The Nepal Digest - May 1, 1997 (19 Baishakh 2054 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Wednesday 1 Apr 97: Baishakh 19 2054BS: Year6 Volume62 Issue 1

Today's Topics:
 
         In Defense of Christians
         The Canada Nepal Friendship Association
         Info about Immigrants from Nepal in US
         A project
         Volunteering in nepal.
         Nepal's future
         A memo from The Kathmandu Book Society

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****************************************************************** Date: Sat, 26 Apr 1997 10:16:51 -0400 (EDT) From: aiko <gs07aaj@panther.Gsu.EDU> To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: In Defense of Christians

To A.J. Chapman and the Nepali Christian (my apologies that I could not remember your name):

Once again, a "religious" faith has been criticized based on the observance of HUMAN action and HUMAN thought. Too often - much too often
- people tend to look at what fellow human beings do in the name of Christianity or Hinduism or Islam or Juadaism or Buddhism and judge accordingly. What is forgotten is that those who taught said faiths DO NOT/DID NOT advocate two thirds of what now passes for "gospel". It is PEOPLE who use these religions as an excuse to kill, maim, torture and plunder fellow human beings; it is PEOPLE in their insatiable greed who trick fellow human beings out of hard earned cash to serve their own ends. Jesus NEVER said fool a person because they are easily fooled; no! he said a FOOL AND HIS MONEY IS SOON PARTED!! You will find similar sayings in the Koran, the Torah, and Buddhist texts. Jesus never said go out and kill, torture, rape, and maim in my name! He never advocated preachers getting drunk or sleeping with prostitutes or stealing people's money through tear-jerk appeals via television! PEOPLE - sometimes well intentioned people - who have gone somewhere to convert the native population have had the mistaken notion that to complete the spiritual transformation of a new convert, that convert must completely transform his/her lifestyle; i.e., putting on more clothes or abandoning completely their cultural rituals, even giving up their own languages in extreme cases. Yes, too many missionaries have tended to go into a different country and arrogantly assert that they are superior by far, and if the
"native" wishes to become a "good" Christian, then that native must give up everything he/she has known. I agree that too many missionairies are
"do-gooders" who are out to simply satisfy their own sense of spiritual superiority, and they care nothing for the people they are trying to convert. I myself have seen too often the snobbishness of wealthier Christians who mouth so piously about "our brothers and sisters" in need, but who would never dream of inviting said brothers and sisters to their homes for dinner or tea or any sort of social function. I have seen snotty wealthier Christians literally wrinkle their noses at someone who is obviously less economically advantaged, perhaps even a little uncouth, and then same wealthy Christians hypocritically lifting their hands in prayer and pleading for this and that. But because I have seen the fallacy of human beings does that mean I must then abandon my faith in God and declare Him impotent, a lie, a fraud? Of course not. We humans are given a choice; no one forces us; we are given the choice of whether or not we choose to be Christian, Hindu, Muslim, Jew, Buddhist(I'm just naming the mainstream faiths here; I realize there a dozens of "tribal" religions combining a myriad of faiths, but for simplicity's sake, I am sticking to the major ones for now). Yes, unfortunately, many native converts think that to become a good Christian, they must abandon native dress, native foods, native customs, because so many of the missionaries come from Western countries where historically, the "West" has always tried to colonize the "East" and brainwash them into believing they are superior while those of Africa, Asia and South America are inferior. True, the Crusades were done in the name of God and countless Middle Eastern peoples were mowed down; true, the Catholic Church forcibly - at the point of a sword or barrel of a gun - "converted" thousands of native peoples of South and Central America, Mexico, and North America. I myself attended (briefly) a Baptist-run Christian boarding school in the Tokyo-area where we were NOT ALLOWED TO SPEAK JAPANESE NOR ASSOCIATE WITH ANY JAPANESE WORKING AT THE SCHOOL UNLESS THEY HAD BECOME CHRISTIANS! Imagine a Japanese person - like myself - being told I could not speak my language nor associate with my people . . .unless they were "like one of us", as it was put. I was shocked and horrified and unbelieving that a group of foreigners(Americans, in this case) would deliberately choose to come to Japan and practice their racist ideals on us. Incredible. There was one wise teacher at that school, however, who helped to understand that while the policies of the school and the policies of the school board and principal were seriously wrong, God did not say that was the way to do it, follow me! Needless to say, after only 6 months in that hell-hole my parents got me out!

One of the purposes of Christianity is NOT TO "LAY A GUILT TRIP UPON ITS SUPPLIANTS", but rather, to teach people to TAKE RESPONSIBLITY FOR ONE'S ACTIONS! If one makes a bad choice, one must suffer the consequences and hopefully grow to be a better, wiser person through that experience. It tries to teach people to NOT BECOME A VICTIM; NOT TO FALL INTO THE "WOE IS ME" TRAP that so many are advocating/fallen into these days. All the choices I made throughout my adult life were made BY ME! Whatever course/direction I took I took out of my own free will. Having spiritual faith has helped sustain me through some incredibly bad times, and now I feel a great confidence in myself and my abilities; I have made good choices in the friends I have made; I have also made bad choices in some of my (now ex-) friends. But each time it was my choice; not God's not Allah's not Shiva's not Yaweh's.

It's easy to blame something or somebody for one's own mistakes; it's easy to think well, if there is no god I can do whatever the hell I want and conscience be damned! I will not be made to feel guilty for any of the decisions I make, and if they turn out to be bad, I can lay that guilt on SOMEONE ELSE OTHER THAN MYSELF!

In closing, I'd like to point out that when a nation or a people lose any sort or sense of spirituality, something gets lost overall and there is nothing left but a sense of emptiness. Japan is an excellent example. As a nation, we have no faith - not in the same way that Nepal or India or Thailand or even the US have. Up to now, Japan may have excelled in many things/many ways, but the "miracle" is slowly slipping away from our grasp and we have nothing to stop our fall. Nepal may not be 100 per cent perfect - but then, what country is? - but it has a sense of spirituality and collective closeness that will sustain it into the next century, because the Nepali people are a warm and generous people and a brave people. The End.

Aiko Anne Joshi

************************************************************* Date: Sat, 26 Apr 1997 09:06:52 -0800 From: Rick Tejada-Flores <grtf@igc.org> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Please add me to your list

Dear Friends,
     I am a television producer who is working on a film on the late Pasang Lhamu, who died in 1993. The project will be shown on PBS in the US, and will also be made available to Nepal Television. I am looking for sources of archival material, specifically visual materials, relating to this subject. Please contact me at grtf@igc.org or grtf@aol.com. My address is 3533 19th Street, San Francisco CA 94110 Thanks for any help or leads.!!

Rick Tejada-Flores

****************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Apr 1997 10:37:22 +0100 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: lo12@cornell.edu (Lazima Onta) Subject: re: articles by Pratyoush Onta

The following appeared in The Kathmandu Post on 4/18/97 under my column
"The Politics of Knowledge" -- Pratyoush.

Investigative Journalism in Nepal Pratyoush Onta

        During the Panchayat-era, print media-watchers used to blame the then existing oppressive press laws for the poor state of investigative journalism in Nepal. Seven years into a new political dispensation, five years after the enactment of a generous set of laws that guarantee widespread press freedoms, and four years after the first private-sector broadsheet dailies arrived in the market, some analysts say that Nepali investigative journalsm has not recorded any substantial progress. Well, they are mostly right! What do we need to know to understand this state of affairs?
        Revisiting the late Panchayat-yug: Apart from the two broadsheet dailies owned by the government, many weeklies that were backed by various banned political parties constituted the main body of the print press in Nepal during the 1980s. Even while operating under severe legal and other constraints, these oppositional weeklies provided a consistent forum to counteract what one scholar has called the 'counterfeit reality' of post-Referendum Panchayat presented by the government owned media. While the official press never reported the work of various mafias, journalists used the popular weeklies to expose their nefarious activities. This brand of fiery investigative journalism was best embodied in the work of Padam Thakurathi who was almost assassinated for his expos=E9s of the doings of th= e so-called bhumigat giroha.
        Even as Thakurathi and his lesser known colleagues showed how individuals could seek the truth in times dominated by technologies of counterfeit reality, the successes of this brand of journalism were limited. While it cultivated a taste for political journalism amongst Nepal's increasingly larger reading public, it did not do much to foster the skills necessary to make investigative journalism a widespread phenomenon in Nepal. The then existing draconian press laws clearly prevented the development of institutions dedicated to this subject and individual efforts, in the main, were concentrated more toward direct oppositional writings against the Panchayat than towards learning the analytical skills necessary for this trade.
        The private-sector boom: When Kantipur and The Kathmandu Post showed up in the Nepali press world in early 1993, media-watchers pronounced that the days of the Nepali weeklies were numbered. When other private broadsheet dailies joined the first two during the last two years, it was then said that this type of competition would foster an environment for quality journalism. It has now become clear that the pronouncement of the death of nationally-known weeklies was premature. Instead their numbers have increased and the most popular ones continue to sell over 15,000 copies each week.
        It has also become clear that the increased number of broadsheet dailies by themselves will not foster investigative journalism here. The reason for this is related to their huge investment needs and the small size of the political-financial elites in Nepal. Investors who put their money in producing broadsheet dailies should be ready to digest a loss of at least one crore rupees per year for the first two or three years of their operation. Who in Nepal can come up with this kind of money? They are financial elites who are politically well-connected. Hence, despite the expectation that this boom might be propelled by the pure logic of profit-driven markets, one has to conclude that its real economics has to be sought not in the hisab of how many copies of the newspapers are sold, but more in terms of the social and political capital the investors are able to wield as a result of their investment.
        The intricate nexus between the investment requirements of these dailies and the social logic of Nepal's elite political-financial worlds can be seen in the way in which their institutions are organized: they have relatively strong management teams but their editorial teams are rather weak. Hence despite individual capacities of the journalists and despite an occasional investigative report done at the initiative of an individual or a team of journalists, these newspapers have been unable to enhance the quality of investigate journalism in Nepal. As long as the need to butter the political-financial nexus remains the primary agenda of the investors who support these papers, the relatively weak editorial parts of these institutions will not be able to support individual investigative efforts that might embarrass one or another member of their larger financial-political investor nexus. Hence in their present state, the increase in the number of broadsheet dailies will have little bearing on the development of investigative journalism in Nepal.
        What about the Weeklies and Magazines?: Since the financial requirements for a weekly or a magazine are comparatively small (in the tune of ten-fifteen lakhs rupees per year), theoretically speaking, they should have become the chief forums for investigative journalism in Nepal by now. That they have not become so requires some explanation. The popular weeklies have not been able to shed their Panchayat-kal avatars as mission papers. Their popularity is dependant upon the taste for political journalism amongst Nepali readers and the way in which variously factionalized political parties have used them as their publicity fronts. Coverage of broad social issues is minimal and we are yet to see weeklies that are bold enough to totally break away from their previous political affiliations.
        Free of this panchayat-kal baggage and a result of the process by which desktop and offset publication technologies became affordable here, various new magazines have joined the Nepali print media market in the post-Jana Andolan era. The reasons for their lack of success in this field
(along with those of the weeklies) must be sought in the absence of institutional and individual analytical capacity to carry out the job. In the genre of serious magazines, the preponderance of 'bichar-pradhan'
("thought-based") magazines is not difficult to understand given our Gorkhe propensity to deliver ones two paisa worth of bichar on any topic under the sun. But bichar pundits do not serve the cause of investigative journalism well. Ask them to engage in any type of research on contemporary issues, ask them to come up with analyses that are based on solid empirical research, then you will begin to understand why even magazines relatively free of the financial-political constraints have not been able to substantially improve the quality of investigate journalism here. A disastrous conflation of journalists who have little or no training on the methods of social science inquiry and editors who are themselves handicapped when it comes to providing in-house training to otherwise capable neophyte journos, ensure that the growth of investigative journalism remains stunted even within the magazine genre. Where then lies our hope for a better future in this area?
        The next frontier: I predict that three factors need to come together before we will see an investigative journalism "take-off" in Nepal. The first is form: since the weekly newspaper form is too closely associated with a taste for certain type of political journalism, the next frontier for investigative journalism will be provided in the magazine format by an institution that is relatively free of the financial-political nexus discussed above. The second factor will be the establishment of institutions that support such type of work, both financially and editorially. Such institutions will probably have to be organized autonomously in the private or non-profit sector as has already happened for other genres of print reporting. These institutions should be able to mobilize good social scientists and journalists to train younger journalists in the methods of social scientific inquiry. The last and most important factor will be the availability of journalists who want to train themselves as good investigative reporters covering special niches of the social field. They should realize that many opportunities for self-training exist in Nepal today. They should also realize that investigative journalism does not only mean digging up a case of abuse of power but also that it means reporting about broader social trends and processes that influence today's Nepali social worlds.

**************** What follows is a review I wrote in April 1994. At that time it was accepted for publication in Modern Asian Studies (published by Cambridge U Press). As far as I know, it has not been published there and I submit it to TND because I do not think it will be published in MAS any more. The text remains unchanged.

Book Review

The Gurkha Connection: A History of the Gurkha Recruitment in the British Indian Army. By Purushottam Banskota. Nirala Publications: Jaipur, 1994. Pp. 221; IRs. 250.

Reviewed by Pratyoush Onta

        Unlike many glossy books on the Gurkhas, this is an academic work by a Nepali historian. Banskota "seeks to examine the British policy in respect of (sic) different phases of the system of recruitment and analyses the factors and motives that determined the formulation of this policy during the period under study (1815 - 1992)." He also attempts "to bring out its manifold impact on Nepalese politics, economy and society"
(preface). The book consists of five chapters, a conclusion, 14 appendices and a bibliography but no index. The first avatar of the main body of this work was embodied in the author's University of Delhi Ph. D. thesis completed in the early 1980s. Thus one reads the jacket description of this book (which states that Banskota received his doctorate from Jawaharlal Nehru Univeristy) as a measure of the level of scrupulousness we can expect from the publisher.

        In the preface Banskota tells us that "no scholarly work has been done on" the subject of the recruitment of the Gurkhas in the British army. This is not entirely true. Diplomatic historians of Nepal such as Asad Husain, Kanchanmoy Mojumdar and Sushila Tyagi (all listed in the bibliography) have devoted significant parts of their work to this theme. Prem Uprety (not listed) has covered the mobilization of the Gurkhas during the first half of this century in his 1984 book Nepal: A Small Nation in the Vortex of International Conflicts. And there is the as yet unpublished 1991 Stanford dissertation on the cultural history of the Gurkhas by Mary Des Chene, a work that is pioneering in more than one way. There are also many quasi-histories of the Gurkhas, some of which has been written by former Gurkha officers. But Banskota's book is the first full-length academic treatment of the subject to be published and must be welcomed as such.

        In the first chapter general notes on the unification of Nepal and events leading upto the Anglo-Nepal war of 1814-16 are presented. In the process of recording a 'pyrrhic' victory, the British are said to have discovered the martial quality of the Gurkhas. In chapter three, Banskota describes the early growth of Gurkha recruitment in the British Army. After its reoganization following the 1857-58 event, the demand for the Gurkhas who had passed several tests of loyalty to the British increased. Banskota describes the less-than-cooperative attitude of Jung Bahadur with respect to Gurkha recruitment (thus the British resorted to ways of secretive recruitment) and the slow change that was recorded under the regime of Ranodip Singh when "mutual concessions" became paramount. In the mid-1880s, the threat of the Russians as a new enemy demanded an increase in the Gurkha forces for the British. This was negotiated against the desire to import arms and other items on the part of the Ranas.

        But as Banskota shows in chapter four, with the advent of the Shamsher Ranas in 1885, a new aspect was injected into the negotiation. The need on the part of Shamsher Ranas to protect their new but weak monopoly in Nepal made them more willing to submit to the British demands. With their tacit agreement, new Gurkha battalions were raised although harrassment by Nepali frontier officials of those crossing over the border to join the army, or those returning from a leave continued until about the early 1890s. Official recruiting depots were opened in Gorakhpur to cater to recruits from central Nepal and in Darjeeling to get recruits from east Nepal. The Rais and Limbus, thought as unfit for the army for a long time, were only recruited in large numbers around the turn of the century. Banskota also briefly describes the large-scale recruitment of the Gurkhas during World War I (with Chandra Shumshere's cooperation) and during the second World War (with Juddha Shumshere's cooperation). The absence of any reference to Uprety's above-mentioned book is surprising given that it remains the most detailed account of the external and internal mobilizations carried out for the recruitment of the Gurkhas during the two world wars. The Gurkhas were split between the Indian and the British armies when India became independent in 1947, and Banskota ends this chapter with a perfunctory treatment of the post-1947 history of the Gurkhas with the British Army. The Indian army affiliation is not discussed.

        Banskota's discussion in these two chapters are quite thorough and satisfying in many ways. In contrast his chapter two is somewhat disappointing. There he begins by writing that the Gurkha contingent in the British consisted of ten regiments with two battalions each. He also mentions that recruiting parties from each battalion were sent into Nepal clandestinely until about 1885 to obtain recruits for themselves. After that, although the British were still not allowed into Nepal, recruiting depots and outposts were established near the border to which recruits were sent. Recruiting Staff Officer and his subordinates had several obligations: they not only had to recruit suitable men for the army, but also had to treat pensioned soldiers and their families, or the families of those who had died, in a fair way. Since they did not have direct access to the homelands of their soldiers, such courteous treatment was a way "to popularise the British military service in Nepal."

        Indeed the peace-time full strength of the Gurkha regiments, reached some years before the WW I, was ten regiments with two battalions each. But that number was reached only after a growth process that began in the mid-1880s. This process is not spelled out clearly although scattered references to it in the following chapters can be found. The tentativeness of many of the recruiting arrangements immediately after 1885, the innovations introduced by somebody like Eden Vansittart, the man at the helm of Gurkha recruitment between 1888 and 1895 and other similar features are left out from his discussion. Thus this chapter reads more like a description of a matured process from which history have been deleted. This is unfortunate because the documents Banskota has consulted at the National Archives of India give the readers a sense of the contingency of many of the procedures tied with Gurkha recruitment. They also describe the debates among Britishers on things like who in Nepal is a Gurkha and who is not, an important issue based on which people inside Nepal were recruited or thought as unfit for the army. They also reveal how the standardization of recruitment administration in the last decade of the nineteenth century depended on the ingenuity of a man like Vansittart who introduced innovative incentives to recruiters. Given that British recruiters were not allowed into Nepal, Vansittart also prepared a military handbook filled with information helpful to them. Its first edition was published in 1890 and it later went through several revisions.

        In the fifth chapter, Banskota discusses the "impact of recruitment on Nepal." On the positive side he says the Gurkhas have enhanced Nepal's prestige, contributed to the modernistion of the Nepali army, got
'enlightened' through education in the army and improved their social and economic conditions in their homes. Whatever role thay might have played as a diplomatic currency between British India and Nepal, the Gurkhas, in Banskota's opinion, have served to project Nepal "as a sovereign independent state in the international field." However, we also need to remember the many instances in which different countries have raised an objection to Gurkhas' participation as part of the British or Indian army in various conflicts. As Banskota points out the contributions made by returning Gurkhas in the spread of literacy in Nepal through establishment of schools or teaching in more informal settings are enormous. While his general impressions hold, only more intense and localized studies will reveal the extent of this contribution. Also in more recent years, the desirability of already literate recruits by the army has introduced unexpected complications to the grand designs of national education planners (see Tod Ragsdale's 1989 book Once a Hermit Kingdom).

        With respect to the impact of Gurkha recruitment on the economic conditions of the soldiers and their families, Banskota, based on the localized studies of writers like John Hitchcock, Lionel Caplan and
=46erdinand Okada suggests that with their earnings and pensions, some forme= r Gurkhas were able to repossess previously alienated land, gain access to local and national level formal politics, and record upward social mobility. References to comments on this theme found in the works by A. Hofer, D. Messerschmidt, A. Macfarlane, among others, are missing. A more differentiated assessment of this theme is necessary for at least two reasons: one cannot forget the costs of Gurkha recruitment, some of which Banskota himself points out in the beginning of this chapter; also, as would be obvious to anyone who visits the districts from which heavy recruitment have taken place, not everyone who joined the Gurkhas has necessarily 'made it.' The most recent issue of Gorkha Sainik Awaj, a magazine that claims to represent the interest of all former and present Gurkhas, pointed out the depressing poverty in which VC Luxuman Gurung was living. Similarly when it comes to the issue of political awareness due to the Gurkha experience, it is excessive to describe it as revolutionary (p. 173).

        Banskota's book contains many annoying proof-reading errors. Also the text which is given on page 156 as part of the fifth chapter is repeated word for word on pages 159 - 160 of the same chapter. The second appearance of the text comes in place of some other material, the disappearance of which makes the book incomplete by a page.

        Banskota's detailed description of the diplomatic moves made in connection with the Gurkha recruitment and general assessment of its impact
- something that itself needs a historical analysis similar to the one he does for the former - should provoke others to attend to other themes in the Gurkha connection. More intense studies that combine the methodologies of history and anthropology, as by Mary Des Chene, will enable us to see this connection from a different social location. They will also enhance our understanding of the history of the hill economy, and the political relationships between the areas (and the people) from which recruitment took place and Kathmandu (and the rulers of Nepal). We also need to attend to the lived experiences of the Gurkhas. Among other things, we need to write about the dukha (hardship) they experienced in and out of the army. Such work will provide necessary corrective to the sanitised diplomatic and nationalist history of the Gurkhas.

*************************************************************** Date: Fri, 18 Apr 1997 11:31:19 -0400 From: Pawan Agrawal <pagrawal@EM.AGR.CA> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: CNFA's Spring Slide Show: *SACRED BUILDINGS OF NEPAL*

CNFA's Spring Slide Show: *SACRED BUILDINGS OF NEPAL*

With the change in the weather comes another sure sign of Spring --- the Annual Spring Slide Show of The Canada Nepal Friendship Association
(CNFA) of Ottawa. This year, Professor Barry Bell of Carleton University's School of Architecture will give a slide presentation on the *SACRED BUILDINGS OF NEPAL* on May 5, 1997 at the Routhier Community Centre, 172 Guigues Street, Ottawa, Canada. The audience will enjoy the DAL-BHAT Meal at 7:30 p.m. and the slide show at 8:30 p.m.. Please contact CNFA at (613) 727-9714 or <pka@cyberus.ca> for additional information.

Thanks

From: Pawan Agrawal <pagrawal@EM.AGR.CA> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: The Canada Nepal Friendship Association

The Canada Nepal Friendship Association

The Canada Nepal Friendship Association (CNFA) was established in the spring of 1990, as a non-profit organization based in Ottawa, Ontario. Its main objective is to enhance relations and understanding between the peoples of Canada and Nepal.

The CNFA members come from all walks of life and all age groups. Some of us are from Nepal, others have lived, worked or travelled there, and others have future plans to visit. We all share an interest in Nepal and the future of the Nepalese people, and wish therefore to contribute both to strengthen cross-cultural understanding and to promote friendship between the two countries.

Since early 1994, the CNFA has been supporting the surgical treatment of Vestibo-Vaginal Fistula (VVF) in poor women of rural Nepal. The VVF or perineal tearing is a serious medical and social problem among poor women of remote villages. In remote villages, women usually give birth without any medical assistance, often alone. If tears occur during a difficult birth, and the tear is not repaired, the women will likely experience some *leakage* from the anus and/or urethra. Many times, these women are abandoned by their families and friends. Due to fear of humiliation, these women do not seek medical help and suffer immensely. Since the inception of this project in 1994, more than 80 patients from all parts of the country have been treated at the Patan Hospital. Due to lack of adequate funds, the CNFA is now looking for a co-sponsor to continue this important project.

If you are interested in the CNFA or require additional information about the CNFA's VVF project, please contact us at the following address:

Pawan Agrawal, Treasurer Canada Nepal Friendship Association P. O. Box 77061, Ottawa South Postal Outlet Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1S 5N2 Phone: (613) 727-9714 or (613) 523-5604 E-mail: pka@cyberus.ca

***************************************************************** Forwarded by: Rajesh Shrestha <shresth2@husc.harvard.edu> Date: Fri, 18 Apr 1997 16:43:16 -0400 (EDT) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Here is a thought provoking article by Lucia De Vries

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

Having read the article and seen missionaries in Africa as well as elsewhere, I see a great deal of harm they are causing to the native people of the world. An interesting documentary I saw on Australian tv (ABC - Australian Broadcasting Corporation) that showed the zeal of the missionaries in South America.

The native people of South America were temped into converting to Christianity by being offered bribes of western goods like second hand goods, radio's etc. Now what they have found is that the erosion of traditional live as ment an erosion of the environment as well as social change that has seen the traditional way of life vanish, such as the youn looking after their parents in old age, community sprite has gone. The question that was posed was .... Have these people lost a lot more than they gained by converting ?

What we term as western cloths today such as pants and jacket's are in fact were invented by the Chinese and Indians. I saw another facinating documentrary about the Horse. The documentary looked at the economic and social changes the relationship between Man and Horse bought.

There was a great deal of trade between China and India a few thousand years back and to travel across the mountains horses were used. The clothing that was developed was the pants and jackets that are known as Mao's jacket's. These outfits made it easier for the people who traded to manover on horses. Having robes made it very difficult !!! History has been rewritten or not being taught to keep people ignorant.

I have seen these so called missionaries and to convince me they told me that I could marry who I liked if I was a Christian and that I would not have to worry as I could eat meat, etc. Not only that but I had some very attractive young girls who were willing to take me to church. Being young about 16 odd years old, I began to think about what they said and I came to the conclusion that if they have to package their faith in these low terms and having seen these people in action, that their faith was not worth anything.

They also talked about love and forgiveness. I have been reading the Gita and too me I have never found so much LOVE and FORGIVENESS as I have in the Gita. I am so grateful to have had the chance to read about Krishna and to know something about God. We have a priceless culture and faith and some people do not value it.

Sunil Sethi ssethi@onaustralia.com.au

**************************************************************** Date: Sun, 20 Apr 1997 12:08:34 -0700 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: Susan Koshy <koshy@alishaw.sscf.ucsb.edu> Subject: Info about Immigrants from Nepal in US

Hi, I am an Asst. Professor of Asian American Studies at University of California at Santa Barbara and I am working on an article about Asians in the US and would very much like to include material on immigrants from Nepal in the US especially since in the academic field we have very little information on this group. I am looking for references for my essay: articles, diaries, stories, films, novels, statistics, historical accounts about Tibetans in the US and elsewhere (in English). I would be grateful if you could direct me to these sources. Susan Koshy Asian American Studies UC-Santa Barbara CA, 93106-4090 Tel: (805) 893-8370 Fax: (805) 893-7766

****************************************************************** From: Bhikkhv Seevali <BS4@soas.ac.uk> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Mon, 21 Apr 1997 15:17:43 GMT Subject: Buddha Jayanti Greetings

> It is the full moon of May when the Buddha was born in the Lumbini
> park, Nepal. It is also the day when he attainded the Enlightenment
> (Buddhahood) in Buddhagaya under the Bodhi Tree at the age of 35. And
> it is also the auspisious occation when his passing away took place
> in the Kusinara at the age of 80. As Buddhists we believe that all
> these events took place on the full moon day of May, Baishakha month.
> It is an auspisious day for Buddhist world who all try and do engage
> in religious and spiritual activities to commemorate the day. Here I
> would like to extend my good wishs to all of our netters.
>
> "Buddha Jayanti ko upalakshya ma sabailai mangala kamana"
> **********************************************************
>
> "Swanya Punhiya Lasataye Sakasitan Bhin Jwima Dhaka Manam Tunse
> ****************************************************************
> Mangala Prarthana yaye"
> ***********************
>
> Good wishes on this auspicious occation to all of you and wish all
> the health, happiness, peace and success in your life. May the
> blessings of Triple Gem, (Buddha, Dharma and Samgha), be with you.
>

Bhikkhu Seevali President, Lumbini Nepalese Buddha Dharma Society (UK) Buddha Era 2541

****************************************************************** Date: Mon, 21 Apr 1997 14:24:25 EST From: stdpss02@SHSU.edu To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: RE: The Nepal Digest - April 5, 1997 (21 Chaitra 2053 BkSm)

Hello,

I would be very grateful if any one would please let me know the telephone # of our Nepalese embassy in D.C. as I urgently need to renew my passport.

THANK YOU VERY VERY MUCH. Poonam.

********************************************************************* Date: Tue, 22 Apr 1997 22:26:42 -0700 From: "D.G. TURNER" <turner5@mb.sympatico.ca> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: A project

To whome it may concern I have chosen to do a project on Nepal since my class is studying Asia. I have been having some trouble in finding some certain issues on the net. I have found quite a few paragrphs in boks but they don't cover enough or they cover to much I can't understand them. If you could find information on the following topics it would be greatly apreciated!! I would hope I could have the information by hopefully Sunday. Please no later than April the 29th *(tuesday) thanks

color of the flag and picture an introduction of the country Physical Geography: Topography- elvation, area, landforms, drainage systems Climate- Temperatures, precipitation, winds, ocean currents, ranges, types, patters and latittudes. Resources- soils, minerals, water distribution, vegetation, fish native animals Human Geography: Population History Economic Activity Transportation
 Cultural Activity Education
 My email adress is trewluv@hotmail.com That would be great Thanks!

****************************************************************** Date: Fri, 25 Apr 1997 16:11:20 +1200 From: Umed Pun <pun@whio.lincoln.ac.nz> Subject: request To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

Dear Editor, Could you please publish this request in your next issue. Hello everybody!!! Namastae, I am looking for the email address of Rabindra Nath Devkota who is currently doing PhD in the States. He was working as a breeder at National Wheat Development Program, Bhairahawa before leaving for his studies. I will very much appreciate if he replies after reading this message. Besides, if anybody knows his email address do let me know. Thanks
   Umed Pun Post graduate Student Dept. of Plant Science Lincoln Univeristy Canterbury, New Zealand Fax # 0064-3-3253843

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Sun, 20 Apr 1997 19:42:10 EDT To: <info-tnd@nepal.org> From: "Sean Green" <iruntape@mich.com> Subject: volunteering in nepal.

hi- my name is sean green, and i'd like to know if you can help me collect info re: volunteering in nepal.I currently work in the audio video field, and am strating to plan a trip later this fall, or next spring. You may e-mail me with info, or please snail mail: Sean Green 380 N.Crooks rd. #89 Clawson, MI. 48017 U>S>A>

************************************************************** Date: Tue, 22 Apr 1997 21:10:23 EDT To: info-tnd@nepal.org From: dswolf@juno.com (denise s wolf) Subject: volunteer programs

April 22, 1997

To whom this may concern:

I learned of your organization recently through your Web site. I am a lawyer (J.D., American University) and my boyfriend is a management consultant (M.B.A., University of Pennsylvania). We are planning to visit Nepal from August '97 through August '98. We are extremely interested in any type of volunteer program for that period, including but not limited to, teaching English, leading treks, working with refugees, environmental work, agriculture, farming, etc.

Unfortunately, we have no knowledge of Nepali, but we are filled with enthusiasm, compassion, and basic common sense.

Please send me any relevant information/applications that may assist us in our planning. Many thanks.

My mailing address is:

Denise S. Wolf 1020 Spruce Street, Apt. 3R Philadelphia, PA 19107 email: dswolf@juno.com

************************************************************* Date: Fri, 25 Apr 1997 13:15:59 PDT To: info-tnd@nepal.org From: marion Bishop <ge96977027@ailm.may.ie> Subject: Information on volunteering

Dear Sir/Madam, I came across your e-mail no. on the internet this morning and would very much like some more information about your organisation, particularly with regards to volunteering. I am a postgraduate student with a degree in geology and I posess a TEFL teaching certificate. I would be most interested in volunteering in conservation work or teaching English. I do conservation work in Irelad at least one day a week. This work consists of cleaning rivers, building wooden benches, some tree planting and hedgelaying amongst other things. I am very interested in travelling and would love to spend some time in Nepal and offer my volunteering services there. I have also volunteered for third world organisations, such as Concern and Trocaire, two Irish organisations. This volunteering has consisted of fundraising through fasting and street collections.
        I hope that you can forward some information to me about your organisation and that I would be considered a suitable candidate for volunteering. I would like to become quite a long term volunteer, for a period of some months, at least.
        Hoping to hear from you soon,
                Yours Sincerely,
                        Marion Bishop.

******************************************************* Date: Thu, 24 Apr 1997 22:54:42 BST To: tnd@nepal.org From: peter van der lee <bipet@xs4all.nl> Subject: Nepal's future

Dear Sir/Madam First of all, I would like to thank for providing comprehensive articles on Nepal Digest. In recent years, Nepal is having increasingly many problems (i.e. political instability, too much corruption, excessive pollution, heavy deforestation, inefficient public services & so forth) and it appears that it may take next 50 (or even more) years to do something about it. So my question is, while the Nepalese economy is wholly depend on tourism, what will be the situation of Nepal (in the future) if quick actions are not taken to reduce these problems and to increase Tourism?

Rajesh Giri (a Nepalese Student) Amsterdam, Holland

****************************************************************** Date: Fri, 25 Apr 1997 13:28:15 -0400 (EDT) From: Bikash@aol.com To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: A memo from The Kathmandu Book Society

                The Kathmandu Post Review of Books (with its: "informed writings; intelligent discussions" slogan) CELEBRATES one full year of continuous monthly publication of a total of 57 reviews and essays since April 1996. And I suppose it gears up to kick off the second year with even more [young and primarily non-journalist] professionals writing more reviews, thought-essays and commentaries for
 publication in Kathmandu.

                That said, let it also be said that the future of this monthly Review of Books, which has so far been managed by non-TKP-employees and non-journalists like us, heavily depends on how the management at The Kathmandu Post goes about INSTITUTIONALIZING this practice of getting competent writers to write a page-full of book-reviews every month.

                Obviously, this monthly Review of Books CANNOT go forever PURELY on the enthusiasm and the energy of Pratyoush Onta, Shizu Upadhaya, Shailesh Gongal and Ashutosh Tiwari -- each of whom has OTHER academic and/or professional plans looming up. We have approached the Post numerous times to make this Review-of-Books thing their own
 in-house production, with our maybe serving
 as informal advisors. But to no avail. Why is the process of INSTITUTIONALIZATION so difficult in Nepal, even in private companies, and even when the beneficiaries are the companies themselves? Somebody should write a thesis on this.
                Oh, well. Anyway, the next issue of 'TKP Review of Books' is appearing on Sunday April 27, 1997. Be sure to read it when you log in to get that day's
"khoo-raak" of The Kathmandu Post [click on that day's editorial section].

In this 13th (or, Year II, No. 1) issue: 1) Ms. Seira Tamang, a doctoral candidate in international relations at The American University in Washington. DC, USA, reviews two books: Hari Upreti's "Crisis of Governance" and Dev Raj Dahal's "The Challenge of Good Governance: Decentralization and Development in Nepal." 2) Mr. Rajesh Babu Shrestha, of Chhahari in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA reviews Alan Lightman's novel "Einstein's dreams". 3) Mr. Swarnim Wagle, a recent graduate of the London School of Economics, comments on a paper titled: "Outward Oriented Economic Nationalism: A model for development in Nepal", written by economist Madan Kumar Dahal. 4) Mr. Kishore Pradhan, a Kathmandu-based sociologist, reviews Prakash A Raj's book
"Brahmins of Nepal". 5) And Mr. Ashutosh Tiwari, this month's book-review co-ordinator and editor, discusses Howard Gardner's latest book:
"Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership."

                The TKP Review of Books was started as a sufficiently serious yet regular and accessible forum in English language in Kathmandu. The aim is to discuss/argue about and comment on books
(which need NOT be on or about Nepal), ideas, public policy-issues, social and cultural trends and research findings of general interest.
                [We also tried convincing SIX Kathmandu-based Nepali-language "national" broadsheet, daily newspapers about the possibility of starting a monthly one-full-page ko book-review section in their newspapers. But none of them were interested. Oh, well. Can't say we didn't try.]
                Meantime, all of you -- readers, writers and critics reading this --
 are most welcome to contribute reviews, thought-essays and letters of merciless criticisms (word length: 500-1000 words). Also, not that most of you care about money
:-), but just so you know, the Post ko management has agreed to pay handsomely (by Kathmandu's standards, that is!) upon publication. Please e-mail all your contributions either to Bikash Thapliya
(bikash@mit.edu) or to Lazima Onta-Bhatta
 (lo12@cornell.edu). Thanks.
                By the way, hearty congratulations to Mr. SHAILESH GONGAL, a Kathmandu-based civil engineer in his 20s, and also one of the founders and co-ordinators of this monthly TKP Review of
 Books, on his being accepted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), for graduate studies in urban planning (with an emphasis on architecture and spatial designs).
                In the past issues of this TKP Review of Books, Shailesh had reviewed books on Newari culture, traditional arts and architecture, and had investigated and written a hugely influential essay on the shortcomings of the proposed UN Park on the beds of the Bagmati River. See, :-) the places you can go by writing book-reviews!!
                Also, on May 20, Tuesday, the Kathmandu Book Society presents Mr. PRAKASH A. RAJ as its FIFTH monthly-speaker. Mr. Raj, a prominent travel writer since the early 1970s, will give a memoir-esque talk titled:
 "My evolution as a Nepali writer writing in English language". Venue: Martin Chautari, Thapathali, Kathmandu. Time: 5:30 pm. Be there. THE END.

********************************************************* Date: Sat, 26 Apr 1997 17:20:05 +0700 (GMT+0700) From: Jesbin Baidya <jesbin@ait.ac.th> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: St Xaviers and St Marys database

Hi!

I'm maintaining an interactive database of St Xaviers and St Marys alumnis. It allows the users to add or update their names in the database as well as perform various Queries. So it is quite a useful toll esp if you are looking for someone from your old days...

So if you are from STX or SMS please visit the site at

    http://www.rcc.ait.ac.th/staff/jesbin/

and add/update your names to the database. The database is located under the section "Some Cool Stuff".

I would appreciate it if could also add a link to the page in your own home pages so that a more comprehensive database can be built.

Best wishes, Jesbin

PS the database can alternately be accessed at http://203.159.1.23/ or http://www.cs.ait.ac.th/~b95339 (temporary)

********************************************************* Date: Sat, 26 Apr 1997 09:31:02 -0400 (EDT) From: aiko <gs07aaj@panther.Gsu.EDU> To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Essay by Damber K. Gurung

I always read with interest Damber K. Gurung's essays, but I particularly enjoyed his latest one, "Progress and Stability". I found this essay especially appropriate because in my Women's Studies course on
"Interrogating 'Third World' Feminisms", we have just completed reading an academic but extremely compelling book by Rey Chow: "Writing Diaspora: Tactical Intervention in Cultural Studies". She is a Hong Kong native who now teaches English and Comparative Lit at a university here in the US, and she has an amazing command of the English language!

As I was reading Damber K. Gurung's short essay, my mind kept refering to Chow who also advocates making/creating changes via "think tanks", the importance of "unbiased information . . .[forming] a basis for stable changes. . .(D.K. Gurung)" vis a vis sharing ideas and experiences not just through conferences and such, but also via electronic and verbal interaction among academics and non-academics.

Too often, there is a feeling among some Nepali students and others that getting together to discuss the political and economic state of Nepal is an excercise in futility. Some are not interested in contributing to the welfare of the kingdom in any way, and would rather stay in the US to
"make money" and be away from the pressures of family and a society they no longer feel/want a part of. That is too bad. Changes are always slow to come; sometimes changes come at a snail's pace; sometimes those changes are not realized in one's lifetime. But that is no reason/excuse to give up. There are always people who will take up the burden/task/torch of carrying on the work to improve the quality of life for their own people.

Those of us in academia also have a tendency to hide away from the rest of the world and spend endless hours in verbal debates/discussions, and to write erudite pieces of literature so high-brow that noone but a select few could know what is being said. We too must be careful about that, because if we are to do any sort of good, we must write and speak in a language that everyone can understand and participate in.

I have never been to Nepal - yet - but already I feel a closeness for a country I have seen through the eyes of my husband and his friends who talk frequently of home; I feel Nepal when I eat Nepali food cooked by husband and friends(I'm learning but haven't quite mastered "that certain" taste! Looks easy but . . .when one is a lousy cook like me. . .!) I feel a kinship and a warmth I cannot describe whenever I look at the photographs of Nepal my husband brought back when he went home three years ago; and eversince I was a small child and first heard about Nepal and Tibet in Geography class, I swore to myself that one day I would go to those two kingdoms tucked away in the Himalayas - so similar to Japan yet so different - a place where I've felt I always belonged spiritually.

The mistake many people make is comparing Nepal to the US; or comparing any country to the US. One cannot do that; there is no comparison: Nepal is Nepal and the US is the US, with completely different cultures, ideals, goals, and lifestyles. One is not better than the other; one is not superior to the other. But once you get into that game of which is the superior, then you run into problems. Yes, Nepal is plagued with corruption in high places; so is the US; each country deals with such issues differenty with different results. There are advantages and disadvantages to both.

Aiko Anne Joshi

******************************************************** Date: Fri, 25 Apr 1997 20:06:48 GMT To: info-tnd@nepal.org From: "simon cooper" <TOPWORLD@msn.com> Subject: "REBECCA SANCTUARY"

THE REBECCA SANCTUARY IS A UK BASED CHARITY DEDICATED TO PROVIDING SHELTER, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND HELP, TO NEPALESE WOMEN SOLD INTO PROSTITUTION. FOR DETAILS CONTACT THE POLICE STN. WHITCHURCH. ROSS-ON-WYE. HEREFORDSHIRE. HR9-6DJ. UK TEL44 1600 890385 FAX 44 1600 890281

********************************************************************* Date: Fri, 25 Apr 1997 08:39:17 CDT To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: "Rajpal J. Singh" <a10rjs1> Subject: Re: Ama ko Mukhernee

In article <19970421215600.RAA14525@ladder01.news.aol.com> you write:
>Sangitaji
>
>Ama ko Mukh herne on this year is on May 6th, Tuesday. If you are
>interested in other festival dates in this year the following is the list.
>
>Thanks
>
>Festival Calendar for the year 2054 BS (1997/ 1998)
>1997
>Apr 13 Sunday + New Year 2054
> Sapana Tirtha Mela/ Nawabarsa/ Bisket
>Apr 15 Tuesday Chaitey Dashain
>Apr 15 Tuesday + Seto Matsyandranath Yatra
>Apr 16 Wednesday Chaitey Dashain, Ram Nawami Ram Jayanti
>May 1 Thursday Mujdur Diwas
>May 3 Saturday Baruthini Akadashi Bratam
>May 6 Tuesday + Mahathirta Puja Mother's Day
>May 7 Wednesday + Rato Matsyandranath Rath Rohan
>May 8 Thursday Kanun Diwas Law Day
>May 10 Saturday + Rato Matsyandranath Rath Yatra
>May 22 Thursday + Chandi Purnima / Buddha Jayanti / Sherpa
>Nyungne
>June 11 Wednesday + Sithinakala Kumar Sasthi
>June 28 Saturday Val-Valastami, Trishul Jatra
>July 12 Saturday Gunggamai Rath Yatra
>July 13 Sunday Vhanu Jayanti
>Aug 1 Friday + Ghanta Karna
>Aug 4 Monday + Gunla starts
>Aug 7 Thursday Dukpa Chhezi
>Aug 8 Friday + Naga Panchami
>Aug 9 Saturday Kalki Jayanti
>Aug 18 Monday + Janai Purnima / Kumbheshor Mela
>Aug 19 Tuesday + Bhadrakrishna Gaijatra
>Aug 25 Monday + Srikrishna Jayanti
>Aug 26 Tuesday Srikrishna Rath Yatra / Palpa Bhagawatijatra
>Sept 1 Monday + Gokarna Aunsi Fathers' Day
>Sept 5 Friday + Teej / Mahila Vida / Ganesh Chata
>Sept 14 Sunday + Indra's Pole erected
>Sept 15 Monday + Indrajatra/Kumari Jatra All-Valley holiday
>Sept 16 Tuesday + Sorah Sraddha starts Eclipse predicted
>Sept 27 Saturday Pharping Harishanker Yatra
>Oct 2 Thursday + Ghhatasthapna Dasain starts
>Oct 6 Monday + Panchali Bhairab Jatra
>Oct 8 Wednesday + Phulpati
>Oct 9 Thursday + Kuchhevwe / Kalratri
>Oct 10 Friday Syaka Tyaka
>Oct 11 Saturday Teeka / khadka Yatra
>Oct 12 Sunday Annapurna Yatra
>Oct 13 Monday Sum Pradush Bratam
>Oct 15 Wednesday Kojagrat Purnima Bratam
>Oct 16-18 Thursday Thayangboche Mani Rimdu
>Oct 29 Wednesday + Kag Puja Diwali starts
>Oct 30 Thursday + Laxmipuja/ Kukur Tihar
>Oct 31 Friday + Gai Puja
>Nov 1 Saturday + Govardhan Puja Nepal Year 1118
>Nov 2-4 Sunday + Bhai Teeka
>Nov 6 Thursday Chhat Parwa
>Nov 7 Friday Raniko Janmoshoav Birth of Queen
>Nov 8 Saturday Sanmidhan Diwas Constitution Day
>Nov 10 Monday + Haribodhini Ekadashi
>Nov 14 Friday + Mahalaxmi Village Puja
>Nov 14-16 Friday Chiwang Mani Rimdu
>Nov 21 Sunday Lhabap Duchhen
>Nov 22 Saturday + Gyeshwori Jatra
>Dec 4 Thursday + Sita Biha Mela
>Dec 9 Tuesday + Indreyani Yatra
>Dec 13 Saturday + Bhakari Puja / Dattatreya Jayanti/ Bala
>Chaturadashi
>Dec 14 Sunday + Dhanya Purnima
>Dec 29 Monday Rajako Janmoshov Birthday of King
>1998
>Jan 1 Thursday New Year
>Jan 6 Tuesday + Seto Matsyendranath Snan
>Jan 11 Sunday Pirthwi Jayanti
>Jan 29 Thursday + Shaheed Diwash/ Magh Sankranti
>Feb 1 Sunday Saraswati Jayanti
>Feb 7 Saturday + Bhimsen Puja
>Feb 11 Wednesday + Lhosar
>Feb 19 Thursday Prajatantra Diwash
>Feb 24 Tuesday Shichhya Diwash
>Feb 25 Wednesday + Maha Shivaratri
>Mar 6-13 Friday + Holi
>Mar 8 Sunday + Nari Diwash Women's Day
>Mar 12 Thursday Purnima Brat / Cheer Daha
>Mar 13 Friday + Holi ends / Chandeko Jatra
>Mar 14 Saturday Chaitra Dasain

****************************************************************** Date: Sun, 27 Apr 1997 11:17:42 -0400 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: Sachin Sharma <Sachin_Sharma@brown.edu> Subject: Hydropower Nepal Committee at ANA '97 - Boston

Hello everybody:

As you may know, the Greater Boston Nepali Community (GBNC) is hosting the ANA Convention being held at Brandeis University during the fourth of July weekend this year. The Hydropower Nepal Committee (HNC) was formed under GBNC to organize a compelling forum on Nepal's hydropower, a mainstream Nepali issue of national importance that involves technical as well as social, economic, political and environmental discourses. HNC has proposed "Hydropower Development of Nepal: Exploring Strategies that Work" as the topic for a timely and relevant forum for the Convention.

HNC is inviting a group of high-powered panelists who are in a position to influence Nepal's hydropower policy as well as represent their respective institutions. We intend to bring together the perspectives of the following entities: the government (Ministry of Water Resources, HMG/N), the donor (the World Bank), the private sector (Himal Power Ltd.) and an independent thinker well-versed with issues on hand.

We have identified the following four sub-topics that we plan to focus on in the forum:

a. Private Sector (foreign + domestic) Investments in Nepal for
    Hydropower b. International Water Sharing (Nepal-India) c. Corporate Governance (Nepal Electricity Authority, Ministry of
    Water Resources, the Private Sector) d. Local Capacity Building

We have formed four corresponding research teams to come up with questions and discussion item for the above sub-topics. If you would like to contribute or our research efforts or would like to participate in our email discussion, please contact us at the email below. This is an excellent opportunity for those who are interested in learning about the issues in Nepal's hydropower and be a part of the team organizing this exciting event.

Thank you. Hydropower Nepal Committee forhnc@juno.com

*********************************************************** Date: Mon, 28 Apr 1997 13:48:42 +0200 To: webmaster-tnd@nepal.org From: gokul prasad dahal <dahal@stud.uni-hannover.de> Subject: Bore logs

Dear Sir,
  I am Gokul Prasad Dahal from Nepal and doing my masters in Geotechnique and Infrastructure at Hannover University, Germany. I have taken one fictitious topic for my final thesis,i.e. " Design of tunnel for Kathmandu Valley". For that I need at least 20m deep Bore-log with the distinct soil/rock layers and with the soil/rock properties like Young's Modulus, Density,Water contents.etc. It would be better if the number of bore-logs would be more than 2 and if they are taken somewhere from the central Kathmandu. It would be highly appreciated if some one could help me in getting the Bore-logs report. Your Sincerely,

Gokul

****************************************************************** Date: Mon, 28 Apr 1997 07:01:15 -0400 (EDT) From: Anand Pathak <pathak@husc.harvard.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: 1997 HARVARD INTERNATIONAL AIDS CONFERENCE (fwd)

Respectable Members of the Nepali Community:

I cordially invite you to the 1997 Harvard International AIDS Conference that I have been organizing for the past few months. The focus of the Conference is AIDS in the developing world. The conference will be followed by a wine and cheese reception and a banquet of all you can eat Indian food.

At the banquet, I will give a brief exposition of what my project of AIDS education in Nepal is all about.

Please, come to meet eminent leaders of the field, enjoy a wonderful meal and support my arduous work on the Nepal-AIDS program.

You can register for the conference and/or the banquet through my web site: http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/~visions. Or, you can register for the conference by submitting the form below.

Please call me if you have any questions or suggestions (and feel free to forward this to anyone who may be interested).

Anand Pathak 493-6257

> AIDS: THE NEW GLOBAL APPROACH:
> Combating AIDS in the Developing World
> through science, activism and understanding
>
> sponsored by VISIONS Harvard, a branch of VISIONS Worldwide, Inc.
> co-sponsored by Institute of Politics, Harvard AIDS Institute,
> Harvard School of Public Health, International Relations
> Council, Department of Economics, Department of Chemistry
>
> ************************************
> SATURDAY, MAY 3, 1997
> Conference: 9 AM - 6 PM
> Banquet: 6:30 PM
> ARCO Forum, Harvard University
> John F. Kennedy School of Government
> ************************************
>
> The 1997 Harvard International AIDS Conference aims to enable students and
> community members to understand and analyze the complex economic,
> political, cultural, and scientific factors that influence the spread of
> AIDS in the developing world. The conference will bring together public
> health professionals, policy experts, economists, and NGO leaders to help
> define the measures needed to counteract AIDS in an efficient and
> empowering manner. Through the 1997 Conference, VISIONS ultimately aims to
> inspire and enable those attending to help lead current efforts to
> alleviate the global AIDS crisis.
>
>
> SPEAKERS:
> Max Essex (Chairman, Harvard AIDS Institute)
> Harvey Fineberg (Dean, Harvard School of Public Health)
> David Bloom (Deputy Director, Harvard Institute for Intl Development)
> Don Shepard (Research Professor, Heller School, Brandeis University)
> Davis Mwakagile (Chair, Microbiology and Immunology, MUC)
> Daniel Tarantola (Professor of AIDS and Human Rights, HSPH)
> Richard Marlink (Exec. Director, Harvard AIDS Institute)
> Madhu Nath (United Nation Development Program)
> Maureen Spofford (Former Director, Cambridge Cares About AIDS)
> Jessie Mdwambo (HMS, Med. Anthropology and Intl Health)
> Chad Womack (Department of Cancer Biology, HSPH)
> Amitinder Kaur (Vellore Christian Medical College, India)
> Monty Montano (Dept. of Cancer Biology, HSPH)
> John Young (Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics,
        Harvard Medical School)
> AND MORE....
>
> WORKSHOPS: 2:00-5:00 PM
> Small discussion groups led by our speakers will follow the keynote
> speeches and will provide attendees with an opportunity to pursue issues
> in-depth. The workshops will enhance interaction between the leaders and
> participants, making the conference a learning experience with personal
> impact.
>
> **Workshop A: Scientific Progress **
> New hopes and trends in vaccine research, the efficacy of current
> treatments, and the feasibility of their application to developing
> countries.
>
> **Workshop B: AIDS and Culture **
> Evaluation of the changing perspectives of AIDS in industrialized and
> developing countries. The focus will be on how perceptions of AIDS have
> affected diagnosis and treatment of minority groups and women.
>
> **Workshop C: Shaping Public Policy **
> Discussion of the role of education, public hygiene, social values, and
> health care standards in designing effective AIDS policy in industrialized
> and developing countries.
>
> **Workshop D: Professional, NGO, and Student Approaches **
> Explores the cultural, social, and political barriers to AIDS work, the
> manner in which these have been overcome, and the scope for direct
> involvement of students
>
> ACTIVITIES EXPOSITION: 3:00-3:30 PM
> Featuring representatives from governmental, private, and volunteer
> groups, the Exposition will introduce attendees to an array of
> opportunities for involvement in international public service.
>
> BANQUET: 7:00 PM
> The day will close with a semi-formal dinner at 6:30 pm to honor
conference speakers and guests. Proceeds from the banquet will go towards funding international AIDS education conducted by VISIONS Worldwide in India, China, Nepal, and Ethiopia.
>
> FEES:
> The conference fee will be $3 for pre-registered participants and
> $5 at the door. ADMISSION TO THE CONFERENCE IS FREE FOR HARVARD
> UNDERGRADUATES. Banquet seats will be $15 for students and $45 for
> professionals.
>
> TO REGISTER:
> on-line: http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/~visions
> or alternatively, complete the following registration form via email.
>
> REGISTRATION FORM
>
> Name:
> University Mailing Address:
> E-mail address:
> Phone number:
> Affiliated University or corporation:
> Harvard ID#(if Harvard student)
>
> Name(s) of Your Guests(if any):
>
> Two simultaneous workshops will be run each hour, each for 30-40
> attendees. Please check the box corresponding to your preferences for
> each session. Priority will be given to pre-registered attendees.
>
> SESSION I: | SESSION II:
> Workshop A: Scientific Progress:__ | Workshop C: Shaping Public Policy:__
> Workshop B: AIDS and Culture:__ | Workshop D: Professional, NGO,
> and Student Approaches:__
>
> BANQUET
> Number of Reserved Seats desired for you and your guests: __
>
>
>
> COST
> The conference will be $3 for pre-registered participants and $5 at the
> door, except that it will be free for Harvard undergrads. Banquet seats will
> be $45 for professionals and $15 for students. Please make your check
> payable to VISIONS WORLDWIDE and mail it to the following address by
May 1st. If you cannot send your check by this date, please note on your registration from that you will be bringing the check with you on the day of the event.
                        VISIONS Harvard
                        4 University Hall
                        Cambridge, MA 02138
>
> THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR COMPLETING THIS REGISTRATION FORM, AND WE ARE
> LOOKING FORWARD TO HAVING YOU AS OUR HONORED GUEST.

****************************************************************** Date: Mon, 28 Apr 1997 14:25:16 -0400 (EDT) From: jay p sah <jsah01@fiu.edu> To: Nepal Digest <Nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Thanks,

To The Editor, The Nepal Digest TND Foundations

Dear Editor,

I have been a silent reader of the Nepal Digest for last 20 months. It is now time to go to Nepal for my Ph.D. field work. I would like to appriciate the efforts of all those members who are contributing, directly or indirectly, to keep the Nepal Digest alive. It is playing not only a siginficant role in having thr cohesive force active among the Nepali community, especially residing abroad, but also it is working as a catalyst in bringing others close to Nepalis and Nepal. I would like to request you to delete my name temporarily (for one year) from your mailing list. Since I will in the field, I may not have email address in Nepal. Thanks. Sicerely yours: J. P Sah Address in Nepal: Central Dept. of Botany Tribhuvan University Kirtipur, Kathmandu

Jay Prakash Sah Tel. 305 348 3979/2201 (work) Ph. D. Student 305 552 7945 (home) Department of Biology Fax: 305 348 1986 Florida International University Miami, FL 33199, USA

****************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: D.Karki@massey.ac.nz (Debendra Karki) Subject: Date: Tue, 29 Apr 1997 04:19:17 +0000

Immaculate affection:
                        By :Roshi Welcome to my world.... In this evenings mystic shade A silver inexplicable diva Echoed in on the impenetrable Galaxy of the myraid stars.

The tranquil eyes of a blessed angel Searching, seeking for the truth Untouched by deceit or honesty Faithfully reflecting, forshadowing A blind man hunting the moon.

Placid but distinctly genuine Glimmering lips Puckering into a flawless Puerile triumphant smile.

Enclosing the indulging feeling Of affection to that serene and innocent soul So familiar but so much more to know They welcomed me this wonderful world of wonders and surprises Showering eternal blessings and pure affection.

They stay inside me Glowing the light of life Accepting me for what I was yesterday and What I will be tomorrow I have no words left to complain now, But just a handful of " thank you's " Because My heart has indeed sung all the rest.

 ******************************************************************************
 * *
 * The Nepal Digest(TND) is a publication of TND Foundation, a global *
 * not-for-profit information and resource center committed to promoting *
 * issues concerning Nepal. All members of tnd@nepal.org will get a copy of *
 * The Nepal Digest (TND). Membership is free of charge and open to all. *
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 * P.O. Box 48 *
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 * THE EDITOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO EDIT ARTICLES FOR CLARITY. *
 * Contributors need to supply Header for the article, email, and full name. *
 * *
 * Postings are divided into following categories that are listed in the *
 * order below. Please provide category-type in the header of your e-mail. *
 * *
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 * 6. CHOOT_KILA (Humor, Recipies, Movie Reviews, Sattaires etc.) *
 * 7. JAN_KARI: Classifides (Matrimonials, Jobs etc) *
 * 8. KHOJ_KHABAR (Inquiring about Nepal, Nepalis etc. ) *
 * 9. TITAR_BITAR: Miscellaneous (Immigration and Taxex etc. ) *
 * *
 * COPYRIGHT NOTE *
 * -------------- *
 * The content contributors are responsible for any copyright violations. *
 * TND, a non-profit electronic journal, will publish articles that has *
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 ******************************************************************************

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