# The Nepal Digest - May 1, 1995 (18 Baishakh 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Monday 1 May 95: Baishakh 18 2051 BkSm Volume 38 Issue 1

******************************************************************************
* TND Board of Staff *
* ------------------ *
* Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
* SCN Liaison: Rajesh B. Shrestha rshresth@black.clarku.edu *
* Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma sharma@plains.nodak.edu *
* TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
* Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta ponta@sas.upenn.edu *
* News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha rajendra@dartmouth.edu *
* *
* +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
* *
* "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
* "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
* *
******************************************************************************

************************************************************* From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News4/13-16 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

April 14
---------------------

Nepali Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikari returned home tonight after a successful five-day official visit to India. "My visit to india is successful and positive," the Prime Minister told newsmen upon arrival at the Kathmandu airport. According to a joint communique published at the end of the visit, both sides agreed that Nepal would get facility of additional Indian ports of Kandla and Bombay on the same terms as being available to Indian nationals. At the same time, India agreed to assist Nepal in constructing 18 bridges on the East-West highway, undertake joint survey for the East-West railway and aid Nepal in the regular supply of commodities like petroleum products, salt, sugar and rice.

April 16 Prime Minister Adhikari Leaves for China Excerpts from Reuters, UPI, Xinhua and DPA reports

Nepalese Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary left for China on Sunday saying Nepal should act as bridge to peace and development between India and China.

Adhikary said his visit to China, Nepal's northern neighbour ''will be as successful as was my visit to India.''

Adhikari, who will spend the night in Hong Kong, begins his China visit Monday at the invitation of his chinese counterpart Li Peng.

While in China, the Nepalese Prime Minister will meet with Chinese President Jiang Zemin, hold talks with Chinese Premier Li Peng and meet with Chairman Li Ruihuan of the National Committee Of The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. He is also carrying a letter from King Birendra to China's leaders, diplomatic sources said. He leaves for Mongolia on Friday.

There are no outstanding problems between China and Nepal and the visit is seen in Kathmandu primarily as a goodwill trip. Adhikari said that he would seek to promote trade and joint ventures with neighboring Tibet, and discuss improving transportation and roads between Nepal and Tibet.

But political observers also see the visit as being designed to balance the one to India which Adhikari concluded Friday.

NEPAL'S SHAME; Girl-Trafficking Meets a Determined Roadblock By John Ward Anderson in Kathmandu for the Washington Post

Anuradha Koirala does not go by the book. Life is too short, the bureaucracy too large and the system too corrupt to get bogged down in fine print, especially when you're trying to help little girls who are rape victims or enslaved prostitutes.

Koirala marches around her small four-bedroom house like a drill sergeant -- face stern, manner crisp. Discipline is important when your home is shelter to more than 40 abused and exploited children no one else wants.

"The children have to learn to be bold -- they can't sit around and weep," she says, jaw set and eyes flashing, as if by sheer willpower the frail former schoolteacher could drive this lesson home.

A 12-year-old girl who was raped by her father walks past, and Koirala reaches out to sneak a mischievous tickle. The stiffness melts into a puddle of giggles and hugs and tenderness.

Later, the horrors that these children have suffered, the personal debt that Koirala has piled up while helping them, the legal battles to arrest their abusers seem to crash down upon her. Her shoulders stoop in fatigue and her weathered face softens, deepening the creases and making her appear 10 years older than her 44 years.

But a consuming anger propels Anuradha Koirala forward. Two years ago it prompted her to form an organization called Maiti Nepal, meaning Mother's House. She started by making personal loans of 1,000 rupees (about $20) to nine female beggars and prostitutes in Nepal's capital of Katmandu so they could set up street stalls to sell vegetables, cigarettes and candies -- and, she hoped, reshape their lives. The shelter is now the centerpiece of Koirala's crusade. There she has surrounded herself with the human residue of Nepal's most insidious social evils: child prostitution and international trafficking in women, particularly to brothels in India. Experts believe there are more than 100,000 Nepalese prostitutes in India, many of whom were either forcefully abducted or tricked into going there by friends and family who had sold them to pimps and brothel owners for prices that range from$ 40 to $1,000. After a so-called "breaking-in" period, during which they are often gang-raped by employees of the brothel, the women and children are forced to have sex with as many as 35 men per day for as little as$ 1 per client. Often all the proceeds go to the brothel owner.

Nepalese women are favored by Indian men because of their facial features and light skin, according to social workers. Many are taken to Indian cities when they are as young as 12. They are literally locked into houses and cages for years and released only when they are too old to attract customers or if they catch a sexually transmitted disease, such as AIDS. Beat police take bribes to look the other way, while officers leave the brothels alone because the owners are protected by corrupt politicians.

It is against this backdrop that Koirala ("Anu" to her friends) found her life's purpose.

A chart on the wall of Koirala's home lists her residents. That week she had 48, from a 24-day-old infant to a 31-year-old woman. Koirala, her 14-year-old son and four boys shared one bedroom; the remaining 44 women and girls -- including 14 former prostitutes and 10 girls returned from brothels in Bombay -- slept in the other bedrooms and the halls.

Koirala feeds her guests, clothes them and sees to their education or job training. But her chief goal, she says, is to provide them with a safe and loving home. The older girls care for the youngest, they cut each other's hair, wash their clothes, cook their own meals. Everybody jumps to help the blind girl negotiate her way through the chaos.

There are six volunteer workers, but Maiti Nepal is really a one-woman show, right down to the funding. Koirala lost her main donor, UNICEF, when she refused to return children to their families, arguing that the parents had gone through no counseling or rehabilitation programs and the children would end up back on the streets. She has kept her organization running for the past four months on a $3,000 loan from her sister, plus private donations of food, clothes and blankets. There is little time anymore for the long walks she used to take through the Pashupatinath neighborhood of Katmandu -- an area renowned as a haven for destitute, desperate people -- after her husband left her six years ago to marry his aunt. Now, she says, he wants to disown her, knowing full well that for many in this male-dominated Hindu kingdom, it would be the ultimate disgrace. "I'm going to call him this weekend and tell him, 'I'm disowning you!' " she sneered recently while retracing one of the walks where the idea of Maiti Nepal was born. "I talked to the women, and they were all like me, but they were illiterate and had no one and there was poverty and they were helpless," she said. "I told them, 'You're healthy with two arms and two legs. Why do you beg? Start doing something on your own and stop forcing yourselves and your children into such a filthy place.' " Now, with seed money from Koirala, there are 16 women running small sidewalk stands, repaying her at a rate of three rupees per day. They are not all success stories, but even the worst is better off. "At least she's not doing regular prostitution and she doesn't beg," Koirala said. Some of the women had small children and, at their request, Koirala agreed to care for them while their mothers worked. Word spread, and a flood of unwanted kids began appearing at her doorstep. The girls in particular piqued Koirala's concern. "If a girl is not given a safe home, she will be used," Koirala said, "and children do not understand sex. I used to ask the girls about it, and all they said was, 'If we don't do it, we don't get money.' " Government and private reports are replete with complaints that not enough is known about child prostitution and girl trafficking in Nepal. For Koirala, it is enough to know that it has been happening for decades, under the protective eye of corrupt police and politicians, and that between 5,000 and 7,000 Nepalese women and girls are taken to Indian brothels every year. Social activists say that 20 percent are younger than 16 and more than a third are taken there forcibly or lured with the false promise of jobs or marriage. "That life is like a hell," said Sunita Biswakarma, 28, whose boyfriend sold her to a Bombay brothel owner for about$ 500 when she was 19. She escaped after 2 1/2 years, but had to leave her son behind. Now, Koirala is helping her start a small business and wants to help retrieve the son whom Biswakarma has not seen in seven years.

"Whoever I came into contact with said they wanted to go back to Nepal, " Biswakarma said, claiming that 14 other Nepalese girls and women were held at the brothel and forced to have sex with as many as 15 people a day (the price: as little as 30 cents per man). "Even if you have to beg, life is better in Nepal, " she said.

In recent decades, economic and social factors have fueled the boom in prostitution and trafficking in women, activists said. The population of Nepal (19 million) is doubling every 26 years, leading to an acute land shortage that is crippling local economies. Unemployment (46 percent), poverty (the per capita annual income is $180) and illiteracy (62 percent total, 87 percent for women) have combined with the low status of women to produce enormous pressure in the mountainous areas of Nepal to sell women. The sale of women and girls also has roots in Nepalese culture and religion. Certain "untouchable" caste women are traditionally prostitutes, while other castes allow their unmarried women to be sold as offerings to temples, where they invariably become prostitutes to support themselves. The practice is so ingrained in some areas, according to studies, that entire villages have been depopulated of women. With the sale of a young woman bringing as much as 10 years' income, husbands even sell their wives, and brothers sell their sisters. Often, after indoctrination into the brothels, the girls will return to their villages with cash, jewelry and new clothes, putting pressure on other families to force or sell their girls into the trade. "This show of pomp and affluence often makes a tremendous impact," said a report on trafficking by ABC Nepal, one of the first groups to fight the sale of women. "On most occasions, such women [who have returned] take part actively in trafficking of new girls or even their own relatives." Enter Maiti Nepal. Last September, Koirala mobilized 180 people, including police, college students, doctors and other social activists, to go door-to-door in 16 mountain villages north of Katmandu to educate, berate and threaten residents about selling their girls. A month later, she launched a similar operation at 71 Katmandu Valley carpet factories, where unsuspecting girls are often placed for a few weeks before being spirited away to India. "When we went to the villages, they took out knives and said, 'We'll sell our daughters,' and tried to chase us away, until they saw the police," Koirala said. "We have said we'll go after them, and they're scared now in the villages." A police official in Melamchi, a town with a long history of trafficking, said the effort was paying off. About 25 people have been arrested in the last three months, he said; nine of the arrests were attributed to a Maiti Nepal program to encourage informants. Others said there was still a long way to go. "What's the point?" asked Gopal Lama, a trader who lives across from the Melamchi police station. "One political party puts them in jail, another party comes to power and lets them out." For Koirala, it's part of the struggle that keeps her going. "If I were teaching in school, I could earn 6,000 rupees [about$ 120] a month, and that's enough for my son and me, but it holds no charm," she said recently while walking among the beggar women and prostitutes in Pashupatinath. "I wanted something to keep me busy 24 hours a day, otherwise I'd be in the same state as these other women."

************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Tue, 18 Apr 1995 14:33:02 -0400 (EDT) From: Nabin NePal <st0076@student-mail.jsu.edu> Subject: kabita

Hi Mr. Diwas Khati, Namaste. I wanted to send a kabita to TND, but I don't know where to send. May be you can help.

" WHEN THE SKY IS BADLY OVERCASTED "

ON THE THORNY WAY OF LIFE WHEN YOU ARE LEFT ALONE
TO FACE THE WORLD
HOW MONOTONOUS THE HEART BECOMES, ASK ME
WHEN THERE IS NOWHERE TO LOOK UPON
AND WHEN THE SKY IS BADLY OVERCASTED.

Thanks. Nabin

************************************************************** Date: Sun, 16 Apr 1995 18:09:51 +0700 From: Suman Kumar Manandhar <a94314@cs.ait.ac.th> Subject: A Book Guide

You may choose the latest bestsellers off the bookshelves for this summer's reading. Alternatively, I have compiled a list of "old-fashioned" books for you. You can find this list on my home page also at address http://www.cs.ait.ac.th/~a94314/. Happy reading!

*A Many-Splendoured Thing* Han Suyin A limpid love story between a Chinese lady and a British reporter. The language is so beautiful that you will want to note down the lines (as I did).

Excerpts follow: Most people do not wish to remember suffering. My concern is not to forget it. It is not merciful to forget; to obliterate the live sore of remembrance with creeping, bloodless scar tissue. For me always the unabated rawness, the fresh profitable spur of pain.

... at twenty dreaming of sixty-five; in youth aspiring to safe senility. For the security of death, they forsook living.

Who wants to be immortal when beauty is so mortal? I had rather be a red flower in your hair.

... everything has come alive, every moment a shooting star.

I have dreamed a wonderful dream; of life, and love, of laughter, and tears, and good and ill, and all these things which are equal under Heaven, which equalizes all things. A wonderful dream, my many-splendoured thing.

*Bracken* Elizabeth West This is a simple novel about a man who's been told by his doctor that he is going to die in a few months. He goes to live in the countryside to spend his last days and befriends a gypsy boy named Bracken. And Bracken shows him how beautiful the world is, every day, every minute of it. I do not know whether this book is available in the market today - I found a condensed version of this book in a Reader's Digest collection at AWON Library in Kathmandu.

*New Enlarged Anthology of Robert Frost's Poems* With an introduction and commentary by Louis Untermeyer Illustrated by John O'Hara Cosgrave II A good selection of Frost's poems. Illustrations add a fourth dimension to the timeless appeal of these simple verse.

*How to Be Your Own Best Friend* Mildred Newman and Bernard Berkowitz with Jean Owen A book which shows you how you can be happy. It will lift your spirits as you come face to face with your personality. The authors are a husband-and-wife psychiatrist team.

*Summer Lightning* P G Wodehouse This is a book to make you laugh and roll all over the floor. The story of young people falling in and out of love in a roller-coaster turn of events. There is the absent-minded Lord Emsworth fawning over his pig, his disapproving sister and a host of other colourful characters that keep the story rolling. And when uncle Galahad, who firmly believes that any non-alcoholic drink is hazardous to health, is around, the action is non-stop.

*Jonathan Livingstone Seagull* Richard Bach Bach's best book. An allegorical story - it soars like the main character of the book, a maverick seagull who is always trying out new ideas. A modern Aesop's fable.

*All Creatures Great and Small* James Herriot
>From the first paragraph to the last page you cannot but smile -
sometimes through your tears. And I guarantee that you will not stop at that last page because you will go on to read all the sequels, All Things Bright and Beautiful, All Things Wise and Wonderful and The Lord God Made Them All. The author died recently but his books will endure for ever. The books describe a veterinary surgeon's life in a rural part of England called the Dales. It is full of stories about farmers, their cows and goats, and other people's dogs and cats - and soon you will realize that the tiny flame of life burning inside a dying calf is as beautiful a treasure as we are ever likely to find.

*Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam* done into English by Edward Fitzgerald with illustrations by Marjorie Anderson Translated from the Arabic, the verse flows non-stop like the wine it glorifies. A small book but a joy to read.

some excerpts:

And this delightful Herb whose tender Green Fledges the River's Lip on which we lean - Ah, lean upon it lightly! for who knows
>From what once lovely Lip it springs unseen!

Ah Love! could thou and I with Fate conspire To grasp this sorry Scheme of Things entire, Would not we shatter it to bits - and then Remould it nearer to the Heart's Desire!

*The Prophet* Kahlil Gibran This is a parable of a prophet living on an island who bestows his wisdom upon the local people. A book that explains life and death, and pain and joy in a language that defies description. A good book to give as a gift - the gift may be the most valuable you have ever given anyone.

some excerpts:

Your pain is the breaking of the shell that encloses your understanding.

Even as the strings of a lute are alone though they quiver with the same music.

Is not the dread of thirst when your well is full, the thirst that is unquenchable?

Surely he who is worthy to receive his days and his nights is worthy of all else from you.

The deeper that sorrow carves into your being, the more joy you can contain.

And is not the lute that soothes your spirit the very wood that was hollowed with knives?

Life, and all that lives, is conceived in the mist and not in the crystal. And who knows but a crystal is mist in decay?

I have translated this book into Nepali. I have a dream of publishing it some day.

Happy New Year 2052 to you all. Suman Kumar Manandhar, a94314@cs.ait.ac.th, http://www.cs.ait.ac.th/~a94314/

***************************************************************** From: "Heather C. Stewart" <hstewart@moose.uvm.edu> Subject: Looking for info. on Hindu Women

Dear Editor,
It would be great if you could send this out to all TND members:

NAMASTE!

I am a student at the University of Vermont, and I am writing a paper for my sociology class on the status of women in Nepal. I am interested in the recent change of government to communism, and the effects it has had on women. If anyone on the TND can share or help me find some information on this
subject I would be very grateful. Anything regarding the status of Hindu women would be appreciated!

hstewart@moose.uvm.edu

***************************************************************** From: "DEEPAK DUTTA" <94013515@zaphod.riv.csu.edu.au> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Wed, 19 Apr 1995 11:40:26 GMT-10 Subject: information regarding trekking in Nepal

To,
The editor,TND

Can you please include this questionaire in the digest.

Can someone tell me what would be the best place for trekking in Nepal during the month of May? A friend of mine is going to Nepal and she is really interested in going for trekking, maybe for a short trekking trip. I find myself unable to give her any idea regarding where she should go to. It would be really kind if any of the netters subscribed to TND can provide me some information.
HAPPY NEW YEAR 2052, to all the Nepalese netters of TND.
EMAIL.
94013515@zaphod.riv.csu.edu.au

********************************************************************* Date: Tue, 18 Apr 95 22:00:33 EST From: "anup s.pande" <anup_s.pande@smtpgtwy.berea.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Yastai cha RNAC

Namaste, This is to comment about the recent posting about Royal Nepal Airlines by Dr. Pokhrel. As far as the age of the aircraft go, it is true that
the ones in domestic service date as early as the sixties. One might have heard the long list of 'pravidhik karanle garda' delays and cancellations of RA domestic flights every night at 9pm on the radio. While such delays and cancellations very often occur because of the weather, mechanical problems with the aircraft also equally contribute to them and these frequent mechanical problems simply occur due to the age of the aircraft. Those who flew domestic sectors around 1990 might have noticed the inconvenience when only one of the three 'thotra' Avros were operational.
Talking about the fleet in international flights, RA currently operates two 757s (bought in 1988) and an Airbus 310(introduced sometime in the 80's) on lease which are one of the most modern jets in service. Therefore I can not agree with the point that RNAC jets are old and painful for a few hours of flight. Although I have never flown an international flight on RA, I have heard several times that passengers who boarded with everything confirmed in the US would get bumped at London becuase their record does not exist in their computers at London. Therefore, we can observe the reservation system of RNAC.

Another dissatisfaction I would like to express is about its service to Osaka. Why in the world does an airline at the verge of bankruptcy have to fly to the most expensive airport of the world (11 times(?) more expensive to land than at Tokyo, Narita)? In addition, RA is not allowed to carry passengers or cargo from Shanghai to Osaka. I wonder how many seats would reamin empty. If it has to fly into Japan, why doesn't it go to Tokyo which has a lower landing cost? Also there are more flights from the US or any where else in the world to Tokyo than to Osaka, so that it can be used as a connecting point for those flying from the US or Canada. A connection via Tokyo, encompassing a more central location in Japan would also help to reduce the cost of expensive domestic travel in Japan. High operating costs may be the reason that the frequency of flights into Kansai has been reduced to one from two flights a week.
Arko kura about domestic flights; as a student I travelled with 25% discount to get which I had to show my valid id and proof of age while purchasing the ticket. However before boarding a flight, I do not remember a single time that my id was checked. Threfore I suspect that there may be a lot of nonstudents flying with student discount. Sometime around 1991 or 1992 I remember reading an article on some weekly newspaper(Bimarsha or Deshantar?) that a passenger wrapped in bandages boarded a flight at Simikot. Once he landed at Nepalgunj, he went to the toilet, pilled off all the bandages and walked out as a normal healthy man. He was identified as the district health worker. There was another report with a photograph showing the pilot taking out fuel from the airplane( reported to be about 60 litres, price per litre Rs 13.60) at Rumjatar airport. These are perhaps only small examples of irregularities going in our rastriya dhwaja bahak. I do not think I need to describe about the irregularities at most of the remote airports as well as the hub cities.
This is just a small compilation of my personal experiences and views as well as what I have heard and read. I would appreciate any feedbacks. Sadhanyabd
Anup Pande (anup_s.pande@berea.edu)

********************************************************** Date: Wed, 19 Apr 1995 15:58:09 -0500 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: rajesh@koz.struct.civil.saitama-u.ac.jp (Rajesh Adhikari) Subject: New Year Gift... Nepali Calendar 2052

Hello there,

Happy New Year to all of you.

Here is the Calendar for year 2052 written in LaTeX. It was originally created by Hem Raj Joshi (GERMANY) and thanks (if any) should go to him.

I hope it is helpful to some.

********************* CUT HERE ************************

\documentstyle[12pt]{article}
\parindent=0cm
\topmargin=-1cm
\textwidth=14cm
\textheight=33cm

\begin{document}

\begin{center}
\Large{\sf Nepali Calendar ({\it 2052 B.S})}
\end{center}
\scriptsize
\begin{tabular}{|c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c|} \\
\hline
\multicolumn{7}{|c|}{\bf{Baishakh}\it{(Apr14-May14)}}&
\multicolumn{7}{|c|}{\bf{Jestha}\it{(May15-jun14)}} \\
\hline
\scriptsize Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa&Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa \\
\hline
${31}_{14}$& & & & & ${1}_{14}$& ${2}_{15}$& &
${1}_{15}$ & ${2}_{16}$ &${3}_{17}$ &${4}_{18}$ &${5}_{19}$ &${6}_{20}$ \\
\hline
$3_{16}$&${4}_{17}$&${5}_{18}$&${6}_{19}$&${7}_{20}$&${8}_{21}$&${9}_{22}$&
${7}_{21}$&${8}_{22}$&${9}_{23}$&${10}_{24}$&${11}_{25}$&${12}_{26}$&${13}_{ 27}$ \\
\hline
${10}_{23}$&${11}_{24}$&${12}_{25}$&${13}_{26}$&${14}_{27}$&${15}_{28}$&${16 }_{29}$&
${14}_{28}$&${15}_{29}$&${16}_{30}$&${17}_{31}$&${18}_{1}$&${19}_{2}$&${20}_ {3}$ \\
\hline
${17}_{30}$&${18}_{1}$&${19}_{2}$&${20}_{3}$&${21}_{4}$&${22}_{5}$&${23}_{6}$&${21}_{4}$&${22}_{5}$&${23}_{6}$&${24}_{7}$&${25}_{8}$&${26}_{9}$&${27}_{1 0}$ \\
\hline
${24}_{7}$&${25}_{8}$&${26}_{9}$&${27}_{10}$&${28}_{11}$&${29}_{12}$&${30}_{ 13}$&${28}_{11}$&${29}_{12}$&${30}_{13}$&${31}_{14}$&&& \\
\hline
\end{tabular}

\marginpar{\bf 1995 {\it A.D}}
\vspace{4mm}
\begin{tabular}{|c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c|} \\
\hline
\multicolumn{7}{|c|}{\bf{Shravan}\it{(May17-Aug16)}} \\
\hline Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa&Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa \\
\hline
${32}_{16}$& & & &${1}_{15}$ & ${2}_{16}$& ${3}_{17}$& &${1}_{17}$ &
${2}_{18}$&${3}_{19}$ &${4}_{20}$ &${5}_{21}$ &${6}_{22}$ \\
\hline
${4}_{18}$&${5}_{19}$&${6}_{20}$&${7}_{21}$&${8}_{22}$&${9}_{23}$&${10}_{24}$&
${7}_{23}$&${8}_{24}$&${9}_{25}$&${10}_{26}$&${11}_{27}$&${12}_{28}$&${13}_{ 29}$ \\
\hline
${11}_{25}$&${12}_{26}$&${13}_{27}$&${14}_{28}$&${15}_{29}$&${16}_{30}$&${17 }_{1}$&
${14}_{30}$&${15}_{31}$&${16}_{1}$&${17}_{2}$&${18}_{3}$&${19}_{4}$&${20}_{5 }$ \\
\hline
${18}_{2}$&${19}_{3}$&${20}_{4}$&${21}_{5}$&${22}_{6}$&${23}_{7}$&${24}_{8}$
&${21}_{6}$&${22}_{7}$&${23}_{8}$&${24}_{9}$&${25}_{10}$&${26}_{11}$&${27}_{ 12}$ \\
\hline
${25}_{9}$&${26}_{10}$&${27}_{11}$&${28}_{12}$&${29}_{13}$&${30}_{14}$&${31} _{15}$&${28}_{13}$&${29}_{14}$&${30}_{15}$&${31}_{16}$&&& \\
\hline
\end{tabular}

\vspace{4mm}
\begin{tabular}{|c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c|} \\
\hline
\multicolumn{7}{|c|}{\bf{Aaswin}\it{(Sep17-Oct17)}} \\
\hline Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa&Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa \\
\hline
& & & &${1}_{17}$ & ${2}_{18}$& ${3}_{19}$&
${1}_{17}$&${2}_{18}$ &${3}_{19}$ &${4}_{20}$ &${5}_{21}$ &${6}_{22}$
&${7}_{23}$\\
\hline
${4}_{20}$&${5}_{21}$&${6}_{22}$&${7}_{23}$&${8}_{24}$&${9}_{25}$&${10}_{26}$&
${8}_{24}$&${9}_{25}$&${10}_{26}$&${11}_{27}$&${12}_{28}$&${13}_{29}$&${14}_ {30}$ \\
\hline
${11}_{27}$&${12}_{28}$&${13}_{29}$&${14}_{30}$&${15}_{31}$&${16}_{1}$&${17} _{2}$&
${15}_{1}$&${16}_{2}$&${17}_{3}$&${18}_{4}$&${19}_{5}$&${20}_{6}$&${21}_{7}$ \\
\hline
${18}_{3}$&${19}_{4}$&${20}_{5}$&${21}_{6}$&${22}_{7}$&${23}_{8}$&${24}_{9}$&
${22}_{8}$&${23}_{9}$&${24}_{10}$&${25}_{11}$&${26}_{12}$&${27}_{13}$&${28}_ {14}$ \\
\hline
${25}_{10}$&${26}_{11}$&${27}_{12}$&${28}_{13}$&${29}_{14}$&${30}_{15}$&${31 }_{16}$&
${29}_{15}$&${30}_{16}$&${31}_{17}$&&&& \\
\hline
\end{tabular}

\vspace{4mm}
\begin{tabular}{|c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c|} \\
\hline
\multicolumn{7}{|c|}{\bf{Kartik}\it{(Oct18-Nov16)}}&
\multicolumn{7}{|c|}{\bf{Mangsir}\it{(Nov17-Dec15)}} \\
\hline Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa&Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa \\
\hline
&&&${1}_{18}$&${2}_{19}$&${3}_{20}$&${4}_{21}$&&&&&&${1}_{17}$&${2}_{18}$ \\
\hline
${5}_{22}$&${6}_{23}$&${7}_{24}$&${8}_{25}$&${9}_{26}$&${10}_{27}$&${11}_{28}$&
${3}_{19}$&${4}_{20}$&${5}_{21}$&${6}_{22}$&${7}_{23}$&${8}_{24}$&${9}_{25}$ \\
\hline
${12}_{29}$&${13}_{30}$&${14}_{31}$&${15}_{1}$&${16}_{2}$&${17}_{3}$&${18}_{4}$&
${10}_{26}$&${11}_{27}$&${12}_{28}$&${13}_{29}$&${14}_{30}$&${15}_{1}$&${16} _{2}$ \\
\hline
${19}_{5}$&${20}_{6}$&${21}_{7}$&${22}_{8}$&${23}_{9}$&${24}_{10}$&${25}_{11}$&
${17}_{3}$&${18}_{4}$&${19}_{5}$&${20}_{6}$&${21}_{7}$&${22}_{8}$&${23}_{9}$ \\
\hline
${26}_{12}$&${27}_{13}$&${28}_{14}$&${29}_{15}$&${30}_{16}$&&&
${24}_{10}$&${25}_{11}$&${26}_{12}$&${27}_{13}$&${28}_{14}$&${29}_{15}$& \\
\hline
\end{tabular}

\vspace{4mm}
\begin{tabular}{|c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c|} \\
\hline
\multicolumn{7}{|c|}{\bf{Pous}\it{(Dec16-Jan13)}}&
\multicolumn{7}{|c|}{\bf{Maagh}\it{(Jan14-Feb12)}} \\
\hline Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa&Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa \\
\hline
&&&&&&${1}_{16}$&
${1}_{14}$&${2}_{15}$&${3}_{16}$&${4}_{17}$&${5}_{18}$&${6}_{19}$&${7}_{20}$ \\
\hline
${2}_{17}$&${3}_{18}$&${4}_{19}$&${5}_{20}$&${6}_{21}$&${7}_{22}$&${8}_{23}$&
${8}_{21}$&${9}_{22}$&${10}_{23}$&${11}_{24}$&${12}_{25}$&${13}_{26}$&${14}_ {27}$ \\
\hline
${9}_{24}$&${10}_{25}$&${11}_{26}$&${12}_{27}$&${13}_{28}$&${14}_{29}$&${15} _{30}$&
${15}_{28}$&${16}_{29}$&${17}_{30}$&${18}_{31}$&${19}_{1}$&${20}_{2}$&${21}_ {3}$ \\
\hline
${16}_{31}$&${17}_{1}$&${18}_{2}$&${19}_{3}$&${20}_{4}$&${21}_{5}$&${22}_{6}$&
${22}_{4}$&${23}_{5}$&${24}_{6}$&${25}_{7}$&${26}_{8}$&${27}_{9}$&${28}_{10}$ \\
\hline
${23}_{7}$&${24}_{8}$&${25}_{9}$&${26}_{10}$&${27}_{11}$&${28}_{12}$&${29}_{ 13}$&
${29}_{11}$&${30}_{12}$&&&&&\\
\hline
\end{tabular}

\marginpar{\bf 1996 {\it A.D}}
\vspace{4mm}
\begin{tabular}{|c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c| c|} \\
\hline
\multicolumn{7}{|c|}{\bf{Falgun}\it{(Feb13-Mar13)}}&
\multicolumn{7}{|c|}{\bf{Chaitra}\it{(Mar14-Apr12)}} \\
\hline Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa&Su&Mo&Tu&We&Th&Fr&Sa \\
\hline
&&${1}_{13}$&${2}_{14}$&${3}_{15}$&${4}_{16}$&${5}_{17}$&
&&&&${1}_{14}$&${2}_{15}$&${3}_{16}$ \\
\hline
${6}_{18}$&${7}_{19}$&${8}_{20}$&${9}_{21}$&${10}_{22}$&${11}_{23}$&${12}_{24}$&
${4}_{17}$&${5}_{18}$&${6}_{19}$&${7}_{20}$&${8}_{21}$&${9}_{22}$&${10}_{23}$ \\
\hline
${13}_{25}$&${14}_{26}$&${15}_{27}$&${16}_{28}$&${17}_{29}$&${18}_{1}$&${19} _{2}$&
${11}_{24}$&${12}_{25}$&${13}_{26}$&${14}_{27}$&${15}_{28}$&${16}_{29}$&${17 }_{30}$ \\
\hline
${20}_{3}$&${21}_{4}$&${22}_{5}$&${23}_{6}$&${24}_{7}$&${25}_{8}$&${26}_{9}$&
${18}_{31}$&${19}_{1}$&${20}_{2}$&${21}_{3}$&${22}_{4}$&${23}_{5}$&${24}_{6}$ \\
\hline
${27}_{10}$&${28}_{11}$&${29}_{12}$&${30}_{13}$&&&&
${25}_{7}$&${26}_{8}$&${27}_{9}$&${28}_{10}$&${29}_{11}$&${30}_{12}$& \\
\hline
\end{tabular}

\tiny
\begin{itemize}

\item {\bf\underline{Some important Dates}}: {\bf Baishakh}: New Year(1), Matatirtha Aunshee(16),Buddha Jayantee(31)\\
{\bf Bhadra}:Krishnastamee(1),Kushe Aunshee(26),Teej(13); {\bf Aasvin}: Ghatasthapana(9), Fulpatee(15)\\ Vijaya Dashamee(17),Kojagrat Purnima(21){\bf Kartik}:Lakshmee Puja(6),Bhai Teeka(8)\\ Haribodhini Ekadashee(3),{\bf Pous}: Maagh Snanarmbha(21) {\bf Maagh}: Shreepanchamee(12)\\ Shosthanee Brat Samadhee(22), {\bf Falgun}: Shivaratree(5), Holee Purnima(21);\\ Chaitra:Chaitraastamee(14),Raam Navamee(15)

\item {\bf\underline{Biheko Lagan}}: {\bf Baishakh}(6,7,8,9,18,19,20,25,26,27,28,29);
{\bf Jestha}(1,3,4,5,10,11,16,17,24,25,28,29,30,31);\\
{\bf Falgun}(2,3,8,9,14,15,16,20,21,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30)\\

\end{itemize}
\end{document}

% *************************** END of The Calendar ********************

************************************************************************* Date: Tue, 18 Apr 1995 21:01:26 -0400 (EDT) From: Pravignya Regmi <pregmi@emerald.tufts.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: HELP NEPAL SAVE ENVIRONMENT-III

IS IT NEPALS' TURN AFTER ETHIOPIA, SUDAN AND SOMALIA ?
_______________________________________________________

A six year old dead baby only with the bony skeleton and protruding belley is being carried to graveyard. Her mother with bulging eyes has no tears to weep. She has already lost four children and herself is ready to collapse at any time. Besides that she has witnessed the mass funeral of of famine corpses that are partially wrapped in jute sacks and simply thrown in the desert that was once a green fertile land. Perplexed with extream calamity she holds her daughter tightly on her chest before saying her final good bye. Staring long in the grave, she wonders with vacant mind.
This is a depiction of the hell in the "Garud Purana" which is recited, on the thirteenth day of a persons' demise, by the Brahmin priests in the Hindu tradition. It seems like that the descriptions are no more legendary myth but simply a vivid reality - a reality of environmental degradation - a consequence of desertification.
Despite heavy use and exploitation of the arable land, Nepal has not yet suffered such catastroph like the African countries for two major reasons. First is the presence of the Himalayas that block the highly saturated monsoon winds causing rain in Nepal; therby, creating numerous springs and glaciars for lives. Second is the fertile alluvial soils of the Terai region which is capable of producing great quantity of crops.
However, there are some questions: How far will the land sustain the pressure of ever accelarating demands ? Will the springs continue to flow ? And will "Chyangba" and "Maichang" have oppertunity to make
"peerati" in the deep green forest while collecting fodder ?

___________________________________________
Following are the eight simple facts for environmental degradation that are shared by Nepal and the major causes of famine in the African countries, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan in GENERAL. I leave these facts to analyse to my readers to extrapolate the Nepals' environmental destiny.

Fact # 1. All the three countries mentioned above are struggling with
severe desertification while Nepal has alarmingly encountered
usually the first scence of desertification. Some
10,000 acres of land in western Nepal has started
desertification (HMG, Env. 1992). Nepal loses millions
of cubic feet of fertile top soil every year resulting in
exposure of subsoil which is not suitable for plants as it
lacks required organic constituents.
Shifting areas of cultivation on the mountain slopes and
flooding in the Terai region has resulted in massive landslides
and soil erosion. Fact # 2. Deforestation is common in all the countries creating numerous
environmental problems. About 90% of the Nepalese fuelneeds are
met with firewood obtained from forest. Trees are stripped of
branches for fodder and fuelwood needs that reduces plants' repro-
ductive ability. Furthermore, Nepal is heading to the same way
of trampling forests by grazing cattle, which is another major
reason for deforestation, like Somalia did (on Ogaden grasslands
on Ethiopian land). Trampling effect compacts soil, makes land
barren and kills saplings. It starts from a margin of a forest
and consumes all at the end leaving deserted earth behind. Fact # 3. Poor percentage of arable cropland exerts pressure on fertile land
and decreases fertility. Nepal compared to the African countries
holds high percentage, i.e. 18.84%, of arable cropland compared
to that of Ethiopia 11.4%, Sudan 5.14% and Somalia 1.62%; however,
soil fertility on mountains is limited and ever deteriorating.
This point exposes the fear of local famines. A point to think -
is growing demand of food and limited supply a diagnostic symptom
of famine ? Fact # 4. All of the countries are heavily depended on traditional methods
of farming. The fact of Sudan, lacking natural vegetation is
largely because of the effects of centuries of cultivation, can
be somehow applied to view future Nepal. Our croplands are busy
through out the year producing some kind of grains. The land has
almost no time to restore its lost fertility because of such
continious use. Hey and other crop biproducts are not
recycled in Nepal; except, some of it in the form of organic
manure is scattered in "Khet" and "Baries" before cultivation.
Next cause is the improper land use; for example, corn, that has
very poor capcity to hold soil, is grown on hill slopes during
monsoon. This causes rapid soil erosion and heavy leaching of
essential minerals contributing a significant role of land
desertification. Fact # 5. Rate of population growth is high among all the countries.
Ethiopia holds highest rate, i.e. 2.91% which is followed by
Sudan 2.88% Nepal 2.66% and Somalia 1.94%. This will lead high
population which means exploitation of virgin lands (unless there are
other methods) to meet the new demands. High population density has
multidimenssional effects on ecological dynamics that leads further
deterioration in ecosystems. Fact # 6. The three African countries have been suffering severe problem of
famine while Nepal confronts malnutrion. Malnutrion is a kind
mild famine that can grow to severe when environment turns harsh. Fact # 7. Poverty is the harsh reality of all the four contries. Majority
of the people even can not sustain their lives if they are deprived
to extract resources from forest. People are poor and
environmentally illiterate. Consequence is rapid deterioration of
local ecology; thereby, whole country. Fact # 8. Democracy is new to Nepal and has been practicing its virtues.
However, corruption and nepotism have not been completely eli-
minated. Nepal, of course, does not suffer from brutal civil wars
as Somalia, though strong political tensions and prejudice
still persist among the political parties. If the political system
worsens (let us not hope that), no one knows what will happen !

A Fable That Can be True
__________________________
It is likely (this is not a prediction) to observe the scene mentioned on the first para of this article if the current rate of environmental degradation continues in Nepal, NO DOUBT SOONER OR LATER, unless measures are taken or alternatives are derived to prevent form future calamity. We need to visualize this RIGHT AT THIS MOMENT and move SMARTLY forwards for environmental protection.
Environmental protection for economic development, production and use for all ! Let us join hand and move towards the GOAL!

Pravigya Regmi
_______________
(Note: The data is based on the Environmental Alamanac 1994. Some facts have been extracted from Enclyc. Brit., other ref. can be provided upon request)

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Wed, 19 Apr 1995 11:31:41 -0400 (EDT) From: RAKSHA DEVI MALAKAR <raksha@ent.umass.edu> Subject: Hello! To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

Dear Rajpal,

I am looking for a contact person or address in Nepal, to get permission to trap some gypsy moths in Nepal . Do you have any idea about it?

Thanks. Raksha

***************************************************************** Date: Wed, 19 Apr 1995 11:44:07 +0500 From: nshresth@capital.edu (Nischal Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Street

HAPPY NEW YEAR 2052

1920s - Chicago becomes the nation's gang capital during Prohibition;Mexican immigrants form first HIspanic gangs in barrios of Los Angeles;Eastern and Southern European immigrants continue flocking to ethnic enclaves in New York City that gave rise to many gangs.

1950s - Southern blacks migrate to Northern inner cities;classic era of teen street gangs counseled by social workers;wave of Puerto Rican immigrants arrives in New York City.

1960s - Gangs take on traits from Civil Rights, Black Muslim and radical youth movements;government channels some gangs into anti-poverty work.

To be continued...

Bye.
Nischal.

****************************************************************** Date: 19 Apr 1995 10:38:22 U From: "Hridaya Bajracharya" <hridaya_bajracharya@sec.educ.ualberta.ca> Subject: Sanskrit is not an icon of To: "The Nepal Digest" <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Subject: 4/18/95
Sanskrit is not an icon of discontent 15:11

I was taken aback in the reviving in TND of the issues of Radio news in Sanskrit. I was already reading some fine arguments in SCN, that argued that it was not the issue of Sanskrit as such rather it is the issue of how it is being used, almost in an irritating way to the normal rational or even spiritual thinking minds. The big quesion, I think, is why news in Sanskrit?
Will there be anyone who would listen to it for the sole purpose of getting the news? And, is there a group for whom it is difficult to understand other language but sanskrit for the purpose of news? Based on my limited personal perception of who Padma Ratna is, I think these might be the rational issues why he resigned in frustration not being able to make his political allies realize the rational dimension of the issues. Perhaps, if sanskrit were to be used for revealing what it held in the form of spiritual imaginations, the beauty of the wisdom it held in the form of stories, poetry and granthas,

***************************************************************** Date: Thu, 20 Apr 1995 00:17:59 -0700 From: aeb947062@rccvax.ait.ac.th To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: ABOUT SANSKRIT ISSUE

Dear Editor Rajpaljee Namaste
Through the popular TND I request you to circulate this message to all of the TND members.The message is about broadcasting of Sanskrit language from the radio Nepal and its reaction by various Nepalis inside and outside of the country. THIS IS SPECIALLY THE RESPONSE TO NURU LAMA,WHO WROTE ABOUT BROADCASTING OF SANSKRIT FROM RADIO NEPAL. MR LAMA SHOWED HIS DISSATISFACTION IN tnd ON 14th APRIL.

. You can hear lot from other in your place if there are Brhamans and Kshtris. Be clear that I am not in favour of any particular caste rather I am interested in whole Nepale community like a flower bunch of marigold which if disturbed one petal could make ugly not only the flower but also the plant as a whole. Thank you very much for giving an unnecesaary issue for discussion Yours Mina Nath Paudel Asian Institute of Technology , Bangkok,Thailand.

******************************************************************** Date: Wed, 19 Apr 1995 13:56:21 -0400 (EDT) From: ST941806@PIP.CC.BRANDEIS.EDU Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - April 18, 1995 (5 Baishakh 2052 BkSm) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

but i surely hope that the readers now understand that the resignation of Mr Padma Ratna Tuladhar has more to do wiht the Newar and parbhate than Pahadiya-Janajati.

umanga

***************************************************** To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: peircer@ohsu.edu (Robert Peirce) Date: Wed Apr 19 11:32:31 PDT 1995 Subject: temporary stoppage of TND

I will be away for more than a month (in Nepal) and request that you not send TND at that time. I will make a new request on my return.

Many thanks! I have been getting a lot out of it and am grateful to you!

Robert Peirce peircer@ohsu.edu

*********************************************************** From: Edward Wallis Carter IV <edwardiv@grove.ufl.EDU> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - April 18, 1995 (5 Baishakh 2052 BkSm)

Thanks for signing me on to the Nepal Digest. It is really great!

Edward Carter IV Dept of Geography Univ of Florida

voice: (904) 371-8217 (Gainesville)
(904) 392-0494 (school)
(904) 392-8855 (fax)

*************************************************************** Date: Wed, 19 Apr 1995 14:51:40 -0400 (EDT) From: Pravignya Regmi <pregmi@emerald.tufts.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: HELP NEPAL SAVE ENVIRONMENT-III

Help Nepal Save Environment-III

IS IT NEPALS' TURN AFTER ETHIOPIA, SUDAN AND SOMALIA ?
_______________________________________________________

A six year old dead baby only with the bony skeleton and protruding belley is being carried to a graveyard. Her mother with bulging eyes has no tears to weep. She has already lost four children and herself is ready to collapse at any time. Besides that she has witnessed the mass funeral of of famine corpses that are partially wrapped in jute sacks and simply thrown in the desert that was once a green fertile land. Perplexed with extream calamity she holds her daughter tightly on her chest before saying her final good bye. Staring long in the grave, she wonders with vacant mind.
This is a depiction of the hell in the "Garud Purana" which is recited, on the thirteenth day of a persons' demise, by the Brahmin priests in the Hindu tradition. It seems like that the descriptions are no more legendary myth but simply a vivid reality - a reality of environmental degradation - a consequence of desertification.
Despite heavy use and exploitation of the arable land, Nepal has not yet suffered such catastroph like the African countries for two major reasons. First is the presence of the Himalayas that block the highly saturated monsoon winds causing rain in Nepal; therby, creating numerous springs and glaciars for lives. Second is the fertile alluvial soils of the Terai region which is capable of producing great quantity of crops.
However, there are some questions: How far will the land sustain the pressure of ever accelarating demands ? Will the springs continue to flow
? Will the birds be chirping by the cool "peepal chautaries ? And will
"Chyangba" and "Maichang" have oppertunity to make "peerati" in the deep green forest while collecting fodder ?

___________________________________________
Following are the eight simple facts for environmental degradation that are shared by Nepal and the major causes of famine in the African countries, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan in GENERAL and they are all interrelated to each other. I leave these facts to analyse to my readers to extrapolate the Nepals' environmental destiny.

Fact # 1.| All the three countries mentioned above are struggling with Deserti- | severe desertification while Nepal has alarmingly encountered fication | the problem of land degradation. Land degradation is
usually the first scence of desertification. Some
10,000 acres of land in western Nepal has started
desertification (HMG, Env. 1992). Nepal loses millions
of cubic feet of fertile top soil every year resulting in
exposure of subsoil which is not suitable for plants as it
lacks required organic constituents.
Shifting areas of cultivation on the mountain slopes and
flooding in the Terai region has resulted in massive landslides
and soil erosion. Fact # 2.| Deforestation is common in all the countries creating numerous Defores- | environmental problems. About 90% of the Nepalese fuelneeds are tation | met with firewood obtained from forest. Trees are stripped of
branches for fodder and fuelwood needs that reduces plants' repro-
ductive ability. Furthermore, Nepal is heading to the same way
of trampling forests by grazing cattle, which is another major
reason for deforestation, like Somalia did (on Ogaden grasslands
on Ethiopian land). Trampling effect compacts soil, makes land
barren and kills saplings. It starts from a margin of a forest
and consumes all at the end leaving deserted earth behind. Fact # 3.|Poor percentage of arable cropland exerts pressure on fertile land Less ar- |and decreases fertility. Nepal compared to the African countries able |holds high percentage, i.e. 18.84%, of arable cropland compared land |to that of Ethiopia 11.4%, Sudan 5.14% and Somalia 1.62%; however,
soil fertility on mountains is limited and ever deteriorating.
This point exposes the fear of local famines. A point to think -
is growing demand of food and limited supply a diagnostic symptom
of famine ? Fact # 4.|All of the countries are heavily depended on traditional methods Heavy |of farming. The fact of Sudan, lacking natural vegetation is land |largely because of the effects of centuries of cultivation, can use |be somehow applied to view future Nepal. Our croplands are busy
through out the year producing some kind of grains. The land has
almost no time to restore its lost fertility because of such
perpetual use. Hey and other crop biproducts are not
recycled in Nepal; except, some of it in the form of organic
manure is scattered in "Khet" and "Baries" before cultivation.
Next cause is the improper land use; for example, corn, that has
very poor capcity to hold soil, is grown on hill slopes during
monsoon. This causes rapid soil erosion and heavy leaching of
essential minerals contributing a significant role of land
desertification. Fact # 5.|Rate of population growth is high among all the countries. Rate of |Ethiopia holds highest rate, i.e. 2.91% which is followed by pop |Sudan 2.88% Nepal 2.66% and Somalia 1.94%. This will lead high growth |population which means exploitation of virgin lands (unless there are
other methods) to meet the new demands. High population density has
multidimenssional effects on ecological dynamics that leads further
deterioration in ecosystems. Fact # 6.|The three African countries have been suffering severe problem of Malnu- |famine while Nepal confronts malnutrion. Malnutrion is a kind trition |mild famine that can grow to severe when environment turns harsh. Fact # 7.|Poverty is the harsh reality of all the four contries. Majority Poverty |of the people even can not sustain their lives if they are deprived
to extract resources from forest. People are poor and
environmentally illiterate. Consequence is rapid deterioration of
local ecology; thereby, whole country. Fact # 8.|Democracy is new to Nepal and has been practicing its virtues. Politics |However, corruption and nepotism have not been completely eli-
minated. Nepal, of course, does not suffer from brutal civil wars
as Somalia, though strong political tensions and prejudice
still persist among the political parties. If the political system
worsens (let us not hope that), no one knows what will happen !

A Fable That Can be True
__________________________
It is likely (this is not a prediction) to observe the scene mentioned on the first para of this article if the current rate of environmental degradation continues in Nepal, NO DOUBT SOONER OR LATER, unless measures are taken or alternatives are derived to prevent form future calamity. We need to visualize this RIGHT AT THIS MOMENT and move SMARTLY forwards for environmental protection.
Environmental protection for economic development, production and use for all ! Let us join hand and move towards the GOAL!

Pravigya Regmi
(Note: The data is based on the Environmental Alamanac 1994. Some facts have been extracted from Enclyc. Brit., other ref. can be provided upon request)

***************************************************************8 Date: Wed, 19 Apr 1995 16:01:29 -1000 From: Ratna Shrestha <ratna@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu> To: Pravignya Regmi <pregmi@emerald.tufts.edu>, NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: economic goggles

On Wed, 19 Apr 1995, Pravignya Regmi wrote:
>
> Dear Mr. Ratna,
> about the himalayan environment. i did not send it on TND cause it might
> turn into bogus disputes over environmental protection and economics
> rather than something substantial work.
> Your idea of deposit is great. I think (not sure) similar idea has
> been implemented in annapurna area conservation project ACAP. Nepal needs
> people like you who can take economic development and environmental
> protection parallely. Good thought!
> i would like to take an oppertunity to ask you some questions;
>
> - what other factors can you deleneate besides two, i.e. trekkers and env
> policy ? there seem one more which is local developmment due to tourism.
> it creates trash which is spreaded all arround, the point basiclly goes to
> the tourism again. threfore, deleneating the speciefic reasons is not
> "blame" and in my article i have conciously tried to refrain from this
> accusation, i.e. i have quoted what a magazine wrote. if X slaps Y and if
> it is a realilty, then argument of X is not blame. it is question of
> justice.

** Dear Pravignya,
Garbage problem is a bad thing and there is no harm in using the word "Blame" to its creators. My response was in support to your argument. To be more specific, I just ranked the points you raised.

>
> -what do you mean by environmentally friendly mountaineers? how many of
> them are ? can you tell a person who does not enjoy natural beauty ?
> question here is not who like mountains or nature lover but is WHO CARES
> FOR NATURE . as far i understand it is not an issue of environmental
> justice, but is an issue of protection from further destruction, is an
> issue of maintaining nature for long term use. yes ! if trekkers do not
> care the environment, then they should not be allowed. himalayas should be
> banned for all not only to trekkers but to a nepali who litters.

* All the mountaineers are not litterers, so it is unfair to tax every body at par. My argument against protectionism in no way meant it was for destruction. I was clear on this issue. I empasized on the judicious use of our natural resources, against the total ban. I reiterate that a total ban strips off the occupation of many people who depend on mountaineering activities for their livelihood. Moreover it does injustice against those trekkers who are there to enjoy nature but not to litter. My proposal of Deposit-Refund system takes care of all these issues. A total ban can not discriminate between polluters and non polluters.

> -i have an evidence of littering by an american team that left 500 kgs of
> garbage in everest - they did not care. nepal mountaineering asso. NMA
> strives to raise a fund of 10,000 dollars and gets hard times. where are
> these environmentally friendly people? the cost of cleaning all himalayas
> might have gone more than collected revenues - it seems like the economic
> benefit that we obtained was the price of dumping.

It will be again unfair to call everybody litterers just because an american team did it. If we are short of revenue, the solution is simple: raise the tax per potential damage a team can cause but don't raise the tax on an adhoc basis.>

> - if you want to increase the number of trekkers every year to expand
> economically, how do you deal with the carrying capacity ? sustainable
> development is not unlimited - it is sometime less productive. please read
> the eighth five year planning and figure out its vagueness ? there are
> several policy paradoxes, some of them are :
> *keep the economy up or cut down tourist?
> *encouraging tourism or discouraging? etc. i can provide if you want.

* We can not boost our economy by cutting down tourists in dollar terms given all other things the same. There is only one optimal carrying capacity of any resource, and our intelligence lies on hitting that balance. I am sure that we are far behind that balance in both the counts: the environmental quality and the economy. There are ample rooms for the improvements of both but with the use of right policy tools only. >

> -was it the policy failure because of poor theory to stop deforestation
> that you mentioned on your comment? did you look if it was because of
> corruption and nepotism ? because of "thekedaars" ? i have a causin who
> earned millions in a year and tells me what he did proudly. Nepal aama ko
> chhati ma laat hanchan mutthivar manishle . sampti ko moha le. desh
> bechhan ek raatma.
> tapai kasto policy banaoonuhunchha yesto corruption rokna? mero
> bichharma ek matra oopaya chha- tyo ho janata lai vatavaraan ko gyan
> dine. sahi upayog garne - prakriti ko pooja thyahi ho.

* The problems underlying the corruptions and nepotism is something to do with the enforcement of the rules. If our rules are wrong their enforcement part can not be right. The formulation of the right rules is not a panacea, however it does mitigate the problems substantially. The concept of common property, private property are a few examples worth mentioning in this context.
>
> -where did you read that me insisting on"protection" only ? thre is a line
>
> - to an environmentalist, economic benefit is ONE OF THE BENEFITS BUT NOT
> ALL, other values are spiritual, ethical, educational and asthetics.
> environemntalists do not always accept economics as the supreme one -
> environmentalist is born to care nature but not to exploite it all in the
> name of economic development-he saves for use, he practices frugalism -
> which is his principle.

* An economist of course does place a dollar (Rupees) value on what you call ethical, educational, and asthetics use both at present and the future. May be the approportion of the values is not accurate but it is a lot better than just doing nothing at all and practice protectionism without sufficient thoughts for yourself and future generation.
I have no problem if you want to save it for use, practice frugalism; I guess my comment on your previous posting adequately reflects this theme.

> please read the issue of 'old growth forest and spotted owl' in the
> usa. similarly garrison diverson project, snail darter cases. in the
> spotted owl issue, million dollar lumber was sacrificed for a tiny
> disappearing owl. what a great justice is it . see how US endangered
> species act stopped it. listen what american people said. it was the
> issue of few rich economic stakeholders and whole conservation oriented
> americans. apply this analogy to our himalayas, it is bigger than the owl.
> you oppose it ! you opposed protection ? what do you want- destruction ?
> when you talk about sustainable development, you must also focus on the
> trade off between the concrete development and nature exploitation. AND
> PROTECTION IS NEVER FOR NOTHING - IT IS FOR USE. i did not mean that stop
> himalayas and let no one go there ! i insisted - use it, see it, but also
> care for its capacity to hold pressure, dont litter, save it for future
> generation, keep it natural. this is simple.

* I reiterate that my opposition is for total ban, I would prefer to use words like judicious use, sustainability etc instead of PROTECTION. It just sounds too radical for me; sorry about that.

> -it seemed to me like you did not read the artical carefully in order
> to understand what it says exactly. if one wants to deviate the meaning
> of something, it can be easily done-every sentence, word can be modified.
> brilliant people usually read articles with positive attitude first.
> analyse the direction of foolhardly and naive way in the middle of the
> night BY YOURSELF leaving all your degrees behind, your logics behind -
> simpleton will look perfect. take off the goggles of economic glass and
> see the nature with your natural eyes. it has differet essence- it has
> depth -it has wonder-it has reality-and it has
> everything that you never ever imagined !!!!!
>
> finally, thanks for your interest.>
>
> pravigya.
>
* Of course it would be foolhardy to embrace the idea which lacks a well defined regime with open arms. But it definitely does not mean that your idea is stupid. Oftentimes, criticisms can be virtue and simple statements like i used can make every body aware and more ponderous before jumping to conclusions.
I welcome more healthy discussions from all the netters. Thank you.

Ratna K. Shrestha Box 1261, 1777 EW road Honolulu, Hi 96848 > >

>From dk@accunix.wjc.edu Thu Apr 20 10:28:11 1995
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In a recent issue of TND Mr. Ratna K. Shrestha from Honolulu, HI, mentioned something he called "deposit-refund system" as a way to check the pollution problem in the Everest and other mountain regions of Nepal. At the same time Mr Shrestha disagrees that any kind of high fee or charge could help solve the problem. My question to Mr. Shrestha is that if the tax system or the reward system has failed to control pollution in the US, and has instead increased pollution, how can the "deposit-refund system" work, as this is a "refundable tax", very similar to the pollution tax described in other words? Just curious to know more from some intellectual in this field. (this is not Ashu's "intellectual")

In the same issue of TND, Sujata Rana of Seattle wanted an end to the on-going BKS debate and at the same time felt that there was a gender bias going on in the net. The "gender bias" that Rana felt in the BKS issue is obvious---the questions being raised were of the "all-boys era" of BKS. I hear that changes have taken place to include girls too, which is very encouraging. So I do not think there was any intentional gender bias going while talking on BKS. But let me remind Rana that the whole issue, in the substance, was the misuse and abuse of tax-rupees, and BKS, then a luxury boardhouse for boys, was just an instrument for the debate.

*********************************************************** Date: Thu, 20 Apr 1995 13:45:06 -0400 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Annapurna Circuit

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

Frank F Kroger (fkroger@coho.halcyon.com) wrote:
: J.deJong@kub.nl (Le promeneur) writes:
: >- how busy is the track

: The word is "trek", the word comes from the Dutch via the South
: African Boers. "Trek" in Dutch means "pull", the Boers had covered wagons
: that they pulled. Trekkers in Nepal dont't pull any kind of wagon, but
: the term has come to mean a 'a strenous journey.'

: Anyway, to answer your question: 5000-10,000 trekkers per year 'do' the
: Annapurna Circuit. The majority of these do so in the spring and fall,
: summer is monsoon time and in the winter the Thorung La (pass) tends to
: be closed. The annual number is far less than the number of people you
: can expect to run into at a US national park on the July the 4th weekend.

: Most people go anti-clockwise around the Annapurna Massive, if the pass is
: closed you will meet people coming back, discouraged. Don't get
: discouraged, the chances are good the pass will be open by the time you
: get there.

: If you walk fast you will pass some people. If you go slow you will be
: passed. If you walk at 'average' speed you will meet fewer people.

: People tend to congregate at certain places. In Manang to hear the
: Himalayan Rescue Association talk about high altitude sickness (do go and
: attend, it may save your life.) Because of the danger of high alt.
: sickness people also like to have a rest day at Manang. You can explore
: the lake and the glacier. I also saw some vultures eating dead horses
: that had been dumped in a stream ( I got to within about 2 meters of
: them, they are very graceful when you see them gliding in the air, but up
: close they look more revolting.)

: At Thorung Phedi people congregate to go over the pass. Normal departure
: time is between 3 am and 6 am, so that you get over the pass before the
: snow gets too sloshy as the sun warms it up at the summit..It helps if the
: moon is available to light up your way. Please boycott the rolls and
: other bready things that are baked at Thorung Phedi: all the brush for
: miles around is being sacrificed in the oven for it and you are better off
: eating porridge before starting over the pass. The porridge contains more
: water to help counteract dehydration at the high altidude.

: The next place where people congregate is Tatto (hot) pani (water) the
: site of some VERY HOT hot springs. You will loll in the concrete pool
: with Hindu Sadhus from India who are on their way to the shrines at
: Muktinath.

: After Tatopani there is a day of continuous climbing to Gorepani where,
: early the next morning, everyone who can drag themselves out of bed at
: dawn climbs another couple of hundred meters up to Poon Hill for a view
: of Daulaghiri, the Annapurnas and Machapuchare and a few other peaks.

: All in all, you will meet some people along the way. You will probably
: like them, as they are people like yourself who are into travel and
: adventure and are willing to leave the comfort of the Holiday Inn far behind.

: >- can you camp in the wild

: Yes. If you plan to do this it would be a good idea to bring a tent that
: doesnt let too much wind in. It is possible to go from lodge to lodge.

: I took a tent on my trek to Makalu and one night the only reasonably
: flat place to camp was on the trail (it wasnt very busy, especially at
: night.) The coldest night I have ever spent anywhere was in the Annapurna
: Sanctuary. There I slept in a hut with the wind blowing through the
: cracks between the rock in the wall. I had tried to invite myself into
: the (wind proof) tent of some Americans who were camped nearby to no avail.
: Even though I slept between my Sherpa guide and another Nepali who was
: there I was COLD that night (and the space blanket I had wrapped around
: myself retained all the moisture from my body so that my sleeping bag was
: soaking wet in the morning.

: >- how cold does it get on the highest parts of the track

: Cold enough. Good idea to be prepared with down jacket, warm pants, long
: underwear. Hat, and gloves. Dont forget to bring sunglasses
: against the glare. Remember to keep drinking liquids even when it is very
: cold. One time trekking at high altitude I felt very strange, not well,
: but I couldnt explain what was wrong with what I was feeling. Having
: descended a ways I drank some water and within minutes I felt better, I
: had experienced the biochemichal side effects of dehydration. As I
: mentioned earlier, porridge (or soup) can be a good way to take in WARM
: liquids at altitude.

: >Did you enjoy your track?

: What do you think? s8*)

: Frank
: Dutch in Seattle

***************************************************************** Date: Thu, 20 Apr 1995 13:45:31 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Global Hindu Electronic Network: THe Hindu Universe From: editor@rbhatnagar.csm.uc.edu (digest editor)

Hindu Students Council, Global Hindu Electronic Network is proud to present, the most comprehensive WWW Home page for Hindu Dharma:

The Hindu Universe.

Now you can access entire text of Hindu scriptures, and latest news and views from Bharat(India) Online.

To access the Hindu Universe, use the URL:

This will give us all to beta test the site.

This New Hindu Universe Page has the following:

2. Archives of the newsgroup Alt.Hindu, links to Alt.Religion.Vaisnava

3. Introduction to Hindu Dharma

4. Hindu Scriptures: Entire Ramayana, Entire Mahabharata, Bhagawad Gita,
Patangali, Vande Mataram etc.

5. Links to articles/sites on Jain Dharma

6. Links to articles/sites on Buddha Dharma

7. Links to articles/sites on Sikh Dharma

8. References: Listing of Temples in North America, Hindu Names

10. Links to Interesting Hindu Pages: Bhakti Marga, Sprit WWW etc.

11. Shlokas, Bhajans and Publications: Including Links to Hinduism Today and

12. Hindu Festivals

15. Bharat: News, Views and History: Containing the Links to the Following:

16. News From Bharat: Latest News from misc.news.southasia and our own
reporters 17. HSC Kashmir Campaign: Historical and contemporary information about
Kashmir 18. Reference Center For Hindutva: Articles about Hindutva Movement 19. Reference Center For Terrorism in India: Articles, congressional
records etc. 20. Reference Center For Shree Rama Janmabhoomi Movement

21. Comparative Anthologies of Sacred Texts

Much more is on the way!

regards,

Ajay Shah for GHEN and Hindu Students Council

******************************************************************** Date: Thu, 20 Apr 1995 13:46:43 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: Pratyoush Onta Subject: Info on No.of school students

I am trying to figure out how many students passed through grades four and five in Nepali schools between roughly 1967 and 1990. Sources I have consulted do not help me to arrive at this cumulative no. If anyone knows of any statistical data that would be useful for me, I would appreciate if s/he would write to me directly at ponta@sas.upenn.edu

Also if anyone knows specific details regarding how school textbooks were written and compiled in Nepal during the 1960s and the 1970s, I would appreciate your contacting me at the above address.

Thanks, Pratyoush

***************************************************************** Date: Thu, 20 Apr 1995 13:43:50 -0700 (PDT) From: Dahal Durga <daha9014@uidaho.edu> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - April 18, 1995 (5 Baishakh 2052 BkSm)

The first Lady Pilot from Nepal is not Rakshya Rana, The Music Professor Lady now teaching in T.U. She is from Patan, and was Treasurer of Nepal Pradhyapak Sangh, several years ago. Try to Learn.

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