The Nepal Digest - May 26, 1995 (13 Jestha 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Friday 26 May 95: Jestha 13 2052 BkSm Volume 38 Issue 12

  Today's Topics:

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 * TND Board of Staff *
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 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
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 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta ponta@sas.upenn.edu *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha rajendra@dartmouth.edu *
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 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
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 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
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********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 23 May 1995 14:55:18 -0400 (EDT) From: mahesh maskey <mmaskey@acs.bu.edu> Subject: More on Parijat.... To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
                     
                MORE ON PARIJAT...

[ Following is the text I had prepared and about to post when I came to see Micael Hutt's response to Amulya Tuladhar's contention about accuracy of the title and Amulya's hasty acknowledgment of his comments. I think Amulya misread what Mr Hutt was saying and went on to describe the significance of Mhepi at length. 'Shirish ko phool' was not written in Mhepi. It was written when Parijat was teaching in Madan Memorial Highschool and when she had rented a room in Putali Sadak. She came to Mhepi after almost a decade of the publication of Shirish ko phool. Michael hutt doesn't say that book is based on the trees around Mhepi. He only says Parijat wrote the novel when she came to kathmandu and her room at Mhepi used to be filled with flowers. Having said this , and as my posting will demonstrate, while regarding Amylya's "accuracy issue" rather a non-issue, I nevertheless want to affirm that what we call Shirish ko phool is in reality "jacaranda blossoms" and amulya has made no mistake in pointing out that. What is even more striking is his understanding and description of shirish ko phool metaphor without reading the original text. However ,as Michael hutt suggested, the same status becomes a serious handicapp when Amulya starts to venture as a literary critic and attempts to make rather presumptous comment on" credit" and "originality" of Parijat's Works. I have tried to dwell upon these issues in the second part of my posting - mahesh]

  I could not respond in time, due to the obligation of final exams, to some of the interesting observation made by Amulya tuladhar about Parijat's Shiris Ko Phool and existentialism in literature . However this and many personal notes of appreciation about introduction to parijat's literature has encouraged me to believe that it would not be too late to pick up the thread again.

In his first posting, Amulya raises the 'dumb' but interesting question about the correctness of the use of the term 'Shirish ko phool' and 'Blue mimosa'. He displays his admirable knowledge of forestry to address the issue and concludes, correctly, the tree or flower in question may not be "Albizzia" Shirish but what is known as "Jacaranda mimosifolia". But then he goes a little further and states her english title "Blue mimosa" is more accurate than what Parijat uses ie. " Shirish ko phool". This is based on his assumption that jacaranda mimosifolia is either known only as
"Birendra phool" ( I have never heard about that) or "Chakhooncha swan" as called by newars.

At this point I just want to caution about simplistic assumptions and simplistic deductions. It seems that "jacaranda mimosifolia" do have a much more popular third name and its blossoms are indeed called 'shirish ko phool'. When Parijat wrote about the novel and became the hub of the valley, no body made a mistake in understanding which flower she is talking about - neither her readers nor her critics. This is simply because that tree and flower are also called
'shirish' probably much more earlier than the time Parijat came into Nepal. Instead of giving the flower a new name, it makes more sense to think that parijat picked up name from the popular vocabulary. I would not be surprised if Amulya has not heard about it. I had not heard either, that it is also called "Birendra Phool" or "Chankhooncha Flower" or sparrows flower. If newars can think of such distant association as 'sparrow' to these melancholic flowers then it would be wise to be open to the possibility that non-newars may have associated it with the original Shirish or 'Albizzia' which in Amulya's own words resembles the tree in question so closely ('...jacaranda is in the same family as Albizzia in terms of height and nature of the crown..'). Amulya may argue that even then the use of the term is not correct 'Botanically'. And he has a point there. But for me and perhaps for the lay masses it does not really matter. There are many many trees and flowers we have given a name that has established in our culture arousing feelings and expressing history, but that are not botanically correct. Allow me also to draw a parallel - there are so many names of diseases that are etio-pathologically incorrect (for example 'malaria' the name arising from mal-air or bad air when this name was coined centuries ago people believed that the disease was caused by the bad air, not the plasmodiums and mosquitos, arising from the marshy places) but that does not diminish their signigficance. The medical community happily continues to use the term. Perhaps we do not have to go that far. Casting aside the absurdity of the name "birendra phool', it is not difficult to see that the name 'chankhooncha flower' affectionately given by newars is also incorrect botanically. But does it diminish the importance of the name acquired at a certain moment of time and accepted by a culture? From this perspective I think the 'accuracy issue' between Shirish ko phool and Blue mimosa is really a non-issue. Those who like issues they may well raise the issue of whether the english translation of "Blue" is correct or not. Is not the flower rather "voilet"? I tell you this is not sheer speculation. The one person I know who has always difficulty in distinguishing whether the blossoms are blue or voilet is non other than the celebrated poetess Vanira Giri. To compromise with this dilemma she often mentions both colour with an 'or' in between.

More to indulge in the temptation of presenting the sentimental and rather poetic tribute to Parijat by Vanira Giri ( another acclaimed literary talent known to outside world, contemporary and perhaps the rival of Parijat's literary personality from non-progressive camp) and less to second my perspective that other distinguished talents also called that tree and flower shirish, I am taking liberty to quote few lines from her memoirs.

YOU MAY ASK THE FLOWERS OF SHIRISH
                        Vanira Giri

"When some body utters the name of Parijat, the rows of the blue or voilet shirish blossoms softly sway before my eyes. I am showered by the bluish or voilet colours of Parijat's shirish when I see these shirish trees blooming all around Ratnapark.....

......I saw her for the last time in the cabin of Bir hospital but despite my wishes I could not talk to her. Parijat with her eyes closed was lying on the bed.

I asked sukanya with a gesture " May I ?"

"Better not" was the short answer of Sukanya.

Today I want to embrace sukan and ask " Sukan why did not you let me speak at that time?.... But do you know sukan? Parijat will always speak to me every year and she will continue to do so till I die. Don't you believe me, sukan? Then ask the the flowers of shirish that blossoms each year in rows along the road that turns left from Padmakanya college to Bhadrakali, ask their voilet or bluish colours...."

I will stop here about the accuracy question raised by Amulya but I must say a little about spark of accuracy he displays in understanding and describing the 'shirish ko phool' metaphor. While I was reading his lines
"...the exotic flower..lending a sort of melancholy and poetic ambience of sadness and the promise of bountiful of monsoon winds, the violet almost dissolving in the grey background of the overcast cold skies.." and
"..the fragile, exotic, perhaps alienated, beautiful, sad and hopeful, very much there but very much not thereness of jacaranda blossom, did she identify her existential angst with this flower...?" I could not help remembering the essence of shirish ko phool metaphor as described by Parijat in the caption of the title page of the book - SHIRISH KO PHOOL PRATHAM BHRAMAR CHUMBAN MAI OILAI JHARCHHA (sirish ko phool withers and falls at the first kiss of a wasp (Bhramar)). Considering the fact that Mr Tuladhar has not read the book , this brilliant imaginative flight is simply remarkable. I wonder how Parijat would have felt while going through his lines!. Though Life has proved beyond doubt that she was anything but the fragile shirish ko phool which she and many other liked to have her believed at one time, I am sure Parijat would have been greatly amused and delighted to have known a forester who can talk about quality of woods and taxonomy of the shirish tree and at the same time, with a poetic touch , explore the subtleties of an existential metaphor that is Shirish Ko Phool.

***************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 23 May 1995 14:30:27 -0700 (PDT) From: Dahal Durga <daha9014@uidaho.edu> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - May 22, 1995 (9 Jestha 2052 BkSm)

Dear Kathryn, I wish to do my Ph.D. in geography from Cornell. I earned my M.S. geography, in 1994 from U of I. I know Peetambar Sarma, Lamsal did Ph.D. in geography from Cornell. I am a lecturer in Tri Chandra Campus, Tribhuvan University. Can you help me please.

************************************************************** Date: Wed, 24 May 1995 10:11 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu, sconlon@world.std.com, anil.sakya@brunel.ac.uk, From: sshakya@lynx.dac.neu.edu (Sunil Shakya) Date: 20-MAY-1995 06:58:54
  Courtesy: The Independent, May 3, 1995
  Headline: Modern times in the Nepal Police
  Bimala Thapa Sharma, Deputy Superintendent of Police has been assigned to be in charge of the Bagmati Zonal Vehicle Branch. She is the only woman officer in the history of the Nepal police to hold this responsible position. "I am committed to the police and its duty, as defined by law. I am not compelled to work under any external pressure, " she says:
"Nobody has taken a bribe in my office. If journalists don't believe it, they may investigate and write whatever they find up."
  The Bagmati Zonal Vehicle Branch has been issuing people driving licenses. Without probe and power nobody had been taken to driving license for last year. Bimala begun her career as an Assistant Inspector of Police in 1983. People used to complain that only the powerful, or those who could pay bribes, found it smooth sailing when they wanted a license, but there have been no complaints after she took charge.
  Before the restoration of democracy in 1990, the police organisation was known to be corrupt, but times have changed. Corrupt police officers who had been trained by th panchayat system are being edged out, and there are many upstanding offieres in the Nepal Police like DSP Bimala Thapa Sharma. Though they are in the minority, they are trying to clean up image of the Nepal Police. "The pepole and police are in a most close relationship because the police is the servant of the people. Unfortunately, there have not been good relations between the people and police because the majority in the police think themselves the masters of the people. They still have a pahchayat hangover," said a senior advocate.
  Deputy General Inspector of Police Krishna Mohan Shrestha agrees, saying
"we understand the police cannot serve society without its help. There must be close, good relations between the people and police." He has been assigned to be in charge of the mid-zonal Police Office "I am human first. My working style is different," he told this correspondent. DIG Krishna Mohan Shrestha has served with the UNO Police in Cambodia.
  Inspector General of Police Motilal Bohora said the police were committed to human rights, which forms part of their training. DSP Amod Gururng has even been to some Gulf countries to teach Human Rights. However, it is said there are some skeletons in the closet at Hanuman Dhoka- literally.
  Human Rights activists do not agree with IGP Bohora's views. One opined, "we Human Rights activists aren't fully convinced the police is committed to Human Rights, since the police are still using fatal arms, and torture is rampant in police custody. Superintendent of Police Rajendra Bahadur Singh said, "we cannot meet European standards of Human Rights because our means and resources are limited. We are not equipped with modern technology. Slaps are necessary during interrogation." Singh is in charge of Kathmandu District Police Office and may be the busiest of the SPs.
  Inspector Puja Singh said, "there are no male and female cops. Our duties are defined by police law, and I am a police person. References to women police infuriate me." There are 547 policewomen out of about 36,000." We do not want to discriminate between policewomen and policemen. All are equal in the organization, said Assistant Inspector General Achut Krishna Kharel. DSP Bimala Thapa Sharma said, "I am ready to go anywhere."
  Five hundred and forty-seven served as peacekeepers under the United Nation. DSP Bimala was one of them. She said "I learned a lot during my peacekeeping assignement." Scuh assignements help the Nepal Police in its modernisation drive. DIG Krishna Mohan Shresthat said, "the Nepal Police has been successful in its missions. "
  According to DIG Krishna Mohan Shrestha, the govenment would install a capital police soon. A building for the capital police is being constructed at the Rani Pokhari, opposed by local environmentalists. AIG Kharel said, "the Nepal Police has taken several steps to modernise and sepcialise. The Police has always been loyal to the constitution, government and people. I hope more skills may improve the quality of the force, helping them to cope with crime more easily."
  Headline: Give ethnic riots a chance
  Is ethnic conflict brewing in Nepal? Says Dor Bahadur Bista, the first Anthropology Professor in Nepal, "our state consists of multi-ethnic, religious, lingual and cultural groups, so there is that possiblity."
  BP Koriala's novel, Sumnima and Bhim Nidhi Tiwari's Silanyash were burnt by some Mongoloid people last September and March respectively. They argued these works deliberately outraged Mongoloids. Health and Labour Minister Padma Ratna Tuladhar's public pronouncements to the effect that Muslims should have the right to slaughter cows has become a hotly discussed, controversial topic.
 
"These are indications of ethnic riots," said Professor Bista: "But we must not panic, should realize the facts."
  Citing nations as examples, presently facing civil war due to their multi-ethnic, religious, lingual and cultural natures, Bista said: "it would be a blunder to force a Himalayan Sherpa tribal to adopt the costume of Tarai people. Some people are pushing to enter, so insiders should jump atop the walls to check the outsiders. Then the wall should be smashed jointly and carefully. A forceful crash may hurt both sides."
  It is time for the press to mediate, for creative writers to render works in good taste, and researchers to dig out and present ancient messages, added the 69-year-old Professor: "politicians cannot do these tasks, always mindful of political benefit."
  Bista was delivering a lecture at the Russian Cultural Centre Kathmandu April 19. It was organized by the Himal Association on the occasion of its issuing a new Nepali quarterly magazine, Himal. Kanank Mani Dixit, the Editor of Himal English bi-monthly and Basanta Thapa, Editor of the Nepali edition, spoke of the aims and policies of Himal publications.
  Slide portraits, "Nepali Faces," portrayed by American painter John Solt, were also shown.

************************************************************* From: mahesh maskey <mmaskey@acs.bu.edu> Subject: More on parijat... To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>

MORE ON PARIJAT: EXISTENTIALISM AND PROGRESSIVISM

This is my response to the issues raised by Amulya in the second part of his posting, his "evaluation" of Parijat's existentialism and Progressivism.

Judging by the "western" understanding of existentialism and progressivism Amulya tries to assess how much "credit" should be given to the host of litereary figures including Parijat who are credited with the introduction and expression of these philosophies through literature and paintings. And he concludes "not much". He even ventures to make such comments as Parijat's work not being original. But surprisingly he makes these comment on what he has heard(people saying?). Without reading a single book of parijat and a cursury mention of a story of B. P. koirala he hastens to take issues about how much credit should be given to these leading figures for introducing and expressing western concepts of existentialism and 'freudism'. And he awaits for other people to convince him about that.

Well, I am really surprised at this "presumptousness" of a person who has rather a reputation of meticulousness about the issue he raises. While his ability to imagine and to understand metaphores without reading a original text is really impressive, his unfamiliarity with the writer's works makes his attempts to pass 'judgment' on their originality and credit rather absurd. Serious evaluation demands serious study of their works without which any comment happens to be a guess work at its best and a height of irresponsibility at its worst.

It is not that critics from different ideological backgrounds back home lionised these writers just because there was nothing better to do. But because their works appeared to influence the time and trends in the development of literature in Nepal which was taking shape amidst the intense struggle of ideas about what is and what is not the Aesthetics of/for the people. One has only to read "Sumnima" and
" Tin Ghumti"of B.P. koirala how forcefully he gives expression to freudian conflicts in two entirely different settings - the first in the setting of the struggle between two cultures and second between two genders. B.P. koirala is not criticized for his inability to express himself in literature in freudian terms- he is criticized precisely because of this ability. There is no dispute (in my knowledge) about the 'credit' for koirala for this what is disputed his the values he holds and propogates through his works. Likewise there is no dispute about parijat for expression of existentialism
(it is different question which variants of existentialism that is!) in her literature but the values she propounds in those works had been fiercely criticized . And as the history has witnessed, during the course of these struggle she herself grew out and got rid of those values and philosophies in her personal and literary life.

I, therefore think discussion about 'credits' are not really important. In many case it is an individual judgment. The best is to read the original work and form one's own opinion. If the reference of the name satisfies Amulya's curiosity about parijat's credit -then here they are: Govinda Bhatta, Dr Basudev triphati, Dr. Iswar Baral, Krishna Chandra Shing Pradhan, Chaitanya,Ninu chapagain, Mohan Raj Sharma, D. R. Pokharel Mohan Himanshu joshi,Dr. Tulasi Bhattarai etc. There are also claims about she being the first proponent ( eg.Uttam Panta, M.R. Sharma ). It would be naive to think that these people do not have a understanding of the western meaning of the term existentialism especially in the light of the fact that existentialism was and still is a strong current in world literature including Nepal.

What is more important in my opinion is to make effort to understand why these literary/philosophical talents were drawn towards these currents ? were they merely aping "without much critical analysis or they were giving expression to the urge of a society that was raising its head from the deep slumber of 104 years of Rana Autocracy and the suppressed frustation of post 2017 era? The contribution of Amulya's posting lies in stimulating the inquiry in this aspect and hence , by rephrasing his question , I am trying to present my understanding to this inquiry. Other people may have different views and they are welcome to share thier views in the internet.

The revolution of 2007 BS (1950) was not only a political upheaval. It was also a literary awakening. In the prelude of revolution many talents were emerging giving expression to the aspiration of the people. While after the revolution till 2016 the major current in literature is said to be Romanticism (Swachhandatabad;dominated by Mahakavi Devkota) , B.P koirala's stories and his novel's freudian approach were providing new perspective to the complexes of human psyche. He drew great inspiration from the then major influence in indian literature which he was well versed with. BP's political status and his literary talents had a combined effect in infulencing the younger generation of people specially coming from the middle class. But no matter how much appealing freudian discourse is, it did not have the all encompassing qualities of a philosophy. With the global surge of existentialism in 1960's many of the writers under the influence of freud were drawn towards that and so were many radicals. Existentialism had so many different undercurrents and shades. It was trying to accomodate the ideas of Nitszche' extreme right thinking which contributed in the emergence of the Fascism. It also attracted neo marxists trying emphasize the importance of Individual existance. But at the same time differences in the movement were growing between leading figures such as Sartre and Camu. Amulya has already deliberated upon the meaning of existentialism and the circumstances that gave rise to it which I think is generally correct except the cultural revolution part.

Nepal also had 60's. and it was perhaps not less painful and turbulant than that of America or France. Our 60's came with the reactionary step of 2017 when the popularly elected parliament was dissolved by the King and Partyless panchayati system was imposed thereupon. Political life was suppressed. So was literary expression. Many were lured to the taste of luxury and power, many were threatened and there resistance broken. There was no sign of a strong current of resistance approaching neither from "social democratic" nor from "marxist" camp. There was a general mood of frustation and meaninglessness in the air for the middle class inteligentia which, with its privileged status, was in a position to influence the thinking of the common people. Early 60's has prepared the soil well for the cultivation and emergence of the philosophy of existentialism in Nepal. It found its root in the middle class intelligentia and it was also watered by the trend of literary development in the neighbouring country India.

In 1960, We witness the 'neo poetry' initiative taken by Mohan Koirala
 and around which the first shoot of existential thought were being expressed. Though mainly a poetess of romantic stream, critics agree that many of Parijat's poems at that time have a combination of romantic and existential metaphores. Between 2017 and 2021 she was undergoing a deep crisis in her life, a cumulative effect of all her personal pains ( loss of brother, love tragedy and deep sense of guilt for that, poverty and helpness of her father, and the dreaded debilitating disease which seem to have neither treatment nor cure). A person of charming physical beauty and grace, she was condemned to watch her body shrink and and her bones bend, gradually turning into a handicapped person possesing an ugly body mass. Thus in the general socio political environment of frustation and meaniglessness, Parijat herself was experiancing deeply the frustation and meaninglessness in life, all her inherent ability to experience beauty in life and nature were seriously distorted at that particular juncture. Her indomitable will to survive and her reverence for life has been overpowered and overshadowed by the a kind of death wish. She wanted to escape from fear of death and absurdity of life . But paradoxically , she did that by adopting a philsophy that provided a basis for accepting meniglessness personal and social. she started philosophising that life is absurd, love is meaningless or rather meaninglessness is love. Kafka and Camu were the favorate writers of her at this period.

Among her contemporaries only Parijat seems to have encountered the overencompassing frustation and death urge in her personal life.
 However she has one power that helped her to survive that crisis. It was her ability to write and express herself. What she felt she expressed almost completely. This, I would like to contend, had acted as catharsis and helped to lighten her burden and had a healing effect for her mind. However this is not the place for this contention. Her 'Shirish ko Phool' and 'Adim Desh' story collection was published in this period. And in the general atmosphere of stagnation and frustation it had publicity very few novel in Nepal could rival.

Parijat herself had stated it several times that Shirish ko Phool was a expression of extreme Frustration and distanced herself with the values it upholds consciously in her later life. The content of this novel however has a quality to attract every generation and the debate continues. Some critic see in it much more than existentialism and individualism. They tend to suggest an expression of a social outlook in the character of Sakambari- that of rebelliousness, and unacceptance of exploitation and injustice( D. R. Pokaharel). Krishna Chandra Singh Pradhan also regards it as an expression of the unacceptance of statusquo- neither revolt nor submission but unacceptance of absurdities of life and society especially that of the early 60's under panchayat regime. I leave these debates to more learned and qualified readers and critics. I however want to mention about an Eastern perspective of Existentialism in Shirish ko phool.

Void or Shunya(in nepali) appears frequently in Shirish Ko Phool. Shankar Lamichhane who wrote the famous preface (Bhumika) for the book, associates this shunya to Vajrayani Buddhism. Parijat herself acknowledges the influence of 'Majjhim Nikaya' stream of Nagargjun, proponent of Buddhist Shunyabad, in her memoirs " Addhyan and Shangarsha"( in her effort to come to terms with the pain and sufferings (Dukkha) in life). Critics have pondered and struggled to understand the influence of existential moral void of Europian origin [especially with declaration of Nitszche that the whole European culture is heading towards a great destruction...we are thrown in that..this is a time of great decay and collapse...meaning of void is that the existence is absolutely vulnerable and unprotected(ref.-Chaitanya)], and that of Buddhist sunyabad in Shirish ko phool.

Though 'existentialism' as such has a western connotation as a philosophy, metaphisical speculation about individual, social, material, and spritual existance has been the hallmark of oriental philosophy. From the dawn of eastern civilization different philosophies has clashed regarding the existence of matter and spirit. The two main undercurrents of Indian philosophy one denying the existance of material world and arguing for an absolute which can neither be percieved nor seen -the "Bramha" was mainly represented later by Shankar Vedant expressed by the declaration "Bramha Satya Jagannmithya" ( only Bramha is true, the world is unreal). In the same main stream but before Shankar ( in Upnishad period) which declares "Aham Bramhasmi!" ( I am the Bramha!) asserting the importance of individual self (atma) and its association with Bramha. There is another stream which did not believe in these speculation of Bramha and strongly defended the existence of material world as real. They were called "Charvaks" which give expression to materialistic thinking.

Buddhist Madhyamik stream propounded by Nagarjun though apparently takes shape in struggling with different undercurrents of Hinduism, paradoxically it has accepted the same philosophy of non existance of material world or rather non perceptibility of the world through our senses . Both Ashwaghosh and Nagarjun seems to have explained void or shunya as nonexistance of matter. In Vajrayan this philosophy takes a Tantrik turn, the void being the ultimate from and to where existance come and go, symbolised by sanskrit word Vajra (Thunderbolt). Patan was one of the greatest centers of 8th century Vajrayanis and even now people can see the icons of Vajra all over the stupas and temples of Patan.
  Here I like to suggest the possibilities of western philosophies being influenced by the oriental philosophies. In deep crisis people discover new meaning in the old philosophies. I do not have good study of how western existentialism took a coherent shape and the influence it had from various undercurrents of philosophy both modern and ancient. Was it also influenced by Buddhist Shunyabad ? It would be interesting if somebody can enlighten me on that. I know in the sphere of science there are some acknowldgments. Among the famous trio of pshychoanalysis - Freud, Adler and Jung, Jung has openly acknowledged the influence of oriental thinking especially buddhist understanding of the functioning of the Mind.

So back to our original question - which shunyabad (voidism?) is expressed in shirish ko phool, Oriental or European? In this context Chaitanya has presented the comment of Japanese writer Haruhito Noju. He says " There is an universal (Vishwajanin) beauty in Shirish ko phool which appears when fragile things are broken or perish. A delicate flower is itself beautiful but becomes more beautiful when wilts and falls. In the same way in shirish ko phool the destruction of aristocracy
(Avijat)is beautifully portrayed". Chaitanya mentions about how in Japan every thing is considered transient, in a continuous process of becoming and passing away (Chhyanabhangur)and where buddhist philosophy and western existentialism both have strong presence. In that context he takes this comment as a meeting point of both Buddhist Sunyabad and western existentialism. In Nozu's expression of "destruction of aristocracy" he finds the flavour of existential declaration of the destruction western capitalistic culture. Hence he regards Nozu's comment is regarded as the combination of both streams of oriental western shunyabad. However Chaitanya does not agree with Nozu about the characterization of the main characters as aristocrats. Here he contends that nozu has created an illusion by stating the characters like suyog and sakambari- who actually come from the rank of common people as those coming from aristocracy.

About Parijat's existentialism I will stop here because it has already become too long to maintain reader's attention. In the next posting I shall try to discuss about Parijat's Progressivism in nepali context. Let me end by saying that surprising it may seem , Nepal's existential stream headed by parijat was extremely sensitive to what was happening in the outside world. In the transition phase from existentialism to progressivism there is a period of existential residual, anarchist inclination, and progressive aspiration. The break with existentialism is very much influenced by the student movement in france in 1968 in the leadership Rejis Debre. As in france it has helped in the wanning of existential thinking in Nepal and through Debre, Che guevera and Fidel Castro , these talented, rebelious but individualistic group they called "Ralpha" bridged to Mao and cultural revolution , to Marxist aesthetics, in other words to the mainstream of Progressive movement in Nepal.
          
********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 24 May 1995 19:15:05 -0400 (EDT) From: Edward Wallis Carter IV <edwardiv@grove.ufl.EDU> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Where's the beef? (not in Nepal)

        Cow slaughter is an important "beef"(argument)
        One thing that is vital is for Nepal to keep the roots that make it unique.

        When Japan opened its rice market to the world their culture began to die. Rice, its harvest times, sewing times, flooding seasons, and drying seasons, and Sake are intimately tied to the Shinto state religion their festivals, the very roots of their society. It was the only self sufficient major agricultural crop on the Islands. With the rising market competition and pressure for real estate, rice farming will fade from their land and the natural ties to the land will weaken.
        (That is my opinion after living there for some time.) Despite these reasons, their are many reasons to open Japanese markets. Pressure to Westernize *should* not be a major one. But it obviously was.

        Protection of cows is a part of Nepal that makes it Gods Kingdom of
 clouds, the special place that it is. Someone joked about"keeping McDonalds out" as a good reason not to repeal the cow slaughter prohibition, last issue. Quite seriously, it is a point not to be overlooked. The law acts as a cultural buffer in many unforeseen ways and is additionally important for that reason.
        Mutual respect is a good reson for non-Hindu peoples to allow the law to stand. Is there some religion that requires the slaughter of cows? There is no conflict of this nature involved. (burgers are not a recognized religion, even in the US ;) ) Mutual respect is why the rest of America doesn't cry out to buy beer on Sunday.

        I mean no disrespect in what I say. I only wish to point out that

Some walls, which keep neighbors away, also hold up the roof.
  Good neighbors can always find the door. (in and out)

P.S. I wish to thank you for your article on taxi meters in Ktm. I have friends in that business and appreciated the information. Does the Kingdom of Nepal subsidize cleaner burning fuel research like (A-55)? The Caterpillar company is working with it and it could slow air pollution in Ktm. Thanks again.

Edward Carter IV edwardiv@grove.ufl.edu Ohm -->

************************************************************ From: LENA.PIYA@AMGATE.BARRA.COM Date: Wed, 24 May 1995 17:10:48 -0700 (PDT) Subject: Looking for Sudeep To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

I am looking for Sudeep Piya's Address who is in Australia. I believe in Sydney. If anyone knows his whereabout or his address ( mailing or email) or even his phone number, please let me know. I need to contact him soon as possible. Thanks in advance for your help.

********************************************************** Date: Wed, 24 May 95 21:59:26 EDT From: Rajeev Karmacharya <RXK0992@SRUVM.SRU.EDU> Subject: Thanks, Rajendra To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

This is to publicly thank Rajendra Shrestha for his contribution. Rajendra, I am sure I will be representing most of TND readers as well as most of those who were in your mailing list, when I say that you did a great job of keeping us in touch with our homeland.

Now, as you graduate from Dartmouth, I would like to congratulate you and wish you every success in your future endeavors. However, your timely news-reports, like the ones during the election, will be missed.

Thanks again for all your time and effort.

    - Rajeev Karmacharya
      S. R. University of Pennsylvania

************************************************************ From: b95339@cs.ait.ac.th (Jesbin Baidya) Subject: Subscription To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Thu, 25 May 95 12:11:06 GMT+7:00

I sent a letter to nepal_request@mp.cs.niu.edu

but the mail bounced bak with "host unknown" message. So as an alternate, I'm writing to this address.

I want to subscribe to the TND.

my address is <b95339@cs.ait.ac.th> The names Jesbin Baidya

Jesbin

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: 25 May 95 09:56:29 EDT From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News 5/21-23 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

First some administrivia:

I am looking for someone to take over as news corrrespondent of TND, and also maintain the News section of the Nepal Home page. I will be leaving Dartmouth soon and won't have access to the news source I now have.

   Now to the real news.

May 21 Mountaineering Mom loses kit on way down Everest Reuters report

   After doing the hard bit of climbing Mount Everest, British mother-of-two Alison Hargreaves lost most of her hiking kit on the way down the mountain.

   Nine days ago Hargreaves, 33, became the first woman to climb the world's highest peak solo and without the aid of oxygen cylinders or sherpas.

   She was heading by jeep over a Himalaya pass from Tibet to Nepal when a landslide blocked the road and forced her to abandon most of her custom-made equipment and clothing, her husband Jim said Sunday from western Scotland.

   Although expedition organisers hope to recover the kit, he said the mishap could disrupt Hargreaves's plan to start climbing the second-highest Himalayan peak, K2, in mid-June.

 May 22 PM says his budget necessary for Democracy Excerpts from AFP report by Kedar Man Singh in Kathmandu

   Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikari says he is certain parliament will approve the government's budget in the July session, seen here as a vote of confidence as a formerly supportive party wavers.

   The budget, which emphasizes development in villages, must garner support from the Nepali Congress or the royalist Rastriya Prajatantra Party in parliament in order to pass.

   Adhikari said the survival of Nepal's democracy depends on approval of the budget. Should the budget not pass, parliament would have to be dissolved and the country would have to go to the polls for the third time since the establishment of democracy in 1990 -- an expensive and disrupting procedure for a country which saw its last poll only six months ago.

   A royal ordinance from the king, however, could be used to approve the budget and prevent the government from falling.

   In an interview with AFP on Sunday, Adhikari said his government has two priorities. The political priority is to pass a law instituting punishment for human-rights violators and compensation for the victims.

   "On the economic front, we want to reform the agricultural sector. We have constituted a commission which is enquiring about its structure and will submit a report, and then we will introduce land reforms," he said.

   "We will use our energy and resources for development of villages because we know unless there is a breakthrough in village life, we will have no infrastructure, so I hope and am also confident that the budget will be accepted by all," he said.

   The prime minister also said his government will push for laws to protect workers, including creation of a labour court.

   "Unless we bring labour and capital into a harmonious situation, nothing will work well. From this point of view particularly, we will adopt a law which will provide property rights to all," he said.

   The budget will not differ much from past budgets, as the government cannot totally ignore the past, but the thrust of the budget will be village development, he said.

   Adhikari warned that if the other parties block passage of the budget, "I will go to the king to ask him to pass it by royal ordinance." He said that opposition members of parliament had previously made such a request about another matter.

   Asked his view on Nepal's monarchy, Adhikari said: "I am, of course, a communist, but I know this institution is needed for some time to come."

   "The co-existence of communists and the monarchy is very normal in our country," he said, adding that the "Nepalese monarchy is the symbol of unity in Nepal. "

   According to the constitution, if the government falls, the country automatically holds mid-term polls, he said. But a royal ordinance would prevent this.

   Adhikari also said the Bhutanese and the non-Bhutanese among the more than 100,000 refugees sheltering in far southeastern Nepal should be identified and the genuine Bhutanese repatriated.

   But Bhutan says both countries should set up a team to identify who is who among the refugees, he said.

   "The past government made some mistakes by accepting some criteria so we are in a difficult position now and if we now break the dialogue, things will worsen," he said.

   "So we will continue our dialogue but in the meantime I am trying to persuade donor countries that when they take an interest in helping Bhutan, they should also take an interest in helping the Bhutanese refugees," he said.

Ex-Dissident Adapts well to new role as Premier Excerpts from South China Morning Post (Hong Kong) article

    SIX months into his term as Prime Minister of the world's first communist monarchy, Man Mohan Adhikari has successfully made the transition from veteran dissident to head of government.

    When he drove into the palace to take his oath of office, he was in a battered old Toyota. But when he left, he was driven out in a limousine. The anecdote suggests the ironies of his present position.

    Last year's elections came unexpectedly, after the July 10 fall of prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala. At the time, Mr Adhikari was critical both of Mr Koirala and, more cautiously, of King Birendra.

    "My relationship with the king is purely on the basis of the constitution." said Mr Adhikari last week. "The King knows I am a communist. I know he is king."

    Mr Adhikari speaks generously of the opposition parties, especially Mr Koirala's Nepali Congress and the royalist Rastriya Prajatantra Party. "It is their duty to criticise the Government," he says. "I am pleased that these opposition parties are playing their role very properly."

    Mr Koirala's personal ambition is widely believed to have brought about his government's downfall.

    "Koirala's relations with us even when we were in opposition were not very fine," Mr Adhikari said. "He decided he would like the Government to be toppled. But the question becomes: what next?"

    Mr Adhikari believes strongly that Nepal needs political stability. Last year he advocated that the Nepali Congress set its internal house in order and continue to govern.

    Two recent incidents have tested Mr Adhikari's mettle. On May 14, Hindu activists hurled chairs at him during a speech he was giving at a meeting of an organisation dedicated to the dignity of the cow.

    Feelings had been heightened by a recent remark by the minister of health.

    "The minister should not have made indiscreet remarks," he said. "In this country there had not been a tradition of religion becoming involved in politics."

    He said the 1990 revolution "created some apprehension in the minds of Hindus, who are becoming more articulate".

    Mr Adhikari tried to calm fears by speaking to Hindu groups and apologising on his minister's behalf. "I am Marxist," he said. "I am atheist. But in this part of the world, religion should not be interpreted the way Marx interpreted it."

    On May 15 a new chief of army staff was sworn in to replace General Gadul Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana, who had resigned "owning moral responsibility" for a corruption scandal. "I take this to be a good example," Mr Adhikari said. "Now the world knows there is corruption in the Army."

    Asked how he has adjusted to holding power, he said: "When I have shouldered responsibility, I should feel happy. But it is not easy to be prime minister of the poorest country in the world . . . to be prime minister of a poor country, and to deliver."

    "We were successful in the restoration of democracy," he said, conceding that economic development and relief of poverty "seems to be more arduous".

    "You cannot build economic infrastructure overnight," he said. "You have to build it brick by brick, day by day, year by year."

Opposition getting Cold Feet Excerpts from Reuters report

    Nepal's opposition, tired of a six-month-old truce with the Himalayan kingdom's minority communist leaders, has started exploring the possibility ousting the minority government.

   Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary has survived with the begrudging support of the two leading opposition parties, the Nepali Congress and the Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP).

   But both Nepali Congress, in power until last November, and the RPP appear to be getting cold feet.

   Nepali Congress president Krishna Prasad Bhattaria said at the weekend he was in touch with RPP leaders to see whether the two parties could form a coalition to replace the communist-led government.

   "Any support to the communist government will not bear fruits," Girija Prasad Koirala, a senior leader of the Nepali Congress Party and former prime minister, told reporters on Sunday.

   The communists and the opposition disagree over whether the constitution would require fresh general elections if Nepali Congress and the RPP withdrew their implicit support.

   The UML says elections would have to be held while the opposition parties claim they could form a government without new polls.

   "The constitution is vague and the courts are overburdened as political parties have not been able to settle disputes among themselves," Sridhar Khatri, who teaches political science at Kathmandu's Tribhuvan University, told Reuters.

   Nepali Congress, still suffering from a split last year, is not keen to hold new elections, fearing it would lose ground to the communists.

   Nor does the RPP, which won an unexpectedly large number of seats last November, want fresh polls.

   The communists recognise the opposition's plight.

   "Either this government will last for a full five-year term or there will be a mid-term election," said Deputy Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal, who is also UML's general secretary.

   But Congress and the RPP have stepped up attacks on government programmes, saying the communist party was interfering in the democratic functioning of government.

   The government announced on Monday it was setting up a commission to investigate "irregularities" in appointing a sales agent for Nepal's state-run Royal Nepal Airlines in Europe, the sale of two old aircraft and the leasing of a new Airbus plane.

   Koirala is accused of unfairly influencing the airline's choice of a general sales agent in Europe when he was prime minister two years ago.

 May 23 Australian Mountaineer dead in Makalu Excerpts from UPI and Reuters reports

   An Australian mountain climber succeeded in scaling Makalu, the world's fifth highest peak, but then slipped and fell to his death as he began his descent, the Ministry of Tourism said Tuesday. Another climber in the eight-member Australian team also lost his footing but was able to stop his fall in time.

  David Hume, 33, the leader of the expedition, and Mark Auricht, 32, reached the top of the 27,824-foot-high (8,480-meter-high) Makalu on May 8, the ministry said. The two men made it to the top at 6:15 p.m. after a grueling 17-hour climb from the team's fourth camp. Another member of the team, Chris Pavich, 44, had been with the two men but descended to a lower camp because of exhaustion, the ministry said.

    Hume and Auricht spent 35 minutes on the summit, then began their descent. Less than an hour later, Hume slipped, knocking into Auricht as he plunged from the mountain, Auricht told ministry officials.

   ''David slipped on me and collided, but I managed to arrest my fall,'' Auricht said in his report to the ministry. Auricht said he ''looked and called'' for his companion, but never found Hume's body. He did, however, recover part of an ice ax and one of Hume's gloves,, 820 feet (250 meters) below the site where Hume stumbled. Auricht also saw blood on the ice, and he believed Hume's body had landed some 325 feet (100 meters) further down the slope. The survivor struggled back to the fourth camp by himself, finally rejoining the rest of the expedition 27 hours after the accident.

     Hume, a systems analyst from Sydney, is the second Australian to die while climbing Makalu. The first was Mark Moorhead of Brighton, Victoria, who fell to his death in October, 1983.

*********************************************** Date: Thu, 25 May 1995 09:54:49 -0400 (EDT) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: Jesbin Baidya <b95339@cs.ait.ac.th> Subject: Hello!!!

I'm at AIT doing my Masters in Computer Science.

I need your help in finding out the address of the ff:

   Sampurna Tuladhar
   Binaya Kansakar
   Prabin Kansakar (Binaya's bro also at Slippery Rock)
   Subin Shrestha
   Amod Suwal (at GMU)
  List of other Xavirians will also be useful. I see that TND is also maintaining a Nepalese database.

Regards Jesbin

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 25 May 1995 12:51 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: rana@skyblu.ccit.arizona.edu (VIVEK S. RANA) Description: Buffalo's tail and Padma Ratna Once More

        After reading the views on Sanskrit Broadcast I felt that the the comments spoke for themselves...... The reply was not needed. When one has made up his mind once on an issue, it is virtually impossible to change it.
 
        Once again Padma Ratna has come into highlight concerning Cow Slaughter. He would have definitely achieved more popularity with in the party and his constituents if he had talked about Buffalo Slaughter and meat processing in back street "green curtain" Mamacha restaurants.
 
        AS far as cow slaughter is concerned. I have never heard of cow slaughter in Nepal happening....Once I remember in 2028 when it happened in My home district of Rauthat in Bhusha village resulting a death of 5000 muslims and hindu's in our nations's biggest Hindu-Muslim Riot in History.
 
        Padhma Ratna should find better ways go go for popular slogans among people. Communist UML has suffered tremendously beacause of such kind of deliverance by him.
 ***************************************************************
  From: atuladhar@jack.clarku.edu Date: 24-MAY-1995 10:02:22 Description: "Slaps are necessary " for Nepali Human Rights

Slaps are necessary
===================
  In a recent news posting from the Independent by S. Sakya (#6167) there is some fantastic police assertions of Human Rights for Nepal. The quotation or news extracts reads as follows:
 
..We the human rights activists still do not believe the police are committed to human rights, since the police are still using fatal arms, abd torture is rampant in police custody. SP Rajendra Bahadur Singh said, "We cannot meet European Standard of Human Rights because of our means and resources are limited. we are not equipped with modern technology. Slaps are necessary during interrogation."
  I think the problem with the police department is that they have indulged in plenty of human rights abuse, mortally beating suspects to pulp, raping female prisoners, subjecting political prisoners to drink urine, starving and denying them medicine and all the human rights abuse documented by human rights activists and regular reports in the media and the reports of some lucky who do manage to get out, WITHOUT the need for technology, resource,s and modern means.
  You do not need European technology and means when your soul is mean, just desist from brutal physical torture with bare hands or with rudimentary means and make sure prisoners have due process, can meet their relatives, call attorneys, and be released if they cannot arraing them in 24 hours, you cannot complain of a lack of resources to implement that.
  God, what are the nepal police trying to get with / ? murder?

From: atuladhar@jack.clarku.edu Date: 24-MAY-1995 10:10:16 Description: Burning Hindu definitions of Mongol identity

Burning Hindu definitions of Mongolian Identity
===============================================
 
  A recent news item has shaken the amity-ville construction of Hindu kingdom. Ethnic minorities of Nepal who belong to Mongoloid race have burned copies of B.P. Koirala (hey was not a modern liberal emancipated leader of nepal? or was he a bahun first and a humanist second?) who painted Mongoloid people in the way they did not like in his novel, "Sunmina". the same thing about another widely revered Brahmin poet, Bhim Nidhi Tiware who also derogated the Nepalis of Mongoloid origin in his book, "Silyanash".
  Both of these are gestures contesting the Hindu right to define what is and what is not Nepal, ethnic identities, their rights and priveliges.
  dor Bahadur Bista is opining that ethnic riots are brewing up and Nepal should give this a chance instead of denying them by enveloping them in the cloak of hunky-dory-everything-is-fine-and-good-under-hindu-king-cow-slaughter-banning sanskrit-compulsory-land-of-no-ethnic-problem-caste-ridden-Hindu-rajya discourse.

From: shishu@vax1.mankato.msus.edu Date: 21-MAY-1995 06:04:19 Description: Re: HINDU KINGS DILEMMA: a thought!

Rajendra replies:
> It would be really surprising if we had a non-Hindu king
>in a Hindu kingdom!!
>
>My basic point is, our constitution says Nepal is a Hindu kingdom. As
>long as people want it that way, the head of state has to be a
>Hindu.
  Dear Rajendra; The Philipinnes is a catholic country with Protestant president and majority of the catholic population would rather that Fidel Ramos led the country rather than a Catholic with Marcos trait. I got your point which is logical in a way, and my point is that a king or any head of state should be credited for his qualities not his beliefs especially in 21 century world. The constitution makes sure that the King remains Hindu but it fails to draw the line in King's morality, DO's, DONT's and ambiguously states the constitutionality of the Royalty. It is rather hypocritical in my opinion. Most democratic countries today, have religion-free constitution. I don't want to comment about Islamic Countries and I urge all free thinking progressive Nepali brothers and sisters not to compare our country with those and argue "if they have this, why can't we too..". All I meant to say was that religion helps to quench individual's spiritual thirst which is personal. But every body is different in their taste of life. There are many people who do not even feel the need of spiritual growth. So, what King does or does not in his private meditating hours with in 4 murals of his prayer room and his soul, is nobody's business. Of course, Raj pureit Bajes have everything to lose if I am right!
 
 
  SPOKHAREL replies to :
>> "DHIRENDRA ISSUE" is based on rumors. We may never know what exactly
>>happened. But as far as I know it has nothing to do with his taste of
>>religion. "HALLA", "gaph" and rumors are not the basis of wiseman's
>>intellect.
>> From a reliable source, I have heard that DHIRENDRA.................
>> Hosh! BHANNA MILDEI NA KYA!!!!
 
>Iam sorry for you. I did not run after "Hallas". If
>you've a knowledge on History of Nepal, then you might have a knowledge
>in"Rajapatra" published by the government of Nepal. It has been made
>publicmeans announced through public channel, like "Rajapatra",
>rakhapatra, The Rising Nepal, The Radio Nepal and what else.
>you are talking about a "Reliable source" and won't that fit in HALLA
Category? I do not know if rumors falls on (your category of ) WISEMEN'S INTELLECT.
 
  Pokharelji, How do you know what ACTUALLY happened to DHIRENDRA and his gangs?! What did "Rajapatra" really mentioned on his departure from the palace? You ought to be terribly naive to think exact version of controversy of such Royal magnitude be blasted by Radio Nepal and Gorkhapatra. Ask some one close to Durbar and you will get different version. We will never know the truth and I don't really care. About my reliable source.....well that was an attempted joke, you don't really understand, do you?
 
 
>>All I understand is that they were devout Hindu souls who seeked and
found
>>spiritual peace and wisdom through their faith in Hinduism. Hinduism
is
>>a great religion of the world. I ain't denying it.
 
>Are you talking about rumours here too? We see it great because we
follow
>it. I am a devout Hindu but wanted to ask you if you have done some
>research to conclude with this statement.
 
 Hinduism and it's philosophy is not a private property of Bahuns or any groups. I am not of Indo-Aryan descent but I have been exposed to Hinduism for about 80% of my life. Yes, I have fasted on "Krishna Astami" and "Siva Ratri" out of pure devotion. Till I was 17, there wasn't a singe day that I didn't perform "Dhoop pati" and put chandan on my forehead. Yes, I recited sanskrit mantras, read Mahabharat and Ramayan with awe, tried my best in undersanding certain vedic, Puranic and Vedantic texts. Gita self-study and "prabachan" of KHEM RAJ KESHAV SHARAN gave me a kind of peace deep within that today I can barely explain. I found HINDUISM or SANATAN DHARMA truly to be rich, vast and complete religion with immesurably valuable wisdom, "DARSHAN", mysticism etc. Knowledge of Science, mathematcics, astrology, economics, diplomacy, ethics, medicine were incredibly sophiticated in Puranic ages.
 And i observed Hinduism to be a way of life not merely spirituality, Yog, or meditation.
  THAT IS THE REASON I CONSIDER HINDUISM TO BE A GREAT RELIGION OF THE WORLD which has survived for nearly 4 thousand years. I do not have Ph.D nor conducted research, but I have a devout Hindu's experience.
 
 
>>His soul, his mind, his meditation,
>> it's nobody's business as long as he is wise, just and able king.
 
>No my dear. Then you are cutting you point you have mentioned before.
If
>you believe Hinduism to be a great religion, then please and please
follow
>its rules. "If one does not follow Hindu's general rules then he is
not a
>Hindu". I think you will agree with this statement. Therefore, it is
the
>business of constitution of Nepal to see that the the person who
>represents the King is a Hindu.
 
  Well my most honorable colleague, could you please extract a line from any Hindu scripture that strictly stresses on appointing Hindu king.
  And what do you mean by general "Hindu rules"? Have you ever told a lie? You must have! may be hundreds of time. I believe Lying is against
"Hindu Rule" yet I'd still consider you to be a Loyal Hindu because there is not even 1 person in the world who has never wronged, every one is a sinner.
  Please specify "Hindu rules".
 
 
>>Why not? If the King has "RAJOJIT GOON" or kingly qualities such as
>>leadership wisdom, justice, morality and courage, then He is a good
king.
 
>I believe you should have been in "Constitution Committee" if you want
to
>make such statements.
  YES!!!!!! YOU ARE DAMN RIGHT! I should have been in "Constitution Committee"
  Let me let you one thing openly. Half of the population of the country is of NON-INDO ARYAN DESECNT and most of them are indigenious Nepalis. Tamangs, Gurungs, Magars, Limbus, RAIs, Thakalis, Jirel, Bhujel, Newars, Tharus, Koche-meche, Sunuwars, Danuwars, Raute, kusunta, Yakkha (Dewan), Dhimal, Sherpas... all these ethnic people are of either Mongoloids or Indo-mongoloids origin. Did the constitution drafting committeemen honestly ever conducted nationwide polls representing these indigenious populations before drafting such a historic Constitution? Why the hell would they! When 90% of the beaurecrates and government administrators come from one particular section of such diverse ethnicity, the Output is obvious. Prejudices, preoccupations , favorism and biases creep in. Without proper consent of majority of the "35 thari phools" who also, unfortunately, happen to lag (far) behind in education and active politics of the country, such constitution was implemented. If these poor, mostly illeterate, uneducated ethnic communities become little more conscious about their disappearing culture and start tracing their roots, further will they drift away from Hinduism and Buddhism and end up with ancient uniquely animistic tantrik religions. First the 104 yrs of RANA rules and then 30 yrs of totalitarian Panchayat regime gained limitless success of "converting" or just statistically "labling" ignorant "35 other phools" into Hindu status. There are many Catholic, Buddhist, protestant and Moslem countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. I'd put Nepal into similar category where hundreds of native aboriginal autochthonos religious practices and customs were wiped out by invading foreign religions.
  After I started tracing my own ancestral roots, I found that our very gods, Mantras, scriptures and priests were different than what I had been piously following till my 17th birthday. I felt so much betrayed upon knowing that. My brave and proud KIRANTI forefathers had been observing and preserving our rich KIRANTI CULTURE AND HOLY MUNDHUM based ANCESTRAL ANIMISTIC RELIGION since time immemorial. When BUDDHA and later emperor ASHOK came to Nepal during the reign of 7th and 14th Kiranti Kings STHUNGKO HANG and JITEDASTI HANG, they supposedly enjoyed full tolerance and respect by Kiranti people. YET well defined and rich
 Kiranti Religion was not shaken and most Kirantis refrained from followimg Buddhism with all due respect. During Gurkha expansionist Conquest, Heroic KIRANTI WARRIORS (MY FOREFATHERS) had earned enormous respect of King PRITHVI NARAYAN SHAH and he had granted total autonomy in the KIRANT LAND. He treated Kiranti kings as soverign head of states. Titles of "RAI","JIMIDAR", "SUBBA", "MUKHIA" and "DEWAN" were given with honor to the local Kiranti community landlords and chiefs of KHAMBU,
 LIMBU, SUNUWAR and YAKKHA tribes by Gorkha rulers. Then the dark ages of RANA rules came followed by Panchayat. RANAs with advice from DURBARIA BAHUNS waged cultural war on our innoncent PROUD forefathers. THAT WAS THE PERIOD WHEN OUR SACRED SCRIPTURES WERE BURNED, SCRIPTS AND LANGUAGES FACED NEAR EXTINCTION, AND HINDUISM WAS LITERALLY FORCED UPON BY FORCING US TO OBSERVE DASHAIN, TIKA AND WORSHIP COWS. (We must have been a beef eating people intially). Incidently, a Hindu friend of mine from Indian state of MANIPUR had once told me similar desrcription of Hindu Infiltration into their ancestral culture and Land. I am not in the position to speak for GURUNGS, MAGARS and other ethnic groups for I do not know their History, but I am sure it's not a happy one either. In Rana periods, Bahuns began migrating into Kirant Heartland (From the east of Sunkoshi river till the Tista river). Today, there are barely 200000 Rais who can speak in their Mother tounge. Our writing script was almost lost. Limbus cleverly protected it by taking
 it to Sikkim and Hence today Limbu is a constitutionally recognized
 language of INDIA.(I could have written CBSE board exam in LIMBU). And in Nepal.....a shame! Real shame!! that the authorities always wanted to totally eradicate our pride heritage. The fact that NEWAR language has withstood strongly aimdst its fair share of onslaught must have been agoniozingly irritating for those same group. That is why they now want to impose SANSKRIT on every Nepalis. May be next thing could be forcing all non indo-aryan nepalis into surgically sharpeining of the nose into more "CHUCHE" in the name of ehtnic cleansing!?
  YOU ARE DAMN RIGHT POKHARELJI! PROPORTIONATE REPRESENTATION SHOULD HAVE TAKEN PLACE. 1 NIRMAL LAMA WAS CERTAINLY NOT ENOUGH.
 
 HOW WHITE PEOPLE WROTE THE FATE OF THE NATIVE AMERICANS IN DRAFTING THEIR FREE CONSTITUTION IN WASHINGTON AND JEFFERSON ERA? REMEMBER?
 
 
 
>>Discarding any human being's merit and ability to do his work on the
basis
>> of his race, creed, sex and RELIGION is termed DISCRIMINATION.
 
>I agree but that depends on a country's culture (or constitution).
>Your
>statement could say all "living beings" instead of human beings. You
>are
>saying human beings because you are human. If animals could talk,
>they
>might have given other statements too.
 
  If animals had been intelligent and advanced enough to advocate their rights via speech, then there would have been different situation. Such kind of hypothetical arguement is irrelevant to human affair but no matter how much philosophical you may get, philantropy comes first. If not then tell those SWAMIJIS to take care of 84 lakh species just like MOTHER TERESA has been taking care of her unfortunate fellow beings.
 
 
 Pokharelji, you may not be able to sleep tonight. DHYAN YOG might help to calm the enraged , bubbling blood but TRUTH IS RARELY SWEET.
       regards,
 
        SHISHU KRISHNA MUKARUNGE BANTAWA KHAMBU KIRANTI RAI.
        (Descendent of YELAMBAR HANG the GREAT)
 
************************************************************ From: sanjay@world.std.com (Sanjay Manandhar) Date: 18-MAY-1995 16:15:44 Description: Re: SAFA TEMPO/Compost Toilets/GRI

Jeff,
        I met Peter Moulton and Marilyn Cohen in KTM in the Fall or 1994. They have one safa tempo built and were showing it around by driving it in KTM. For others on the net, the three-wheeler (tempo in Nepali) seats up to 9 people and can negotiate the slight ups and downs of KTM. Power (fueled by lead-storage batteries) are still a problem and they are looking for funding for the power-exchanger (electric counterpart of the gas-station).
 
        I think they got another round of funding from USAID to build more such vehicles.
 
        As you know there is a competing project, building an electric car, from the local merchants. One VW beetle was converted, but they were waiting for the motor parts (brushes in particular) after having test driven it only a few times. This effort is all local money I believe.
  Sanjay Manandhar Internet Consultant Datalink Nepal
 
*************************************************************** From: atuladhar@jack.clarku.edu Date: 25-MAY-1995 12:09:30 Description: RE: Buffalo's tail and Padma Ratna Once More

In a previous article, rana@skyblu.ccit.arizona.edu (VIVEK S. RANA) wrote:
->
->
-> AS far as cow slaughter is concerned. I have never heard of cow
->slaughter in Nepal happening....Once I remember in 2028 when it happened in My
->home district of Rauthat in Bhusha village resulting a death of 5000 muslims
->and hindu's in our nations's biggest Hindu-Muslim Riot in History.
============
  Thanks Vivek for bringing this to light because the Panchayat regime always said Nepal was a happy Hindu kingdom, magnanimous and tolerant, (implying unlike certain parts of the south of our border where routing Hindu-Moslem killings go on).
  I am wondering how many Hindus got killed in this incident or was it mostly intolerant Hindus punishing the cow-slaughtering Moslems in our beautiful and syncretic Hindu kingdom that had to bear all the dead, all 5000 of them?
  I had heard in whiffs and puffs that the Panche govt tried asssiduosly to maintain this myth of Hindu tolerance with news blackout and deployment of army, if necessary in other parts of Nepal Terai, but never was the figure of dead so high.
  I am sure the memory of so many dead would leave residual social memory of being wronged in a group of Nepali community who were punished becaused maybe some did the politically foolish act of "murdering" a cow.
============
 
->
-> Padhma Ratna should find better ways go go for popular slogans among
->people. Communist UML has suffered tremendously beacause of such kind of
        ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
->deliverance by him.
 
========= Vivek, this is a debatable point and the Nepali congress certainly seems to hope this was so. In fact, a recent nepali visitor to Clark, pointed to me that that he read the actual script of the so-called
"cowslaugther" speech and that he found nothing objectionaable both as a Congressi and as a Hindu and that he felt the Nepal congress took this one line out of context to generate as much political capital as possible by not only trying to eject padma ratna from the Cabinet but in general to paint the communists to be soft on religious sensitivities, a larger objective, having failed earlier to convince the Nepali populace earlier that electing the communist to power would mean all lands would be consficated and foreign development dollars would fly out of the window. But I concede your analysis may be right and time will tell.
  On the other hand, while UML has sought to defuse this mini-controversy by apologizing to the fanatic Hindu delegates that came to attend the "Viswo Hindu Sammmelan" (by fanatic, i am told the Shiv Sena group and Jana Sangh groups from Bombay) and bringing out a formal assurance that cowslaugther will not be legalized, it is signficant to note that Padma Ratna has not been fired. One of the reasons for this maybe the groundswell of support of Nepali citizens who do not identify with Hindu Hegemony, the crucial voters whose anti-establishmentarian fury was mobilized by the communists to get the slim majority that is enabling them to form a government. By ejecting Padma Ratna Tuladhar, it is doubtful if UML can retain his Kathmandu constituency or the many constituencies in eatern Nepal hilss and parts of Nepal terai where there is a ground swell of ethnic and regional celebration of cultural and political autonomy.
  This is a true time for Hindu political organ to demonstrate true magnanimity and allow space for difference instead of of trying to smother such voices and risk the accumulation of alienation of a large section of Nepali people.
 
***************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Thu, 25 May 1995 19:09:31 MET +0200 From: tiwari@husc.harvard.edu
                                                                
        The Greater Boston Nepali Community (GBNC) is ready to bid goodbye to one of its Most Valuable Members (MVM), known, far and wide, simply as Honda. [His Nepali passport calls him: Mahendra Man Sakya]

        Honda has been in Boston since 1988; and, in the course of the last seven years, he has become a legend unto himself among Nepalis in this city and beyond.

        Indeed, when people think of Honda, they remember:

         a tall, lean guy in his early 30s, full of energy, and always ready for a spirited debate on politics/economics/business or any other topic with just about anyone;

        a very resourceful guy, always ready to help everyone alike, NO MATTER what kind of help they need;

        a keen ball-playing guy and a great team-player, ready to organize and play basketball, soccer and volleyball games on weekends;

        and: a genuinely fun guy to be with, always opening his hearth and home to guests of all sorts.

        In fact, so legendary has Honda's hospitality been in Boston that his Prospect Street apartment in Cambridge, Mass. is alternatively known as
"Mahendra Yuba.laya": THE place in Cambridge where Nepalis -- of all intellectual, financial, political, social, moral, spiritual, and ethnic hues -- visiting from anywhere on the planet, could come and get a roof over their head, and eat enough dal-bhaat to ward off malnutrition
-- at least, until they have found their own apartments or departed for other parts of the US. Honda has always been, as his 100s of guests can willingly attest to, a great equal-opportunity Host, with a capital H.

        Honda served as the president of the Greater Boston Nepali Community (GBNC) for two years in '91 and '92; and, by all accounts, took the GBNC forward by dispalying an excellent coalition-building leadership style, doing an altogether admirable job. Newcomers in Boston often marvel at the relative ABSENCE of ethnic or political or social tensions among Boston's 150-plus Nepalis. GBNC historians attribute such relative harmony to these two reasons, of which the SECOND ONE appears to be more convincing.

        1. First reason: The collective I.Q. of Nepalis in Boston is simply
           too high for them to get caught up in stupid
           ethnic/social/political jhagadas that have, one hears, torn apart
           Nepali communities on other parts of the planet.

        2. Second reason: Honda. Plain and simple. Because since 1988,
           Honda has been THE BRIDGE bet/n the old-timers and the newcomers;
           the fresh-from-Nepal teenager and "settled" Nepali folks in Amrika;
           the bahuns and the newars; the scholarship-rich snotty students,
           and have-to-work-60-hours-a-week idigent souls; the investment
                 banker types out to gather loads of bucks, and public-service
           types always worrying about Nepal ko bikas; and every other
           conceivable types, stripes, brands of Nepalis in between.

           In short, for seven long years, in Honda, Boston's Nepalis
           trusted. And for much of that time, their faith had
           been exceedingly well-placed.

        GBNC now urges all to join it in wishing Mahendra Man Sakya aka Honda (so named since his school days at St. Xavier's) the very best of success in his proposed/planned business ventures in Kathmandu and beyond.

        And Honda will be missed very much by his many Nepali friends in Boston. And beyond.

namaste ashu president, gbnc

        (My thanks to Pratyoush, Rakesh, Amulya, Srijana and Binoy for their
        help in writing this.)

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