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 -- using template mhl.format -- Date: Sun, 14 Nov 1993 14:20:57 EST To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu cc: Ashu <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu>

From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Digest112

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Reply-to: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@CS.NIU.EDU> From: The Editor <NEPAL-REQUEST@CS.NIU.EDU> Sender: Rajpal J. Singh <A10RJS1@CS.NIU.EDU> Subject: The Nepal Digest - November 1, 1993 To: <NEPAL@CS.NIU.EDU>

        % N N EEEEEE PPPPPP AA L %
        % NN N E P P A A L %
        % N N N EEEE P P A A L %
        % N N N E PPPPPP AAAAAA L %
        % N NN E P A A L %
        % N N EEEEEE P A A LLLLLL %

The Nepal Digest Sunday, 14 November 93 Volume 21: Issue 5

Today's Topics:
      1. Dhanya-Baad Gyapan: To Dilip Agrawal
      2. Satya_Ghatana.ma_Adha.reet: A close call
      3. Grahak Banau: Subscription request.
      4. Dharma ko Kuro: Mha Puja explained.
      5. Kura_Kani: Education in Nepal
      6. Taja_Khabar: News from Nepal.
      7. Gahiro_Bichar: Deep Thoughts
  * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu *
  * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha rshresth@black.clarku.edu *
  * Editing Editor: Padam P. Sharma sharma@plains.nodak.edu *
  * Discussion Moderator: Ashutosh Tiwari tiwari@husc9.harvard.edu *
  * News Correspondent: Vivek SJB Rana rana@ccit.arizona.edu *
  * *
  * Subscription/Deletion requests : NEPAL-REQUEST@CS.NIU.EDU *
  * Provide one line message : sub nepal <user@host> full-name *
  * [OPTIONAL] Provide few lines about your occupation, address, phone for *
  * TND database to: <A10RJS1@CS.NIU.EDU> *
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  * Digest Contributions(letters,poems,articles,misc., etc): NEPAL@CS.NIU.EDU *
  * Kura_Kani Contribution: SHARMA@PLAINS.NODAK.EDU *
  * Discussion Topics ideas: TIWARI@HUSC9.HARVARD.EDU *
  * News clips for Taja_Khabar: RANA@CCIT.ARIZONA.EDU *
  * Contributors need to supply Header for the article, email, and full name *
  * *
  * The Nepal Digest(TND) is a publication of the Nepal Interest Group for *
  * news and discussions about issues concerning Nepal. All members of *
  * nepal@cs.niu.edu will get a copy of TND. Membership is open to all. *
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  * **** COPYRIGHT NOTE **** *
  * The news/article posters are responsible for any copyright violations. *
  * TND, a non-profit electronic journal, will publish articles that has *
  * been published in other electronic or papaer journal with proper credit *
  * to the original media. *
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  * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
  * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" - Anon. *
  * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar_RJS_Khalifa *
  * *
  ***************************************************************************** From: Anil Shrestha <shresth1@student.msu.edu> Subject: Thank you Dileep! To: nepal@mp.cs.niu.edu Date: Wed, 10 Nov 1993 13:34:03 -0500 (EST)

I would like to thank Dileep Agrawal in keeping us up to date with all the news from Nepal. Keep it up Dileep! You have given us a relief from the brahmin- shudra discussions. I don't mean to offend those who really craved for that kind of discussion, but I am happy to find real news these days on the network. I am sure many of us would join in thanking Dileep.

Date: Wed, 10 Nov 93 17:30:03 -0500 From: adhikari@info.umd.edu (Rajendra Adhikari) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: A Close Call

I trust everyone had good Dasain and is looking forward to Tihar, especially those who are lucky enough to have their brother or sister near by.

It was day after Dasain or 26th of October that's when we had the close call. I decided to share with the TND family even though it is personal, it may represent a hazards of american life in some ways.

It was little after 10:00 in the evening, it was clear sky, we were heading home on Capital Beltway. (Major Highway around Washington area) I was driving on a next to the left lane on a 4 lane (each direction) highway at a speed of about 50-55 m. p. h. There was a car to the right of me, a light blue Honda or Subaru going perhaps little bit faster than me few feet ahead.

All of a sudden this light blue car spun about 300 degrees in the middle of the road. As this car finished spinning, it's back came right in front of my car. I jammed on the brakes but the car was too close. My car hit this car. My car came to a stop, after about a minute, another 92 Honda from behind hit me so hard that, my car rotated 2-3 times before finally stopping facing the traffic. I thought someone else might come and hit us again. So I tried to open the door the door would not open, so I rolled the window down, came out and pulled my friend out of the window and waited on the shoulder for the ambulace to come. The ambulance arrived took us to the hospital. Well, folks you can breath!, we are okey except for minar pains and achs on back and neck. We are fine. Perhaps, Bhagaban le Hat Thapechhan. Perhaps, it's time to BHog Dine to to all the Gods and Goddesses for looking after us.

Some of you most be saying, oh! time to collect the big time insurance, quite the contrary. Since I only have liability insurance; the gentelman who did the spinning took off; Mr. Witness told the Investigating officer that I was backing up; Instead, Mr. Investigating Officer issued me a citation one week after the accident.
         Worst part was everyone seemed to be only interested in money, no matter what. Mr. Towing Company wanted cash up front before, we get our school bags and other keys which was in the ring with car keys, since the car was not repairable.
         The hospital gave me two motrins because I had terrible head ach at the time and they also put the patch on my leg because it was cut and they billed me $140 + $70 for it.

I talked to a lawyer, he was only interested on big time money. He suggested we should go back to emergency room, so there will be records for the medical bill, hence law suit, he was not interested on how the investigation was done, which I felt was not fair, I do intend to fight the citation by myself. I believe my insurance will pay the medical bill so I feel okey.

So many Beltway accdents around here have been fetal, considering the magnitude of the accident, I consider myself lucky.

So folks FASTEN YOUR SEAT BELTS, We could perhaps been killed if it was not for the seat belts.
                 Date: Wed, 10 Nov 1993 15:52:03 -0700 (MST) From: Ajaya Sharma <ccasharm@antelope.wcc.edu> Subject: the nepal digest request To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu

Hello "The Nepal Digest" Staff!

I am a student here in Casper College, Wyoming. I had a chance to read one of your issue. I would also like to get your TND issues. My Address is ccasharm@antelope.wcc.edu

Thank You. Ajaya 475 College Dr. # 204 Casper WY 82601.

From: dhaubade@egr.msu.edu Subject: Mha Puja Explained To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Wed, 10 Nov 1993 21:52:12 -0500 (EST)

Dear TND Editors:

I thought the attached article on Mha Puja would help inform and educate some of our readers. This article was recently published in Dabu (meaning Stage), the newsletter of Nepa Pasa Pucha of America (Nepal Friendship Society of America). I hope you will enjoy it. Thank you. Happy New Year to all including ofcourse to those using the Lunar Nepal Sambat Calendar. Here is the complete article:

                Mha Puja - A Unique Newa Tradition
                By Dr. Manoranjan N. Dhaubhadel

Mha puja, the worship of the inner self, is unique to Newa people. Newars believe that one needs to understand and respect oneself before he/she can understand others. Mha puja is purification, strengthening and understanding of oneself. Mha puja carries all the grandeur that a typical Newa festival or ritual possesses. It also is distinct from other Hindu or Buddhist worships in that it is the worship of oneself and not the usual worship of Gods and Goddesses or others. Mha puja exposes the relationship of a person with the surrounding nature and the cosmos. Understanding of one's role in life makes him/her more knowledgeable and unselfish. Worshipping and blessing oneself to achieve unselfishness and generosity is unique by itself. Mha puja is also for prosperity and physical well being. No other Newar festival is solely devoted to enriching oneself both physically and spiritually. The religious and spiritual aspects of Mha puja fall perfectly in line with the socio- religious nature of Newar festivals. Incidentally, Mha puja is performed and celebrated on the New Year's Day giving it additional social flavor. This year, Mha puja day or the Nepal Sambat 1114 New Year's Day falls on the 14th of November.

Mha puja is celebrated with as much vigor as any other important festival. According to Hindu religion, soul or the inner self never dies. Only the body which the soul uses as a vehicle dies. The soul gets to be born in a bodily form (human, animal, plant, etc.) according to its performance in the past incarnations. Human life is considered the superior being at the top of the life cycle. It is interesting to note that Mha puja perfectly fits into this popular Hindu mythology and yet it is unique to Newa culture. The worship of the divinity in oneself takes place in a sophisticated, interesting and exhilirating atmosphere. The elaborateness with which Mha puja is performed exemplifies the Newa tradition of well organized and devoted rituals on a grand scale.

Mha puja is conducted mostly in the evening or the afternoon to make sure that Mha puja of Aagandya (the family Goddess) and Mha puja of Goddess Taleju Bhabani at the three palaces in Khwapa (Bhaktapur), Yen (Kathmandu) and Yala
(Lalitpur) have been completed by the high Newar priests. These Mha puja ceremonies of the Goddesses are not accessible to the general public. It is said that at the time of Newar Kings, the king, the priests and some high ranking Newars were able to verbally communicate with the Goddesses through tantricism and they helped perform the Mha puja. The regular Mha puja found in every Newar household is usually performed on the floor in the dining area. Newars residing outside Nepal miss this grand event very much and the details seem increasingly interesting. Basic elements of Mha puja are the same for all Newars. Some procedural details may vary from family to family.

Manda (Mandala) is an essential part of Mha puja celebration. First the floor
(usually tiled or plastered) is purified by sprinkling holy water collected from a sacred stream. Next Mandalas are created on the floor in front of the row of seats for the family members and elsewhere. The total number of Mandalas exceeds the number of people in the household by three. One at the top of the line, which is usually smaller in size and separate from the rest, is for the House-God. This is followed by one for each and every member of the household and two additional ones at the end that are at right angles to the main row. The last two Mandalas are for the ever-watching Yamaraj and Jamaraj, the ambassadors of Death who are always ready to take sinners to hell. Each Mandala is carefully prepared on the floor by following an elaborate procedure. A set of closely spaced concentric circles are first drawn in each Manda area by employing a mustard oil soaked cloth piece wrapped around a flower plant stem or a pencil. It may be worth mentioning here that Mha puja stresses in strong
, longlasting, bright, healthy, fragrant and such other things with positive connotations and only materials that are considered clean are utilized.

Oilmarks last longer just as Ita (oiled strand of strings) burns longer. Circles signify completeness. On the top of the oil rings a beautiful and artistic geometrical shape which constitutes the core of the Manda, is created. The markings are done in yellow Potaye (yellow mustard powder). On the outside is a large ring enclosing a smaller one within which two squares are overlapped to form eight triangular shapes. Abhir (vermilion powder) is spread along the various Potaye lines. A handful of paddy and rice mixture is placed on each of the four triangles along the north-south and east-west lines with respect to the woeshipper (worshipped) and one at the center of the Mandala.

The worship is started the same way as when worshipping God. Except this time each step is carried out first with the House-God followed by the members of the family and then Yamaraj and Jamaraj at the end. Nusala, a few drops of water in the right hand palm thrown into the worshipper's mouth serves to purify the worshipping body. The pancha patra (pure water vessel) and pujabhu, the plate with worship material such as rice, flowers, taye (popped rice), vermilion powder are first recognized by offering water, rice and vermilion powder. Everybody then worships his or her own Mandala. The Mandala is used as a medium to present the various offerings to the self. Usually a Newar Brahmin or the Nakin (the eldest female in the household) or somebody deputed by the Nakin goes over each step of the worship and also takes care of the worship for the House-God and Yamaraj and Jamaraj. Dhun, Dhupayen (special incense of local variety) lighted and put on each of the five paddy/rice lump in each Manda, spreads the festive fragrance around the worship area. Offer of fragrant incense pleases the soul and hopefully, makes the person's life successful and fragrant.

Next comes the very important offer of light. Two Itaa (handwoven cotton strands soaked in oil) about two and a half feet long, are lighted at each end and offered to the worshipped who accepts by chanting in Sanskrit - "Swah prakashah mahatejo sarbapatti bidapaham. Sabhayabhyamtaram jyoti deepoyam pratigrihyatam." Newars use Sanskrit quite a bit when it comes to worships. The light is accepted to enhance one's inner supreme brightness and to drive away any possible problems. The blessing is for the person to be able to keep shining bright like the burning Itaa for a long, long time. The four lighted ends occupy the locations of the four outer paddy/rice lumps in the Mandala. Soaking of Itaa with mustard oil makes it last longer. The lights are kept on through the completion of the whole Mha puja process. Light, which is considered as one of the five elements used to create the universe (the other four are air, water, earth, and sky), has a special meaning in worships. The offer of light spiritually brightens the inner self, makes it more powerful and keeps anything evil at bay.

Sagan (or Swagan) is another very important part of Mha puja. Offering of Swagan to a person is usually made to reward some extraordinary and meaningful achievement. Dhau (yogurt) Swagan is first offered with blessings. Dhau Swagan involves accepting on the forehead a composite mixture of rice, taye, vermilion powder and yogurt. Dhau Swagan on the forehead unveils the shining and cheerful face enjoying a great celebration. Next comes the all important Khen (egg) Sagan. Khen Sagan constitutes the offering of Swataa (the trio of egg, fish, and meat) on the left hand (for some the right hand) and local wine (liquor) on the right hand. Swataa signifies man's victory and control over animal beings living in cell, water and land. Wine marks the celebration of the occasion. Amidst fragrant air and numerous candle-like lights from burning Itaa carefully orchestrated around splendid Mandalas, the holder of Swataa can not help but be ecstatic.

Flowers are offered for blooming and fragrant life. A garland of 'Gweswaan' flower is worn around the neck. Gweswaan is sturdy, is not easily worn and torn like some other flowers and signifies blessings of long lasting and successful life. Garland also signifies victory. Jajanka is worn by the worshipper (worshipped) like garland. Jajanka is made of many rounds of a white cotton thread forming a circle of about two feet in diameter and tied with a small piece of red cloth in order to have no ends. Jajanka symbolizes the integration of the beginning with the end. It is about creation, maintenance and fullness of life.

Offering of a variety of fruits, nuts and sweets is for a fruitful and resourceful life. The walnut is tough outside but carries tasty nut inside.
'Tahsi' fruit has thin skin and provides tasty sweet and sour fruit. Singali
(the local chestnut) is hard outside and tasty inside. Sugarcane stem is tough outside but provides sweet juice for consumption. These offerings are aimed at having a strong body with a pure soul. The relationship of a human with nature is also exposed. Variety of sweets shaped like the Star, the Moon, etc. adds sweetness and fun to Mha puja. Yamaraj and Jamaraj are witnesses to the Mha puja and they are supposed to stay away because of the physical and spiritual energy gained through the various offerings. For example, it is said that Yamaraj and Jamaraj could not even touch a person who has performed the year's Mha puja unless and until the walnut shell rots, which is considered highly unlikely.

The final purification of the soul and the blessings come from the Nakin or Purohit with a shower on the head of a mixture of paddy, flowers, pieces of fruits, abhir (vermilion powder), aakhen (hand-milled rice) and taye in a kule (wooden or bronze container about a half gallon size). All during the puja, the Itaa keep burning, the incense keeps spreading fragrance and the colorful Mandalas keep cheering the mood. Completion of Mha puja is achieved after the Nakin or Purohit drags tuphi (local broom) from House-God's Mandala all the way down to Jamaraj's Mandala.

Mha puja can be viewed as providing a definition of life. One should learn about oneself and respect one's role in the world. By understanding oneself first, a person has a better chance of understanding others. Self purification and blessings make one stronger. Understanding of oneself as being only a part of the universe system makes one unselfish and more responsible. The social aspect of Mha puja is no less important. Celebration and associated feasting by family members with Itaa lights all around on Mandalas helps strengthen the family relationship. Unlike other occasions, Mha puja is for each and every member individually.

Newa traditions are ritual filled. Newars are famous for the numerous festivals they celebrate and the extravagant feasts they enjoy. A lot of these involve worship of the Divine, as with other Hindu, Buddhist or other traditions. Some of the occasions are unique to Newars. An example besides Mha puja, is the Ihin, the process of symbolic marriage of Newar girls before puberty to Lord Vishnu so that they are never widowed. These traditions unique to Newa culture are designed to suit Newar beliefs on life and the surrounding nature. The grandeur with which Newa traditions are observed can hardly be found elsewhere. Mha puja exemplifies the uniqueness of Newa traditions. Mha puja is unique amongst the various Newa traditions in that it is the only occasion when a person worships himself or herself. Because of religious and social implications and the understanding it tries to bring about oneself and the surrounding nature, Mha puja can be expected to be observed by Newars forever.



Date: Thu, 11 Nov 1993 13:01:16 +0800 (SST) From: Mona Shrestha <hsd92165@emailhost.ait.ac.th> Subject: Education in Nepal To: The Nepal Digest <Nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Education Debate Revisited by Ashutosh Tiwari made me revisit Dhapakhel Village (a trip down to my memory lane), the study area of my MS thesis with the title "Parental Attitude Towards Education". Yes, indeed, we have gained much in terms of quantity, the number of enrollment n primary education has shot up amazingly with free primary education. Literacy rate has gone up to 39.6% in 1991 from 23.3% in 1981. For women it has more than doubled up from 12% in 1981 to 25% in 1991 nay still far behind that of men- 54% in 1991. If we forget the quality of our education for sometime, well these figures are something to cheer about our achievement.

"Progress in Education"-- the government's emphasis has been on the universalization of education and hence, focusing on quantitative improvement. The priorities have been set for primary level and adult education. In most cases these adult education programs do not function. In case of Dhapakhel two such programs were for name sake only, however, those who enrolled their name and never attended classes were recorded as literate in the national figure-- now how to check these data? The classes virtually did not take place. One of the assigned teacher told me very frankly that he could have had time to contribute if he had enough earning to support his family; the incentive provided was so nominal...well for him its not the question of money making but of "pet palne".

Talking of inherent inequalities of access in English Education in Nepali High Schools, as Ashu puts it,....Yes! it is one of the reason why so many hard working and intelligent Nepalese students fail in SLC exam. How does it happen? There seems to be a major problem in regard of private schools, mushrooming in the urban centres (many of them with tongue rolling English names), which came as a consequence of the government's failure in expanding secondary school education. Government schools are not put in a position to compete with these private schools. The gap has created competition and led the public to make private school education a status issue. Of course, these private schools do a heavy screening since grade VIII (or may be even lower) before they send their SLC candidates. Well, who gets thoroughly prepared for the SLC examination? Surely those who can afford high tuition fees to these schools, which is a problem for those who are not economically better off. The examiner definitely finds the English of Govt. High School students much weaker compared to those thoroughly screened students-- in terms of RELATIVE grading, though our SLC English standard, I heard some say, is BABY ENGLISH.

I would not really suggest that these private schools should be stopped, but there should be certain regulations set for these schools by the government. One of the then NPC member (May,1991- during my field study) reasoned that these private schools are mushrooming due to public demand, where government has not been able to fulfill the demand. He said that though those schools are increasing on commercialized basis, which needs to be controlled by the government, no action was taken as yet due to two reasons---(1) it can kill the entrepreneurship among the people.
(2) in the case of checking these private schools, those who can afford start sending their children to schools outside the country (previously, mostly India), which is a resource drain. Community or the public should take the responsibility to check the high tuition fees of private schools. So! this leads to PUBLIC AWARENESS, so far it seems like AWARENESS OF STATUS QUO only.

What I'm trying to emphasize is government's negligence towards Secondary Schools can be one of the reason for the poor turn out in the SLC exam for the local janta. The budget allocation in the education sector shows massive investment at primary level and university level. The seventh five year plan had no programs of expansion of Secondary Schools. The Executive Director (May,1991) of CERID (Centre of Education and Research Development) briefed me that budget allocation for Univesity level is high and government has to subsidise 96% of total expenditure
(we all know that tuition fee charge in the university level is very low), in the year 1991 Rs. 1,350 million was allocated for primary level; but due to no provision of proper supervision and management, this large amount of invested money is a waste. Some of you may argue with me that if the literacy rate has to go high, primary educaion has to be emphasized, why talk of Secondary level. Well, I agree about the primary education, but its already explained the process of getting through and usually who get through the SLC exam, so they are the ones who will enjoy 96% subsidy at the University level not those who get stuck and of course are "Doomed". Anyway, I was pleased to review that our Eighth Five Year Plan has emphasized on expansion of Secondary level- this might lead to a step ahead.

At the centre level- planners, policy makers, evaluaters-- they seem to be blaming each other... what we call a lack of co-ordination. Regarding standard of text books and curriculum, people from CERID told me that CTSDC is not doing well, focusing more on publications than on course evaluation. CTSDC complain that budget allocation is very low for Supervision and training, they can afford only annual supervision. Its not easy to change curriculum and text books just like that, its very difficult ot convince all and moreover some have vested interest-- not to change what they had prepared as curriculum. CTSDC people find CERID reports more of a update of same data.... what's new? sheer waste of money in the name of research. Where lies the problem?

Most of them suggested increase in budget allocation for teacher's training. Supervision by trained professionals is required urgently. There surely is negligence of teachers, not taking responsibility.( Well, the teachers have their own plights too that they are paid less and receive no trainings.) How many have gone to see those schools in villages where one teacher minds 2 to 3 classes (minding not really teaching) when the other one is on leave for one week to work in the farm. The leave (not formally) is taken in turns. Why go far.....Dhapakhel is so close to Lalitpur city. I found in one of the small primary school, one teacher minded three classrooms simultaneously with "CHUP LAGA". That's what they were learning CHUP LAGNE-- guess!may be that's why most of us Nepalese are so shy to speak up. I was surprised to see teacher- student ratio, which was expected to be 1:33 according to Basic Need Program Projections, but actually was 1:36.9 (1991) and here it was even better 1:109.8. I was displeased by the situation but my field assistant jeered at me "khet kasle herne ta?"...... So much for the huge budget allocation at the primary level.

Talking of the waste of human resource......all my respondents said that one of the major problems in the village was young men (women were probably married off) who remained jobless and had flunked in the SLc to continue college, pass their time gambling or talking politics. That's where I think vocational school needs to be expanded, which can be done from secondary level....why wait for SLC!

After so much complain, I do have a piece of good news from Dhapakhel. During my stay I found three informal schools in Dhapakhel, not organized by the government, but initiated by the women carpet weavers. They felt they were cheated by their employers since they didn't know how to count and keep accout of their work. They got together, three different groups and requested some village girls studying in high schools or college to teach them. Those girls were teaching them free of charge. In one case there was a young man who initiated this sort of program for the carpet weavers. I was so proud to see our Nepali didi- bahini learning 3 R's in these informal gatherings. Good luck to them and thank you, Ashu for raising the issue on Eucation in Nepal.

Before I conclude, its very interesting.......why the brightest and the best go for doctors and engineers? It is very surprising that institutions of Humanities and Social Sciences are not regarded to be important compared to natural science faculties in Nepal. T.U. Registrar
(1991) told me during an interview, there is a lack of resources and emphasis to improve the quality of education of social sciences, where as most of the higher level administrative officer, political leaders and planners have or rather need the academic background of social sciences. So, what should we call it, State bias? Not choosing the so called profession of the best and the brightest, I am an Anthropologist. Ashu's realization of importance of arts and history, indeed, pleased me. Sometimes I find it difficult to explain some of my friends (not all) from ..well...profession of the best and the brightest, why one studies ethnicities and culture, when their mocking smiles tell me ...."well that's a leisure time reading." Only when a foreigner displays a better knowledge of one's own culture and origin of one's ancestor, some seem to realize the so called leisure time reading is important. Well, at any cost these are not so easy as one assumes to be leisure time.......

Namaste and Happy Tihar to all of you (Nhu Daya Bhintuna),

Mona Shrestha, A.I.T., Bangkok, Thailand

From: dagrawal@abacus.bates.edu (Dileep Agrawal) Subject: News Nov 11 To: NEPAL@mp.cs.niu.edu (The Editor) Date: Fri, 12 Nov 1993 19:06:33 -0500 (EST)

HEADLINE: nepal's economy moves in positive direction
  nepal's economy has been moving in the positive direction in the first 3 months of the current 1993-94 fiscal year, indicated a press release of the nepal rastra bank which was published here today. in view of the current trend of the economy, it seems that the national income will considerably swell, the monetary liquidity would decline and the balance of payment will improve, the bank said.

however, the price index has shown negative trend in the first 3 months of the current fiscal year from july 16 this year to july 15 next year, as compared with the corresponding period of the previous fiscal year, it added. despite the damages done to some irrigation projects and arable land by floods and landslides a few months back, it seems the agricultural produce will be satisfactory, though the shortages in the power supply have had an adverse effect in the non-agricultural sector.

notwithstanding this, it also hoped that the non-agricultural sector will increase its contribution to the national economy by 8 percent as the economic activities in works and trade sector are expected to boost, the bank said. as a result of this, the real increase in the gross domestic product this year seems to stand at 6.0 percent. the total foreign exchange reserves of the country swelled to 34.74 billion rupees (708.97 million u.s. dollars) on october 29, 1993 which can cover the imports for 9 months, the bank said. however, the bank pointed out that due to remarkable increase in the import trade, the foreign trade took an upward swing by 23.9 percent to reach 14.49 billion rupees (295.71 million u.s. dollars).
                 meeting on earthquake to be held in nepal
  A high-level meeting on earthquake impact mitigation will be held here on november 12. the meeting will be organized jointly by the nepal society for
  earthquake technology and the housing and physical planning ministry.
  co-chairman of the world seismic safety institution professor tshuneo katayama,
  another co-chairman of the same institution and chief of the civil engineering
  department of stanford university of california professor haresh chandra shah
  will attend the meeting. this is the first time for such a meeting to be held
  in kathmandu with the participation of international agencies. the meeting wil l hold much importance at a time when earthquake is posing a serious threat to th e asian region.

         private participation encouraged in telecommunication
  the nepalese government has adopted a policy of encouraging private participation for achieving the overall goal of telecommunication development in nepal. it is announced by minister of state bijaya kumar gachchhadar while inaugurating a two-day seminar on telecommunications sector reform in nepal organized by the nepal telecommunications corporation here today. the minister underlined the need to create a healthy environment for the private participation in the telecommunication sector. he expressed the view that it is necessary to improve the performance of the telecommunications network in order to support the economic and social activities in the kingdom.

Forwarded by: Padam Sharma <sharma@plains.NoDak.edu>
>From RKP6723@VENUS.TAMU.EDU (Robin Pandey)
Date: Tue, 9 Nov 1993 18:25:02 -0600 (CST) Subject: Gaheero Bichar

                   Deep Thoughts by Robin Pandey
               Learning: Dedicated to the Students.

Why is that children learn quicker than adults? Why is that as we get older we don't learn as easily as when we we were younger? Aren't children having fun fun when they are learning? Aren't adults having not so much fun when we are learning? Seems like there is some relation between having fun and learning, isn't it?

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