The Nepal Digest - May 22, 1995 (9 Jestha 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Monday 22 May 95: Jestha 9 2052 BkSm Volume 38 Issue 10

  Today's Topics:

        1. TAJA_KHABAR - News From Nepal

        2. KURA_KANI
                 Culture - Festivals or Fun, But for whom?
                 Health - Heart and Health
                 Social - Re: Mind your tongue please!
                 Military - Anit Aircraft Guns

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * SCN Liaison: Rajesh B. Shrestha rshresth@black.clarku.edu *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma sharma@plains.nodak.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta ponta@sas.upenn.edu *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha rajendra@dartmouth.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 16 May 1995 16:46:57 -0400 (EDT) From: Pravignya Regmi <pregmi@emerald.tufts.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Help Nepal Save the Environment - V (a)

                 Help Nepal Save the Environment - V (a)

"And Daddy won't you take me back to Muhlenberg County, Down by the Green River Where Paradise Lay. Well, I am sorry my son But you're too late in asking Mister Peabody's coal train has hauled it away"

-John Prine
"Paradise"

    THE ARUN III PROJECT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
   ___________________________________________________________ Location of the Project
  In the Eastern Development Region of Nepal lies a culturally and ecologically diverse district Sankhuwasawa. Khandbari is its capital and Chainpur is one of the major trade centers. The northern part of the district shares its border with China (Tibet).
  Sankhuwasawa holds a huge potential of natural resources speciefically in terms of waters and terquize. Sabaha Khola and Barun River are its some of the major water resources. Besides the two rivers, the Arun River enters into the district from Tibet thru the deep gullies of Himalayas.
  The district is a heaven for wildlife (Barun Valley, currently a part of the newly established national park, possesses some rare and endangered species. Giant moths that measure up to 18 inches wing to wing length (personal obs) are one of the remarkable species present in the park).
  In the heart of such environmentally sensitive, biologically diverse and ecologically fragile district roars the Arun III quivering the mountains.
______________________________________________________________________________ The Site that I Saw
  I had an opportunity to visit some of the remote areas of Sankhuwasawa in 1991. It took us couple of days walk from Khandbari to cross the giant Mahabharat mountains that virtually isolate the rest of the district from the world. On the third day, after we hardly scaled the steep highhill of Pathivara, an Arun III engeneer who was also in our team pointed, "there is the Arun III project". We had arrived at the project in the dusk of the evening and could not go to watch the excavated areas. We still had to hike a substantial distance thru the forest, where was the risk of attack by wild bears in night, to reach the nearby village Hedangna Gadhi. We observed the sites when we returned from Kimathanka.
  It was not pleasant to see the hoveled tunnenls here and there on the mountains. "These are constructed to figure out the best path to channalise the water" an official said, "studies are being conducted to determine the project feasibility". The tunnels had disfigured the natural landscape, the mountains were bleeding, and an stinking odour of of modern development was diffused over the nature's virgin land. Some lumps of iron, piles of cement sacks, chunk of tins did not look natural.
____________________________________________________________________________ The Project
  Arun III is a mega-project that will be able to generate 201 Mega Watts of hydroelectricity. There will be a 68 meter high and 155 meter long dam across the Arun River (WB Staff Appraisal Report, Aug 29, pp 23) and is a first in a series of three dams to be built in the area
(Udall, Environmental Defence Fund, 1995). Besides, the project site will be connected by a 122 Km road (Ibid).
  The budget allocated for the project is US $ 770 million; however, the total cost estimated now is over US $ 1 billion (Ibid). Furthermore, the feasibility study of the project has already cost US $ 150 million (The Economist, Oct 1993). Please note that this amount of money is sufficient to construct a midium scale hydroelectric plant in Nepal.
  The World Bank is proposing to loan US $ 170 million for the Arun III project. This loan is free of interest for the next thirty years and repayable after 10 years which is an additional loan to Nepal over the earlier credit of US $ 3.5 million (J. Wood, SAWB, 1994). The rest part of the finance will be covered by the donor countries and agencies which include Japan, Germany, France, Finland, Sweden and the Asian Development Bank (draf copy, The World Bank and Public Accountability: Has Anything Changed, EDF, 1995, pp 14) and Britain (The Economist, Oct 1993).
  Nepal now generates 278 MW of power, much of it from power plants on other rivers. The Arun III will add another 201 MW over the current Nepalese need of another 25 MW (Ibid). In other words, the project will generate another 176 MW surplus power.

Here are the Arguments !!!
  There is an intense argument between pro and con economists, and among the environmentalists and and the project supporters primarily on economic viability and ecologic stability. Folllowing are some of the major arguments over the Arun III project:
  The Washington Post (Nov 6, 1994) under the title, "Monster of the Himalayas", writes, "In a PRISTINE valley of the Himalaya mountains in northern Nepal an environmental castatroph is taking shape...."
  Joshep W. Wood, Vice President, South Asia World Bank, to answer the questions rised by the article, says, "The proposed project (* which does not involve damming the Arun River) has been extensively assesed for environmental impact. The "pristine valley" the article said would be harmed by the project is being degraded right now by the inhabitants who have no means of livelihood other than to exploite the forests. The project is explicitely designed to create income generating opportunities that will give local people alternative that are more environmentally sustainable." (The Washinton Post, Nov 28, 1994).
 [* "The assertion that the proposed project does not involve 'damming the Arun River is resoundingly mistaken and indicative of the way in which even straightforward facts often get distorted in Bank public relations statements" (EDF, 1994, pp 3).]
  The former Division Chief for Population and Human Resources, Country Deapartment 1 in the south Asia Region at the World Bank, Martin Karcher, who resigned his job to protest the Arun III project, says that the product of the project is highly expensive and the project itself is liable to "crowd out" (crowd out is an economic jargon defined as "a fall in either private consumption or investment as a result of a rise in government expenditure"- MIT Dictionary of Modern Economics) investment in health, education and other needy sectors. He says, "I am not casting doubts on the good intentions of the Government of Nepal but if and when the crunch comes, then I think there is a significant risk that the government will have to cut back on its priority programs in the social as well as in some other important sectors. Prudence would argue in favor of less risky alternative." (Transcript, Interview to EDF, Nov 26, 1994, pp 2).
  Joseph Wood asserts, "The project would promote economic growth and increase government revenue. This means that it would increase - not decrease - Nepal's capacity to spend money on health and education."
(WP, Nov 28, 1994).
  Joe Manickavasagam, the representative in Kathmandu for the World Bank says, "when there is energy people will cut few trees, there will be more industries and surplus power could be sold" (The Economist, Oct 1993).
  Environmental NGOs such as Alliance for Energy (Nepal) conducted an anti-Arun-III campaign to stop the project highlighting environmental as well as economic risks that the project is likely to cause. The Alliance for Energy and Intermediate Technology Development Group, a British based NGO which works primarily for small scale community based water projects, oppose the currently designed Arun-III project and propose alternative small scale schemes that they believe will be environmentally sustainable, economical and economically riskless
(Ibid). Bikas Pandey, a memeber of Alliance for Energy, argues that the small projects involve foewer foreign consultants and engineers, whose bills mount up fast (Ibid); thus, we save money in small scale schemes.

To be continued...............

[A question to think to TND readers, "Is it wise to spend a lump-sum of money in one mega project or distribute it into small projects ?" - Think about it and express your views on TND).

****************************************************************** Date: Tue, 16 May 1995 22:30:27 BST From: "bhattarai,s.p" <spbhat@essex.ac.uk> Subject: request for pasting message To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

Dear editor

i would be very grateful if you could please includethis bit of message into the forthcoming issue of TND

Dear Krishana P. Paudel

I did write to u e-mail but the message was not transmitted. I am sorry I could not write u letter because I did not save the message that u mentiond about your postal. I am looking forward to continue correspondance with u. So please give me the right e-mail address or send me your postal adress to write to you. Rest we will make later.

Your Brother Surya P. Bhattarai

********************************************************************* Date: Tue, 16 May 1995 20:35:53 -0400 (EDT) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Congratulations To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

        All 150-plus Nepalis and friends of Nepal of the Greater Boston
        Nepali Community (GBNC)
        
                                CONGRATULATE

        the following Nepalis in the Greater Boston Area on their
        recent or imminent graduation from Boston (East Coast) area
        colleges and universities.

                Congratulations to new graduates in Boston!!
                        (listed in no particular order)

Rabindra Bhandari, PhD, economics Boston University Bikas Joshi, AB, economics Harvard College Anup Raj Joshi, MBA Harvard Business School Kumar Raj Pandey, MS, electro-optics Tufts University Uday Manandhar, MA, int'l development Clark University Sanjay Sthapit, BA, economics & music Clark University Rajesh Shrestha, BA economics & computer sci. Clark University Ramona Chitrakar Quincy College Sulochana Musyaju, MA, int'l economics Brandeis University Rajendra Shrestha, AB & BE env.engineering Dartmouth College

        From all your Nepali friends in Boston: Lots of Badhai!!

%%%%%Editor's Note: Please accecpt our congratualtions on behalf %%%%%
%%%%% of TND community. %%%%%
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************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 16 May 1995 20:58:41 -0400 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Cowslaughter in Nepal: happens all the time...

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

     "Life is life--whether in a cat, or dog or man. There is no difference there between a cat or a man. The idea of difference is a human conception for man's own advantage." - Sri Aurobindo.

     "The difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kind." - Charles Darwin.
   
     "There is no fundamental difference between man and the higher animals in their mental faculties... The lower animals, like man, manifestly feel pleasure and pain, happiness, and misery." - Charles Darwin.
   
     "Animals whom we have made our slaves, we do not like to consider our equals." - Charles Darwin.
   
     "I have from an early age abjured the use of meat, and the time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they now look upon the murder of men." - Leonardo Da Vinci.
   
     "Killing an animal to make a coat is sin. It wasn't meant to be, and we have no right to do it. A woman gains status when she refuses to see anything killed to be put on her back. Then she's truly beautiful." - Doris Day.

     "If you could see or feel the suffering you wouldn't think twice. Give back life. Don't eat meat."
 - Kim Basinger.

     "The day may come when the rest of the animal creation may acquire those rights which never could have been withholden from them but by the hand of tyranny." - Jeremy Bentham.
   
     "Until we have the courage to recognize cruelty for what it is--whether its victim is human or animal--we cannot expect things to be much better in this world... We cannot have peace among men whose hearts delight in killing any living creature. By every act that glorifies or even tolerates such moronic delight in killing we set back the progress of humanity." - Rachel Carson.
   
     "There can be no justification for causing suffering to animals simply to serve man's pleasure or simply to enhance man's lifestyle." - The Dean of York.
   
     "Even one thing befalleth them: as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath, so that a man hath no preeminence above a beast: for all is Vanity." - Ecclesiastes 3:19.
   
     "Non-violence leads to the highest ethics, which is the goal of all evolution. Until we stop harming all other living beings, we are still savages."
 - Thomas Edison.

The abve quotes are from a compilation by Donald Graft. Read the Animal Rights FAQ, available from dgraft@gate.net Animal Rights Resource Site (ARRS): http://www.umanitoba.ca/arrs/index.html

 *-=Om Shanti=-* Jai Maharaj

******************************************************************* Date: Tue, 16 May 1995 21:03:40 -0400 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Cowslaughter in Nepal: happens all the time...

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

atuladhar@jack.clarku.edu writes:

>Rajesh:
>I guess you support Nazism and Fascism that killed millions of jews and
>imprisioned many during WWII, by yur standards, there was a controversy, e.g.
>you saw Schindler's List that documented obvious controversy with the Nazi
>program, but the majority opinion was for liquidating the Jews, the Gypsies
>and the Non-Aryans so it must be right???
                                  ^^^^^

Please do not misunderstand that a "way out" or a solution does not mean it is
"right". What is right - that is my very question. It is a philosophical moot point. Isn't what is right subjective? Are all "rights" inherently
"right"? Is or isn't the rightness of an action subject to time and context?

Do you mean "controversy" or "contradictions" in the Nazi program? To my understanding, there was no controversy - the opinions of the Nazis were DICTATED onto the rest of the populace (through fear, brainwash, paranoia, hysteria whatever). There was no controversy as in public debate of what course of action to take. Your implication that an entire race, and not a ruthless dictator, was responsible for the holocaust is more controversial.

Again, let it not be misunderstood that whatever action gets taken isn't necessarily "right". Since what is right and wrong is often hard to discern, what is infact subjectively right can be taken to be universal right. So, what I am trying to say is let's not forward an argument based on what you think is right and not right. Let's turn to more rational and logical arguments.

Rajesh B. Shrestha

************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 16 May 1995 21:04:36 -0400 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Cowslaughter and Democracy.

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

Rajesh B. Shrestha wrote:
>I happen to believe that Nepal's cow slaughter law reflects the sentiments of
>the majority of people and that is why it continues to be in place. If we had
>a referendum today, a direct democracy practice, asking people if they would
>like to keep or remove the law, it is obviously going to be passed in favor of
>retaining the law. That's how democracy is -- it favors the majority, no
>matter how senseless it is.

Dear Rajesh,
  I agreed with most of the points you mentioned on how legalizing Cowslaughtwer would hurt the sentiments of the majority of Hindus in Nepal but I find the above lines a little bit hard to swallow.
 If democracy always means majority's way, then there was a time in the
 UNITED STATES of AMERICA when overwhelming majority of the people (of course
 the WHITES) believed people of color were genetically inferior to the whites
 thus did not deserve equal rights and treatment. Even Abraham Lincoln
 believed in white supremacy though he despised slavery as morally wrong. Why
 was the constitution amended to not only guarantee equal rights to the minorities but compensate them with programs like Affirmative Actions. World's
 largest democracy, India chose to be constitionally secular despite being the
 birth place of Hinduism and majority of the people being Hindus. Majority of
 Indians thought untouchables caste to be impure people by birth yet Mahatma
 Gandhi saw them as HARIJAN. Majority of Indians do not like the quotas system
 in employment, education, military and civil services meant for minority groups like nagas, mizos, kukis etc. but the Indian constitution protects it.
 
 We can take similar examples by observing Democracies of Western Europe. Prince
 Charles has indicated that in his coronations, He will declare himself to be
 the defender of all the faiths that is practiced is United Kingdom, not just
 the Anglican Church eventhough the British Monarchy has historic ties with
 prostestant faith and majority of the people are Christians. That is democracy.
  
 regards,
        Shishu RAI
         VIVA ZICO!!!!!!!!

******************************************************************** Date: Tue, 16 May 1995 21:05:47 -0400 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Cowslaughter and Democracy.

Dear Shisu,

I liked your examples that you gave about the U.S. and India. To put myself more clearly, I am NOT against affirmative action. On the contrary, I am all in favor of it. Why isn't affirmative action, say, banned in the US? Because, although it is meant for the minority, the majority is not against it. Why did V.P. Singh's reservation program collapse in India? Because the majority
*opposed* it.

What I am pointing out is that cow slaughtering in Nepal would probably be opposed by the majority at this point in time. I would very much like to see affirmative action in place in Nepal; I am only questioning whether it is the right time to embark on it given the already political and economic jeopardy in Nepal.

I hope you do not misunderstand me. Thanks.

Rajesh B. Shrestha

****************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: ANNOUNCEMENT: Hinduism Today, June 1995 on line From: jai@mantra.com (Dr. Jai Maharaj)

Hinduism Today, June 1995, is now available on the WWW at http://hookomo.aloha.net/~htoday/htoday.html.

Topics this month include:

Master Builder Uncovers Striking Similarities In Indian and Incan/Mayan Sacred Structures Hindu Nepalis Under Siege by Christians and Muslims Theosophy, Woven from and into the Fabric of Sanatana Dharma Serenity, Solace, Self-Knowing and a Good Scolding -- It's all in Mother's Fond Embrace Publisher's Desk -- "Old and Grey and in the Way?" Editorial -- "From Indra's Net to Internet" Letters to the Editor My Turn -- Duty Supersedes Love Masthead Scriptural Quotes Good Conduct -- Yamas and Niyamas Dharma -- Defined and Four Kinds News in Brief Healing -- Second-hand Smoke: How Safe? Music Reviews -- a Wonderful Collection of Traditional Indian Music
                 on CD's Global Dharma -- Chitrakoot School,Bombay to Mumbai, All-India
                  Madhwa Conference in Madras New UK Temple and More Puja in Paradise -- Foundation Stones Laid for First All-Stone
                    Granite Temple Outside Asia

************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 12 May 95 2:53:48 EDT From: "Neal Cohen" <ncohen@usaid.gov> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Macro-Economic Performance Part III

Macro-Economic Performance Part III

Trade Balances

The trade balances are available for the first nine months of the fiscal year, through mid-April. Imports are growing at a 27% rate while exports are falling by 7%, mainly due to large declines in carpet exports. While overall exports fell, exports to India grew by 34%, but exports to third country fell by 14%. The result is a major worsening of the overall trade balance.

During the last fiscal year the trade balance worsened to 17% of GDP, the worst ever, Rs33 billion ($656 million). For the first eight months of this year the trade deficit has continued to worsen, by 50%, and again, mainly because of reduced exports to third countries. The trade deficit is probably around 23% of GDP.

Overall Balance of Payments

Government has released these figures for only the first four months of the fiscal year. We prefer to use the overall balance than the trade balance presented earlier because of the size of "other services" and "miscellaneous capital". These are necessary because we lack accurate information. The data collection methods are old and in need of revision. When revised we will better understand whether some of this "other" category might correctly be placed.

For all of 1993/94, when the trade balance was becoming sharply more negative, the overall balance indicated there was a net inflow of money. The major reasons for the discrepancy was large foreign donor loans (that financed some of the imports), tourism receipts, "other services" and
"miscell aneous capital" (this last item is sometimes called "errors and omissions").

For the first four months of the current year, through mid-November, the overall balance is negative, meaning an outflow of foreign exchange. This is a major and significant change from recent years. If this outflow continues for the rest of the year, then this will be the first negative overall balance since 1984/85. The size of the overall deficit was mitigated somewhat by increases in foreign assistance and private remittances.

The country has sufficient reserves to handle this deficit, however, actions ought to be taken soon to stimulate exports or increase tourism before the foreign reserve cushion is used up.

Exports

Exports to India have been increasing significantly (by 34%), with the major items being exports by the Indian companies that have recently located in Nepal to export to India: Nepal Lever, Dabur and Leatherage (Bansbari Leather). The traditional exports agricultural exports to India did not change.

Exports to third countries, which account for 87% of all exports, have fallen by 14% during the first nine months. The major item, carpets, still accounts for 55% of all exports, but it fell by 36%. The second largest export, readymade garments, only grew by 1%. Exports of hides and skins grew by 86% last year to become the third major export. This is mainly exports from the recently privatized Bansbari Leather company. Exports of pulses fell by 77% partly due to subsidies given to Turkish exports which undercut Nepali exports in the market (plus a decline in Nepali production of pulses). The exports of nigerseeds (almost all to a single company in the US) also dropped by 62%.

Government Accounts

Government Revenue

Revenue collections have continued to increase under the new Government. During the first nine months of the current fiscal year (through mid-April) total revenue is up 27%. The main sources of this increase has been increases in import duty and sales tax collections (both are collected mainly by customs and thus reflect the increased level of imports).

Foreign cash grants for the first nine months is up 98%, while foreign cash loans are up 5%. Most loans come from the World Bank and Asian Development Bank while bilateral donors, and the UN system, provide most of the grants.

Government Spending

In December 1994, Parliament approved a 25% increase in government spending this fiscal year. For the first nine months of the current fiscal year spending is up by 11% over last year.

The data presented by the Rastra Bank appear to show a disturbing trend with regular government spending up 49%, while development spending down 23%. This conclusion is misleading as the Nepali Congress Government budget transferred Rs3 billion of spending that was incorrectly classified in the development budget to the regular budget. If we move this back to the development account for comparative purposes, then actual regular spending is up 4% over last year and development spending is up 18%. This is more in keeping with expectations as the major spending initiative of the new Government, the Build Our Villages Ourselves program, comes out of the Development Budget.

Government Deficit

One of the major elements to the Expanded Structural Adjustment Facility
(ESAF) agreement, was to contain domestic borrowing to under 1% of GDP. The figures for the last fiscal year (1993/94) showed excessive domestic borrowing.

The deficit for the first nine months of the fiscal year is down 54%, from Rs3.2 billion last year, to Rs1.7 billion this year. However, foreign loans of Rs2.7 billion this year have allowed Government to reduce domestic borrowing by Rs0.9 billion.

Concern that the new Government's numerous spending programs would lead to larger deficits appears unfounded. Spending has not been able to increase as had been feared, and revenue has continued to be buoyant.

The result of a reduction in the deficit is reduced government borrowing from the banking system. For the year ending March 1994, government borrowing was up 5% over the previous year. Government borrowing has only increased by 1% since March 1994. As we note many times in this paper, the annual growth figures hide some of the reality. In the month of March of this year government borrowing fell by 1%, while in March 1994 it had fallen by 5%; in February of this year Government borrowing fell by 2%, compared to 5% last February.

Still, Government borrowing this fiscal year continues to fall.

************************************************************* Date: Wed, 17 May 1995 01:02:13 -0500 (CDT) From: RKP6723@utarlg.uta.edu Subject: Feelings hurt! To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

I don't believe that intelligent person like Shiva P. Gautam is leaving TND for emotional reason. Ashu Tiwari has already said enough on Gautam's behalf. He has given a very good logic to Gautam to stay and have fun here on TND. Matter of fact I was enlightened by his last writing, so I disagree with him that there is no enlightment on TND. But it is definite medium to enjoy sharing recipes to news to inquiry to religion to you name it. Just like a life when we bump into something and we fall down and scratch ourselves. It hurts doesn't it. As we go on with life we learn to avoid such situation and we also learn to deal with it. Same with feelings, it hurts when it does not go our way, or somebody takesover our ideas or opinions with some clever points.My advice to Gautam is not to cherish negatives, instead look things that are positives or look things in apositive way. Like Ashu said it is Gautam's decsion to leave, but I think I speak for all of us that we would like him to stay.ere

- Robin Panday (Swayum Bhu)

********************************************************************* Date: Wed, 17 May 1995 08:12 EST From: U <UMANANDHAR@vax.clarku.edu> Subject: Hami sabako Raja To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

Date : 17-MAY-1995 08:07:52 In a previous article, tiwari@fas.harvard.edu (Ashutosh Tiwari) wrote:
->
-> As far as I know, Nepali Constitution (and for that matter, laws)
->is based on BOTH the English Common Law and, broadly, the Hindu laws.
->That is why I think to have strong debates/discussions one needs to have a
->good grasp of both the English Common Law and of Hindu laws, and so forth.
->
-> Laws and constitution are NOT same everywhere; for example,
->most Muslim countries follow Islamic laws as THE law of their nations.
->Native Americans have their own legal system that the US Federal and state
->laws cannot, most of the time, touch. And on and on.
->
-> Perhaps Nepalis or scholars who know better can post their
->thoughts here on this.
->

I do not know the Hindu aspect of our monarch but this is what I know:

Regarding HIS Majesty this is what the constituiton says (this is an official translation from the Ministy of Law and Justice& Parliamentary Affair so translation is not an issue here)

this is only one portion of the seciton 5 on HIS majesty

"#28 Provisions Relating to Succession to the Throne: (1) Nothing in this Constitution shall affect the custom, usage and tradition relating to the order of succession to the Throne by the decendants of His Majesty.
(2) HIs Majesty shall have the exclusive power of enacting, amending and repealing the law relating to succession to the Throne by His descendants"

which means if you are a woman forget it (no way jose). In fact a woman has never been given the throne in the history of Nepal. Yes there have been occasions of queens acting as "caretaker" to the throne but they have never officiallly held the title.

Even the present king has three (I think) sisters ahead of him but none of them were given the right to represent the throne. So unless we get an exceptionally liberal king who will enact the necessary laws so a woman may also take the throne it will be a while before we see the like of Victorias and Elizabeths.

Infact if you read the title of the old (Panchayat) constitution it says "The Constitution of Nepal..." and the new title of the 1990 constitution reads,
"The Constitution of the KINGdom of Nepal..." So it is truly the KINGdom of Nepal.

Consequently, it IS a question of human(WOMEN'S) rights unlike what someone has said before. Women can NEVER take over the throne in Nepal.

Do you want to change this? Well try this!

"#31 Question not to be Raised in Courts: No question shall be raised in any court about any act performed by His Majesty: Provided that nothing in this Article shall deemed to restrict any right under law to initiate proceedings against His Majesty's Government or any employee of His Majesty.

The constitution also says:

"Expenditures and Privileges Relating to His Majesty and the Royal Family: Expenditures and privileges relating to His Majesty and the Royal Family shall be as determined by law:
        Provided that no law shall be made having the effect of reducing the expenditures and privileges being provided the existing laws.

#30 Income and property of His Majesty to be Exempt from Tax and Inviolable:
(1) The income and personal property of His Majesty shall be exempt from all kinds of tax, fee or other similar charge.
(2) The property of His Majesty shall be inviolable."

I am afraid I have to "hold back" my comment here but I will leave it up to the more "vibrant" members to comment on the above.

Uday

***************************************************************** Date: Wed, 17 May 1995 16:15:57 BST From: B J Lawson-mcdowall <hspbjlm@bath.ac.uk> Subject: Re: Aurn III in TND May 3, 1995 (20 Baishakh 2052 BkSm)

In the TND May 3, karin.maclennan@jmg.gu.se asked
>why the worldbank are holding on (to Arun III)?

My information, from a european rep. for the Bank, suggests that many in the Bank would like to withdraw from Arun III. However, a credible exit for the Bank requires that the Nepalese government decline the project.

One British based NGO has suggested the Bank's apparent hard line in recent negotiations is a consequence of the anti-Arun attitude of some within the Bank. The NGO believes that the Bank's inflexible attitude is aimed at making it harder for the UML government to accept the project. Could it be that the Bank have set conditions they think are unrealistic and the UML government has accepted them?

I think A central question is the extent to which the aid is tied to Arun III, i.e. no Arun III, no (US)$750 - 1000m. As one Nepalese proponent I've interviewed said of the 'without Arun III there will be a dissipation of the store of donor good will which had been brought together in Arun III". That sounded like `Arun or nothing' to me.

Finally, it was my understanding that the Bank would have to await the outcome of the IIP report before placing Arun III before the board. I've been out of circulation for a few weeks so may be I've missed something.

Bruce Lawson-McDowall Centre for Development Studies.

******************************************************************** Date: Wed, 17 May 1995 15:46 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - May 15, 1995 (2 Jestha 2052 BkSm) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

"Ghoodkis and Ashu's advice"
=============================

This is in response to Ashutosh's advice on Shiva Gautam's ghoodki about leaving TND.

I think it was too solicitous.

1. One, Shive Gautam is an adult and he can leave and join at his pleasure with or without ghoodki and TND or its readers/contributors need not blink and eye about it.

2. Second, Rajpal the editor told me at GBNC bhoj in Boston that everyday he gets 6-8 new requests to be put in the subscription list, so overall, TND is doing pretty well in both contribution and readership support, so don't loose slip over a Shiv Gautam ghoodhki.

3. Third, we have heard a few ghoodki's before Dr. Gyaneswor's few sanyasis, temporary withdrawals for work or sulk by ghimirez and ashu, and things hummed alsong fine, so there was no letter necessary this time.

4. Fourth, we always people dropping out without much fanfare from the vaunted list of 1400 subscribers to TND, either because they move on, the Editor says subscribers are taken off the list once a bounce back message comes through, so again life moves on and I would like to thank and congratulate the Editors and the readers and contributors for keeping it interesting.

Amulya

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** From: Puspa M Joshi <pjoshi@magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu> Subject: Nepali Language Class To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Wed, 17 May 1995 17:47:55 -0400 (EDT)

         NEPALI LANGUAGE CLASS IN COLUMBUS - SO FAR SO GOOD
         --------------------------------------------------

Dear Editor:
            After I wrote to you about our decision to run a Nepali language class in Columbus in memory of my late father, Moti Man Joshi, I received many calls and much e-mail from our friends and relatives including those from Dr. Panta (Cincinnati), Mr. Shiva Upadhyaya (W. Virginia) and Mr. Kiran Sitoula
(Delaware, Ohio). I also met a few friends who are skeptical about our decision. Because it has been more than 10 weeks since we have begun our class I am sure many of you are anxious to know about our progress. Let me summarize in brief.

There are altogether 11 students who are all children except one American lady, who is over 60, and almost all of them attend the class regularly. One problem we are facing is the great gap in skill among students, as some children came to the U.S. less than a year ago and other were born here and have hardly been exposed to the Nepali language. Although there is a plan to divide the classs into two groups, they are now all in one class. Obviously, the beginners are learning more than the advanced students, but it seems that the language class is also helping the advanced students from the further deterioration of their language ability.

Because of my research work and part time jobs, at times I feel pressure in scheduling. However, the great support of parents and the passion of the students to learn their native language is so encouraging that I feel that running the classes is worthwhile.

In addition to the students, the local Nepalli community is getting a benefit from this class. For instance, this language class is helping children to learn Nepali songs that are going to be used for their dancing lessons. (As you know ANMA conference is going to be held in Columbus in May 27-28, so children are preparing for the cultural program). In addition, Sarala, the dance teacher, has a place for rehearsal, immediately after the class. In fact, every Sunday afternoon, the Buckeye Village Recreation Center is a gathering place for Nepali community in Columbus: While my wife or I teach the children, their parents meet in the common room.

In the first week, my wife Arun provided snacks and drinks to the kids and parents. Parents noted that because we are devoting time to teach it would be unfair if we continue to do so. Now the parents have made a schedule to share in the supply of snacks. Sometimes the so-called sncaks provided are almost equal to a feast. Thanks to the generous parents.

To further encourage the speaking of Nepali, I have requested colleagues here in Columbus to talk to these children, as much as possible, in Nepali and they have been very supportive. But some children are so eager to speak the language that whenever they pick up the telephone and learn the other party is Nepali, they start to chat in Nepali. What better proof of our success?

Thanks again for all the support we have received.

Puspa Man Joshi May 17, 1995

                       MATRIMONIALS

Dear TND netters:
                 A relative of mine in Texas who is a doctoral student in structural engineering and working for a construction company is looking for a beautiful firl as a soulmate. Although he is from a Newar family he does not have any restrictions on caste. If you think you are a good candidate or you have friends or relatives who are good candidates, let me know thru e-mail.

By the way, Dr. Vaidya, the ANMA Conference Chairman asked me for suggestion to encourage more students to participate in the coming conference. I replied that if ANMA can arrange a match making program I am sure there will be more students in attendance. I also suggested that ANMA should arrange an annual group wedding for those who are already engaged and requested him to make Columbus a pioneer city in this matter, since there is a new Ganesh temple built by the Indian community a half hour drive north of Columbus where priests tie knots according to the Hindu tradition. (Yes, I am serious about this and if you are serious too, you may talk to Dr. Vaidya.)

O.K. netters! If you are desperately looking for a soulmate, send me an e-mail with a short biodata after 22nd May and come to Columbus to attend the conference during Memorial Day weekend. We do have some candidates (men as well as women) in Columbus too. If you are lucky enough I am sure I will find someone who will match your dream person and introduce to you. If not, I am sure you will at least enjoy the conference programs. Be assured that all information sent will be held in strict confidential.

Puspa Man Joshi Columbus, Ohio
(614) 293-9738

*********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 17 May 1995 14:09:47 -1000 From: Ratna Shrestha <ratna@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: UML's Economic Policy: A Review

                UML's ECONOMIC POLICY: A REVIEW

        A glance at UML's economic policy (TND May 12) tends to show that it is motivated by the 'evolutionary reform' of China and East Asian miracle economies rather than the 'big bang' policy of Eastern Europe. The policy discards both the Neoclassical and Revisionist views but adopts the middle ground: a market friendly strategy of economic development and invalidates a widespread apprehension created by the opposition campaign during the election. Although the policy has got the basic incentives right, there are lots of pitfalls as to how to achieve its ultimate goal of economic development and a fair distribution of income.
        To secure the financial equilibrium and price level stability, the policy rightly attacks the fiscal deficit as a major step toward economic reform. The policy adopts supply side fiscal stimulus for deficit finance. But it is important to note that high taxes leave people with less disposable income and savings - a vehicle of economic growth. Similarly, the phasing out of octroi favors the urban rich at the expense of the rural poor. It will be prudent to revise the octroi to reflect the magnitude of potential environmental damage (and possibly other standards also?) each incoming commodity can cause, rather than wiping it out. The revenue collected then should be used for environmental clean up and for the improvement of other urban services. It is also unfortunate that there is no call for curtailing the 'pork barrel' and unproductive rents which have gripped the Nepalese economy for decades.
        At present the contribution of government expenditure to per capita GNP is about $40, which I believe is very high relative to the total. The recognition of the importance of the private sector as an engine of economic development will help decrease the share of government expenditure on GNP and thereby reduce the danger of fiscal imbalance in the long run.
        The role of the government should be mobilized to the extent that it addresses market failure which arises from the provision of public goods, externality generating activities and economies of scale and the extent to which it ensures distributional justice for its people. But the government's strategy as documented in the policy plan fails to address these issues with policy action but pays only lip service. The policy simply says that the government will run the industries which are not suitable for the private sector. Moreover, it plans to finance such projects through VAT, property and income taxes. Such taxes leave people with less saving and hence decreases availability of investment for the growth of private sector. There is no provision for taxing the goods and activities causing environmental pollution in our cities and villages. As for justice for the poor, however, limited subsidies in the form of preferential credits and fair price shops for daily necessities are commendable.
        Industrial planning in many economies has been motivated by
'economies of scale' and 'interdependent investment' theories of Hirchman, Scitosvky and Pigou-Meade, but the current policy identifies agro and forest-based industries as targets of promotion without sufficient study of such theories. It categorically neglects industries like tourism and supporting businesses in which Nepal has a comparative advantage due to its unique landscape and culture.
        While the promotion of exports through the elimination of bureaucratic hurdles and the decrease in export fees will encourage private businesses, the so-called 'ultimate objective of self-reliance' and 'the promotion of foreign investment for technology transfer' are against the basic principles of economics and reminds the failed idea of Mahalonobis (India) and Feldman (USSR). To be self-reliant means to produce every commodity within the country; this implicitly supports an import substitution regime which has proved a 'black hole' draining the economy of many LDCs, including India. As for technology transfer, no foreign investor will come to Nepal just for its sake; areas of mutual cooperation and benefits have to be worked out and, at the same time, their operation on our soil made easy and safe.
        Another important area that the present policy focuses on is the financial sector. The financial deregulation through less control over state owned banks and encouragement of the entry of new banks seems to be a good approach towards financial deepening. However it completely ignores the monetary tool in adjusting interest rates. Without price level stability, the exchange rate and interest rate can be unpredictably volatile and wreak havoc on financial markets. Most of the Latin American countries in the late 1970s and early 1980s were the victims of this volatility. Their attempts at liberalization to curb inflation led to undue build up of foreign indebtedness and the government had to reintervene to prop up failing commercial banks. Similarly Vietnam, in May 1990, suffered a major bank panic that threatened the closure of its fledgling capital market. So, have our policy makers learned sufficient lesson frich finally goes to the government. The policy fails to identify appropriate ways to check such irregularities created by moral hazards associated with the borrowers. The prevailing high interest rates have also prevented the private sector from growing. In such a financial situation of the country, in which direction the liberalization will take us is yet to be seen. Keeping our present financial situation in perspective, the decision to continue floating exchange rate regime with a check on full convertibility of the capital account is a good step towards checking unprecedented capital flights.
        Nepal's trade deficit has been very high for decades. To lessen the deficit, the policy appropriately targets export promotion rather than import reduction. However, the way the policy aspires to promote export is wrong. Export diversification for its own sake is an outdated concept. As we diversify exports to many countries, the share of the total exports to our neighboring countries, namely China and India, will necessarily decrease, not increase as the policy makers think. Diversification, whether in commodity or country, should be done for associated risk diffusion and definitely not for export promotion.
        Similar thinking about diversification took place in Chile during the 1960s. She wanted to diversify from its single dominant export, Copper, so as to buffer its economy from wide swings in prices and demand. Unfortunately, the efforts failed as the new sectors were simply not attractive for business.
        To promote exports and the overall economic growth, we need to identify the sectors which reinforce each other synergistically to produce a sustainable competitive advantage. These sectors should be propped up through the creation of 'contests' which combines competition with the benefit of cooperation among the firms, and between the government and the private sector. Government should eliminate bureaucratic hurdles in export promotion, and give preferential access to credit and foreign exchange to better-performing firms, as the East Asian miracle economies of Japan, Korea, Hongkong and Singapore did.
        Overall, The economic policy of the UML government has the basic incentives right but its approaches towards the implementation are wrong. Although the economic history of many countries has proved that the order of liberalization play a very crucial role in the rate of development, the UML's policy does not follow any order as to which program should follow which. Nor does it explicitly recognizes the miracle of fiscal and monetary policies in boosting the economy.

Namaste Ratna K. Shrestha Hawaii

*************************************************************** To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Parijat's book

I want to read Blue Mimmosa by Parijat. Where can I get hold of the book in USA?

Chandra Cranse

*********************************************************** Date: Wed, 17 May 1995 20:55:45 -0400 (EDT) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Is cow-slaughering a part of Human rights

As far as I know the constitution of Nepal has not banned beef but it does not allow for cow slaughtering. This is a fact today too. The reason is obvious too. Nepal is predominantly a Hindu Kingdom and cow has a special symbol in this religion.For many centuries people have come with this faith.And no one can object to another's faith. However Nepal has never tried to force a religion. Infact Hinduism does not believe in changing religions. If Nepal had tried to remain a Hindu kingdom they would not have allowed churches or mosques to be build. Since Hinduism believes in "Basudeva Kutumbukum". Since many people were Hindus and cow is a sacred animal it was not allowed tro be killed.But it has never objected non Hindus if they took any kind of meat. Secondly many have a deep sentiments behind this. After a mother's milk the baby takes cow milk and some take it as second mother. I know that many will ask but why not the buffalo. Maybe just because it does not have a place in the myth.

P.R.Tuladhar made a point about human rights but did he ever think for a while
, where he was and what kind of peole leave there. How mnay could be hurt by this.How many could really fell a sense of helpless ness. I can see that impression on people specially of the age 50 and 60. They must bve saying " Bholi dharma naman bhenne ho ki. I think he made a very primary mistake in making this statement. Currently the country has mnay things to do. And this is an unnessary issue that mnay minds will have to think about. Is this a real problem today? Are non Hindus not given human rights just because the country does not allow slaughtering of cows. I am surprised why he did not say that why only Pasupati Bikash chetra why not Suyambhu bikash chetra or Mosque chetra?By not allowint coe slaughterin g it does not stop human rights. It is a practical step because the majority of people are Hindus and many have deep faith in it. Someone showed the progfit and advantaghe of if cows are killed. In life everything is not profit and loss or income and expense. This human body has emotions, sentiments and faith. Is that to be given up for profit or income. At this time in Nepal still many are Hindus and cow slaughtering will hurt many people and their sentiments. Maybe after 50 years things will be different. For if P.R.TULADHAR thinks that this is a big issue, then there could come another big issue. What about those people who worship cows or means a lot to them. I think this will only create an unnecesary tension in the country for religion is a very sensitive issue. We may even have people entering from India. Again since it is a dominnat Hindu kingdom so is the rule they are not asking for that right in another place. As time changes so will the rules. Fir if you go to a Muslim community and try to slaughter pork they will not like it.Similarly if you do not know what a cross is and if you just play and disrespect the cross the Christians will not like it. Every religion has a symbol. It should be respected. The research has shown that red meat is not very good for health, infact it is one of the major cause for cancer. Bottom line of all this is that people in Nepalare predominantly Hindus and they ask for their symbol of cow to remain as same and would like it if cows were not slaughtered.I don't think this anyway violates Human Rights
  or shows any disrespct to non-hindus.But unfortunately the polticians always try to do something to become popular, either by dividing people or by playing somekind of game. The time is not yet ripe for cowslaughtering in Nepal. It maybe possibe after some years.I am not trying to speak being biased of any religion, I believe that all are the paths to the same. But trying to analyze the current people of Nepal,I have written so.I hope polticians will make some rational and practical sppeches which deal with the current problems and not wonder abouth these issues.Any comments are appreciated.Thanks.Nirmal

************************************************************** Date: Thu, 18 May 95 11:46:39 JST From: Sagar R. Sharma <fs940007@tutor.cc.fukuoka-u.ac.jp> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: KHOJ KHABAR Content-Length: 514

Hello there!

Could anybody let me know where my friend Anuj Thapa(from Maligaon,Ktm) is staying these days? I last heard from him about a year back, and at that time he was in Sunny Side, New York. He told me that he would be going to Minnesota to continue his studies, but I've not heard from him since. I'd really appreciate if someone could inform me about his whereabouts.

And if you, Anuj, read this message, do contact me immediately. I am still reachable at the same address.

Thank you. Sagar Sharma.

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 18 May 1995 14:39:43 +1000 (EST) From: Neeta Pokhrel <s931613@minyos.xx.rmit.EDU.AU> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>

A few weeks back, someone was asking for a list of NGOs, who are working in the environment of Nepal. If anyone has it, can you please send a copy to me too?

Any information will be much appreciated.

Neeta email:- s931613@minyos.xx.rmit.edu.au

*************************************************************** Date: Thu, 18 May 1995 00:58 EST From: U <UMANANDHAR@vax.clarku.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

I was quite surprised in one of the previous TND issues that had a desclaimer from the editors about TND not being a "shouting match." With all due respect to you the editors and all the "law abiding" TND readers I must say that if TND professes to be what it says it will be, that is what the readers want it to be then TND must be prepared sometimes to accept the most outrageous comments and opinions from its readers. Otherwise TND must develop its own guidelines and make them availabel to its readers.

Why do TND editor(s) only make their comments when they believe someone is
"shouting." Maybe they should also comment when they believe someone is being extremely "boring" laying out his/her intellecutal jargon. I am not saying if either is good or bad I am just saying that if you are going to make your comments do it all across the board.

I think the so called outrageous comments add to the "vibrancy" of this magazine and it is the only way to hear from all the "proper" folks who have been so comfortable and so "deshbhakta' all these years.

Uday

****************************************************************** Date: 18 May 95 10:02:16 EDT From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News5/15-16 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

May 15 New Army Chief Appointed Excerpts from Xinhua and Reuters reports

   King Birendra, on the recommendation of Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikari, has appointed General Dharmapalbar Singh Thapa to the vacant post of chief of the army staff in accordance with the 1990 constitution. This was stated in a notice published in Kathmandu today by the principal press secretariat of the King.

   King Birendra administered the oath of office and secrecy to Thapa, the announcement said.

   Thapa, 55, who joined the Royal Nepal Army in 1957, is a graduate of Sandhurst Royal Military Academy in Britain. He also studied at India's Staff College and the Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

   Thapa was the battalion commander of a contingent from the Royal Nepal Army with the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon in 1977.

   The former chief, General Gadul Shamsher Rana, resigned on May 5 following a corruption scandal in which several army officers were court-martialled.

May 16 At least 15 dead in traffic accident Excerpts from Xinhua and Reuters reports

   At least 15 people were killed in a head-on collision between a passenger bus and a truck 150 km (90 miles) southwest of Kathmandu, a Home Ministry spokesman said on Tuesday.

   He said the dead had all been travelling in the bus. Three other passengers, who were injured, were taken to a hospital in nearby Bharatpur town.

   The bus was on its way from Janakpur to Kathmandu when it collided with the tipper truck.

**************************************************************** Date: Thu, 18 May 95 10:56:54 EDT From: eknath@math.cornell.edu (Eknath Belbase (Durrett)) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - May 15, 1995 (2 Jestha 2052 BkSm)

To The Editor, Nepal Digest: [Re: Censorship/Editing]

I would like to add my voice to the opinions expressed most recently my Pramod Mishra and Amulya Tuladhar. Even "hate-mail" in my opinion should not be censored - and I think Amulya's idea of sending it back to the person who sent it in to give them time to re-think what they have written in extreme cases as judged by the editor is a great idea. This said, with the legislation discussed in the House re: electronic media, any use of obscene words or pictures
(don't ask me how they're going to define obscene) may become illegal, though this may be of no practical consequence given enforcement problems.

Eknath Belbase

********************************************************************* Date: Thu, 18 May 1995 11:29:44 -0400 (EDT) From: "Kathryn S. March" <ksm8@cornell.edu> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Reminder about two programs for students of Nepal

Anyone interested in further information about studying intensive Nepali language over the summer at Cornell University should contact:
      Susan Campbell <SC@admin.is.cornell.edu>

Anyone interested in further information about study and research exchange opportunities at Tribhuvan University through the Cornell-Nepal Joint Study Program should contact:
      Cornell Abroad <CUAbroad@cornell.edu>

Thanks to all of you who have already written to me. I hope I have been able to answer each of your questions to your satisfaction. Kathryn S. March Associate Professor of Anthropology,
   Women's Studies & Asian Studies

******************************************************************** Date: Thu, 18 May 95 11:40:16 EDT From: eknath@math.cornell.edu (Eknath Belbase (Durrett)) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Moo

To the Editor, TND [Re: Cow Slaughter and Hinduism]

I have been following the debate on this with great interest. First of all, beef *is* available in Nepal. For example, if you go to Sangamitra, a restaurant in Thamel, there are atleast 4 beef dishes on the menu. A complete prohibition on beef would be comparable to the "complete" prohibition of alcohol that exists in Saudia Arabia. However, I think the situation is more similar to that in, say, Bangladesh or Pakistan, where if one chooses, one can consume alcohol despite the countries having large Muslim majorities.

I have no objections to removing the prohibition on cow slaughter based on my personal convictions. However, this sort of thing seems practically impossible from a political viewpoint or from the viewpoint of keeping the peace. Can you see the government that does such a thing getting re-elected? Can you see the riots and protests that might follow? And what would be the gain in practical terms - to attain this "ideal" of a secular state, or atleast get closer to it. Lifting the ban probably would not change overall consumption that much. What it would do is allow McDonald's to set up branches in Kathmandu [hey, this is a pretty good reason to oppose changing the law! ;) ].

Even the US, which is often *seen* as a much more secular state has some strange laws that are intolerant of other religions. Poly gamy/andry is illegal despite the first amendment and the fact that it goes with some religions like Islam (or Mormons!). One can argue that this prohibition derives from the mainstream Christian viewpoint. Also note the various laws all over the US dealing with when alcohol can and cannot be sold, having to do with Sunday, the day of Sabbath. Then there are the various sodomy laws... the list is rather long.

All of this is not to justify the existence of such laws. One can easily say BOTH need to be changed rather than using the existence of "bs" elsewhere to justify the existence of bs at home. Perhaps one day we WILL move to a society where the rights of minorities to actively do things which may offend the sensibilities of the majority are safeguarded more. However, I don't think such things can be done just at a legislative level while preserving social harmony.

Finally, a note on this prohibition. If you believe Marvin Harris [as far as I know he is still alive, perhaps emeritus at Columbia], an anthropologist who wrote a number of books looking at many things similar to and including this prohibition from a cultural materialist point of view, this prohibition hasn't been with Hinduism since "the beginning". If I remember correctly he says Hindus did eat beef as recently as the 1100s. If anyone is interested I recommend "Cows, Pigs Witches... " a more popular work, and "Cultural Materialism", a more academic work. According to him this prohibition is deeply rooted in the economic infeasability of raising cows for meat in our climate/ environment/economy. If you subscribe to this school, then if and when it does become feasable, the prohibition may "naturally" go away (give or take a couple of hundred years for the environmental change->social structure change lag).

Eknath Belbase

***************************************************************** Date: Thu, 18 May 1995 17:52:39 -0400 (EDT) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: News from Boston, Mass. To: stuladha@lynx.dac.neu.edu

        For the months of June, July and August, RAJU PRADHAN, the general secretary, will serve as the president of the Greater Boston Nepali Community (GBNC). All who know Raju and have worked with him agree that he is an incredibly hardworking guy, and easily one of the most reliable and respectable Boston Nepalis who'll do a great job.

        Those of you from outside who want to visit Boston this summer to attend GBNC functions, (there will be those mouth-watering BBQs and more!) or simply want to keep in touch with GBNC, you may reach Raju at stuladha@lynx.dac.neu.edu

        Also, GBNC is pleased to welcome SAPANA PATHAK, an undergrad at Boston University, as the editor of its bimonthly newsletter. She replaces ANISH BANIA, as the latter makes professional plans that may take him beyond Boston.

        Anish, a graduate of prestigious Babson College, has been an incredibly talented GBNC member, juggling myriad community duties such as serving as the GBNC's president and general secretary last year; cheerfully editing both the Samachar-Bichar and the bimonthly community newsletter; patiently running GBNC meetings; and being a formidable presence on the basketball and volleyball courts. GBNC can never thank him enough for all the volunteer work he has put into the service of Nepali Community in Boston.

        All Nepalis in Boston join in warmly to wish ANISH all the best on his proposed professional ventures.

namaste ashu

****************************************************************** Date: Fri, 12 May 95 2:55:15 EDT From: "Neal Cohen" <ncohen@usaid.gov> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Macro-Economic Performance Part IV

Macro-Economic Performance Part IV

New Business Formation

Small Business

Figures on new business formation have been bandied around in the press recently with the opposition and government trading charges of whether registrations are up or down. Unfortunately we do not have data on new small business registrations for the current year. In 1993/94 there had been an increase in the registration of small enterprises of 40%. These firms increased their fixed capital investment by 82% and employment by 86%. 1993/94 was a very good year for new small enterprises.

Medium and Large Business

While new registration of medium and large enterprises fell by nearly three- quarters in 1993/94, total investment increased nearly four-fold and new employment generated fell by 77%. Because of the size of the changes, there is some justification for questioning this data.

We have data for new registration of medium and large businesses for the first seven months of the current fiscal year, through mid-February 1995. There has been an increase of 59% in new registrations; total capital invested is up 172%.

However, for the first four months of the fiscal year, through mid-November, registrations had been up 113% and investment up 172% compared to the same months in the previous year. For the three months of the UML government these registrations are still up, 13%, and capital investment is up 44%. Thus, there is still considerable growth in business formation but the pace of expansion appears to have slowed. The firms being established are both fewer and smaller in terms of capital invested.

Foreign Investment

In 1989/90 29 new foreign or joint venture enterprises were established. This grew to 61 new foreign enterprises established in 1992/3. Last year (1993/94) there were only 38 new joint ventures. Total new foreign investment also fell from Rs3.7billion to Rs0.9billion. Still, these 38 new enterprises employed 5,800 people.

For the first eight months of the current fiscal year (through mid-March), new foreign investment has fallen further to only 6 firms, with total foreign investment being one-eighth of last year's figure, or Rs110million. They have added 690 new jobs.

The foreign firms being established this year are not only fewer, but they are smaller than in previous years. Average investment is under Rs30 million, compared to last year's Rs70 million last year; the foreign firms being established this year employ 110 people, compared to an average of 150 people last year.

******************************************************************** From: MH8@soas.ac.uk To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Fri, 19 May 1995 14:39:08 GMT Subject: Parijat

I am puzzled by the appearance of what appears to be a new school of literary criticism: the critic begins by admitting that he hasn't read a single book by a particular author, and then proceeds to give us an informed opinion of their worth! I took Amulya Tuladhar's pieces on Parijat seriously and read them with interest, none the less.

With Parijat's permission, I began to retranslate Shirishko Phool some years ago because I felt that although the translation by Acharya and Zeidenstein ("Blue Mimosa") was reasonably accurate it did skim some important passages and generally did no great credit to Parijat's superbly mellifluous prose. Other things got in the way and so my translation remains unfinished and unpublished.

I visited Parijat several times between 1987 and 1992 to discuss this translation and the poems I published in translation in the book
'Himalayan Voices'. I do not think that Parijat herself thought of Shirishko Phool as a work of nihilism, existentialism or anything else until other people began to apply these labels to it. She had become rather tired of being thought of as the author of only Shirishko Phool, and wanted her later novels and poetry to be taken into account as well: specifically, I seem to remember, the novels Bainsko Manche and Mahattaheen.

Parijat certainly did take great care over her choice of metaphors: she named herself after a flower, her room at Mhepi was always filled with flowers, and Amulya's identification of the 'Blue Mimosa' may well be correct. Even a cursory glance at the novel establishes that the flower that is the central motif of the novel is blue: hence Acharya's and Zeidenstein's title.

For the record, Parijat wrote Shirishko Phool after she had moved to Kathmandu. It remains one of the most complex and startlingly original Nepali novels of all time: the terms that have been used by critics who have analysed it may have been 'borrowed', but the characterisations, metaphors and themes of the novel spring from a wholly Nepali context, albeit an urban one rather than the rural environment beloved of Mainali et al. If any TND users haven't read it, I recommend that they do so- but please read it in Nepali.

Michael Hutt Lecturer in Nepali, Editor 'South Asia Research' School of Oriental and African Studies London tel. 71-323-6240/6251 fax 71-436-3844 e-mail mh8@soas.ac.uk

******************************************************************************** From: <rjha@irgate.tnrcc.state.tx.us> Subject: To All Those in Favor of Cow-Slaughter To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Fri, 19 May 95 10:58:21 cst

TO ALL THOSE WHO SUPPORT COW-SLAUGHTER IN NEPAL
===============================================

Dear friends:

The current flooding of TND with the issues on cow-slaughter in Nepal has compelled me to make some comments on the topic. Let me very categorically declare that I'm not an expert on Theology or Hinduism or the Veda, but just an ordinary Nepali. Here are my cumulative comments on all those articles surfaced on TND recently on the subject topic:

        * Fanaticism, in any form, is WRONG and it should be discouraged
          and stopped immediately. However, if a minority can strive hard
          to make one's entity CONSPICUOUS, what is WRONG if a Hindu in Nepal
          claims to be the MAJORITY?? There're several Muslim countries in
          the world, with the same ratio of Majority and Minority as Nepal
          has, which have promoted Islam by declaring, among many other things,
          Islamization of Democracy, Islamic Republic, Islamic Court/Rules
          and what not... No Hindu ever opposed that. Accordingly, in the
          only Hindu Kingdom in the world where the majority Hindu people
          worship cow and consider her a God, can tolrate anyone saying
          Cow-slaughter should be made legal in Nepal?

        * Thick or Tasty milk had never been the criterion for revering the
          cow as "Gomata" in Hinduism. It's very easy to throw mud, but I
          would like to extend my sincere suggestion to all those who just
          beleive, as reflected by their articles, that by criticizing
          every aspect of Hinduism in the light of Western culture can make
          them ENLIGHTENED. Beleive me you're wrong. And I must also say
          here as "A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.", "A Partial
          Enlightenment can be a DISASTER."

Thanks.

Ratan K. Jha Austin, Texas

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