hailed from outside Kathmandu valley, confirming the assertion of proud Kathmanduites who often claim all the bad girls are from outside the valley.

    Nearly three-quarters of the Kathmandu prostitutes were literate, with almost a quarter with 10 + years of schooling. This finding dispels the notion that "education is the solution to prostitution prevention."

    Nearly half of the Kathmandu prostitutes belong to the Chettri-Bahun ethnic groups, a finding inconsonant with the ethnic groups who are lured into flesh trade of India.

    The girls ranged from 13-38 years in age with 80% in the 15-24 year range. Two-thirds of the women were unmarried and three-quarters had not given birth.

    An interesting sociological snippet; about half of the prostitutes were mailis, or second birth-order siblings, reinforcing a Nepali tradition that the first born, jethi , is the father's favourite and the last born, kanchi, is the mother's favourite while those in between are no body's favourite and so prone to abandoned and lost- maybe to prostitution.

    Why and How of Prostitution

    As expected about half said economic hardship was the reason for entering the trade. This does not imply destitution, however; a third entered after seeing the "demonstration effect" of friends and acquaintances doing well financially. Indeed, 21% entered trade to earn more money - not to earn roti, kapada- over their existing livelihoods of wage labor, small retail, carpet industry labor. A small percentage entered in the trade for
    "enjoyment of sex" to make up for long separation from husband due to job or death or divorce or polygamy.

    Prostitutes have had their first sex by 19, 25% between 12-14. Over 60% were initiated into sex by thier boyfriends. More than 60% entered trade at 15-19 yr age, the youngest being 13 yr.

    Sexual Practices

    Most of the clients were Nepalese and some were Indians. The average monthly number was eight, ranging from 6-11.

    All the clients had vaginal intercourse, but a third had anal intercourse while a fifth had oral intercourse.

    Sex Incomes

    80% provided all night sexual entertainment at average of Rs 445 ($ 1 = Rs 70), ranging from Rs 100- Rs 1500. A fifth of commercial sex workers charged by the coitus, an average of Rs 262 per act, mostly between Rs 100-200, one-sixth charging upto Rs 600 per coitus.

    The average monthly income from sex was Rs 3667. Compare this to Rs 2500, a NGO gives a MBA in Yr 2000 and Rs 3500 for a Masters degree private school teacher in Yr 2000!!

    Rs 3667 in monthly income at Yr 1995 prices is even more attractive when we remember that prostitutes have other sourxces of income as well. Indeed, they were able to save a fifth each month .

    Sexual Hygiene

    Although 77% were aware of condoms only 3% (9 out of 341) actually used it always; the main reason being the clients' displeasure.

    The vast majority (82%) had some knowledge about the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as viringee syphilis and AIDS but only a third visited clinics for checkup, treatment or abortion. The major in-house remedy against STD was to clean the vagina with dettol, antiseptic liquid, after sex.

    As a result 72% had at least one of the four symptoms of sexually transmitted disease such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ulcerative disease, urethritis, and vaginal discharge. About a fifth had VDRL, or venereal disease; a tenth had infectious Hepatitis B but only 3 out 341 had HIV positive test. This would discharge the commonly held notion that prostitutes are a major source of HIV spread in Nepal- maybe, but not Kathmandu prostitutes. In 1995, there were 105 Nepalese who tested HIV positive and 40 women among them, yet only 3 of the 341 Kathmand u prostitutes were HIV positive.

    ***************************************************** Date: Mon, 22 May 2000 22:13:40 -0400 (EDT) From: "Pramod K. Mishra" <pkm@duke.edu> To: The Nepal digest Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: Who's afraid of Nepali literature? 120 Classic Nepali books (fwd)

    Thanks, Ashu, for this great list. It's good for all of us, even though many of us may have read or heard about many of these writers and their works. As Manjushree pointed out, there are obvious gaps in the preparation of this list. And in my view, the gap has come about for two primary reasons. One, Khagendraji either forgot or deliberately didn't include some writers. In poetry, for example, Banira Giri is a major omission. It's not that she's just a feminist and so deserves representation but that her poetry represents, both in form and content, innovation, craft, challenge, and a deep human sensibility. But then Ma Bi Bi Shah and Chandani Shaha also are important for a number of reasons. During the Panchayat period, critics offered prasasti only. It is time now that the general public read them and the critics historicized them. For all I know, they may have written some fine pieces.

    In short stories, Bhawani Bhikshu's name is not there. It is not only that Bhikshu represents the Tarai but that in Bhikshu one can find the representation of life in the Tarai.

    In the prose section, Tana sharma's Belayat tira Baralida and his interesting travelogue about the US Pataal Prabaas deserve inclusion in any list, whatever one's assessment of the writer's politics.

    In drama, an unforgivable omission is that of Ashesh Malla, the young playwright who, despite charges of plagiarism against him, kept alive the experimental theater in Kathmandu through his plays and his theater group Sarvanam.

    This list needs to be widely circulated beyond the Kitab group. Could you put this list and the comments on it together for TND? I'd highly appreciate.

    The other reason for the gap has deeper sources toward which Manjushree just hinted. One obvious source for this lack is Hinduism in general and Brahminism in particular, and this applies not just to Nepali literature but Maithili, Bengali, to some extent even Hindi and all other languages of South Asia that have come down from Sanskrit. Because literacy was traditionally the sanctioned privilege of the Brahmins, it is for the most part only the men among the Brahmins who formed the pool out of which writers and intellectuals came. The situation is too obvious in Nepali to deserve elaboration here. What was only religiously sanctioned privilege for the Brahmin men in India punctured to some extent by the incursions of foreing cultures (Arabic, Persion, English), on the one hand, and internal reform movements within Hinduism (Bhakti movements and the vernacularization of both Hinduism and Sanskrit), in Nepal this privilege received political and legal backing in the hands of the Hindu rulers (Malla, Shaha and then Rana rulers in increasing intensity). To make it short, because literacy and education were confined to the high castes, particularly the Brahmins, writers also came mostly from this group. Even now, people who are not Nepali-speaking Hindu high castes do not generally identify with the Nepali language. And it's not just because they speak a different language. It is primarily because they have been discriminated explicitly by the Ranas and implicitly by the mandarins of the Panchayat system. There has not been a serious concerted movement (intellectual movement I'm speaking here) to break this ideology of discrimination--politically, intellectually, and religiously. Only a religious hold over the language is enough (as in Maithili) to stifle creativity, but when the political and intellectual structure ally with the religious, only God or adversarial intellectuals can help. One of the reasons why Christianity transformed Europe is by introducing widespread literacy, first in theory and then, with political transformations, in practice. Before Christianity, there may have been Druids and King Arthurs in Western Europe, but the ideology of widespread literacy didn't exist.

    But now, in the era of globalization, the situation has become more complex. Pls feel free to disagree.

    -------------------------------- From: Pramod Mishra

    This list of works in Nepali-language literature and the comments that=20 followed its posting on SCN may suggest the increasing awareness of=20 globally located Nepal's educated folks of the strengths and shortcomings= of their culture. This conversation also highlights the significance of=20 the internet as a source of information and its dissemination about and=20 for countries and cultures and voices that may not be interesting to=20 those who run their lives by the desires of the consumers and their=20 purchasing power. But at the same time, the fact that this list and its=20 genesis, including the debate following it, could occur at a level of=20 international education and not that of the local level--the village=20 development committee, the district town, and so on--in South Asia also=20 reveals the inherent limitation of this medium.

    Anyway, good reading. Please extend the debate.

    Best, Pramod

    ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Tue, 16 MAY 2000 22:21:23 GMT=20 From: Ashutosh Tiwari <ashutosh@post.harvard.edu> Newgroups: soc.culture.nepal Subject: Who's afraid of Nepali literature? 120 Classic Nepali books=20

    Namaste everyone,

    In early 1997, I had an opportunity to spend an afternoon discussing Nepali literature/sahitya with Khagendra Sangraula =96 a Nepali writer in Kathmandu. In the course of our conversation, I requested him to recommend classic Nepali literature books which one can go out, buy and read in spare time . . .

    Below appear his recommendations. Please note that this is only an informal list for the interested . . .

    Hope this list will prove useful to you, fellow-sahitya-premi -- as it has been to me over the years.

    Classic Nepali books of EPICS and POEMS

    1. Bhanubhakta ko Ramayan 2. Badhu Sickchya by Bhanubhakta 3. Bhakta Mala by Bhanubhakta

    4. Tarun Tapasi by Lekh Nath Poudyal 5. Ritu Bichar by LNP 6. Buddhi Binod by LNP

    7. Chiso Chulo by Bal Krishna Sama 8. Aago ra Paani by BKS

    9. Sakuntal by Laxmi Prasad Devkota 10. Sulochana by LPD 11. Muna Madan by LPD 12. Prometheus by LPD 13. Maaha Rana Pratap by LPD 14. Bhikhari by LPD 15. Manoranjan by LPD

    16. Urbasi by Siddhi Charan Shrestha 17. Nirjhar by SCS

    18. Gauri by Madhav Ghimire 19. Rajeswori by MG 20. Paapeeni Aama by MG 21. Rastra Nirmaata by MG 22. Kinnar Kinnayri by MG

    23. Aaama ko Sapana by Gopal Prasad Rimal

    24. Ghoom Nay Mech Maathi . . . by Bhupi Sherchan

    25. Lek by Mohan Koirala 26. Surya Daan by MK 27. Nadi Keenaar kaa Maajhi by MK 28. Mohan Koirala kaa Kabita by MK

    29. Paari Jaat ka kabita by Paari Jaat (edited by Iswor Baral) 30. Bainsalu Bartamaan by Paari Jaat

    31. Dwarika Shrestha kaa kabita by Dwarika Shrestha

    32. Krishna Bhakta kaa kabita by Krishna Bhakta

    33. Tulsi Diwas kaa Kabita by Tulsi Diwas

    34. Bairagi Kainla kaa Kabita by Bairagi Kainla

    35. Aagaa ka ful-haru hoon; Aagaa ka ful-haru hoi.nan by Iswor Bhallav

    36. Sajha Kabita: published by Sajha Prakashan

    37. Pacchis Barsa Kaa Kabita, published by the Royal Nepal Academy.

    Classic Nepali books of SHORT-STORIES

    1. Roop Narayan Singh kaa Katha

    2. Naso by Guru Prasad Mainali

    3. Katha-Kusoom, edited by Surya Bikram Gyawali

    4. Doshi Chasma by Bisheswor Prasad Koirala 5. Swet Bhairavi by BP Koirala

    6. Kathai-Katha by Gobinda Bdr. Gothalay 7. Katha Sangraha by GBG

    8. Ek Baato, Anek Mode by Bijaya Malla 9. Parewa ra Kaidi by BM

    10. Naya Sadak ko Geet by Ramesh Wikal 11. Birano Desh maa by RW 12. Feri Arko Tanna Ferin.cha by RW 13. Urmila Bhauju by RW 14. Sab, Saalik ra Sahasra Buddha by RW 15. Euta Budho Violin by RW

    16. Aadim Desh by Paari Jaat 17. Sadak ra Prativa by PJ 18. Saalgi ko Balatkrit Aansu by PJ 19. Badh-Shala Jaanda Aunda by PJ

    20. Gauthali Goond by Shankar Lamichanay

    21. Kathastha by Indra Bahadur Rai 22. Bipana Kati-paya by IBR

    23. Parasu Pradhan kaa Katha by Parasu Pradhan

    24. Dhruba Chandra Gautam ka Katha

    25. Pahenlo Goolaaf by Prema Shah

    26. Bhim Nidhi Tiwari ka Katha =96 Jetho, Mailo Bhaag . . .

    Classic Nepali books of ESSAYS

    1. Laxmi Nibandha Sangraha by Laxmi Prasad Devkota 2. Daadeem ko Rookh.nay.ra by LPD

    3. Ma, Timi, Tapai, Hajoor by Shyam Prasad 4. Lehak Kasari Bannay? by SP

    5. Joonga by Hridaya Chandra Singh Pradhan 6. Tees Rupiya ko Note by HCSP

    7. Abstract Chintan Pyaaz by Shanker Lamichanay

    8. Namaste by Tara Nath Sharma 9. Belayat teera Baran.lida by TNS 10. Paatal Prabash by TNS

    11. Saalik by Krishna Chandra Singh Pradhan

    12. Jai Bhundi by Bhairab Aryal 13. Galbandi by BA

    14. Khai, Khai by Keshav Raj Pindali

    Classic Nepali NOVELS

    1. Roop Mati by Rudra Raj Pandey

    2. Bhramar by Roop Narayan Singh

    3. Ranay by Tulsi Ram Kunwar

    4. Pallo Ghar ko Jhyal by Gobinda Gothalay

    5. Anuradha by Bijay Malla

    6. Sirish ko phool by Paari Jaat 7. (Aaadim Desh by Paari Jaat) 8. Bai.ens ko Manchay by PJ 9. Parkha Vitra ra Ba.hee.ra by PJ 10. Anido Pahad Sangai by PJ 11. Boni by PJ 12. Parivaseet Aaankha.haru by PJ

    13. Teen Ghumti by BP Koirala 14. Narendra Dai by BPK 15. Sumnima by BPK

    16. Manjari by Daulat Bikram Bista 17. Ek Paila, anekau Yaam by DBB 18. Cha.pai.eka. Anuhaar by DBB 19. Bhok ra Vitta by DBB 20. Jyoti, Jyoti, Maaha Jyoti by DBB

    21. Khaireni Ghaat by Shankar Koirala

    22. Ghaam kaa Paila.haru by Dhanush Chandra Gautam

    23. Sunauli by Ramesh Wikal 24. Abiral Bagcha Indrawati by RW 25. Saagar Urlancha Sagarmatha Choona by RW

    26. Maadhavi by Madan Mani Dixit

    27. Daapi by Dhruba Chandra Gautam 28. Alikhit by DCG 29. Kattel Sir ko Chot-patak by DCG

    30. Naya Ghar by Aahuti

    Classic Nepali PLAYS/DRAMAS

    1. Prem-Pinda by Bal Krishna Sama 2. Amit Basana by BKS 3. Dhruba by BKS 4. Bhakta Bhanubhakta by BKS 5. Amar Singh by BKS 6. Mutu ko Byatha by BKS

    7. Ganga Lal ko chita by Hridya Chandra Singh Pradhan

    8. Bhoos ko Aago by Gobinda Gothalay

    9. Kohee Kina Barbaad Hos by Bijaya Malla

    10. Masaan by Gopal Prasad Rimal 11. Yo Prem by GPR

    12. Ojel Parda by Bijaya Malla

    13. Jemanata/Yama by Mohan Raj Sharma

    Classic Nepali books of LITERARY CRITICISM/ANALYSES

    1. Sama.lochana kaa bato-tira by Hridya Chandra Singh Pradhan

    2. Kabi Byathit ra Kabya Sadhana by Krishna Chandra Singh Pradhan

    3. Saajha Sama.lochana, published by Saajha Praka.shan
    . 4. Ghot.lain.haru by Tara Nath Sharma

    5. Jhyaal Bata by Iswor Baral

    6. Nepali Upanyaas kaa Adhar.haru by Indra Bdr. Rai

    7. Ram Krishna Sharma kaa Sama.lochana.haru

    8. Basudev Tripathi kaa Sama.lochana.haru

    9. Abhi Subedi ka Sama.lochana.haru

    ***********************************************************************************************

    *********************************************************************************************** From: Amrit Sthapit <Amrit.Sthapit@newjas.co.uk> To: "TND (E-mail)" <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: UN declare the Vesak Full Moon Day as a UN holiday. Date: Wed, 17 May 2000 16:25:51 +0100

     [Copy of letter issued by Sri Lankan Embassy in Nepal]
     
     EMBASSY OF THE DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF SRI LANKA IN THE
     KINGDOM
     OF NEPAL
     
     P.O.Box No. 8802
     Chundevi, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
     e-mail: embassy@srilanka.info. com.np
     
     3rd May 2000
     
     Celebration of Vesak Full Moon Day
     
     I am pleased to inform you that the United Nations has adopted
     resolution at the last General Assembly Session in 1999 to declare the
     Vesak Full Moon Day as a United Nations holiday.
      The Government of Sri Lanka took the initiative to moot the resolution
     to this effect on the recommendation of the International Buddhist
     Conference held in Sri Lanka in November 1998. The resolution was co-sponsered by all SAARC countries, nine Asian Buddhist countries and
     12 countries from the rest of the world.
     
     To mark the international recognition of the Vesak Full Moon Day, the
     Embassy is planning to celebrate Vesak in Lumbini in the evening of
     Wednesday, 17th of May. The programme commences at 17.30 hours by
     illuminating the Sacred Garden with 10,000 lamps, lanterns, and bulbs
     and reciting of 'Bhakthi Gee'. The programme would last about 1 1/2
     hours.
     
     Yours in Dhamma,
     
     Pamela J Deen
     Ambassador

    ****************************************************************** From: "Selinose Korah" <etginc@mindspring.com> To: <webmaster-tnd@nepal.org> Subject: Can you help Date: Tue, 23 May 2000 13:55:25 -0400

    Dear sir:

    Can you help me find the e-mail address for the Assumtion Church in = Kathmandu, Nepal. I hope I am not being intrusive . Any help will be appreciated.

    Kind Regards and Thanks

    Sel Korah etginc@mindspring.com

    ***************************************************************** From: "Santosh Shotemba" <santosh@wizoffice.com.sg> To: <TND@NEPAL.ORG> Subject: KHOJ_KHABAR Date: Tue, 23 May 2000 12:02:50 +0800

    hi folks,

    i'm looking for email adds of handsomes from the class of '87, st. xavier's that is. sadeep,rana(1&2),tamor,ninja,hada,sudan..and all other good people..where are you ? i can be reached at: santosh@wizoffice.com

    ciao, limbu.

    ********************************************************* From: <developpement@labo-stbenoit.com> To: <tnd@nepal.org> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - March 21, 1998 (1 Chaitra 2054 BkSm) Date: Mon, 22 May 2000 15:11:35 +0200

    Dear sir,=20 I would like to know if you could help me in my search of an essential = oils producer in Nepal. Actually, I work for a french society especiallized in phytotherapy and = aromatherapy and we rather work directly with the producers. Waiting for your answer, best regards,

    Melle Aur=E9lie Pailler Laboratoire Saint Benoit

    ********************************************************** From: "Arthur Family" <susie5@tne.net.au> To: <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - August 6, 1998 (11 Shrawan 2055 BkSm) Date: Sat, 20 May 2000 23:26:15 +0930

    Hi, my name is Katie Bowring, I'm a student at Brighton Secondary School = in Australia; and I was wondering if you could please help me, as I have = to do a school project on Nepal. I am having trouble finding any = information on Australia's relationship with Nepal in trade, migration = and foreign/political relationships.

    Any help/information would be helpful to me. Thankyou for your time.

    Katie

    P.S.- my e-mail address is snobarama@hotmail.com if you do decide to help me. Again, thanks.
            
    ***************************************************************** From: MSch267412@aol.com Date: Thu, 18 May 2000 22:53:25 EDT Subject: PoloElephant.com To: webmaster-tnd@nepal.org

    Hello,

    As the game Polo Elephant associated with beautiful Nepal, we would be obliged to exchange banners. Sincerely, Lee Schmidt http://www.3dvangogh.com/polo.htm

    ***************************************************** From: <docmehta@cordoba.com.sa> To: <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: hello Date: Tue, 23 May 2000 22:11:43 +0300

    Dear Adam,

        I am Rakesh. Are you the same Adam? Do you remember that we spent = one beautiful month in Delhi (in 1981) looking for truth of life?=20

        Please reply if you are the same person.=20

    My Email address is shankarworld@yahoo.com

    Regards, Rakesh

    ********************************************************** Date: Wed, 24 May 2000 15:19:05 -0400 To: (Recipient list suppressed) From: Martin Chautari <chautari@mos.com.np> Subject:

    Dear friends:

    Lately, Kamaiya Mukti Andolan is getting momentum in the western region of Nepal. The Kamaiya revolt against the local landlord has been in the headlines of many newspapers. Martin Chautari is organising a special discussion on Kamaiya Mukti Andolan and the recent revolt. Ram Das Chaudhari, and Keshav Gautam, head, Policy Research and Advocacy Department, ActionAid Nepal will be the main speakers in the Program. The discussion will focus on the questions like "What is Kamaiya issue? Where will the revolt lead the movement? Will the problem get a definite solution? How are the political parties handling the issue?

    We expect your active participation in the program.

    Date: Sunday 15 Jestha 2057/ 28 May 2000. Time: 5.30pm Venue: Martin Chautari, Thapathali, Kathmandu.

    Subject: AFVs News

    1. Chinese Microbuses ready to enter Nepal
         Martin Chautari, 25 May 2000

    Nine months after diesel Vikram tempos are prohibited from operation in Kathmandu valley, Microbuses are beginning to enter Nepal. The Microbuses for which the government has given concessions (99 per cent customs duty reduction and VAT exemption) to compensate the displaced diesel Vikram tempo owners have already lined up at Tibet's Khasa. There are 80 petrol Microbuses with the capacity of 11 passengers lying in Khasa. These vehicles have to be converted into LPG engines within three months before they are put into operation. These Chinese Microbuses cost around Rs. 5 lakhs. Already 500 LCs have been opened by entrepreneurs to import Microbuses from China, Indonesia, and Japan. According to Kantipur daily
    (23 May 2000), about 441 battery and LPG operated tempos have been added in Kathmandu valley after diesel tempos were expelled from the valley. "If imported Microbuses are to run using petrol, then they have to comply Nepal Vehicle Mass Emission Standard (2056), otherwise they will be barred from operation," said Krishna Murari Sharma, Director of the Department of Transport Management. Though Krishna Murari Sharma maintains that Safa tempos and LPG vehicles do not need any standards, environmentalists have long been arguing that there should be standard for LPG vehicles. This is important, they argue, as Nepal does not have certified agencies who can convert petrol engines into LPG with a greater reliability and that emit negligible Carbon Monoxide. For this reason, LPG needs to be monitored by conducting emission tests.

    According to comparative emissions studies, LPG vehicles emit 95 per cent CO, 59 per cent NOx, and 43 per cent HC less than gasoline engines
    (see www.usps.gov/environ/webpages/comp1.html). One company based in Kathmandu has made a proposal to convert Microbuses into LPG at the cost of Rs. 42,500 (approx. $ 600) whereas the conversion cost as mentioned in the above site is $ 2,000-3,000. The low cost of conversion in Nepal may lead one to suspect that quality of conversion may not be good and result in unacceptable emissions. This calls for a strong monitoring from the government based on appropriate standards for LPG vehicles.

    2. Bickering over routes looms large
       Martin Chautari, 25 May 2000

    Around the globe EVs are being promoted by the governments and environmentalists by giving them incentives and necessary protection. In Nepal too, the government has given a priority to EV sector for its promotion. It has enjoyed certain privileges in the form of soft loans, subsidies, VAT exemption, import duty concessions for its clean image. Of late, though, there are indications that this sector may not get protection from the government. There are some rumors that the Valley Traffic Police and the Department of Transport Management are considering to prohibit operations of Safa tempos within Ringroad. The Valley Traffic Police cites slow speeds of Safa tempos as one major factor behind creating
     traffic congestion in the valley. However, it is to be remembered here that Safa tempos have been considered appropriate and therefore introduced into the valley because of low traffic speed of Kathmandu Valley. In the context of tendencies of Safa tempo and LPG vehicle' owners to provide services in the most common routes, skirmishes over the ownership over routes have already taken place between LPG-run Tuk-Tuks and Safa tempos. Particularly Safa tempo owners fear that they might be expelled from those routes which were previously served by diesel Vikram tempos once Microbuses come in. Answering the query as to where Microbuses will operate, Krishna Murari Sharma, Director of Department of Transport Management said that he would encourage them to run in new routes and stressed that this also applies for Safa tempos. We can not ask Safa tempos to stay off routes simply because Microbuses are there. " We are trying to resolve conflicts over routes between Safa tempos and Tuk-Tuks through dialogues," said Sharma.

    3. Ill-intentioned news
       Martin Chautari, 25 May 2000

    Recently there have been floods of news on weeklies (Rastra Bani, Yatayat, Chhahari) attacking Safa tempos by maliciously stating that batteries of Safa tempos are poisoning Kathmandu. The news which appeared in succession in weeklies in almost the same format and same wordings have caught concerned citizens by surprise. The news quotes that " it is a common practice to dump lead acid batteries of Safa tempos into ground and which poisons ground water covering 70 square feet. If water which is so important to life gets poisoned the extent of damage it will have on=20 living organisms can be gauged easily. Perhaps because of this battery operated EVs are not allowed to operate commercially in major cities of India such as Bombay, Delhi, Patna, Madras, Banglore, and Calcutta." Such a baseless, ludicrous, and malicious accusation which is clearly maneuvered to benefit fossil fuel lobbies perpetuates ignorance and denies people's right to genuine information. The news mentions that the above quoted fact is an opinion of environmentalists without giving their identities.=20

    In response to ill intentioned news, we would like to furnish following rebuttals and clarifications.=20

    1. First, lead acid batteries of Safa tempos are not dumped into ground. In Nepal, used batteries are collected by scrap dealers and sent them for recycling within the country or across the border to India. The resale value of lead acid batteries of Safa tempos are good. The study conducted by Martin Chautari suggests that Safa tempo owners sell used batteries at Rs. 450 -550 per piece. So no one is fool enough to dump lead acid batteries recklessly when used batteries could fetch such a good price. 2. Safa tempos are not to be blamed alone for health hazards, if any, from improper handling of lead acid batteries. In addition to Safa tempos, other petrol and diesel vehicles use lead acid batteries, though their quantity may differ. A 1998 study conducted for DANIDA shows that 1770 tons of lead acid batteries were consumed by transport sector in 1998. About 1240 tons of batteries came out as scraps. Today, about 60-70 tons of scrap batteries come from Safa tempos. This amount is quite small (4 %) in comparison to the total scrap batteries from transport sector. =20

    3. WE HAVE TO BE CAREFUL ABOUT THE DISPOSAL OF USED BATTERIES and emphasize that recycling be done in an environmentally friendly way. But this should not and can not be a sole point for rejecting EVs while petrol and diesel vehicles emits noxious gas in addition to producing used lead acid batteries.=20 4. And last but not least, to say environmentalists are trying to ban Safa tempos by attracting attention of concerned Ministries to harmful effects of lead acid batteries is the most weakest possible argument that any rational individual ever makes when the world has unanimously views EVs as one of the most environmentally friendly vehicles.

    4. THE POWER ASSISTED BICYCLE (PAB)
        (Taken from greenleap)

    The PAB is basically a bicycle, weighs only a few kilograms more and provides power assistance only and can be mass produced to run on sources of renewable energy.

    The 'state of the art' PAB has the potential for making transport systems far more energy efficient, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and reducing air pollution. The next generation of PABs will be powered from renewable energy resources and will be the most energy efficient form of motorised transport ever invented. For all practical purposes the PAB is destined to join the bicycle and 'Shanks pony' as the only forms of transport that emit no greenhouse gases.

     Both the petrol and electric powered PAB, when they are legally classed as bicycles, are very economical for consumers because there are no compulsory registration and insurance fees.The 'state of the art' PAB is basically a bicycle that needs to be pedalled, the power assist as a general rule is designed to half the effort required to get from A to B and cannot be used to wind the PAB up to higher speeds.=20

     PABs on the world market There is now a growing range of electric PABs on the world market with sophisticated electronic controls and there are around 90 companies producing PABs world wide. Over 125 models of electric PABs dominate the market today. In Taiwan at the end of the 1990s they they copied the best PAB ideas from Japan just as they did in the 1980s with Japanese bicycles innovations. In 1998 there were 17 Taiwanese companies producing electric bicycles designed for both the Chinese and European market.

    The most important innovation to this time came in 1989 when Yamaha introduced the second generation of electric bicycles for the Japanese market. The Yamaha electric "PAS" Prototype was a major design breakthrough with torque sensors in the cranks linked to the motor controls for automatic power assistance when it is actually needed.=20

    According to Yamaha designers the most difficult problem was using the new technology for designing the control system that integrated human pedal power and the power available from the motor in the safest way possible
    (Cycle Press 1997) One safety concern was the problem of aggressive young males using the power assist to go faster and terrorising other cyclists on shared footways and narrow side streets with lots of pedestrians walking on the road. The smart computer chip developed by Yahmaha

    Another advantage was the precision power unit connected to the chain without any wheels running on tyres to get clogged up with mud in wet weather In 1995 after six years of further development the Yamaha PAB was sold nationwide. From then on many companies in both Europe and Japan became involved in electric PAB design and production many built their own PAB designs around the imported Yamaha 'PAS power unit'.

     A non profit European organisation recently tested 17 electric PABs and eight electric mopeds most of which where made in Europe. This company, Extra Energy, has been around since the 1980s and exists to promote the benefits of electric/human power hybrid vehicles through publications, product testing, and raising concerns about the environmental problems of battery use and disposal. Hannnes Neupert of Extra Energy is concerned that electric PAB technology is still far from perfect and states:-

    We are very aware of the the issues of battery recycling, solar recharging and the need for =8Csmart or smarter chargers, and have published considerable information on these subjects, but unfortunately, so far only in German. The full test results, and lots more general information can be found at Extra Energies web site www.extraenergy.org.

    There is now a resurgence of electric PAB sales in Europe with 11 manufacturers already involved including five German companies. According to some reviews in the trade journals the most important of these for furthering PAB product development is likely to be Mercedes Benz (Cycle Press 1998) however that is only speculation at this stage. THE NEED FOR PABS POWERED BY RENEWABLE ENERGY World wide there is a need to slowly decouple the growth in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from the economic growth. Around 2002/3 there will be a shortfall in world oil production of several billion barrels a year that will increase year by year to tens of billions of barrels.=20

    While environmental and economic trends show a global phase out of coal's share of world energy from a peak of 62 percent in 1910 to 23 percent in 1998 despite coal's market price being at an historic low. Hastening coal's further decline is necessary because its environmental and health costs have never been higher. and it is imperative to do so if climate change is to be slowed in the next century.=20

    The dark side of free trade for oil is that when the crunch comes military power will ensure that petrol will still be available for the cars of the wealthiest one billion people in the world and will not be available for the essential subsistence needs of the poorest two billion. The inevitable consequence of oil age globalisation will be a free trade driven mass starvation. What will happen to the other 4 billion humans beings that are neither rich or poor is not known at this time.=20

    A TECHNICALLY EXCITING FUTURE FOR THE ELECTRIC PAB Hopefully by 2002 all countries with the resources to do it will be integrating their electricity from coal, gas, wind and solar sources.
    "Least cost planning" as practised by a few companies in the electric power industry today could be being applied world wide.

    Whatever happens the key to being able to efficiently utilise Solar PV on the supply side is to greatly reduce demand for electricity on the demand side. A cautionary approach to Solar PV is necessary because while the use of solar PV can be economically justified to power a 25 kg PAB that replaces a car trip, it could never be justified for powering electric cars in countries with abundant coal supplies, because it is currently the most expensive form of renewable electricity. According to Dies

    The prospect for powering electric cars from solar PV is very bad, and little better for large electric motorcycles. Indeed even with significant carbon taxes (10c per KWH) it will be at least 5 years before arrays of solar electric roof tiles fitted on offices factories and homes, will start to reduce the demand for electricity from power stations by feeding back electricity into the grid and increasing the overall efficiency of the entire grid connected electricity supply system.

    The electric PAB, when used to replace short car trips of less than 5 km, is so clean, greenhouse friendly and energy efficient that, at even 30c kWh, it is a sound investment. When the know how already exists in the global economy to produce over a billion solar PV roof tiles each year and the latest wind generators can produce electricity for 8c per kWh, the use of renewables to power all manner of appliances that greatly reduce the demand for electricity is clearly justified.

    BIKEWAY NETWORKS FOR THE USE OF PABS AND BICYCLES IN HILLY URBAN REGIONS The economic justification for using bicycles and PABs in OECD countries is to make more economic use of car fleets. For example the Dutch car fleet is so much more efficient today than Australia's partly because bicycle trips substitute for around 8 billion kms of short car trips. Indeed 28% of all trips made by bicycle by those over 11 years of age in the Netherlands.

    In cities built on hills like Sydney the PAB could enable people to cycle nearly as much as the Dutch do in their flat cities, provided there was a Dutch-style bikeway network to encourage them and secure bicycle parking at rail stations. If just two million Australians used PABs instead of cars for trips of less than 8 kms then the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions would be enormous.=20

    >From a strategic transport planning perspective investing in bikeway
    networks would be nearly as cost effective in hilly cities as it is in Dutch cities if clean PABs were used for a high proportion of the total number of bicycle/PAB trips.What Dutch and Japanese experience shows is that Given a supportive infrastructure of bikeway networks that are integrated with the public transport system.=20

    Date: Fri, 26 May 2000 16:39:43 -0400 To: (Recipient list suppressed) From: Martin Chautari <chautari@mos.com.np> Subject: Correction

     Dear all,

    In the last issue of AFVs newsletter (25 May 2000) under 'Chinese Microbuses ready to enter Nepal', we noticed one mistake. Instead of 95 per cent reduction in CO by LPG vehicles in comparison to gasoline vehicles, it should read as " LPG vehicles emit almost the same amount of CO as gasoline vehicles." We apologise for this mistake.

    MC

    ****************************************************************** From: "Selinose Korah" <etginc@mindspring.com> To: <tnd@nepal.org> Subject: Assumption Church in Kathmandu Date: Fri, 26 May 2000 09:43:01 -0400

    Hello:

    Do you by any chance kmow the e-mail address for the Assumtion Church in = Kathmandu? I was given pius@ecsl-com.np as the address but it keeps = coming back. Any help will be greatly appreciated.. I am located in Florida, USA.

    Thank you and Best Regards,

    Sel Korah

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