The Nepal Digest - March 22, 1995 (8 Chaitra 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Wednesday 22 March 95: Chaitra 8 2051 BkSm Volume 36 Issue 8

 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * SCN Liaison: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *

********************************************************************** From: (Pratyoush R. Onta) Subject: info To: (tnd) Date: Wed, 15 Mar 1995 13:21:43 -0500 (EST)

Anthropologist Mark Liechty is looking for any information on the following film:

"Way to Kathmandu"
  If anyone a) remembers seeing it, and b) knows any details like its production date, director, producer, etc. please post the information here as well as send it directly to him. His email address is:

************************************************************** From: Dileep Agrawal <> Subject: FOR SALE: *** PWM-BOS-BKK-BOS-PWM *** on NorthWest To: Date: Wed, 15 Mar 1995 14:35:08 -0500 (EST)

I am trying to sell a companion ticket for the following sector:

Portland (ME) - BOS - BKK - BOS - Portland.

Leaving from Portland (ME) June 6 11am

Leaving from Boston June 6 1200

Arriving into Boston Sept 3 8:05p

Arriving into Portland Sept 3 8:45p

ONLY....... $1150/bo

My final destination is Kathmandu, Nepal.

*************************************************************** From: (Diwas Khati - student) Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - March 16, 1995 (2 Chaitra 2051 BkSm) To: Date: Wed, 15 Mar 1995 14:41:17 -0500 (EST)

Dear Editors,
 Do you not see the need to limit the lines of individual postings in TND to prevent TND from being another "TRN" or "Go.Pa." filled with lenghty stories on matters of no immediate relevance and significance. The last one on TIBET, which was two hundred and something lines, looked like someone trying to use TND as a medium to publicize TIBET matters. Nothing wrong with what was in it, but could it not have been reduced in size while "cross-posting"? These little things, if looked into, could mean a lot to the popularity of TND. Just an idea.


************************************************************** Date: 16 Mar 1995 05:46:20 EST To: The Nepal Digest <> From: BONNIE HOLLAND <> Subject: Greetings

To all at The Nepal Digest,

I thoroughly enjoy reading TND. I lived in Nepal for three years, teaching physiotherapy in Kathmandu at Tribhuvan University's Institute of Medicine, and just this week came back after visiting my former students. This TND is very well done. And for your records, I am a physiotherapist, my current
"Snail-Mail" address is 1503 NE 76th Ave., Portland, OR 97213, USA; phone (503
) 254-2114. There is quite a Nepali community here in the Portland area who I will tell about TND. I would love to stay in contact with other Nepali in the USA and other countries. Are any of your contacts graduates of Budhanilkantha School? I have many friends who have taught there. Thanks.

Thank you very much for TND, Bonnie Holland

********************************************************************** From: (NA Punal) Subject: Kura_Kani: Tourism. To: Date: Thu, 16 Mar 1995 00:14:02 +0000 (GMT)

Dear Sirs of TND and readers,

My name is Nicolas Punal, reading my final year of an Honours Degree in Business Studies with Tourism at the University of the West of England, Bristol, U.K.

I am writing a final year university thesis on the "future of adventure travel in the 21st Century".

According to several tourism journals and travel writers, Asia will become the premier destination for adventure travel in the next Century. For this reason I believe Nepal as a tourism destination, will be affected by the increase in adventure travel (eg. Trekking, White river rafting, etc).

Despite the range of general literature available, I have not been able to findany STATISTICS on the number of adventure travellers to Nepal, and whether the trend is on the increase.

I am asking whether any of you are able to assist me in my search for visitor trends to Nepal, or maybe you know somebody who could guide me to the right source of information. I have already contacted the Royal Nepalese Embassy in London but they did not possess this information...

Also, I am interested in finding out how Nepal uses the media and telecommuni- cations in general to reach and appeal to the tourist, (for example, does Nepal advertise itself in the Newspapers, Television, Radio?).

I would be very interested to hear comments from readers of TND together with any suggestions you may have to offer.

May I also take this opportunity to congratulate TND on such an informative and highly interesting publication, Keep up the Good Work!.

Yours, Nicolas A. Punal e-mail:

**************************************************************** Date: Wed, 15 Mar 1995 20:04:11 -0500 From: (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: Subject: Mountain Agenda

Cross-posted from SCN:

Euta Nepali ( wrote:
: The following is the list who participated in the meeting.
: MR. K. M. Dixit
: Himal
: The only outspoken Nepalese in the conference as per some of the observers.
: Ms. Jeannette Denholm Gurung
: Another participant from ICIMOD did not attend. Perhaps they
: realized that it is useless to become like King Mahendra Trust to attend the
: same meeting by two representatives from the same organization.
: Mr. Arup Rajouria
: King Mahendra Trust
: Mr Jal P. Rana
: King Mahendra Trust
: Dr. Tritha Bahadur Shrestha
: IUCN/Nepal
: Mr. Narayan Poudel
: Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area.
: ============
: To someone who said that they will prepare at least a "high level" paper on
: Nepal and share with others:
: Perhaps we do not have any problems to be alarmed.
: ============
: Personally, I would have liked to see Mr. Deepak Gyawali's participation,
: not as a representative from RONAST but as an individual.
: ============
: ICIMOD distributed a report on "inspiration in community forestry"
: If you wish to obtain a copy of it please contact
: The Publication Unit
: Pulchowk
: G.P.O. Box 3226
: Kathmandu Nepal.
: They might ask you to pay for it.
: ============
: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
: :

One of my committee members, who participated this conference as an expert on Mountain Hazard, has a *slightly* different opinion than what Shaligramji has presented.

* He has valued Jannette's participation and highly appreciated Kanak's
        audacity. However, "The rest", of whom I really had praised (quoting
        verbatim from few articles that appeared in SCN, of course), were
        neither active participants nor raised any significant issues in the
        meeting. (moral: don't take everything that appears in SCN for

* According to him, if Deepak Bajrachary would have participated as a
        NEPALI participant, the scene would have been different. Deepak
        presented many relevant issues but they were in a global context.

* Nepalis participated without a good home-work. Many of the time
        criss-crossing and contradicting each-others valid statements. [Doh!]

* Nepalis upheld *the spiral down* phenomena in the mountain --
        which not only Mohonk Conference splintered but also is emperically
        proven to be wrong -- dumping blame on poor mountain people.
        [ Reading Himalayan Dilemma or articles in Mount. Res. and development
        or even Himal edited by Kanak could have helped. Pity! once again we
        pahad ko manchhe have been regarded as scapegoats.]

* I've got the entire set of papers and if any of you wanna know what's
        happening in these mountain niches, send me an email. In return,
        I reiterate-- IN RETURN, I expect some one to post what these people
        learned from this conference.


********************************************************************** Date: 16 Mar 95 14:31:13 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News3/13-15 To:

March 13 New Joint Bank Starts Operation Excerpts from Xinhua report

   Bank of Kathmandu, established under the joint investment of the siyam commercial bank of thailand opened up its banking activities on sunday. the newly-established joint bank has an authorized capital of 240 million rupees (about 4.8 million us dollars). Nepali investors possess 45 percent of the bank's share whereas 30 percent of the share belongs to the siyam commercial bank of thailand. the remaining 25 percent will be distributed to the general public. the issued capital of the new joint bank is 180 million rupees (about 3.6 million dollars) and its paid up capital is 90 million rupees (about 1.8 million dollars).

 March 14 Fall in Share Worries Government By Gopal Sharma in Kathmandu for Reuters (excerpts)

    Nepal's finance minister says he is worried about falling share prices on the country's state-run stock exchange which analysts have attributed to confusing signals from the new communist government.

   "The decline in share prices has made me worry," Bharat Mohan Adhikary told Reuters in an interview late on Monday. "I am very much concerned."

   Share prices on Nepal's one-year-old stock exchange have fallen 18.5 percent since the communist government, headed by the finance minister's brother Man Mohan Adhikary, took power in late November.

   A 20-share index compiled by a group of brokers called MAMPS, quoted once a day, stood at 154.14 on Monday, down from 189.09 on December 1 and 176.69 on February 1.

   "The government has not done anything to arrest falling share prices," said MAMPS official Parmeshwar Bhakta Malla. "The government has not come up with its policies on the stock exchange."

   The finance minister said the price trend did not reflect the actual economic situation, and other indicators were positive.

   "There are positive indications on the revenue side with every front exceeding our targets so far. Our reserves are positive and some upward trends, though minimal, are visible on the trade front also," Adhikary said.

   "There is nothing to worry about requiring us to change policies immediately," he added.

   Critics accuse Nepal's communist government of failing to shore up confidence in the fledgling stock market.

   "Investors are confused about government policies," former finance minister Prakash Chandra Lohani said. "The communists are not giving clear signals as to how they intend to run the economy."

   Prithvi Raj Legal of the Centre for Policy Research and Analysis, a private consulting firm, said the government had indicated it would give priority to domestic firms in any future privatisation.

   "It's a signal to foreign investors that they will not be given neutral treatment," Legal said.

   Stock market analyst Jeevan Basnet said share prices were passing through a "mature phase" and coming down to a more realistic level following a bull run in mid-1994.

   But he said trade volume had dwindled and needed to be revived by a change in authorities at the government-run Nepal Stock Exchange Ltd
(NSEL), where trading is done through open outcry.

   "The NSEL should turn into an autonomous body governed by renowned people and controlled by the central bank," Basnet said.

   "It is political and run by the government now."

 March 15 Nepal to Import Weapons from Sweden Excerpts from UPI and AFP reports

   In a rare interview Wednesday with a pro-left newspaper Jana Astha, army chief Gen. Gadul Shumsher Rana said that Nepal was importing rocket launchers and other arms from Sweden and did not expect India to object.

   ''We are importing rocket launchers and other weapons from Sweden,
'' Rana told the newspaper, which is allied with the ruling communist party. ''We are confident India will not object to this,'' he said, though he admitted Nepal's neighbor previously had objected to weapons imports.

   Rana said the Swedish arms shipment would arrive in Nepal shortly but did not specify the exact nature and quantity of the weapons or the value of the deal.

   However, a Royal Nepal Army source told AFP that only ammunition, not rocket launchers, were being imported. The source told AFP that a peaceful country like Nepal needed to import ammunition for manual rocket launchers solely to train its soldiers.

      Under a 1965 agreement, Nepal should get clearance from India to bring in any kind of weapon.

   Angered by Nepal's importing of anti-aircraft guns and tanks from China in the late 1980s, New Delhi imposed economic sanctions against Kathmandu, paralyzing the Nepalese national economy.

   In his interview, Gen. Rana also confirmed he had been invited to visit China but said he had yet to receive final approval for the trip. ''Yes, I have received an invitation from China. The visit has not been canceled. I am waiting for the government's clearance for the visit,'' Rana, who retires in two months, told the newspaper.

India-Nepal Talks on Water dispute fail By Gopal Sharma in Kathmandu for Reuters (excerpts)

    Nepal and India failed to resolve a long-running dispute over water rights during high-level talks that ended on Wednesday, negotiators said.

   The south Asian neighbours remained divided over the Tanakpur hydro-electric and water project which is built on the western border that the tiny, landlocked Himalayan kingdom shares with India, they said.

    Nepal wants more water and electricity from the project, but the Indian delegation led by Water Resources Secretary M.S. Reddy said it was unwilling to budge, they said.

    Nepal had previously allowed India to build part of the Tanakpur embankment along a short stretch of the Mahakali river in Nepal in return for a share of the water and electricity.

   But the Communist Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) party, which won power last November, made a campaign pledge to win more generous benefits from the project.

   During this week's talks, India turned down a request by Nepali Water Resources Secretary Surya Nath Upadhyaya for more water and electricity, negotiators said.

   Talks on another dam that India has proposed building in central Nepal also failed during the bilateral talks in the Nepali capital.

   Negotiators said India wanted to construct a high dam on the Kosi river, crucial for flood control and irrigation in its Bihar state, but Nepal insisted on a commitment that would give Kathmandu greater irrigation benefits.

   Analysts expect the water dispute to be at the top of Nepali Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary's agenda when he visits New Delhi next month.

************************************************************* Date: Thu, 16 Mar 1995 15:47:09 -0500 (EST) From: Pravignya Regmi <> To: Subject: Request for subscription

Dear sir,
   I would like to subscribe the Nepal Digest at my e-mail account
   Thank you so much and NAMASTE !!

Sincerely Pravigya Regmi Dept of Urban and Environmental Policy 97 Talbot Avenue- Brown House Tufts University Medford, MA 02155 USA.

**************************************************** Date: Thu, 16 Mar 1995 16:48:10 -0800 (PST) From: Amresh Karmacharya <> To: Subject: khoj khabar

A cousine of mine Mr. Birendra Man Pradhan is a ME student in Environmental Engineering in the AIT, Bangkok. I am in search of his address. Can anyone help me find his email address?


************************************************************* Date: Fri, 17 Mar 95 10:19:11 EST From: To: Subject: Inflation and the UML Government

Inflation Since UML Came to Power Summary

For the three plus months since the UML came to power inflation has been a negative 4.3% which is approximately the same as has been noticed for these three months over the preceding six years. Inflation does not appear to have worsened or improved over these months.

There has been lower inflation than usual for these three months for milk, sugar, fuel/light/water, restaurant meals, transport/communication, and footwear. Inflation has gotten worse, compared to the last six years, for pulses, spices, edible oil/clarified butter, and cloth. Some of the improvements are due to specific changes in government taxes on those items
(milk, sugar, fuel), while the increase in cloth prices might be partly due to the increase in protectionist tariffs. The largest worsening of inflation, and possibly the cause of concern in the press, is the in crease in the prices of pulses. Usually they fall by 2.1% during these three months, but this year they have increased by 7.1%. During the last three months of the Congress Government, prices of pulses rose by slightly less than was "normal".

For the two major items in the consumer's basket, rice and vegetables/fruits, inflation is nearly the same as during the same period in recent years.

The fall in prices of fuel, sugar and milk products is probably due to actions of the government in lowering taxes on these goods, or having the state enterprises responsible decrease prices administratively. The sharp increase in inflation during the month ending mid-February might indicate a change in the direction of inflation. However, data for a single month must be used with caution.


Though the Rastra Bank data shows that there have not been any sharp increases in the prices of commodities surveyed by the Bank, the politicians both in government and opposition continue to raise the issue of high inflation. It would be unusual had the prices increased during the period that UML has been in office since this is the period when prices of basic foodstuffs usually decrease due to increased availability. There have been no instances in the last six years when prices have risen during this three month period.

Often, to show inflation politicians will only refer to a few goods, such as pulses right now, and not at the broad range of products.


The UML Government took over the reigns of government in late November 1994. There have been statements in the paper alleging large increases in prices and greater price stability than before. This memo looks at what the data compiled by the Nepal Rastra Bank (National Urban Consumer Price Index) shows.

Between mid-November 1994 and mid- February 1995 prices overall have fallen by 4.3%. This is not unusual as the period covered is the season for the price index to decline due to newly harvested rice, vegetables and fruits. Rice and vegetables together ac count for 32% of the price index (rice alone accounts for 24%).

This year rice prices fell 7.8%, compared to a fall of 13.0% last year and a fall of 7.7% two years ago. Vegetable and fruit prices fell 32.2%, compared to a fall of 26.6% last year and 29.7% two years ago. The price data for the three month period does not indicate that inflation has gone up exceptionally high since the UML formed the government.

For the year ending February 1995, the overall inflation rate was 9.0% high compared to 8.3% for the year ending February 1994, and 6.6% for the year ending February 1993. The trend in inflation is up. However, the higher rate cannot be attributed to the period that the UML has been in power since during the three month period, prices have moved almost the exact same as during the two previous years.

Price Increases Compared

For the most part inflation in the last three months has been comparable to inflation for comparable periods over the last seven years. However, for some goods inflation is higher than for comparable periods in the past, and for other goods inflation is better.

To make the comparison fair we com pare inflation for the three months ending mid-February 1995 (the period of the UML government) with inflation over the same three month period in each of the years from 1988/89 to 1993/94.

For the three months ending mid-February 1995 milk and milk product prices fell 0.7% while the median change for the six previous years was an increase in prices of 0.6%. Similarly there was much lower inflation for sugar (down 7.0% this year compared to and increase of 7.3% over the previous six years). Fuel, light and water prices fell by 1.2% compared to median increases of 1.8%; restaurant meals rose only 0.8% while they usually rise by 4.2%. Comparable results were seen for transportation/communication, footwear, and education.

The picture was not favorable for a few goods. Pulse prices usually fall by 2.1% during this period, but this year they increased by 7.1%. The prices of spices usually fall by 3.4% but this year they rose by 7.3%, oil and clarified butter prices usually fall by 0.8%, but this year they increased by 1.2%; cloth prices usually increase by 1.0%, but this year they increased by 2.3%.

Inflation Compared to the NC Government

We can compare inflation during the first three months of the UML government to inflation during the last three months of the Nepali Congress Government. Again, both comparisons are against similar periods in previous years. We shall compare the major items in order.

Inflation in rice prices under the UML government were 1.0 percentage point better, while during the NC government's last three months it was 2.1 percentage points better. The performance of the NC government was better.

For housing UML's record is an improvement of 1.0 percentage points, while for Congress it was a 0.8 percentage point improvement. There is not much difference.

For vegetables and fruits inflation under UML is 1.6 percentage points better, while NC had inflation for these goods worsening by 3.1 percentage points: an improvement under UML.

For fuel, light and water inflation under the UML was 3.0 percentage points better, while for NC it was 2.1% better. The UML government has lowered these more.

Inflation in restaurant meals, the next most important item, was 3.4 percentage points better under both UML and NC.

Medical and personal care prices were 0.6 percentage points better under UML, but 2.5 percentage points better under NC. This is a comparative worsening under UML.

The major worsening under UML was for pulses, where inflation was 9.2 percentage points worse; for the last three months of the NC government pulse prices were 0.4 percentage points worse. There has been a significant worsening here.


For some goods the results are due to changes in government taxation. As part of the UML budget taxes were cut (or state enterprises agreed to reduce prices) on sugar, milk, fuel, wheat, and cement. The results can be seen in lower inflation for these goods. This is a one time event and we ought to notice inflation returning to "normal" levels. Government also raised the tariff on imported textiles and edible oils, the result is a higher than normal increase in cloth prices and edible oils/clarified butter.

Sources of Inflation

Over the last eighteen months non-tradeable inflation (housing, electricity, medical services and the like) has been slowing. This is the inflation that is mainly influenced by domestic causes. Inflation in tradeables (most food items) has been erratic but has been increasing sharply of late. This inflation is mainly caused by increased inflationary pressures in India where inflation is now running over 11% compared to 9% in Nepal.

A Possible Worry?

In previous memos we have compared inflation a number of different ways. The graph shows inflation measured by the traditional year-on-year method, and via monthly and quarterly data. The monthly inflation rates (deseasonalized and annualized) are the most volatile and can give spurious results; the historical yearly data tends to change slowly and thus usually cannot show a change in direction. Usually we like to use the deseasonalized and annualized quarterly data.

The graph shows there has been little movement in the yearly data, and a slow decline in the quarterly data. However, for February 1995 there was a sharp increase in the monthly inflation. In the month of February 1995 inflation was a positive 0.27%. However, usually prices fall in February by 1.45%, making the deseasonalized inflation 1.7%. Were this to continue for the rest of the year, the annual inflation would be over 20%. This could indicate a change beginning to occur in the economy. We shall have to look at next month's before making any conclusions.

Likely Inflation for the Next Few Months

As noted earlier the period UML has been in power are the months when prices usually fall. This decline usually continues into March when prices fall by around 0.5%. In April prices are usually steady but then begin the period of the year when inflation is usually the highest. The peak monthly inflation figures are usually in August (very true this past year when the monthly inflation rate was 3.2% in August 1994).

******************************************************************* Date: Fri, 17 Mar 1995 13:41:36 -0500 To: Subject: Moving to Kathamandu From: (Siobhan ORiordan)

I am moving to Kathmandu in August for at least two years. I will be working there and have a 700 lb. air shipping allowance so I am trying to be very organized, if minimalistic in what I need to bring with me in this one time shipment. I am interested in any suggestions regarding what I should bring with me as well as ideas for adventure when I get there (though I am sure once I am there I will get help with planning holidays and the like). Thanks in advance.


*********************************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 17 Mar 1995 13:49:03 +0500 From: (Nischal Shrestha) To: Subject: Test

        This test does not measure your intelligence, your fluency with words nor certainly your mathematical ability and creativity.

Instructions: Each question below contains the initials of the words that fit. Find the missing words.

Example: 16 = O. in a P. 16 Ounces in a Pound.

        1. 26 L. of the A.
        2. 7 = W. of the A.W.
        3. 1001 = A.N.

                                       To be continued...

                        If you have any questions then contact me. I will give the answers later.

                                Nischal Shrestha
                                (614) 299 0780

**************************************************************************** From: Subas Sakya <> Subject: request for information To: Date: Sat, 18 Mar 95 10:49:26 EST

Dear Editor and TND readers,

        This is a request for information on the whereabouts of Mr Raju Manandhar and Sunil Amatya. Last time I heard they were in New Jersey and Boston. If someone could give me their address and phone numbers, I would appreciate it.
        ManojKansakar, if you have some information, let me know. Rajeeb Sakya from Nepal is visiting us and if anyone wants to contact him please send me a message at this address.
         Thanks Subas

**************************************************************** Date: Sat, 18 Mar 1995 19:26:42 -0500 From: (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: Subject: DEFINE.....Nepali Taxpayer, please

Cross-posted from SCN:

In article someone wrote on: 1 Mar 1995 15:06:34 GMT
 | Although I lurk in SCN regularly, and post once in a long while, I've
 |obviously missed some important facts in the BKS debate.
 | Ashutosh Tiwari ( wrote
 |> ..... And spending most of our secondary school budget on ONE
 |>school, Nepal is only getting say 50 strong BKS grads per year, whereas,
 |>through 'better' education policies, we could have gotten perhaps 2000 or
 |>more strong high school grads all over Nepal FOR THE SAME AMOUNT OF
 |>PUBLIC MONEY.[This is only a metaphorical example).
 | Does more than 50% of the secondary school budget really go to BKS?
 |Can anyone post an approximate percentage? How many students are enrolled
 |in or graduate from BKS versus the number enrolled in and graduating from
 |all the other public (state financed) secondary schools in Nepal?
 | Just curious.

1. Based on the SCN/TND debate, in the previous decade BKS used to get about 8 million grants (8, 000, 000) to produce few Nepalis from remote areas (50?) and rest from the elite class family. ITs like called in nepali "Hathi ko dekhaune dant ra khane dant bhinna bhinnai hunchan"
(?English? Elephant has two types of teeth to show and to chew foods).

2. I myself was one primary school teacher for about 1.5years. The budget (in 80+ies) was so low that you can't imagine. there were less rooms than number of classes and sections. Rooms were crowded and in rainy days the lowest level classes were suspended because of lack room and furniture. The budget to buy chalk+stationary was only Rs. 100. (just hundred?), compare with the BKS ? What ratio ? we had about 200 students.
        In this school we had one special "pichadiyeko jat -- DARAI" peoples who are living only in that village or locality, so govt. needed to help them in education. It is because peoples from other places came to there village and could obtain lands in a very cheap rate. They were loosing their agricultural land. Few lucky from these Darai used to pass in the "Hong-Kong British Lahure" and rest same as their parents. Our school's principal (pricipal called in Nepali govt. school as Head MAster) was trying hard to push a very very brilliant Darai boy into the screeing but was finally kicked by "Jilla Shavapati" because he was also trying to push his own son in that quota from BKS. Finally, Darai could not get. So, the quota from BKS als showed a kind of
"Hathi ko Dekhaune dant". Fortunately, I know there was "crystal clear" screening when the British they them self went to find the poor soul in villages, but , once it was handed over to Nepali' b-cratic red tapes, then hardly few were able to screened into the BKS. And as BKS turned to be good and good it turned as a "Hatthi ko dekhaune danta in the name of few poor talent nepalis.".

3. If our public college "proud of the nation?" Amrit Science college can get the same amount of grants , so that , teachers can get the 75% of the salary as teachers getting in BKS, it would prove much much better and producing most brillian engineers and medical docotors as it has produced in last 30-40years. I know personnally some Amrit S. College teachers were attracted to BKS, leaving ASCol in reuins in these days because of lack of funds. Where teachers starts (private -home) tutioning from the very first day of academic year. ASCol don't get that grants as BKS is getting , the reason is straight . The so called
(overnight rich --- elite ? of Nepal) rich's kids won't get admission in the ASCol and 90% are from middle class and may be 50% from outside Kathmandu. So, why should our b.cratic red tapes like to sponsor the truely public college like ASCol ?

4. .................later.
         Gyaneswor Pokharel

P.S. If the curious person is not Nepali citizen or origin and because of that you could not understand some Nepali words that have been needed to insert, I suggest you to try to understand. What I am taught here is that if you want to stay in others' community, you should try to understand them, their language and culture. "Culture --comes with three--- language, cloths and food". That is the reason, people going to German should know few German words, going to France --French, coming Japan few Jap. words and Going or staying with Nepalis should know some Nepali words. Good Luck. And hope you know going to America has to get descent score in TOEFL exam.

******************************************************************* Date: Sat, 18 Mar 1995 19:29:41 -0500 To: Subject: Peace Corps Bicycle Tour to incl Nepal (fwd) From: (Frank F Kroger)

Forwarded from the green-travel mailing list by
>From mendicott@igc.apc.orgTue Mar 14 00:54:44 1995
Date: Mon, 13 Mar 1995 09:21:15 -0800 (PST) From: "Marcus L. Endicott" <> To: Recipients of conference <> Subject: Eurasia Odyssey '95

Date: Mon, 13 Mar 1995 09:05:03 -0800 X-within-URL:

                              EURASIA ODYSSEY '95
                                        The Event

   Since 1961, more than 125,000 U.S. citizens have served as Peace Corps
   Volunteers (PCVs) in over 110 countries throughout the world. For the
   first time in Peace Corps' 34 year history, PCVs are working in
   contiguous countries from the Peoples Republic of China to Poland. In
   celebrating this historic event, returning PCVs John McGown and Sonja
   Raub will bridge the expanse of Eurasia on their mountain bikes to
   produce a comprehensive photo documentary in 14 countries highlighting
   the every day challenges facing volunteers and the communities in
   which they serve. Their purpose is to add a new dimension to Goal
   Three of Peace Corps in promoting a greater understanding on the part
   of Americans of people and cultures in distant countries. The
   documentary will be presented for distribution to Peace Corps
   headquarters, educational institutions, and other interested groups.
   It will concentrate issues encountered by PCVs at their work sites
   such as environmental conservation and education efforts, women in
   development, effects of political change, and PCV-inititiated
   livelihood projects. The Eurasia Odyssey '95 is recognized and
   applauded by PC Director Carol Bellamy.
    The Route

   In March 1995 McGown and Raub will begin their journey across Eurasia
   in Bangkok, Thailand. From there, they will cross through Laos and
   Vietnam to Chendgu, China along the old southern silk route. After
   visiting PVCs in Chendgu, the two riders will climb the southern edge
   of the Chang Tang Plateau to Lhasa, pass through the Himalayas into
   Nepal and Kashmir, and arrive in Pakistan. From Islamabad, they will
   pedal to Kashi, over the highest public road in the world, the
   Karakorum Highway. By August, they will push through the former Soviet
   Republics of Kyrghyzstan, Kazakstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, all
   recently established PC posts. Once through Armenia and Turkey, McGown
   and Raub will complete the final leg of the Odyssey. They will visit
   with PCVs in Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, the Czech and Slovak
   Republics, and Poland.
   The challenge of this ride lies in the distance (an estimated 18,500
   kilometers), the change in topography, altitudes, (from sea level to
   16,000ft.), and climatic extremes ranging from the hot and humid
   tropics to the dry high desert and frigid steppe. The cultural and
   religious diversity cross-cutting the worlds of Buddhism, Hinduism,
   Islam and Christianity, various customs and traditions, challenges in
   daily travel, and photo-documentation of the trip, all accentuate the
   physical and mental demands of this endeavor.
    The RPCVs

   McGown and Raub are returning PCVs from two and a half years of
   service in Catanduanes, the Philippines where they worked as water
   sanitation and coastal resource management technicians respectively.
   McGown, from Fort Worth, Texas, has a MA in International Affairs from
   George Washington University. He has been actively involved with
   groups promoting bicycling such as "Bikes Not Bombs" in Washington
   D.C. As an avid cyclist, sailor, and seasoned traveler he has already
   toured on four continents. Raub, a native of San Francisco,
   California, holds a Bachelors in German and Zoology from the
   University of California, Berkeley. She has had extensive experience
   as an adventure guide for Cal Adventures in California and has been
   actively mountain biking for four years and racing for two years. She
   has traveled extensively on three continents.
    The Call

   The funds for the Eurasia Odyssey '95 are being generated through
   McGown's and Raub's hard work as PCVs. In addition to their
   readjustment allowances, they have applied for small grants and
   scholarships, and are soliciting donations from family, friends, and
   fellow RPCVs and PCVs through T-shirt sales. Although they are
   budgeting $15,000 per rider, this will barely cover their food,
   lodging, equipment, and airfare costs. Therefore, they are looking for
   sponsors so that they can realize the Eurasia Odyssey '95. T-shirts
   sell for $20. The logo of major sponsors will be displayed during the
   ride if the sponsor so desires. Please send your donations to Eurasia
   Odyssey '95 or contact Susi Raub, Manager, 2924 Claremont Ave. #10,
   Berkeley, Ca. (510) 841-2869 for further questions.

****************************************************************** Date: Sun, 19 Mar 95 22:31:19 CST From: "Kristen R Johnson" <> To: Subject: 8. Inquiry

I am studying the Free Tibet movement occurring in Nepal and would welcome any information or resources anyone can recommend. I'm interested in the political organization of Tibetan refugees, as well as government responses. Thank you in advance for your much needed help.

****************************************************************** Date: Mon, 20 Mar 1995 10:29 EST From: Subject: Mohan Amatya's contribution To:,,,

Dear Editor:

I am sending Mohan Amatya's contribution on Ganesh Man's "Antarghat". He send this to you but i guess it got lost in the archival crash. thanks.


From: IN%"" 15-MAR-1995 02:57:34.07 To: IN%"" CC: Subj: fwd: Explore Anatarghat Annex


Here is what I wrote to TND, re Antargahat Annex.

Cheers Mohan

Amulya inquires if it were 'whining in the wind".

My response YES and NO.

**** YES, that suggested annex of the Antarghat may be sent to Aryaghat.

**** NO, it could be a serious allegation, so be it. If anybody is interested to dig it further, I suggest him/her to start interviewing people including the following, in priority order:

1. Dilli Raman Regmi, leader of Rastriya Congress, possibly a by-product of early Antarghat within congress leadership;

2. Khadga Man Singh, another Congress leader comparable with our Supremo;

3. Diamond Sumsere JBR, a serious and dedicated Congress member;

4. Rishi Kesh Shah, an expert on political history of Nepal;

5. Beni Bahadur Karki, a staunch stalwart of Gorkha Parishad, now chairman of the Senate under Congress Umbrella;

6. Family members of Sahid Bhogendra Man Singh, a cousin of Supremo Ganesh Man;

7. Family members of Sahid Chinikaji, killed in Kathmandu by Home Minister BP Koirala's 'securitate';

8. Family members of those killed in Bharatpur in 2018 by King Mahendra's
'securitate' (must not miss family members of Jaman Singh Gurung who lost two sons one in 2007, another in 2018 - a most torturous death of a freedom fighter that I have heard of);

9. Family members of those killed days before the end of Panchayat that tied King Birendra to his throne with 'no longer absolute power';

10. Madam Koirala, BP Koirala's wife;

11. Family members and close associates of Jaya Prakash Narayan who virtually reared our Congress to its present state; and

12. Family members of those who staged a peaceful march and killed in Kathmandu valley a couple of years ago by Home Minster Deupa's atrocious policy against democratic process.

The point I was trying to make was that Ganesh Man, Bhattarai and other
'like-leaders' were there to make 'compromise' at various stages of our political and democratic evolution. They were no more than 'politics of opportune'. The 'Antarghatism' that went through, against freedom fighters' hope and wish, were no less serious than that Ganesh Man was referring to at the Bhattarai's defeat of an election.

Ganesh Man and Bhattarai have been great leaders of Congress. I respect them for that. In fact one of my friend, a serious and dedicated Congress member think both Ganesh Man and Bhattarai are living Saints of Nepali Congress ( However, I did not see any proposal of their beatification at the recent Congress of Nepali Congress at Pokhara, if I have missed it to observe, please let me know).

See the present government, a Communist government in a kingdom, what a laughing stock ! What type of communism they follow ? Is that anything more than just another 'politics of opportune'?

Regards MAmatya PS: - "Antarghat Annex' could be a good topic of research for those PG Degree candidates in politics or political history of Nepal.

*************************************************************************** Date: Mon, 20 Mar 1995 10:59 EST From: Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - March 16, 1995 (2 Chaitra 2051 BkSm) To:

Roar of the Paper Tiger: the NC posture

The Nepali Congress has just had a recent "Mahasamiti" and has come out in a series of dramatic postures that are inversely proportional to its political impotence and fear of being written off politically as a "had-been".

The NC did the following "dramatic" things:

1. Punished Ganesh Man in proxy by expelling several hundred rebels who were taking their cues from Ganesh Man's rebellion, noted was Jagannath Acharya who launched a "jan=jagaran" abhiyan, a decidedly anti-Girija campaign among the Congress activists that got Girija so scared that he had to shout that he is going to destroy the Communist is a whiff, obviously in an effort to stem the outflow of "Chaite-Congressis" who flocked to the congress for the parasitic proximity to power. These latter-day congressi supporters the socalled "Panchagressis" the political bastards from the illegitimate intercourse of Girija congressis and power-hungrey opportunistic panches, have been watching to see if Girija is a had-been and not worth betting their horses on. The recent series of NC postures are aimed to keep this flock together so the voters can think Congress is still a credible force.

Recent history shows that congress has never won any government without Ganesh man's help and claim for the conscience and pragmatism in Nepali politics. B>P came like a rat when he was flushed out by Indira and tried to hide his cowardice in the grandiose shadow play of "national reconcialiation" Sure you reconciliate when you lose both the public opionion, organizatin battle, and several desperate attempts at armed insurrection and Satyagrahas. It was Ganesh man's decision to take the help of Communists as anti-Panche Nepalis that democracy was ushered in for monkeys like Krishna Prasad and Girija to spoil it and they have been so rewarded by the nepali voting public.

It is abundantly clear that short of any major political suicides by UML, NC is digging its political grave by rejecting Ganesh Man's message and to adopt a a
"debate-free" clarity of Girija's fascist stands.

2. The NC trouble makers claim once too often that we have no conflict whatsoever. We have heard it once toof often when there is a big conflict withing the ranks and within congress ideology, both the "leaders" Giriaj and Krishna instead of reconciling the ranks and the ideology indulge in the politics of empty rhetoric. It is on the way to the political demise of had-beens suchs as Bishnu Bahadur Manandhar, Tulsi Lal Amatya, Dilli Raman Regmi, the types who are generals without an army and who perpetuate their self deception by issuing their useless political analysis on the media.

3. The NC has decided to go for "socialism" after the uml proved that socialism still has political capital in Nepal, how the nepali will believe that after Girija's unalloyed capitalism and free market and when the so called new generaatin leaders Sher Deopa is still considered avoswedly pro-free market, a perfectly sensible stand for the economic class he represents the feudal land holding class of the west who stand to reap the best benefits with their historic economic and social privileges when capitalism reorganizes nepali society. All in all we have to see how NC operates as apolitical party, see the text of its actions insteads of their words. *their latest posturings sounds but like the roar ofa paper tiger, a wounded one, maybe even a dying one.

The Nepali Caste Hierarchy: "A Statecraft Fiction"

This is in response to Ponta's clarification of his earlier book review where he made the observation that the Nepali caste hierarchy codified in the 1854 Muluki Ain is simply statecraft fiction akin to the Panchayat media's claim of making Nepal a classless, exploitationless society.

[at this point i must ask ponta's and the readers' forgiveness for not being able to extract the relevant lines and quotations from ponta's original articles and his rebuttal in March 15 TND because i just cannot afford the time to erase one line at a time the preceding postings of Rajendra's news to get to ponta's contribution, so this is by recall with all its attendent dangers i hope however the drift is accurate.]

Ponta's arguments reminds me George Will's commentary, that super clever conservative who weaves a seamless sequence of argument where you can't quite figure out where he gave yu the slip but yu know it is viscerally wrong somewhere. With all due regard to Ponta's erudite argument, I enjoyed but did not accept his comparision of the Muluki Ain to Panchyat's classless society. I also accept his theoretical concerns that several questions of the degree to which the Muluki ain represents the extant caste hierarchy in Nepali society has not answered.

Still, I question his assertion that the Muluki ain caste hierarchy is "just a statecraft fiction". here i am assuming the colloquial meaning of the word
"fiction" as falsity, and by implication something that is patently removed from a objective, absolute, referential "truth: the reality." Even if ponta assumed the more precise meaning of "fiction" in social theory as a "social construct" as something created by the state or other ruling class or social groups, I still question his assertion of a possible disparity between the state's constructionof the caste hierarchy and the social construct and the category that govern nepali society at large. Perhaps, Ponta's assertion is based on the basis of documentary proof or evidence of linkages between the state's construct and the social practice and he may be right but written texts is the beginning and end of all of social evidence especially where we are entering a contested world of constructs in which the state and the rulig class of \nepali society has great stakes in rendering invisible those social constructs that delegitimates those alternate visions and categories of
\nepali society.

Lest this sound all social theory gobbledy-gook, I wish to point out that there are plenty of evidences of caste and caste based ideology perpetuating itself with the active and dare I say effective patronage of the State and the ruling class (it is difficult to draw a line between them before the Ranas who used State property as personal property). Example Don Messersmidt's work on the Gurungs illustrate how Gurung's social origin has been concocted as the origin from bahun and servant, a process that serve to bring Gurungs into the Hindu discourse aas an inferior inclusive partner. The Limbu and Rai of the Eastern Hills are trying to disown the Dasain festivals as just plain hindu construct that is implicated in their exploitations and thus not necessary part of their nepali identity. The Newars have called for the recognition of the Nepal Sambat calendar as a rejection of the social construct of the ruling brahminical order. someof these events may predate Muluki ain but after the muluki ain: the newar merchants who traded in Tibet were required to purify themselvesin the presence of a bahun priest to reclaim their Hindu caste after being defiled by the caste less Tibetans; Buddhists monks who tried to to celebrate Buddha Jayanti inBhojpur were exiled by Juddha Shumsher at the behest of the Muluki ain credo of Hindu superiority in the Nepali kingdom. These are just some of the examples.

I urge ponta to actively seek out in the lives of the oppressed communities and thier histories how extant the caste hierarchy has been propagated with the collusion and the connivance of the State and the ruling class of the nepali society.

I would like to thank ponta for delving into this complicated topic deeply and giving us an opportunity to debate and learn by questioning our unquestioned assumptions, standpoints, the vision that is constructed by our unique position in the social, economic, and political axes of power.

Amulya Tuladhar Clark University

********************************************************************* Date: Tue, 21 Mar 1995 12:35:42 -0700 (GMT) From: Karma Rana <> To: Subject: Jan Kari : Classified

Dear Rajpalji,

I thought that this announcement might be of interest to TND.


Karma Rana

   Applications are invited from qualified persons for this faculty position at Associate Professor rank. The suitable candidate will be appointed initially for a period of two years with a possibility of extension. He or she should have a Ph.D. degree from a well recognized institution in a discipline that relates directly to gender and development studies, and a strong research background in the area of women as well as gender and development, documented through publications of scientific standing. Teaching experience at the post- graduate level and a field research track record in Asia are expected.

Duties will encompass teaching courses focused on interdisciplinary approaches to gender and development studies in relation to resource management; agricultural, aquatic, bioprocess, postharvest, energy and environmental technologies; and regional and urban planning. In addition, duties will include supervising student research, conducting sponsored and individual research, consultancy, and outreach activities including short-course training, seminars and workshops.

The successful applicant will receive a salary that is highly competitive in the region, with generous benefits including housing and children educational allowances, contribution to an AIT provident fund, and air fares to and from Thailand at the beginning and at the end of the employment period. Income tax on salary drawn from AIT is paid directly by the Institute to the Royal Thai Government.

The application should include full personal particulars, details of qualifications and experience, list of publications, the name and address of three referees, and the approximate date by which the applicant would be available, to be submitted to the Vice President for Academic Affairs or via e-mail to Karma Rana <>. It should reach there not later than 1 April, 1995.

The Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), founded in 1959, is an autonomous, international post-graduate institution provides advanced education in engineering, science, technology, management and planning leading to the award of Doctoral, Master's or Diploma degrees.

*************************************************************** Date: Wed, 22 Mar 95 00:19:19 JST From: Network Mailer <MAILER@JPNIUJ00.BitNet> Subject: Nepalese Economy To: <193041@JPNIUJ00.BitNet>

Subeject: Economics

Dear netters,

The following an excerpt from a Wilkinson, David of IPE.CSF.COLORADO.EDU list. The points he made were propositions about land, rnt, taxation and the state. I have been in trouble answering this. Can anyone out there help me?

>1) Landownership is highly concentrated
>2) Land and real estate are commonly rented, not sold
>3) Landowners are able to raise rents and squeeze rural or urban tenant
>profits to marginality
>4) Taxation falls on or is passed through to entrepreneurs and
>wageearners rather than landowners
>5) Businesses are subject to a complex and dilatory permit process to create,
>maintain, or expand
>6) State bureaucrats are paid at not much over subsistence but allowed to
>augment their salaries by withholding and then selling government services,
>e.g. permits
>7) High prestige is allotted to owners of land, controllers of
>the state, controllers of force; entrepreneurs, farmers, industrial workers
>have low prestige and seek to move to high-prestige positions
>8) The currency is not freely convertible, but overvalued, with a profitable
>conversion monopoly operated by the state, and an "illegal" but protected
>9) The dispute-resolution system is inclined to find for landlords (vs.
>tenants), the state (vs. individuals), nationals (vs. foreigners) in economic
>10) The population is growing as fast as or faster than the
>rate of growth of production, and than most rates of production growth
>elsewhere in the history of the world economy.
>11) Steadily more marginal land is being brought into
>cultivation, so that agricultural subsistence requires more and more labor
>time to achieve, and there is a strong downward pressure on wages
>12) State or landed elites are able to acquire shares, and even
>control, of others' enterprise by force, threat of force, judicial process,
>bureaucratic process, unilateral rewriting of contracts, unilateral revision
>of land titles, etc.
>13) Soil is being "mined," i.e. destroyed or degraded as an integral part of
>agricultural development
>14) Forests are being "mined," i.e. destroyed or
>degraded as an integral part of agricultural and industrial development
>15) Political competition mainly concerns individual and coalition struggles
>for access to state tax revenues via salaries, budgets, contracts,
>rent-acquistion, etc.
> I assert none of these, but ask B.P. Subedi or others for information. I
>have heard several of these propositions directly asserted as regards Nepal,
>but in casual conversation, hence without systematic evidence being given (or
>requested); other propositions represent descriptions that have been given
>not of Nepal, but of other states that have low or negative growth.
>If many or all of these propositions are stably true of Nepal, it would next
>be in order to ask if the failed development policies have addressed these
>situations, ignored them, taken them as parametric givens, or aggravated
>If circumstances such as these exist, and the failed development policies
>have for one reason or another not addressed them, one could then ask, why
>not? Ignorance? Irrelevant models? Dogmatistical paralysis?
>Bureaucratic sabotage? Inadequate resources? Commitment to the local
>political status quo, or some element thereof?
>If no attempts are made to address such circumstances, are they even
>discussed? By whom? What happens to the discussion? To the discussants?
>Are they assailed? Invited to redirect their inquiries? Appointed
>to sinecures? Urged to travel widely?

************************************************ Date: Wed, 22 Mar 1995 10:19:14 -0500 To: From: (Jon Hardy-Lavoie, ALL School, Worcester, Ma) Subject: A REQUEST


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