The Nepal Digest - Mar 7, 2000 (16 Falgun 2056 BkSm)

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    The Nepal Digest Tue Mar 6, 2000: Falgun 16 2056BS: Year9 Volume95 Issue443

    Today's Topics (partial list):

    Domestic Violence is no laughing matter: why did Suji have to die? Interview with Mr. Madhav Kumar Nepal ANMF's Fourth Annual Convention, June 9-10, 2000, CDC, Atlanta Question about selling a vehicle in Nepal Pharkera Painchha Ke? Chautari Discussion Schedule Tibetan Buddhists in Nepal Bill Gates Meets Nepali Prime Minister News from Canada AFVs News

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     * TND (The Nepal Digest) Editorial Board *
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     * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
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    ****************************************************************** To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Sat, 5 Feb 2000 15:28:38 -0500 Subject: Domestic Violence is no laughing matter: why did Suji have to die? From: AikoAnne Joshi <aiko7@juno.com>

    Some of us are not in the US or we're not in a position to actually go see this art exhibit, but I wanted to share this w/ TND members in light of the question asked as to why Suji had to die at the hands of her husband. Those near or in the St. Louis area, hope u go to check this out.

    Whether we are a part of the Nepali community in Minnesota, or Nepali community somewhere else in the US or Europe or Asia, we cannot keep silent about the facts of domestic violence. I hope that with Suji's untimely death, we all will be more moved to speak out and continue to speak out against the abuse of wives, girlfirends, sisters, daughters, at the hands of men, whether strangers, friends, or family members. Those of us within immigrant communities are especially vulnerable because many do not speak English or have no jobs, or do not know the law or have no support from family or friends.

    Those who would try to silence us should think about the consequences of such silence. Too many women -- myself included -- have been told to keep quiet about something that, to many, falls within the private sphere of the home. Speaking about our abuse makes people feel uncomfortable, or else we are blamed for what happened to us ("what did you do to make him beat you?"). Perhaps, this will move some women who might be suffering in silence, to seek help from the many human rights and women's groups available, such as SAKHI, SAHELI, RAKSHA, to name a few.

    Aiko

    *** ART EXHIBIT ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN***

    Put The Shoe On The Other Foot And Walk A Mile In It

    A police officer unable to handle the breakup of his relationship, chases his girlfriend down a freeway, runs her car off the road, fatally shoots her, then himself.

    A woman drinking with four male acquaintances loses consciousness. Instead of seeking medical help for their companion, they videotape themselves taking turns sexually assaulting her, while she remains unconscious.

    A thirteen-year-old boy is upset at being spurned by a twelve-year-old classmate. He enlists the help of a younger boy, and, dressed in army fatigues, pulls the school's fire alarm, shooting their female classmates and a female teacher as they evacuate the building.

    A 47 year old woman dies of second and third degree burns over 80% of her body after her estranged husband violates a restraining order, douses her with gasoline and lights her on fire. She dies on her front lawn searching and screaming for someone to save her 18 year old son.

    Day after day we absorb the headlines-- "Man Shoots Estranged Wife and Children;" "Seven Year Old Girl Kidnapped On Way To School;" "Rapist Terrorizes Neighborhood Women."

    After 30 years of a feminist movement, countless books, lectures, dialogues and educational attempts, little has changed where assaults on women and girls are concerned. It is estimated that one in four women will be sexually assaulted in some way in her lifetime. Still more are beaten, psychologically abused or cut off from resources, friends and family who could aid their escape.

    To an extent, police, emergency rooms and the legal system have been educated and sensitized to the devastating effects of rape, abuse and other forms of violence against women and girls. The fact remains that, overwhelmingly, the victims are women, the assailants men. Whether in school, at work, at home, and even among those she should be able to trust, a woman or girl is not safe in our society. It should be noted that the motivation behind these crimes is, virtually, no different than the motive behind hate crimes perpetrated against gay men, lesbians and transgender people--- acquiesce to your assigned gender role, don't be caught alone, perpetually watch your back.

    There is little current incentive for more than superficial changes. Even "good," "decent," "nice," men benefit from this climate of violence against women by capitalizing on and manipulating to their advantage the threat of violence by other males. Women are left, subliminally, if not consciously, with the sense of comfort in a male's protection, acceptance and alliance for safety and social survival.

    A male, then, by default, achieves undeserved distinction in social relationships, not by exceptional contributions, traits or acts, but by merely refraining from extreme or overt violence and/or antisocial behavior. And if he slips, he will routinely be excused or forgiven. His smallest act of kindness, amiability, devotion, adult responsibility, generosity, calm or sensibility is amplified; viewed ecstatically and disproportionately as special, precious, weighty, meaningful and proof positive of his superior value and trustworthiness. In essence, males are wildly lauded for acts, habits, accomplishments and traits strongly expected of and taken stunningly, completely, for granted, in any average female.

    In addition to the daily reality of hate crimes against women and girls reported in media, depicting graphic violence against women is still a tried and true staple of television, film and music. In contrast, violence against males is largely stylized, void of humiliation. Males have been comparatively protected from endless images and representations of themselves as innocent, helpless victim and prey. And yet, confronted with the reality and statistics of their status, males bridle and rush to push a claim of themselves every bit as equal victims, also routinely raped, harassed, oppressed, mutilated, predated upon.

    Art and media aimed at raising consciousness about these issues continually makes the error of using yet more images of women and girls humiliated, frightened, tormented, tortured, abused, compromised and murdered to make it's point. As if we didn't know!

    Put The Shoe On The Other Foot and Walk A Mile In It, by Oakland artist Jai J. Noire, powerfully reverses this trend.

    This multimedia exhibit takes images so accepted and ubiquitous in our culture that they are rarely questioned or examined and presents these same images with the genders completely and unapologetically reversed. While some images are satirical and playful, others are harshly graphic. All are ultimately honest. Issues ranging from age bias hypocrisy to gang rape are addressed, using still photo images and short film vignettes. Mirrored panels imprinted with news stories are designed to force the viewer to confront the reality that, whether victim or victimizers, the people in these endless stories are not essentially different from us.

    Men do not traditionally have the vantage point from which to truly understand what it is to be made to feel physically and emotionally unsafe by the same gender from which one is pressured and taught to seek our partners and mates, the status quo. It is hoped that Put The Shoe On The Other Foot and Walk A Mile In It will be the reality check that sparks a fresh dialogue and provides men and women alike with a truly enlightening view of hate crimes against women (and by extension, gender and sexual orientation minorities) by showing images that are, compared against reality, incongruous and unknown.

    All people should be free of violence. Women and other minorities have yet to be allowed full liberty, value and input.

    While it is hoped that Put The Shoe On The Other Foot and Walk A Mile In It will be shown in various U.S. cities, it is slated to debut March 11 and run through April 8, 2000 at the Midtown Arts Center in the heart of the Midwest, St. Louis, Missouri- the same St. Louis that just allowed the Klu Klux Klan to "Adopt-A-Highway."

    The Midtown Arts Center is a not-for-profit arts incubator, which supports four separate gallery spaces and a video room. Midtown also offers affordable studio, office, rehearsal and performance spaces to artists and arts organizations. The arts are a vital contributor to the growth of the St. Louis community, yet the relatively conservative community it serves often under funds our efforts.

    At this time, we are desperately trying to raise the $6000 needed to bring this important multi-media installation by this vital artist to St. Louis. You can make a difference by supporting this important exhibit. Donations are tax deductible, and should be sent Attn: Mallarie N. Zimmer, Gallery Director Midtown Arts Center, 3207 Washington, St. Louis, MO 63103. Please specify that your donation be reserved for the Jai J. Noire exhibition scheduled to open on March 11, 2000.

    Thank You!

    Mallarie N. Zimmer Gallery Director Midtown Contemporary Gallery Midtown Arts Center 3207 Washington St. Louis, Missouri 63103 314/531-ARTS (2787)

    For more information about Jai J. Noire's exhibition please contact: Mallarie N. Zimmer at 314/535-7370 E-mail: mallarie@intermission.org E-mail: mallarie@intermission.org Intermission Magazine

    "Those who do not try to create the future they want, must _endure_the future they get."

    "There haven't been many folk songs written for Capitalism, but there have been many composed for Social Justice"
    (Amartya Sen)

    ***************************************************************************** Date: Wed, 9 Feb 2000 22:42:53 -0500 (EST) From: "Pramod K. Mishra" <pkm@duke.edu> To: The Nepal digest Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Interview with Mr. Madhav Kumar Nepal

            Madhav Kumar Nepal, General Secretary of the United Marxist Leninist Party of Nepal (UML) and leader of the Opposition in the Nepali Parliament, visited the Triangle area of North Carolina in the evening of January 31, 2000, on his way to Washington, D.C., and Cuba. When I asked for an interview, he readily agreed. Before our one-on-one conversation, he met the local Nepali families at the house of Mr. Ishwar Devkota, President of Nepal Center of North Carolina (NCNC), and had a few hours' exchange of information and views. I found his speech interesting, full of details, demonstrating a clear grasp of various aspects of Nepal's public life and its international position. I had read that he was more of an organizational man rather than a visionary or an ideologue, so I was curious both about the man and his politics. His few words to the local Nepalis, which he spoke seated in a sofa in his colorful Nepali cap (which he never once took off all the while I saw him from the 'plane on), tie and trousers, lasted a little over an hour. Even though delivered in a conversational rhythm, they carried in their baritone the urgency of a stump speech on the eve of a general election. It seemed as though Mr. Nepal were on a campaign tour, trying to convince his constituencies, the fence-sitters, and the doubters to give his party a chance both inside the country and at the international level. During the interview, I found, as you may also find, that he would break my at times convoluted questions into segments and remember to address each segment one at a time. At any rate, here's my conversation with Mr. Nepal in translation.

            Pramod K. Mishra: From various sources, including the internet, we know that you have played an important role in Nepali politics since the People's Movement of 1990. So, let me say first of all, that I am very pleased to meet you, even though in transit. This interview will come out, among other places, in The Nepal Digest, an electronic newsmagazine that has for the past seven or eight years brought together Nepalis, friends of Nepal, and Nepalists from all over the world on a common platform for an exchange of news, information, and views.

            Madhav Kumar Nepal: Thank you, too, for making this opportunity available to me.

            PKM: Would you tell us a little about the reason for this visit to the United States?

            MKN: I came at the invitation of The International Federation of World Peace to attend their seminar in Washington, D.C. Among the representatives from over 50 countries, two of us came from Nepal. The seminar lasted for ten days, from the 20th of January to the 30th.

            PKM: Who was the other person from Nepal who came with you?

            MKN: Suresh Raj Sharma, the Vice Chancellor of Kathmandu University.

            PKM: I understand that the immediate objective of your visit was the seminar, but did you have any other objectives of your own, different from Professor Sharma's?

            MKN: Yes, Sharmaji had his academic mission. He visited Western Kentucky University and met with people there. He went back to Nepal after completing some work of his university at Western Kentucky. Because I am a politician, I had my own political mission attached to my visit. I wanted to meet with expatriate Nepalis and visit Cuba.

            PKM: Were there any important questions or issues that expatriate Nepalis raised in their meetings with you that you think are of special importance and so deserve further deliberation.

            MKN: When I first visited the US in 1992, the primary concern among expatriate Nepalis was different. They were more interested in the question of creating favorable opportunities for them to invest capital in Nepal. In this visit, however, I have encountered a few additional questions and issues like that.

            Besides the investment of expatriate community's knowledge, expertise, experience, academic qualification, and capital in Nepal, the issues of dual citizenship and tax treaty between the US and Nepal were the two. But there were others. They asked me if the Nepali government could help increase the number of lottery slots from the present 150 or so to a thousand under which Nepalis could come to the West, particularly the US, to work, for Nepalis do not get as many opportunities as people from other parts of South Asia and elsewhere for reasons of Nepal's own history.

            Questions about the formal recognition of expatriate Nepali cultural organizations by the Nepali government in order to recognize the legality of their contribution to Nepal and the various ways of bringing about social reforms within Nepal were some of the other issues. A question that seemed particularly important to me was, How can the Nepali government encourage foreign companies or international projects interested to work in Nepal, either as part of the foreign aid program or on contract, to utilize the expertise and experience of the expatriate Nepali community in the specific areas of those companies and projects?

            PKM: Well, there's a song in Nepali that voices this sentiment--"Farka hai farka Nepali, timilai dakcha Himal". And the 70s' issue of brain-drain has now once again come back in the form of brain-return. Recently, Kanak Mani Dixit, the editor of Himal-South Asia, conducted a number of day-long symposiums in the US about the ways and needs for the expatriate Nepalis to contribute to Nepal by returning. Do you think those Nepalis who come to the West would contribute better by returning to Nepal or by staying outside of Nepal?

            MKN: First of all, I must tell you that it is of utmost importance that Nepalis contribute their expertise, experience, their earnings and so on to Nepal's development. In this regard, people here have asked me that the Nepali government should allow expat Nepalis to find easy, open ways to send money to Nepal, invest in various sectors, even open accounts with the banks and keep their money there. But I haven't come to the conclusion that if all Nepalis returned to Nepal, Nepal would automatically benefit from it. Expat Nepalis mustn't forget Nepal, and it is important that they keep Nepal's well-being in mind even while living outside of Nepal.
            During their stay abroad, Nepalis should use this opportunity to sharpen their abilities, especially their academic qualifications, do what is good and avoid that is bad. Wherever they live, they should maintain their place, earn professional and social recognition by being successful. In this way, every Nepali would be proud of their achievements. At some point when Nepal needs their expertise, experience, and distinction for its upliftment, there shouldn't be any dilemma about returning and contributing to Nepal.

            PKM: Let's talk about Cuba now, your other objective for this visit. During the Cold War and even now, US-Cuba history has been one of head-butting. Your visit to Cuba from the US, therefore, sounds a little out of the way. Had you already made the plans in Nepal or after you arrived here, you thought, "Why not kill two birds with one stone?"? And what do you plan to see and do in Cuba?

            MKN: First of all, Cuba is a socialist country. We don't have to blindly agree with every policy, party or experience of another country. We want every country to develop freely, provide distinguished administration to its people, win the people's love and trust, and lead them to prosperity. These are the fundamental issues. Beyond this, we do not have to say much about the internal affairs of another country. But I have wanted to visit the sovereign socialist country of Cuba for sometime now, and I had been invited more than once. This time also, they extended the invitation, and I found this opportunity suitable, and so I'm going.

            PKM: Is this your first visit to Cuba?

            MKN: Yes, this is my first visit.

            PKM: Are you planning to see any particular things while you are there?

            MKN: I want to see how its society has turned out during the socialist regime. I have heard many good things about Cuba's health and education systems. I want to see if what I have heard is true. I also want to see how it is surviving despite strangling sanctions against it. I have been to four of the five socialist countries existing today--North Korea, China, Vietnam, and Laos. Only Cuba I haven't seen. If I get a chance, I'll meet a few of the leaders as well.

            PKM: Did you get to meet anyone other than expatriate Nepalis in the US?

            MKN: Yes, besides meeting all kinds of Nepalis, I did meet a few others. I met a few officers from the White House and an Assistant Secretary of State from the State Department.

            PKM: What was the Assistant Secretary's name?

            MKN: Name . . . . I'm afraid I don't remember off hand, but it's in my notes. But I also met a former US ambassador to Nepal, a few US intellectuals, representatives of institutions that want to invest goodwill and money in Nepal.

            PKM: So you, too, want investment of foreign capital in Nepal?

            MKN: Yes, we want foreigners to invest capital in Nepal without harming Nepal's and Nepali people's interests. With the understanding that both parties benefit from the venture, we are in favor of foreign investment.

            PKM: Intellectuals as well as people in the business sectors believe that some fundamental shifts and transformations have occurred in the geopolitics of the world after the Cold War. In this context, some say that the world has reached the "end of history," the history of struggle between the forces of capitalism and socialism. The only triumphant ideology that has been left as a result is capitalism or neo-liberalism.
            On the other hand, others say that the capitalist world-system that
     began in the 16th century has hit an unprecedented crisis; that the end of its supremacy has begun with the onset of globalization; and that we are at the beginning of the rise of a new world-system. One of the reasons this is so is because the phenomenon of globalization has made the East/South mix with the West/North in ways that had never happened before. Still others suggest that in this Information Age and rise of the Network Society, those who, either in the South or the North, fall outside this Network Society would be the total losers. In other words, the gap between the rich and the poor would increase in ways that has never happened so far. How do you see Nepal in light of these assessments of the current global trends?

            MKN: It is true that capitalism has so far been successful in
     resolving the contradictions it has faced from time to time. But even as it has resolved some, it has found itself gripped by other crises, contradictions, and problems. We can't say for sure even now that we have reached the final verdict in the struggle between socialism and capitalism. For the time being, it looks as though capitalism has won, but the crisis that has engulfed the people of Eastern Europe speaks volumes about this triumph. Russia has a colossal number of unemployed; poverty has exponentially risen; prostitution has infested society; standard of living has drastically plummeted. So capitalism has further complicated the problems these societies faced before. The problems of food, clothing, housing, employment, health and education have worsened. We, therefore, see that capitalism has failed to achieve any success in Eastern Europe.
            On the other hand, China is a socialist country. And in our present context, we can no longer think in the form of either orthodox capitalism or communism. We have to see Marxism in a progressive, dynamic form. Capitalism, too, has survived by adapting itself to the changing circumstances. Laissez faire policy has failed. Right here in the US, the education system is free and mandatory up to highschool. Is this the desire of capitalism? I don't think so. This is an aspect of socialism. In education, health care, and social security, President Bill Clinton still speaks about the government's responsibility. Are these features of capitalism? Original capitalism does not permit any of these. Capitalism has learned quite a few things from socialism in order to survive. During the 1930s financial crisis, the US adopted a number of features of socialism, accepted the crucial role of the state in the welfare of its people. It appeared then that the state could not get away from its responsibility toward the people.
            But the irony is that this very capitalism tells the Third World to get rid of the role and responsibility of the state. This stance is historically incompatible. It is true that the state cannot take responsibility for its people from birth to death, but the state must make available and protect the opportunities for advancement, lay down the infrastructures, protect and safeguard people's interests. The state cannot get away from these responsibilities. This is what socialism teaches.
            It is also true that in socialism, the project of nationalization reached its extreme, which needs to be reformed--individual liberties need to be protected and guaranteed. So socialism as we have seen it needs to be reformed, but the fundamental principle of socialism is the supremacy of people's sovereignty. No state can survive by curtailing, limiting, and abrogating people's rights. Those political systems that people don't want can't survive. Socialism promotes, and it should promote, this role of the people.
            In a nutshell, Marxism is a science that aims at ending the tradition of exploitation and discrimination. It's goal is to uplift everyone's personality and bring society to prosperity. In this sense, the goal of our campaign is to take human society from the realm of necessity to the realm of freedom. During this campaign, the new needs arise, and to fulfil these emergent needs, new analysis and investigation need to be carried out. Once old needs are met, further new needs arise, and new investigation is needed in order to understand those needs; accordingly, new ways of producing the means to fulfil those needs have to be found. This is an ongoing process in human history and civilization.
            That is why, we are against curtailing or limiting human personality, are against abrogating the rights of the people. No system can survive without winning the trust and love of the people. And in order to win the love and trust of the people, it is fundamental that their rights are respected and safeguarded. That's why, we have placed high premium on the tradition of electoral politics--and it is in this context that we have adopted people's multiparty democracy since the Fifth Party Congress of 1993.
            Now, regarding your question about Nepal's place in the age of Information Technology and globalization, so far big and powerful nation-states are trying to use globalization for their own selfish ends; and that's why, the nation-states in the South have been opposing this new kind of neo-colonialism. So far, the use of words like liberalization, openness, etc., seem to have been used to find new markets for First-World goods in the Third World. But at the same time when others interfere in their home markets by putting out goods, we know that they have adopted policies of protectionism. France, New Zealand, and Australia have offered special protection to their farmers; Japan and the US have protected their automobile industries. In his State of the Union address, President Bill Clinton talked about the need to protect and promote the interests of the American farmers and American industries. So we see that everyone tries to promote their national interests.
            What we want is that Nepali industries can compete in the international markets. The state can't bear all responsibilities, nor should people depend on the state for everything. But Nepal's economic and industrial infrastructure is weak. We need to change this state of affairs. We want to promote competition within the nation, in the region and at the international level. We want to explore and develop areas of comparative advantage for Nepal. This imperative can't be blocked by shutting doors and windows anymore. We need to think seriously how Nepal can face this emerging global challenge.

            PKM: Let me now take you to Nepal's position in the geopolitics of
     South Asia. In Nepal, we find two kinds of parties in their relation to India. On the one hand, there are those political parties that adopt the rhetoric and public strategy of proclaiming themselves India's friends in order, it seems, to win a certain section of Nepalis on their side for electoral ends; on the other hand, another set of political parties, despite their own ideological differences, flaunt their anti-Indian public stance in order, it seems, to win the votes of another section of the Nepali people. What is your personal and party position in this matter of making India an unquestionable friend or an avowed enemy in order to pander to domestic constituencies and run domestic politics?

            MKN: Nepal and India are next-door neighbors--nobody can do anything about this geopolitical fact. Therefore, there is no alternative but to coexist together. Furthermore, this is also a fact that no country can survive by irritating and making its neighbor an enemy. Nor does one want to survive by compromising one's sovereignty, accepting another's domination, and subjecting oneself to humiliation.
            We are Nepalis; we are proud of this fact; and we are clear in our position that Nepal's interests must be protected by all means. Neighborly relationship loses all its meaning if Nepal's interests are compromised, its friendship is not based on independence and equality, and if there is interference in its internal affairs. What I'm trying to say is that we have to get away from both these extremes. There is no need to consider or make India an enemy. Both India and Nepal are independent countries. It is important for everybody to understand that we are proud of Nepal's history--it has never been anybody's colony.
            It is also a fact that Nepal is a small land-locked country surrounded by India and China. Nepalis are sensitive and protective of their country's sovereignty because Nepal had to face external aggression at various points in its history. Big countries should understand this psychological makeup of the Nepalis. Similarly, we have to understand the feelings of other countries; if we do, we can keep a balance in our mutual relationship. But because we are small, we don't need to feel inferiority nor do we need to be servile to anybody. There's no need either to be dominated or consider anyone our master or ourselves anyone's agent. We have to get away from these binary positions--either subjugation or enmity. We need to pursue mutual interests; international standards and pursuit of mutual benefits should guide our dealings with each other.
            If countries in the South look after their interests, land-locked countries look after their interests, developed countries look after their interests, it is natural that Nepal, too, should look after its interests. And it has been the international standard that big countries take into account the needs of the smaller countries; prosperous countries sacrifice a little for the poor countries. That's why, I'm not saying that there must be equality in everything in the relationship between India and Nepal. A small land-locked country like Nepal deserves a little more favorable treatment. Others need to be a little more sensitive to Nepal's interests.

            PKM: I have another question about Indo-Nepal relationship. There's a widespread feeling among the people of the Tarai that behind this shrill anti-India sloganeering, there's another subtext, psychology, and attitude--this anti-India sloganeering indeed hides and perpetuates animosity against the people of the Tarai. For example, there are some derogatory terms used against the Indians, such as "dhoti" or "madise." But the same derogatory words are used against the people of the Tarai. This habit of looking down upon the people of the Tarai seems to have become a sensitive spot in Indo-Nepal relations. In this context, there seems a widespread feeling in the Tarai that the Nepali Communist Party is the party of the Paharis--people of the hills. How do you view all this?

            MKN: This attitude might have prevailed at some point in the past, but now we have found that people of the Tarai greatly trust and love the communist party of Nepal. The main point is that the communist party is the party that safeguards the interests of the workers, farmers, intellectuals, patriots, and democrats. It is a party that protects and works for those who have been the victims of injustice and tyranny. It is on the side of those who have been discriminated and treated as unequal. Therefore, if anybody has misunderstanding about the Communist Party, they should clear up this misunderstanding.
            Secondly, if you look at the political movement of 2008 B.S., the declaration of 2011 and 2014 B.S., people's base of the Communist Party has been in the Tarai. Saptari, Mahottari, Siraha, Bara, Siraha, Dhanusha, Rautahat, or any other Tarai district--if you look at the history of political movement, these areas have been on the forefront. In the election of 2015 B.S., out of the four parliamentary seats that the Communist Party won, two were from Rautahat. And who were the victorious candidates? Shekh Farman and Hardayal Mahato--two people from the Tarai. As for the abuse the Taraiwasis or others face in Kathmandu, we must combat and uproot these attitudes and tendencies. Such attitudes existed towards outsiders and other castes as well in the past; and these are wrong. But if anyone holds these undesirable attitude towards Taraiwasis in the hills and Paharwasid in the Tarai, these are Nepal's internal matters; we have to sit down and sort out these issues and reform and rectify them. This issue can't be associated with India. India is a separate country. Therefore, India does not have to think about it because Nepal is a country of Nepali citizens, and those who are not citizens of Nepal, they don't have to worry about Nepali citizens.

            PKM: There's another question that somewhat relates to the one I asked. It is widely believed that the ethnic inequality that existed before 1990 at various levels in Nepal's public life still persists. For example, inadequate representation from the various nationalities of the hills and the people from the Tarai, particularly the lower castes and tribes, still continues in the Royal Nepal Army--particularly among its commissioned rank--the civil service, and the leadership of political parties. It is said that these all were dominated by the Bahun-Chetri groups before as they are now; nothing has changed. Regional and ethnic inequality still persists as before. What do you have to say about it?

            MKN: First of all, there shouldn't be any policy-related discrimination against these various ethnic groups. Second, in implementation and practical dealings also, there shouldn't be any discrimination; if any discrimination exists, these should be rectified. And we have raised our voice about many of these issues. We cannot deny that we have problems of imbalance in relation to the people of the Tarai, lower castes, dalits, various nationalities, and people of western region of Nepal. We still need balance in representation. But even in the developed countries, the aborigines of those countries haven't reached the topmost positions; in many countries, women haven't reached the top despite their being half of the population. They are still on the path to justice and equality, and we have to think along the same line. We shouldn't take it otherwise.

            PKM: But in the West, particularly in the United States, in the areas of education, private sector and government, under the program of Affirmative Action, the representation of African Americans has been increased. This attitude of inclusivity has also applied increasingly to people who come from other countries as immigrants under the belief that ethnic diversity at workplace enhances and enriches the work environment and productivity.

            MKN: What is the ratio of representation of women and African Americans among the senators and members of the House of Representatives here? If you ask how many among these groups-- women and African Americans--have been able to be presidents, vice presidents, or governors, we find that this problem persists even here. Other countries, including those in Europe, may have this problem as well, for all I know. But I'm not saying that just because other countries have such problems, we, too, should have them. We have to constantly keep in mind that we need to work on these problems in Nepal and create opportunities for increased participation from unrepresented groups that have been discriminated in the past based on gender, ethnicity, caste, and region. Mindful of this inequality, we have increased the representation of women, unrepresented regions and ethnicities and dalits; we are further devising ways to achieve adequate representation at various levels of our party organization. At any rate, we need to constantly work on it and do more.

            PKM: Let me ask you about your party now. Left parties splintered, and as a result the country and its democratic exercise were adversely affected, but two groups were affected the most--the party workers at the grassroots level and the intellectuals. Both the intellectuals and the party workers found themselves in a quandary, to say the least. If the party cadres had been in the party both because they believed in the principles and had some connection with particular leaders ("I know so-and-so leader and therefore I belong to this party"), intellectuals were in it because they believed in the efficacy of leftist ideas and were more concerned about the shift in global geopolitics rather than who is jockeying for power over whom. But because of the factionalism and splintering brought about by the personal ambitions of and petty differences among leaders like you, they have found it difficult to individualize and personalize their loyalties. The party workers were forced to decide their allegiance under extraordinarily difficult and painful circumstances. What do you have to say about this?

            MKN: People in particular had high hopes not from any particular individuals but the UML. They still believe that no other party than the UML is capable of building Nepal's future, and the UML must get the ultimate opportunity to do so. If the UML, too, failed to do anything about it, then nothing but disaster would await us--this is what they believe.
            They have great expectations from the UML, its leaders and its workers. People have been disappointed by the failure of the UML to win a majority because of the split. Those who broke away realize now that they made a mistake; the Congress won but have achieved nothing. The Congress has ruled for 8 years but has not been able to demonstrate any capability. In the nine-month minority rule, the UML had done quite a few things. So the UML should be given a full term--this is what the people believe. That is why, they demand that the harm done by the split in the UML has to be compensated, and everyone who broke away has to be brought together in the fold in order to strengthen the party once again. Accordingly, we have made an appeal for everyone to return. A few former MP's, committee members, office bearers of district committees have already rejoined; some from the higher layer have also shown readiness to do the same. We have to move ahead with the healing process. With a broad heart, we have to bring everyone back to the fold and fulfil people's expectations; we must face the emerging challenges and exploit the possibilities of development. If Nepal sinks, we all will sink; if the country goes to the rocks, we all will go to the rocks. To prevent all this, we've got to be serious and broad-minded. We have to direct the country with a clear vision and firm determination and clean image. Without bias or political prejudice, the UML has to take initiative and bring together people of integrity, ability, and experience in order to lead the country to prosperity. In order to protect the interests of the country, boost the feeling of patriotism, safeguard everyone's human rights, respect the law and the constitution, and successfully face the challenges ahead, we have to rise above pettiness and focus on the fulfillment of people's basic needs, such as food, health, education, safety, employment, etc.

            PKM: Let me ask you a few questions about your personal background. Where did you grow up and went to school?

            MKN: I grew up in Rautahat district in a place called Gaur. I couldn't continue schooling there after a while due to poor health. Then I completed I.Com. from Birganj. For a while, I went to Tri-Chandra college in Kathmandu and then transferred to Patan campus. Then I moved to Biratnagar and went to Mahendra Morang College. While at school, I worked for a bank and the government--and got involved in politics. I began to participate in progressive politics in 1966, and joined Pushpa Lal's Communist Party in 1969. After Biratnagar, I became associated with the Jhapali movement; and as a committee member, I organized the workers. At this time, a consensus was reached between the revolutionaries of Jhapa and Morang. In 1974, we published an appeal; in 032 B.S., we established the Coordination Center. I was among its founding members. When in 1978, we formed Nepal Communist Party (ML), I was among its founders and politburo members. After Morang, I moved to Dhanusha. I worked there for about four years. I was arrested and imprisoned in Jaleshwar for two years (1975-77). After release, I moved to Kathmandu. From 1980 on, I worked for the Kathmandu branch of the Party. I also looked after the Mechi zone. I have held the responsibility of various organizations within the party, including foreign affairs. It was during this time that ML and Man Mohan's Nepal Communist Party merged. Madan Bhandari and I were on one side and Man Mohan Adhikari and Sahana Pradhan were on the other side on the merger committee. After 1990, I was on the drafting committee of the present constitution.

            PKM: At what age did you feel drawn to politics and political issues?
     Were there any particular influences that led you to this association?

            MKN: It must have been when I was thirteen or fourteen. In Gaur, I came to know a few progressive individuals, including members of Pushpa Lal's party. Then there were books by progressive writers. I read the Hindi writer Yaspal, the polyglot Rahul Sankrityayan.

            PKM: Which book by Sankrityayan?

            MKN: "Don't run, Change the World" (Bhago Nahi, Duniya Ko Badlo),
    "From the Bholga to the Ganges" (Bholga se Gangatak) and a few others. I also read Gorky, particularly his novel "Mother." All this led me to be a member of the communist party at 17.

            PKM: Did you do any regular job before the People's Movement of 1990? I am asking because in Nepal, people who do honest politics because they have ideas, moral commitment and dedication very often become financially destitute. How did you manage to do politics in Nepal?

            MKN: First of all, in 1974, I left everything, renounced my family and dedicated myself to the cause of Progressive Politics as a cadre. Because I was single, freed from family obligations, it wasn't hard for me to survive. Sometimes I would receive pocket expenses from home, from my father who, after the stints of a school teacher and headmaster, eventually became the Campus Chief.

            PKM: Which Campus?

            MKN: Rautahat Campus. Later my two brothers became engineers. They, too, sent me money now and then. Still later, I married someone who was already employed. This marriage took care of my household expenses thereafter. So I didn't face any hardship of this kind.

            PKM: You didn't do any regular job (Jagir) for living after 1974, is that correct?

            MKN: No, I didn't.

            PKM: Finally, what are your expectations from expatriate Nepalis?

            MKN: Expatriate Nepalis should always love the country of their origin and its culture, including its language and identity. They should be ready to contribute to Nepal's welfare and development. If Nepal advances, their prestige would also receive a boost. The more Nepal fares better, the more recognition they will get abroad. There are many such examples. With the rise of China, for example, people of Chinese descent have found recognition the world over. Nepal's international standing is crucial for Nepalis' standing in the eyes of the world. That's why, it's important to love Nepal and help maintain its distinct identity.
            Unity and frequent communication among scattered Nepalis are important matters in this respect. They should keep alive their language and culture. They should also look for suitable opportunities to contribute expertise, capital, technological know-how for the upliftment of Nepal. From time to time, they should visit Nepal, and even return to live there. In order to make all this possible, they should focus on the enhancement of their academic qualifications and abilities, consolidate their position wherever they live. They should strive to set examples and achieve distinction in their particular fields. I wish that everywhere Nepalis prosper and contribute to their societies as well as to Nepal. These are my good wishes.

    PKM: It has been a pleasure talking to you. Thank you very much.

    ***********************************************************************************************

    *********************************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 29 Feb 2000 16:05:20 CST To: The Nepal digest Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> From: Janak Koirala MD <jkoirala@siumed.edu> Subject: ANMF's Fourth Annual Convention, June 9-10, 2000, CDC, Atlanta

      America Nepal Medical Foundation Columbia University Station * P. O. Box 250793 * New York * NY 10025 Phone: 217- 782 0190 e-mail: jkoirala@siumed.edu

    March 1, 2000

    Dear Friends,

    The America Nepal Medical Foundation (ANMF) will hold its Fourth Annual convention at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Emory School of Public Health in Atlanta, Georgia, on 9th-10th June, 2000. This year's conference theme will be- "Public Health in 3rd millennium: Perspectives for Nepal". Several excellent panels of speakers and experts will share their insights on Nepal's current health status and highlight their vision for the future. This year's meeting is special, because it will be held at the CDC and we will have opportunities to hear, meet and have direct discussions with the guest speakers from CDC. We are also planning to have a social hour with the participants from CDC.

    We hope you will be able to join us in Atlanta.

    The conference venue and dates will be:

           Venue: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) and the Emory School of Public Health
                        Clifton Road , Atlanta, GA
           Date/Time: starts 12noon,Friday 9th June, 2000
                                ends 3pm, Saturday 10th June, 2000

    The preliminary schedule and a registration form for the conference are available on the ANMF's website:
     /www.anmf.net/

         This convention will also allow us a unique opportunity to share and learn about the important health issues that Nepal is currently facing and how can ANMF make a difference on it. We would like to bring your attention to some of the highlights of our activities over the past year-

         * This past November, ANMF provided its second Continuing Medical Education (CME) program to Nepal in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the Society of Internal Medicine of Nepal (SIMON). For year 2000, ANMF is planning to hold two CME programs in Kathmandu- one on Neurology and second on Radiology.

         * The ANMF continues to provide other sorely needed resources, such as medical books and journals, to the Tribhuvan University's medical school library in Nepal. This remains an important ANMF's ongoing effort. We have also started sending electronic versions of the medical literature which are more economical to ship. We plan to increase the use of electronic versions in the future.

         *ANMF developed its new website: /www.anmf.net/

         *ANMF also served as a liason between various North American institutions and individuals and Nepalese medical institutions.

         These achievements, though a beginning, are a source of pride and satisfaction to the entire ANMF family, especially since our organization is only at its toddler stage. This success is due to the shared vision, good will, and collective efforts of the members and friends of ANMF in North America and Nepal.

    Should you have any questions concerning your trip to Atlanta, please contact any of the following individuals:
             Robert Gerzoff, Conference Coordinator, e-mail: rcg8@cdc.gov
             Janak Koirala, MD,MPH, General Secretary, e-mail: jkoirala@siumed.edu
             Gaury Adhikary, MD, President, e-mail: adhikary@umich.edu

          We look forward to seeing you in Atlanta.

         Sincerely,
         Gaury Adhikary, M.D.
         President, ANMF

    ********************************************************************** From: "Montys" <agnelo@goa1.dot.net.in> To: <tnd@nepal.org> Subject: Question about selling a vehicle in Nepal Date: Thu, 2 Mar 2000 15:47:41 +0530

    Dear TND

    my name is Thomas Frommel, I am from Germany and would like to sell my = car (VW Bus Camper 1976) in Katmandu. Can you give me any information on = this (price, legal, carnet stamps...)

    thank you very much=20 thomas=20 vw-traveler@gmx.net

    ***************************************************************** From: "Rajeshlah" <rajeshlal@mail.ru> To: <tnd@nepal.org> Subject: want to have some info . Date: Thu, 2 Mar 2000 23:29:49 +0300

    Dear Editor,
                        Well we really liked your site, we found out there = different organization , I would like to get the information , so that I = would forward to you the nepalese students union in Russia, which had so = far organized lots of functions in different feasts & festivals of = Nepal, which helped us to introduce the himalayan kingdom,our culture in = the third country.
                       If you people are interested in all these , here I am =
    ,can help you lot in that.
                       Looking forward to hear from you very soon. Your sincerly, Rajesh.

    ***************************************************************** From: "Risal, Ananta Gopal (Ananta)** CTR **" <arisal@lucent.com> To: "'tnd@nepal.org'" <tnd@nepal.org> Subject: Pharkera Painchha Ke? Date: Fri, 21 Jan 2000 14:09:02 -0500

    Pharkera Painchha Je?

    Yasto Karma Garoun Bishudhha Tanale Samsharma Gunjeeyosh Sraddha, Bhakti Sajaun Akhanda Manale, Sadbhabana Urliyous ! Birsuon Chhaina Bayaana Yo Phagatama, Samjhera Painchha Ke ? Lagaoun, Dwar Chha Hai Sapha, Sahajako, Pharkera Painchha Ke? ||1||

    Khojaoun Gyan Chha Purna Yo Jagatama, Prakrit Aashtha Badhos Dhyanai Eshswarko Garaoun Sapharama, Biunjhera Yadai Rahos | Patto Chhaina, Nakhoj Ke Kasarama ? Khoje Namilne Chha Ke ? Sancho Khoj Bhaye, Abashya Miligo, Pharkera Painchha Ke? ||2||

    Arthai Chhaina Nalag He Bishadama, Nistha Rahos Ishama Sewa Bhaba Badhos Bishistha Janama, Namai Chalos Deshma | Biujhoun, Aaj Uthoun, Samana Sabale, Echhya Na Ho Pugchha Ke ? Banki Ta Saba Khel Hun Pabanako, Pharkera Painchha Ke? ||3||

    Bitda Chhan Sabaka Atita Sapana, Parkhera Po Milchha Ke? Chinta, Dhonga Narakha, Rakha Bipana, Samjhera Painchha Ke? Milda Chhan Pala Yojana Samayaka, Tadhera Jane Chha Ke? Aatma-Chintan, Roshna Sapharma, Pharkera Painchha Ke? ||4||

    Sukhha Pyar Nahun, Abashya Rahane Mushkanka Garjana Premi Pustha Banun, Katha Amaraka, Shoujannyaka Sirjana | Bhuldai Bhog Bilashma Kati Bason ? Samsarako Saar ke ? Badoun Pyar, Daya Sabai Rhidayaka, Pharkera Painchha Ke? ||5||

    Dhunga Chhan Ajha Khonchaka Waripari, Sougat Yo Mildachha Aasthaka Ghara-Mandirai Sajanaka, Mushkanale Khuldachha | Echhya Ke Chha ? Pasyou, Lutyou ? Shikharma ? Be-Desh Bhandar Re ! Lobhi Chhou, Jana He ? Najaau Gharama, Pharkera Painchha Ke? ||6||

    Khokra Chhan Bana Jungalai, Saba Gaye, Aago Pashyo Bhirama Gurkhali Saba Bhag Hai, Jhitimiti - Samhal Hai Sathama | Pharkanchhou ? Aba Chhaina Hai Saphar Yo, Tadha Bhayou ? Sodhchha Koi ? Samanti Sarakarle Saba Lutyo, Pharkera Painna Kyei ? ||7||

    Yasto Socha Gari, Sapha Hridayako, Sam-Yojana Sirjanu Bhoka Chhan Duniya, Garib Bichara, Shikchhya Naya Bhardinu | Dasii Banna Pugyo, Uthoun Nidara Bhai, Parkhera Painchha Ke? Painnan Sukha Ti Bidesha Gharama, Pharkera Painchha Je ! ||8||

    Ananta G Risal NJ, USA

    ********************************************************************* From: "Bal K Sharma" <bsharma@uhc.com> To: tnd@nepal.org Date: Tue, 25 Jan 2000 12:01:49 -0600 Subject: A High School In Gorkha Nepal Seeking Volunteers for "teachers
             training"

    Dear TND Readers:

    The Old Capital High School located in District headquarter of Gorkha, Nepal is a private English medium school. The school has about 400 teachers and 24 teachers. This school is presently seeking volunteers (individual or a team of members) who can go there (Gorkha, Nepal) short-term and train local teachers on "effective class-room teaching". The training areas could be more broader and the interested persons can contact the school authority directly at maskey@nrose.wlink.com.np. The shcool is not able to pay salary in US dollars but will provide descent lodging, meals and other facilities such as guidance and language interpretation for volunteers while in Nepal. More information on this subject is available to interested parties upon request. Thank you for your attention.- Dr. Bal Krishna Sharma

    ****************************************************************** From: Kattrouble@aol.com Date: Tue, 25 Jan 2000 15:37:16 EST Subject: Info on organization To: tnd@nepal.org

     My name is Leigh Gardner and I was wondering if you had any information on an organization called Cultural Destination Nepal. According to their website, they run volunteer oriented cultural immersion trips to Nepal. I am interested in signing up for one of their programs but I would like some third-party information on this organization before I do. Thank you for your help.
          Sincerely,
          Leigh Gardner
          Czarina22@yahoo.com

    ********************************************************** From: "Everest Radio Times" <info@everestradiotimes.co.uk> To: <tnd@nepal.org> Subject: Link Request Date: Wed, 1 Mar 2000 22:09:30 -0000

    Dear Sir/Madam,

    We have started broadcasting of Everest Radio Times, Nepali Language = Radio Station in the UK, probably first Nepali Language Radio Station = out side Nepal, by Nepali community for Nepali community.=20

    Our service is running as test broadcasting every Sunday from 9AM to = 10AM at 558AM on the air of London and we are being very successful and = planning to go ahead. Our News also is available on the web that can be = accessible from around the world by everyone free of charge.=20

    Here, I would like to request with you - Could you please help us = linking our web page to your http://www.nepal.org/ web site? It would be = so great help if you could do please.=20

    Please remember our Radio Station and all its belonging are in child = stage and need your warm comments and suggestion to grow it up = successfully.=20

    Thank you very much. Our Web site's address is:=20 http://www.everestradiotimes.co.uk/=20

    Regards,=20 Bharat Thapa=20 Technical Consultant=20
    (Web design/Internet Advertise) Everest Radio Times, London, UK

    ***************************************************************************** Date: Mon, 07 Feb 2000 11:23:04 +0500 To: (Recipient list suppressed) From: Martin Chautari <chautari@mos.com.np> Subject: Chautari Discussion Schedule

    This week (8 February 2000, 25 Magh 2056) at Martin Chautari:

    PUBLIC RADIO AND SOCIAL MOVEMENT Pratyoush Onta, Convenor, Martin Chautari

    Discussions take place at <bold>Martin Chautari</bold><bigger> (Phone/fax 246065) every Tuesday at 5:30pm in Thapathali (call if you need directions). Participation is open to all. Email:chautari@mos.com.np; Unless otherwise noted, presentations are in Nepali.

    15 February 2000/ 3 Falgun 2056 Janabadi Educational System

    Nanda Kumar Thapa, Nepal National Teachers' Organisation and Rajendra Rai, ANNFSU.

    22 February 2000/ 10 Falgun 2056

    Sexual Abuse of Children : Problems and Solutions Gauri Pradhan , CIWIN<bold>

    29 February 2000/ 17 Falgun 2056

    What Municipal Ward Committees are doing? Mahendra Bilash Joshi, 17 Ward President, and Pabitra Bajracharya, 23 Ward President

    ************************************************************** From: "tiki sharma" <lumbini@hotmail.com> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Info Date: Mon, 07 Feb 2000 04:48:19 PST

    Dear Nepal Digest:

    We will be grateful if some one could provide the e-mail, phone and contact address for Dr. Luna Bhatta who was in Syracuse University Medical School a few years ago.

    Many thanks. Raj Shrestha

    **************************************************************** From: Angel.C.Gooch@usdoj.gov Date: Tue, 8 Feb 2000 9:20:00 -0500 Subject: Tibetan Buddhists in Nepal To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

    Is there anyone at this address who is knowledgeable on the current situation of Tibetan Buddhists (particularly the Helambu Sherpa / Yolmo) in Nepal? I am researching this topic, and will be happy to send more information and flesh out my questions a bit if this is an appropriate address to send my queries to...
     I found this address on the internet and I'm not sure if it is still good. Also, may I ask which school I am contacting?

    Thanks! Angel Gooch

    *********************************************************************** From: "ALISON_PENNY_SHORE" <APS98A@Stu.ChiHE.ac.uk> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Tue, 8 Feb 2000 18:25:32 -0000

    We are doing a study on "The Himalayan Dilema". Would there be anything to help us?? Please could you point us in the right direction. Thank you Ali

    *********************************************************** Date: Thu, 10 Feb 2000 09:29:37 -0800 (PST) From: Stephen Bezruchka <sabez@u.washington.edu> To: Undisclosed recipients: ; Subject: Bill Gates Meets Nepali Prime Minister

    PRIME MINISTER OF NEPAL KP BHATTARAI MEETS BILL GATES

    Prime Minister of Nepal KP Bhattarai met Bill Gates while the former was=20 visiting the States in September 1999. The following are excerpts from=20 Bhattarai-Gates talk. Author: anonymous:-)

    Gates: Have you installed Windows 98 at home? Bhattarai: Oh yes, otherwise you never know when the Maoists jump through=
    =20 your window and into your bed with the khukuris!

    Gates(Confused): Then what is the system you operate on? Bhattarai: Operation? I had a hernia operation last month. And we have=20 multi-party system, and we like to rule by a single party. People in genera= l=20 call it multi-party Panchayat system, we politicians call it multi-party=20 democratic system.

    Gates: I hope the Internet is being used a lot in Nepal. Bhattarai: Oh Yes! But in Nepal, we use Exter-net, not Internet. Due to lac= k=20 of garbage dumping sites, mosquitoes are increasing. So many people sleep=
    =20 under the net, I mean they use external-nets.

    Gates: By the year 2000 Nepal should import computer chips. Bhattarai: We are already exporting potato chips and "Uncle Chips," so we d= o=20 not need that.

    Gates: Do you use a laptop? Bhattarai: Of course yes. At many of Nepali Congress addresses many women=
    =20 have had a wonderful opportunity to sit on the top of my lap.

    Gates: What is more popular in your country - Apple or PC? Bhattarai: Of course apple. Apples are grown in Humla and Jumla, but we hav= e=20 no transportation access there. I am thinking of asking Bill Clinton to=20 donate some helicopters to transport the sweet apples to Kathmandu. Apples=
    =20 are not like expensive like in your country, an apple costs one cent only i= n=20 Nepal

    Gates: What is the size of your RAM and ROM. Bhattarai: Rum? No, I prefer scotch whisky. Size? Big bottle is okay for me=
    =2E=20 That is why I contested the Parliamentary elections for easy money to buy=
    =20 whisky. Without whisky no sleep, that is my life.

    Gates: What kind of CPU do you have? Bhattarai: No, we do not have any CPU, but CPN. We have a lot of=20 CPNs(Communist Party of Nepal) - with different suffixes like: Maoist,=20 Khaoist, Marxist and Leninist, oho so many - I don't remember all of them!=
    =20 All of them are hassle-makers and headaches for the Nepali Congress party.=
    =20 And we also have GPK (Girija Prasad Koirala), that is solely hassle-maker t= o=20 me.

    Gates: Are there virus problem in your country? Bhattarai: Of course yes. The HIV viruses are becoming very dangerous. I am=
    =20 myself vulnerable of the HIV viruses. I am neither married nor can I stay a= s=20 a virgin man - I am very frank speaking man =96 I have told this to the=20 public.

    Gates: What is the size of your Hard Disk? Bhattarai: What? The size of my hard diks (this is how Bhattarai=20 pronounced)! Hare Ram, yo American-le ke ke sodhna sakeko hola (he murmured=
    =20 in Nepali)!!!

    Gates: I have no energy left, let us go out and have a bite. Bhattarai: Bite? I do not bite. I believe in non-violence. Only my policeme= n=20 in Nepal believe on bite, hit and shoot. You know, how brave they are to=20 kill the Maoists! Amnesty International-folks told me that policemen in=20 Nepal believe on bite, hit and shoot. You know, how brave they are to kill=
    =20 the Maoists! Amnesty International- folks told me that Nepal is on the top=
    =20 of their list in human and hu-woman hunting records. But I read Geeta and I=
    =20 like women and whisky and believe in non-violence.

    (System crashed as usual PC does and Gates disappeared).
    "Windows 98 is restarting. Please wait............."

    ******************************************************************* To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Tue, 15 Feb 2000 09:07:06 -0500 Subject: Academy Award nomination for Nepali film From: AikoAnne Joshi <aiko7@juno.com>

    I overheard today that a Nepali film has been one of the nominations under best language category. The film name is "The Caravan". If anyone has any more detailed information about the film and nomination, I would appreciate it! Thank you.

    I would also like to publicly thank all those who responded to my queries re job possibilities in Nepal and living accomodations in Wash., D.C. area.

    From: AikoAnne Joshi <aiko7@juno.com>

    A friend of mine used to work for the YMCA. She and some of her co-workers came up with an idea for International Women's Day last year. They got some posters from a local women's center depicting a woman who had been badly beaten by her husband. It was a gruesome photo poster; the woman's face battered and broken; eyes puffed up; cheekbones broken and swollen; lips ballooned to twice its size. . . .

    My friend and her co-workers put the posters up in the men's restrooms. They provided pens so that comments could be written on the posters. They wanted to see what sorts of reactions these posters would elicit. What they discovered was interesting but also horrifying and disturbing. Men had written comments like: "The bitch got what she deserved." "She should have gotten more of the same!" "She should have been killed."
    "This should teach her!"

    While these posters were specifically put in men's rooms, I know that there are many women out there as well who would have thought the same, though perhaps not quite in those harsh terms. How many of us, men and women, have asked ourselves when we heard of a woman being raped or beaten, "What did SHE do?" of, "What was SHE wearing?" That's the first thing my mother asked me when I was finally able to discuss my own experience as a battered woman: "What did YOU do to make him so mad?"

    And so, an emotionally, psychologically scarred woman will then come to believe that she must have been so bad as to deserve such punishment, and her sense of guilt at her inability to please her man -- whether husband, boyfriend, father, uncle -- will so consume her she becomes nothing but a timid, submissive shadow.

    Aiko

    **************************************************************** From: SeiraT@aol.com Date: Tue, 15 Feb 2000 12:00:39 EST Subject: writers need for the Kathmandu Post Review of Books To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

    HI there - just another reminder that if you would like to write a book review for the Kathmandu Post Review of Books, please contact me. We're constantly looking for new writers. Seira

    ******************************************************************* From: "Prakash Bhandari" <PRAKASH@HBL.COM.NP> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Thu, 17 Feb 2000 09:27:22 +0545, NST Subject: Fwd:A beautiful stroy for your family

    A woman came out of her house and saw 3 old men with long white beards sitting in her front yard. She did not recognize them. She said "I don't think I know you, but you must be hungry. Please come in and have something to eat."

    "Is the man of the house home?", they asked. "No", she said. "He's out." "Then we cannot come in", they replied.

    In the evening when her husband came home, she told him what had happened. "Go tell them I am home and invite them in!" The woman went out and invited the men in. "We do not go into a House together," they replied. "Why is that?" she wanted to know.

    One of the old men explained: "His name is Wealth," he said pointing to one of his friends, and said pointing to another one, "He is Success, and I am Love." Then he added, "Now go in and discuss with your husband which one of us you want in your home."

    The woman went in and told her husband what was said. Her husband was overjoyed. "How nice!!", he said.
    "Since that is the case, let us invite Wealth. Let him come and fill our home with wealth!"

    His wife disagreed. "My dear, why don't we invite Success?" Their daughter-in-law was listening from the other corner of the house. She jumped in with her own suggestion: "Would it not be better to invite Love? Our home will then be filled with love!"

    "Let us heed our daughter-in-law's advice," said the husband to his wife. "Go out and invite Love to be our guest."

    The woman went out and asked the 3 old men, "Which one of you is Love? Please come in and be our guest."

    Love got up and started walking toward the house. The other 2 also got up and followed him. Surprised, the lady asked Wealth and Success: "I only invited Love, Why are you coming in?"

    The old men replied together: "If you had invited Wealth or Success, the other two of us would've stayed out, but since you invited Love, Wherever He goes, we go with him. Wherever there is Love, there is also Wealth and Success!!!!!!"

    OUR WISH FOR YOU... Where there is pain, we wish you peace and mercy.

    Where there is self-doubting, we wish you a renewed confidence in your ability to work through them.

    Where there is tiredness, or exhaustion, we wish you understanding, patience, and renewed strength.

    Where there is fear, we wish you love, and courage.

    ************************************************************** Date: Thu, 17 Feb 2000 17:46:44 +0700 From: jamorn <jamorn2000@hotmail.com> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - Oct 18, 1994 (15 Kartik 2051 BkSm)

    hello my name is Preeda. I am from Thailand and I really want kno to about Nepal. I have heard about Nepal and I really want to know about Morang town, everthing about Morang , people and cultural and local career, I am glad to hear from you very soon. thank you in advance. Pleas send e-mail to me at grandpreeda@asia.com

    ******************************************************************* From: "Anil Shrestha" <shrestha@plant.uoguelph.ca> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Thu, 17 Feb 2000 09:15:40 EST Subject: News from Canada

    Recently I read a newsclip in the sports section of a leading Canadian daily. The news was that a boxer, Keysor Limbu won the silver medal in the 54 kgs category of the Canadian National Amateur boxing championship/selection for the Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia. To me this name sounded like it was a Nepali origin surname. Maybe some friends from Calgary can fill me on this because his hometown is Calgary, Alberta. I feel proud of his achievement and I am sure there are some of you who would feel the same. Can Gopal Dangol ji of Alberta help me in checking this out so that we can give proper acknowledgment to Keysor for his outstanding achievement!

    ******************************************************************** Date: Thu, 17 Feb 2000 10:03:55 -0700 From: Rick Young <kc7nzf@cyberhighway.net> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - Feb 17, 1995 (5 Falgun 2051 BkSm)

    I am doing a report at school on the culture and lifestyle of the Myan Indians. I was hoping to find more details than I have. If you have anything to help me, please email me.

    Thank you, Lacey, 12 yrs old

    **************************************************************** From: "flip" <phorner@toccoafalls.edu> To: <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - September 18, 1995 (5 Ashwin 2052 BkSm) Date: Thu, 24 Feb 2000 20:02:21 -0500

    Hello. My name is Jedediah Hecock. I am doing an ethnological study on = teh Newar of Nepal. I was wondering if you had any information you could = send me on these people. If so please send it via e- mail to = jbh19@hotmail.com

    Anything you could send me would be very much appreciated. Thankyou.

    *********************************************************************** To: List Member <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> From: "Alternative Fuel Vehicles Nepal" <AFVsNepal-owner@listbot.com> Subject: AFVs News

    Alternative Fuel Vehicles Nepal

    1. Nepal to begin LPG Manufacturing
        Martin Chautari
        2 March 2000

    One more tempo manufacturer is coming up with its product --
    'three-wheeler' aka tempo for the dwellers of Kathmandu Valley. No, not an Electric Vehicle manufacturer this time, but an LPG-run tempo- 'Shristi' manufacturer. Yes, SHRISTI is the name of the gas-tempo manufactured locally by Surya Auto Mechanical Works Pvt. Ltd. at Boudha. The company has produced a prototype and other tempos are in the pipe line and will be brought in the road once the test ride completes. Our vehicle is giving satisfactory results avers Basanta Raj Nakarmi, MD, of the company. 'We rode the vehicle from Thankot to Nagarkot and at various places without a hitch, and we are running it in different routes soon where other tempos are plying,' said Nakarmi.

    This Nepal-made LPG-run-three-wheeler has its constituent parts brought from different parts of the world! The chassis is from Scooters India i.e. the same as that of SAFA, the engine is from Mitsubishi -China, the gas kits from Lovato-Italy and the body made in Nepal. The engine in use is the four-stroke petrol engine. The new tempo will come without a petrol tank. HMG did not allow the new vehicle to have petrol tank. However, old Tuk-Tuks have their petrol tank intact.

    Even after the banning of diesel tempos from the Kathmandu Valley the demands for the LPG run tempos have not increased, whereas the demand for Electric Vehicles i.e. SAFAs increased considerably. This indifference towards the gas tempos is mainly due to the odour that it leaves behind. When Chautari asked Mr. Nakarmi why he wanted to produce the tempos when there is no demand for it, Mr. Nakarmi opined that the unpleasant odour is due to the leakage of gas from the tempo. 'The older tempos are using substandard kits and valves and that is why the odour. We are using Lovato gas kits which will not leak the gas', says Nakarmi.

    Shristi costs 450 thousands in the market which is 30-35 thousands less than the imported Tuk-Tuks.

    'Though the LPG run vehicles are considered less polluting, the LPG- run three-wheelers here are emitting more than the set standard of CO,' said Rajendra B. Adhikari, president of Centre for Renewable Energy. However, they do not emit the shoot particles as the other vehicles -petrol, diesel do. 'The LPG run tempos imported in Nepal are substandard one hence they might exceed the limit,' said a source.

    It is noteworthy here that the all the LPG run tempos currently use gas-cylinders as fuel supply that are meant for household purpose and not for vehicles. HMG initially granted permission to use these cylinders for few months. However, the deadlines has been extended from time to time. The last deadline is to expire within a month but no special cylinder and gas-filling stations have been established till the date. Surya Auto has submitted an application to put such gas filling stations but due to snail-pace of government mechanisms it cannot take place within the time frame. The file is now in Nepal Oil Company (NOC). "Only the NOC board can decide over the application as this is the first case of its kind and will take some time to reach a conclusion," said an official of NOC. 'Once government gives permission to establish the station it will take merely two- three months to establish such station,' said Nakarmi of Surya Auto.

    2. New Safa Routes
        Martin Chautari
        2 March 2000

    With the flow of more Electric Vehicles in the market, new routes are being opened up for tempos to operate within the city. Two such new routes are opened recently. One route is from RNAC to Bafal and the other is from RNAC to Sinamangal via Battisputali, Tara Cinema Hall. The route to Bafal was earlier served by the diesel tempos, but after the ban on diesel operated tempos the route was remained unserved by any vehicles. After the demand from the local residents of Bafal, the SAFA tempos extended their service to this area. The Sinamangal route was not served earlier by petrol or diesel tempos.

    3. Polluting politics
         By Anil Agrawal, director, Centre for Science and Environment

    DISINFORMATION and bad politics seem to go hand in hand. Now that the Delhi government is showing that it is determined to fight growing air pollution, a desperate effort seems to be on to try and confuse the issue in the hope that action against polluters can be delayed, if not derailed. The Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) has suddenly woken up to say that the government's move to ban the registration of all commercial vehicles, except those running on compressed natural gas (CNG), will promote global warming. TERI scientists seem to have suddenly pulled this out of their hat, much like a magician conjuring up a rabbit. Of course, CNG being a gas with a high methane content is known to have greenhouse gas potential. This is well-known and well-considered in public policy. This is not to say that diesel, for which TERI obviously seems to be lobbying, does not lead to global warming. In fact, there is increasing evidence to show that diesel contributes in an equal measure to global warming. It was a preferred fuel because of the alleged high efficiency of diesel engines but the price differential and the lower costs of running diesel cars has led to increasing usage and negates any advantage.

    But the issue that TERI scientists seemed to have missed completely is that diesel engines emit high quantities of particulate matter which are extremely small and highly carcinogenic. Particulate pollution is the most serious pollutant in Delhi. Pollution due to PM 10 particles - particles with a diameter less than 10 microns - reached an astonishing 820 microgrammes per cubic metre on some days in the city's ambient air. This is eight times higher than the national standard and possibly way above anything recorded in any other city in the world. Mexico City, which is widely considered as the most polluted in the world, has a smog alert system. The authorities inform citizens about the state of the air on a daily basis. If Delhi's particulate pollution levels are considered and Mexico City rules imposed, the city would have a pollution emergency every second day. In fact Delhi would have to close down for six months in the year to make the air good enough to breathe.

    Therefore an action plan to control particulate pollution becomes vital. Curbs on diesel use become a must. Because of this, the Supreme Court in 1998 had ordered that all buses over eight years old should move to CNG from April 1, 2000 and all buses should be running on CNG by March 2001. The court is also hearing a case recommending a ban on private diesel cars in Delhi, as the spiraling growth of these cheaper-to-run-vehicles of the rich, has the potential to negate any clean up efforts by the public transport sector.

    The Delhi government long criticised for delaying the implementation of these orders has finally decided to take a hard line. But no sooner does it clear the proposal to register only buses, taxis and autorickshaws that run on CNG from April 1, 2000, it is hit on the head. The timing is amazing, simply because the decision to move public and commercial transport to CNG had been taken almost two years ago. The Gas authority of India Limited has been busy setting up the infrastructure to provide the city with CNG and everyone else, from the Supreme Court downwards, has been pushing for the timely implementation of this crucial order.

    The question now being asked is whether Delhi, which is suffering from severe local air pollution, should first take steps to deal with global pollution. This is absurd. It is important to note that India does not have commitments under the climate change convention to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This is not to say that it should have the right to pollute with impunity. Only that the convention clearly lays down that those who have endangered the world's climate should be the first to take action to reduce their emissions. We have seen precious little of this till date. The Kyoto Protocol, signed in late 1997, lays down commitments for the industrialised North to cut emissions but now the richest and most polluting nations are trying to buy their way out of the problem. They want to trade in cheap emission reductions from our part of the world instead of taking action to cut emissions at home.

    Secondly, there is the issue of priorities. In the grossly climate-unfriendly country like the US, states like New York and California were faced with the choice of restricting diesel, that had less global warming potential, against rising concerns over local air pollution. They clearly stated that local health concerns had to take precedence over global concerns. As a result both these states have programmes to induct more and more CNG buses. Why then should Delhi citizens be treated differently?

    TERI's conjuring act is a part of the automobile lobby's sustained efforts to block the introduction of CNG in Delhi. It is, therefore, not surprising that only a few months ago the director of TERI was quoted in newspaper reports as arguing that burning of leaves by the poor and not automobiles, was the cause of air pollution in Delhi. Given that a TATA company - TELCO - is leading the diesel brigade, should we call this connivance, or term it a coincidence?
    (Taken from CSE news bulletin, India)

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