The Nepal Digest - March 19, 1999 (6 Chaitra 2055 BkSm)

From: The Editor (NEPAL-REQUEST@cs.niu.edu)
Date: Sat Mar 20 1999 - 22:15:54 CST


Received: from mp.cs.niu.edu (root@mp.cs.niu.edu [131.156.1.2]) by library.wustl.edu (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id AAA07384; Sun, 21 Mar 1999 00:13:44 -0600 (CST)
Received: by mp.cs.niu.edu (8.9.3/8.9.3) id WAA24626 for nepal-dist; Sat, 20 Mar 1999 22:15:55 -0600 (CST)
Received: by mp.cs.niu.edu (8.9.3/8.9.3) id WAA24622 for nepal-list; Sat, 20 Mar 1999 22:15:54 -0600 (CST)
Date: Sat, 20 Mar 1999 22:15:54 -0600 (CST)
Message-Id: <199903210415.WAA24622@mp.cs.niu.edu>
Reply-to: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
From: The Editor <NEPAL-REQUEST@cs.niu.edu>
Sender: "Rajpal J.P. Singh" <A10RJS1@cs.niu.edu>
Subject:      The Nepal Digest - March 19, 1999 (6 Chaitra 2055 BkSm)
To: <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
Content-Type: text
Status: O
X-Status: 
X-Keywords:
X-UID: 301


        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
        % N N EEEEEE PPPPPP AA L %
        % NN N E P P A A L %
        % N N N EEEE P P A A L %
        % N N N E PPPPPP AAAAAA L %
        % N NN E P A A L %
        % N N EEEEEE P A A LLLLLL %
        %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

The Nepal Digest Friday Mar 19, 1999: Chaitra 6 2055BS: Year8 Volume84 Issue2

Today's Topics (partial list):

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND (The Nepal Digest) Editorial Board *
 * -------------------------------------- *
 * *
 * The Nepal Digest: General Information tnd@nepal.org *
 * Chief Editor: Rajpal JP Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * (Open Position) *
 * Editorial Columnist: Pramod K. Mishra pkm@acpub.duke.edu *
 * Sports Correspondent: Avinaya Rana avinayar@touro.edu *
 * Co-ordinating Director - Australia Chapter (TND Foundation) *
 * Dr. Krishna B. Hamal HamalK@dist.gov.au *
 * Co-ordinating Director - Canada Chapter (TND Foundation) *
 * Anil Shrestha SHRESTHA@CROP.UOGUELPH.CA *
 * SCN Correspondent: Open Position *
 * *
 * TND Archives: http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/tnd/ *
 * TND Foundation: http://www.nepal.org tnd@nepal.org *
 * WebSlingers: Open Position tnd@nepal.org *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "Heros are the ones who give a bit of themselves to the community" *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************
****************************************************************** Date: March 18, 1999 To: The Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Nepal News

Source: The People's Review Sujata, Sailaja, Prakash and Manisha BY OUR POLITICAL CORRESPONDENT

Whatever the outcome of the upcoming general elections, it will be remembered, among other things, for the unbecoming slug-out between Sujata Koirala (Jost), Sailaja Acharya, Prakash Koirala and Manisha Koirala, in the aftermath of the February 27 announcement of the list of Nepali Congress candidates. (See also editorial). The embarrassing drama of clashing egos and political ambitions among prominent members of the Koirala clan -- Acharya, a Koirala niece, is considered to be a clansman all practical purposes -- has, in the process, not only provided an inside view of the Nepali Congress but raised crucial questions about the role and dominance of the Koirala family of Biratnagar within a party that claims is synonymous with democracy. Following the denial of a ticket for Sujata (see two past issues of this weekly), a typhoon was generated by her supporters, including that before the prime ministers' official residence in Baluwatar, loudly and angrily protesting the same and demanding that she be given the ticket for Sunsari-1 at all costs.

Former deputy prime minister Acharya, after defending the selection as fair and balanced for a few days, on March 3 suddenly announced her decision to withdraw from the electoral contest in which she had been given a ticket to contest from Morang-7, her "traditional" constituency. That move understandably created a flap and set off a debate within the party on whether she should still be urged to contest or whether her
"sacrifice" should be used to stem the fire storm of protest that has greeted it across the country. Thus while NC stalwarts such as Ram Chandra Poudel and Khum Bahadur Khadka lauded her move, Prime Minister (and uncle) Girija Prasad Koirala on March 7 made public his appeal that she not decline the offer of candidacy from the party. Despite the fact that the "sacrifice" element of Acharya's move is being highlighted more than anything else at the moment, sources close to the party say that Acharya's dramatic decision was triggered by distasteful criticism at Baluwatar against her by Sujata's supporters. In their view, it was Acharya -- a member of the party's seven-member selection committee -- among others who was responsible for Sujata being denied a party ticket to contest the elections. Significantly, while Sujata herself had implicated members of the family as being responsible for her not being given a ticket, she had also lashed out, in the same context, against Bijaya Kumar Gacchedar and Khum Bahadur Khadka as also being responsible for her being denied a ticket. In comments by Khadka in an interview in pro-Congress weekly Deshantar last week, Khadka refuted Sujata's allegations, insisting that the decision on the candidates' list was unanimous, meaning that it had also the concurrence of Sujata's father, the prime minister and party president.

Girija's acquiesence was possibly only given reluctantly and that too in order to prevent offending the Gacchedar-Khadka power lobby which, some sources say, saw in Sujata's case a back-door effort by the prime minister to advance her political career by putting her on a "fast-forward" track -- thereby creating fears that Sujata might, sooner rather than later, derail their own prospects and ambitions of assuming the position of prime minister at some point in the future. Be that as it may, protests over the selection came also from Prakash Koirala, Sujata's cousin and son of B.P. Koirala, who became one of the focal points for many aspirants who had been denied party tickets. Prakash, who had been given the party ticket to contest the seat from Sunsari-5 vacated by his uncle the prime minister after the 1991 general election, this time was not accommodated. However, unlike Sujata who managed (probably with her father's behind-the-scenes help) to demonstrate "popular support" for her candidature, he apparently needed urgent outside help. That came in the form of a S.O.S from his famous Bollywood actress-daughter, Manisha Koirala, who dashed off a fax message from Mumbai stating that she was "greatly disturbed to see that so many deserving candidates have been left out to make way for some undeserving candidates to represent their parties during the coming elections." Although present indications are that there will not be any changes in the party candidates, except perhaps in the case of naming someone else as candidate for the Morang-7 constituency, it remains to be seen whether the Sujata-Sailaja-Prakash-Manisha cinema has ended or whether there will be a sequel. While some still believe that Sujata will be brought in, others think that perhaps so too will Prakash. Only the blindest supporters of the Koirala clan believe that both will be accommodated. In any case, the drama has further stoked the fires of dissension within the Nepali Congress and underlined as never before that if the party is to step confidently into the new millennium, it must shed its image as a party of the Koiralas, for the Koiralas.

------------------ Source: Awake Nepal Nepalese economy based on smuggling

According to Hong Kong officials, it has stopped providing transit visas to Nepalese and Nigerian people to stop mass cheating and smuggling. This infamy has not come without any base. Since the last few years, the government has been openly encouraging smugglers. The Nepalese economy is based on smuggling. If smuggling is stopped, the economy of the country will collapse. Studies show that smuggling is a part and parcel of the Nepalese economy. But only a few businessmen, smugglers and politicians benefit from it. The most dangerous thing is that they have control over the society and politics.
(Patrika, Friday, Dec. 4)
 
------------------------- Source: The Telegraph Guiness extra stout beer production in Nepal

Kathmandu : The Mount Everest Brewery Pvt. Ltd., the internationally reputed brewers of San Miguel and Golden Tiger Beer, have launched the dark beer, Guinness Extra Stout in the market today.A long awaited dream of the Nepalese Beer lovers has finally come true. The Brewing, distribution and Technical Service Agreement between the MEBPL and Arthur Guinness Sons and Co. Ltd. (Dublin), Ireland, was signed about two years ago. The agreement provided the MEBPL with the brewing license from Guinness Overseas Ltd., and authorized agent of Arthur Guinness Sons and Co. Ltd. The news of the signing of this agreement had been published by this weekly some two years back, if one were to recall. Guinness, having a heritage spanning 240 years and selling in over 150 countries of the globe, will now be brewed and marketed right here in Nepal by the MEBPL with a view to capture a well defined niche market for Stout beers. Nepal will be the 52nd country where Guinness is being brewed.

Guinness is the world's leading Stout. It has an estimated market share of 80% in the Stout market in the world. The Mt. Everest Brewery's explains that Guinness is a dark beer with a rich, smooth, satisfying and rewarding taste. The natural ingredients, finest quality hops, and roasted barley have added to its distinctive refreshing flavour. The dark ruby color, in sharp contrast with its white creamy head will make Guinness a unique drinking experience. The Brewery further adds that about 10 million glasses of Guinness are sold every day around the world. Guinness is being presented in a specially designed 330 ml dark bottle and has been priced at Rs 60 per bottle. The authorities at the Mount Everest Brewery say that the price of this beer is slightly high because of the finest quality imported ingredients which basically have resulted in a relatively higher consumer price. The launch of Guinness is seen as another milestone in the brewing history of Nepal. This brand is expected to enhance and further strengthen the MEBPL's position in the beer market. The MEBPL is a flagship of the AE Group, a leading Industrial and Trading house of Nepal. Under the dynamic leadership of Mr. Piyush Bahadur Amatya, the company has carved out special patronage and following in Nepal due to their continuous effort at introducing new brands in the market to satisfy and quench the thirst and the taste of the young achievers of Nepal.Good luck to Stout Beer.

****************************************************************** Date: Tue, 16 Feb 1999 14:50:21 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: "Kathryn S. March" <ksm8@cornell.edu> Subject: Himalayan resources at Cornell

Resources about Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan, & the Indian Himalayas at Cornell

Summer course: Intensive Nepali Language Program: We will be offering an intensive 6-week 6-credit program in Nepali (at all levels) from June 7-July 16 at Cornell. Taught by Shambhu Oja, Banu Oja and Krishna Pradhan, with additional lectures, films and cultural activities. Application materials are available from the South Asia Program, 170 Uris Hall, Cornell, <amp18@cornell.edu> 255-8493 Financial aid is available.

Cornell-Nepal Study Program: A joint program of Cornell and Tribhuvan Universities providing study, residential and field research opportunities to both Nepali and non-Nepali students through Cornell Abroad. Fall, spring or full-year programs are available. Each semester gives 15 credits of Cornell credit in language study, area studies, field research training, and independent field research on a wide variety of topics in culture, religion, environment, society and history. Students from many parts of Nepal live, study and take part in field trips as roommates with Cornell Abroad students--both undergraduates and graduate students. For further information, contact Cornell Abroad <CUAbroad @cornell.edu> 474 Uris Hall, Cornell, 255-6224.

Nepal Association at Cornell (NAC): This student organization is for undergraduates and graduate students interested in Nepal or the Himalayas who would like to take part in various activities to promote understanding of this region of the world and celebrate its cultures. Membership is free and open to all members of the Cornell community; contact Man Bahadur Thapa, President (1998-99)
<mbt7@cornell.edu>

Nepal Listserve: This is a local listserve, unmoderated, for those of us at Cornell to post information on local events pertaining to Nepal and the Himlayan regions of Asia. To subscribe:
        (1) Send a message to: <listproc@cornell.edu>
        (2) Leave the subject line blank
        (3) Type the following message in the body:
                SUBSCRIBE NEPAL-L Yourfirstname Yourlastname
        (4) Send (you will receive confirmation of your subscription electronically within a few days)

Himalayan Lunch Discussion and Nepali Language Table: Anyone interested in the Himalayan regions of Asia is welcome to join us for lunch once a week. We discuss current events, cultural and political issues, and try to provide opportunities for Nepali-language speaking with local students, faculty, and special visitors. You do not have to be on a meal plan to come. This spring we are meeting every Tuesday at Risley Dining from 12:30-1:30pm.

Fall courses: Peoples and cultures of the Himalayas (Anthr 339): an anthropological survey of history, environment and cultures. Taught by K.S. March, with the special (1999) participation of visiting Senior Fulbright Fellow, Dr. Ganesh Gurung (Chair of Anthropology/Sociology at Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal). Nepali language (DML): taught at beginning and continuing levels by S. Oja

*********************************************************************** From: "kiran shanker" <kiran_shanker@hotmail.com> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Some thoughts on Religion Date: Tue, 16 Feb 1999 13:58:18 PST

Dear Editor

Please publish this article of mine in the Nepal Digest.

Thanks Kiran Shanker USA

I have been reading the digest since a couple of months and I have found it a very interesting forum for discussing issues related with Nepal. We can make any issues and discuss at length those issues trying to radiate our erudition. We all are supremacists because we all want to win. Perhaps it is inherent in human nature. I have seen the discussion of Nepali politics, racism, pollution, proselytism etc in this forum and am glad that the digest has given the opportunity to express our feelings. I may not agree and find some topic boring and offensive as well. In that case, I realize that it is my problem, and not that of the originator. I am particularly interested in the discussion of religion but let me confess that I am not a religious person in the formal sense. I see myself as an ordinary man struggling to earn livelihood. However, I am fascinated by human being's eternal quest for truth and consider religion as a way to find the answer. I got the chance to read in the last issue that the poverty of Nepal is due to its being a Hindu nation. Is it really so or is it just a reactionery outburst of some deeper prejudice and malice? I think it is time for us to look deep into this matter. WHAT IS HINDU RELIGION ? Everybody knows that Hindu is the name given to the people living on the banks of Sindhu river some thousands years ago. The religion of these people was called "Sanatana Dharma". It is important to understand and appreciate the literal meaning of these words. Sanatana - Eternal, Dharma (From the Sanskrit root Dhri) - Law. It was a collective works of literature, hymns, economics, rituals, grammar, astrology, geometry, medicine and what not? Whatever constituted the knowledge and truth was a part of this all encompassing culture - called Sanatana Dharma. And in this context, scholars agree that Hinduism is indeed a way of life and not a religion in a narrow context. How about other religions - are they also like Hinduism? Let us find then. Buddhism - It was founded by the Buddha and has an authoritative book called Tripitak. Islam - Prophet Mohammad (Peace be upon him) got the revelation from Allah and has the Holy Quran as the ultimate book. Christianity - Jesus Christ and the Bible

We see that all major religions have founder and an authoritative book around which all doctrines are based upon. As these religions progressed, they became very aggressive and intolerant because their existence relied upon the extinction of the others and this was the beginning of Proselytism. They knew that both of them could not be correct at the same time. For example, The greatest faith in Islam is the complete acceptance of this: "La ilah illallah, Muhammadur Rasullah (Please forgive me if this is not the exact Arabic expression)." which means that "There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is the last prophet". No christians can accept the second fact because in that case, it will falsify their bible. Please be aware that I am not here to demean any religion. What I am trying to show is that there are hundreds of examples in which one religion's fundamental faith is completely negated by the other. So they have started to convert others. Conversion is a very intriguing phenomenon. It gives a feeling of newness, euphoria and justice for some time but after a while you again fall victim of the same vices which you previously were against of. How about Buddhism? I have a great respect for Budhhism and accept that it does not try to falsify others because its truth is not based upon others falsehood. Culturally, there is a vast difference between Hinduism and Budhhism but what is more important to me as a philosophy student or as a free human being is the distinction in the ultimate goal between these two philosophies. When you strip a religion of its culture, then it becomes a philosophy and for all rational human beings only the philosophy should matter for culture is bound by time, space and causation. I consider Advaita Vedanta as the culmination of Hindu philosophy and I call myself a Hindu because I admire the great truth that it is trying to emanate. "Tat tvam asi" Thou art that. The god which you are looking outside, that is YOU my friend. All is one and when you realise this yourself, you are free. Buddhism emphasises that even the idea of truth is illusion and in this sense Buddhism is a very dynamic philosophy. It further elaborates that in an ever changing world you can not stop and think of truth. Be free from desires and conflicts. This is a question a Hindu asks to a Buddhist - My wise friend, when you talk about misery you must have known happiness, when you talk about illusion, then you must have seen the truth because they are complimentary to each other. So why you cannot accept the idea of truth while you advocate so much of illusion? The hindu(Non-dualist) believes that they are the same. Once the distinction vanishes, then what remains is the ultimate truth. However, no one can deliver the truth by preaching or converting. The Vedas had been very vocal on this:"Nayam atma prabachanen lavyo, na veddayadhyaynen cha. (This soul can not be obtained by preaching or studying the vedas.). This article is getting very long but I do have the intention of clarifying or being clarified in this very sensitive matter. I will discuss at length this topic in future but let me put some facts before you.

(1) The idea that all religions are equally tolerant is naive and wrong. In Hinduism and Buddhism, there is room for exploration and tolerance. When Salman Rushdie wrote "Satanic Verses", a fatwa was issued for his death. And he is still hiding. But has anyone heard of death warrant to Modanath Prashrit because he wrote "Devasur Sangram"? It is more blasphemous to Hinduism than what "Satanic verses" is to Islam. Even in the ancient times, Charvak made fun of Hinduism and its practice of truth. But did any one try to kill him? No, instead a separate philosphy called "Charavak Dharsan" was established. I often times make fun of Hindu deities. But can any one kill me for that? Why not? Why not? If there is an eternal truth in Hindu religion, then my mockery or rejection or whatever is not going to affect it. I come and go but the truth shall remain forever. Hinduism is one of the oldest religion in the world. If it is so absurd and unjust, then why it is still existing? Why only Hindus and Buddhists come in this world to show the depth of human spirituality? If all religions are equal, then why a muslim is killed by other muslim if he/she converts to other religion? Why they want to convert others if they truly believe other religions are also good and can be path to truth? The problem is that they don't believe. They think theirs is the only vehicle of truth and they must save others by converting them. What a noble idea! I have never heard of a mathematician converting other mathematician. But I have heard of bandits and robbers forming a group trying to be more powerful by forcing others to join their group or killing them.

WHAT IS THE PROBLEM IN NEPAL? I don't accept the idea that Nepal is lagging because it is a Hindu country. If you talk about the philosophy and the teachings, then there is no doubt that it is the most revolutionary religion of human beings. Let me give you some examples:
(a) "Ekam Sat Bipra Bahuda Vadanti" The truth is one, but wise says it by different names. Does any other religion have place for any other religion?
(b) "Tat Tvam Asi" - Thou art that! "Aham Brahmasmi" I am the Brahman. Can you say you are the God in any other religion. Muslims will kill you if say you are Allah. Christians believe humans are sinner and they must surrender to Christ for salvation. There is no other way.
(c) "Uttisthata Jagrat Prapya Varannibodhata" Arise, wake up and stop not till the goal is achieved.

IS NEPAL REALLY A HINDU COUNTRY? To be frank and truthful, I don't consider Nepal a Hindu country. By constitution and some cultural playings only, we are calling it a Hindu country. Where is the greatness and revolutinary aspect of Vedanta in Nepal? We are all coward, reactionery, hypocrats and ignorant.
"Haami buddhu chhau, Yasai bir chhau" (We are stupid and that's why we are brave.) We need Vivekanands and not mercenary missionaries. We need actions and not just mere talks. If we call Nepal a Hindu country - then there should be no caste distinctions (for Vedas clearly say that You are the God.) There should be no fear (Ma vai Ma Vai - Fear Not, Fear Not). We have become very reactionery. When missioneries come to Nepal and start proselytising, then we talk of Vedas and equality. Why can not we make Vedas - the guiding principles for all time?

Recently, there has been some efforts to build our society in the highest principles of Vedas and Upanishads. The works of Swami Prapannachrya, Swami Agnivesh, Pundit Chhabi Lal Pokhrel are commendable. They are trying to cleanse the dirt from the Nepali societies. If we call ourselves Hindu, then we must wake up and find what is true and what is false, what is intrinsically good and what is evil.

(2) Hinduism is in essence a way of life. The way of human life is the way of learning and exploring and this is how Hinduism has evolved and will evolve in course of time. Is there a one founder, a one book and a one date for the beginning of this religion? No, and this is the most important aspect of Hindu religion that there is no central authority. That is why it is so tolerant and ever-evolving. It does not depend upon historical date. It depends upon the historical message. The fact that we do not know the birth date of Krishna does not annoy us. What is of importance is his message of the Gita.

(3) Having said this much about religion, let me elaborate the issue of religion in Nepal. To say that the poverty of Nepal is due to its being a Hindu country is very reactionery and irresponsible statement. Nepalis people are peace loving people and have lived in harmony even in the extreme cultural diversity. It is very easy to destroy but very difficult to construct. If we do not act rationally, then the future of Nepal is very bleak. We can fight with each other as Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, Pahade, Madhese, Gaule, Sahare, Kirati, Newar, Mathlo Jaat, Tallo Jaat. What is important at the verge of this 21st century is the realization of the necessity of global survival. We need to survive as a nation first. And this is possible only when we all think in one way - the nepali way. We need visionary leaders, entrepreneurs, technocrats to build our infrastructure. And instead of debasing and haranguing others, if we can formulate some creative ideas, then that will really be achievement. Let Nepal Digest be a forum for constructive ideas and not a platform to gratify our ego, prejudice, and hatred towards others. What we talk will vanish. Only what we do will remain. The last question: Are Mahatma Gandhi, Krishnamurti, Vivekanada, Arvind Ghosh, Radhakrishnan, Raman Maharshi, RamKrishna Paramhamsa, Paramhamsa Yogananda, T.S. Eliot, Herman Hesse, Schopenheur, Maxmuller, Schrodinger, Einstein, Fritjof Capra, Gary Zukav, Alan Watt, Bede Griffith ALL WRONG???????

******************************************************** Date: Thu, 18 Feb 1999 18:01:37 -0500 (EST) Forwarded by: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@fas.harvard.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: IPI media report (fwd)

Nepal

   1998 World Press Freedom Review

   Freedom of expression is granted by the Nepalese constitution, promulgated by the King in
   1990. Similarly, pre-censorship of publication is prohibited and, thus, the right to press and
   publications is theoretically ensured. Nevertheless, political instability and the country's
   pressing economic problems make journalism not always a safe profession and a few
   Nepalese journalists ended up in prison in 1998 for denouncing police violence or
   widespread government corruption.

   The country became a constitutional monarchy in 1990, after King Birendra was forced by
   huge demonstrations to agree to political reforms, and democracy was reintroduced for the
   first time since the early 1960s. Since the return of democracy, Nepal has had six
   governments from opposite ends of the political spectrum, many of them coalitions made up
   of left and right wing parties: until April 1998, a coalition of communists and monarchists was
   in power. There is little doubt that a substantial part of the country's population feels that the
   re-introduction of democracy has done little to improve the quality of their lives. That is
   reflected in the strong support still given to the country's two major communist parties, one of
   which is accused of having links with a Maoist group in the west of Nepal, which is currently
   waging a campaign for the violent overthrow of the government.

   In its fight against the Maoist group, the government tried to introduce, in 1997, anti-terrorist
   legislation, which human rights groups criticised for being open to misuse. And in January
   1998, Nepal's police, still calling for tougher laws to control Maoist rebels, arrested two
   journalists. Ashok Subedi, editor of the Nepal weekly Naulo Bihani and Matrika Pakhrel,
   editor of the literary quarterly Bedana, have been charged with participating in Maoist
   activities, a charge their newspapers have denied.

   In April 1998, the newly-appointed Prime Minister of Nepal, Girija Prasad Koirala, has said
   that ending the Maoist insurgency in the country will be a priority for his government. The
   BBC correspondent in Kathmandu said that supporters of Koirala's Nepali Congress Party
   are the main targets of attacks by the Maoist rebels and that there has recently been an
   increase in the violence, in which more than one hundred and fifty people have been killed
   since the insurgency began in 1996.

   Since June 9, several newspapers have been seized by police in Sindhulimadhi, 320 km
   south-east of Kathmandu. The daily Ajko Samacharpatra and the weeklies Jadanesh,
   Janaahwan, Yojana, Jana Ekta and Jana Bhawana, all published in Kathmandu, were
   confiscated several times at the local market. Similar incidents were reported in other
   districts, such as Gorkha, Sindhuli, Rukum, Salyan, Tanahun, Dhading and Jajarkot, as the
   newspapers were about to be distributed. The newspapers had printed information about
   the misconduct of security forces, who are presumed to have killed civilians in clashes with
   Maoist guerrillas.

   Moreover, on July 2, in Kathmandu, policemen told transport firms not to handle newspapers
   that publish reports on the police operation against Maoist rebels. They also seized and
   burned newspapers found on buses and trucks.

   Two journalists were jailed in November 1998 for reporting on police violence. Yadu
   Lamichhane, editor of the political monthly Himalayan Journal, was arrested by police in
   August 1998 on the charge of "being Maoist". The Supreme Court of Nepal ordered his
   release after failing to find him guilty of any offence. However, just after he was freed, he was
   arrested again, on November 25, and imprisoned in Bhadragol prison in Katmandu.

   Rishiraj Baral, editor-in-chief of the weekly Yojana, was arrested and jailed between
   November 14 and 23 for "diffusing propaganda that creates chaos in society," after he
   covered a demonstration by women activists campaigning against the killing of civilians by
   the army. On December 15, Baral was arrested again on the charge of
"being Maoist", in view
   of the forthcoming general strike on December 17.

   Police violence against Maoist rebels is not the only taboo topic; all articles that claim
   support for the Maoist movement because of government corruption have reportedly been
   banned and at least two journalists have been arrested.

   Shankar Tanpa, correspondent for the weekly Naw Aawaj in Janakpurdham, was jailed on
   January 7 after reporting that "corruption was going on in the Janakpur area under the
   protection of the law". His press accreditation has been cancelled, and he is believed to have
   been beaten by police. He is still being detained "incommunicado" at Jaleswor prison.

   On August 17, K. P. Gautam, a reporter for the state-run daily Gorkhapatra, was sentenced
   to five days in prison by Judge Ishwor Prasad Khatiwada of the Court of Kathmandu. The
   charges were filed after the June 18 publication of Mr. Gautam's article entitled "Judges
   Absorb The Salaries Of Their Lowest Staff". In his article, Gautam recounted the details of a
   report on judicial corruption prepared by the Parliament Economic Committee for the Auditor
   General's Office. Coincidentally, Judge Ishwor Prasad Khatiwada was one of the main
   figures accused of corruption in the report.

   Furthermore, authorities have imposed severe restrictions on the ability of journalists to enter
   the premises of Singha Durbar, which houses several important government ministries.
   Police are now able to prevent journalists from entering Singha Durbar at certain times of the
   day.

   1997 World Press Freedom Review

   JOURNALISM remains a dangerous profession in this Himalayan Kingdom.

   Om Sharma, a correspondent for the newspapers, Maya Morcha and Rabibar Weekly, was
   arrested during a police raid on his home in the Nepalese capital, Kathmandu, on July 31.
   The police confiscated personal documents and later searched the offices of Maya Morcha.
   Shasrma was last reported to be in custody at Hanuman Dhoka police station. No reason
   was given for his arrest.

   On November 24, unidentified individuals broke into the offices of the weekly, Nava Awaj, and
   assaulted several members of staff - including the paper's editor, Shiva Dhakal, and its
   managing director, Pushkar Dhakal. The attack was thought to relate to an article in Nava
   Awaj entitled "Prostitution in restaurant."

************************************************************ From: "Paramendra Bhagat" <paramendra@hotmail.com> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepal Links Date: Tue, 23 Feb 1999 19:31:40 PST

<http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/np.html> CIA: Nepal Fact Book (1998 Edition)

<http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/np.html#econ> CIA: Nepal Fact Book - Economy Section

<http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/nptoc.html> Library of Congress: NEPAL - A Country Study

Subject: The India Today article on Mirza Dil Sad Beg's murder. Date: Tue, 23 Feb 1999 23:36:10 PST

<http://www.india-today.com/itoday/20071998/crime.html> The India Today article on Mirza Dil Sad Beg's murder.

Subject: The Afro-American Experience and the Teraiwasis

Black Power Booker T. Washington (1856-1915):

<http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/blacked/washaw.htm> The Awakening of the Negro

<http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/black/washbh.htm> The Case of the Negro

<http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111bwash.html> The Case of the Negro

<http://www.alcyone.com/max/lit/slavery/xiv.html> Atlanta Exposition Address

<ftp://wiretap.spies.com/Library/Classic/slavery.txt> Up From Slavery
<http://www.alcyone.com/max/lit/slavery/>

<http://www.newsadvance.com/Back%20Pages/btwlinks.html> Booker T. Washington Links

W. E. Burghardt Du Bois:

<http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/black/dubstriv.htm> Strivings of the Negro People

<http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/blacked/duschool.htm> A Negro Schoolmaster in the New South

<http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/blacked/dutrain.htm> Of the Training of Black Men

<http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/black/mcgillbh.htm> Interview with W.E.B Dubois

<ftp://uiarchive.cso.uiuc.edu/pub/etext/gutenberg/etext96/soulb10.txt>The Souls of Black Folk

<http://www.columbia.edu/acis/bartleby/dubois/>

The US Civil Rights Movement

James Baldwin:

<http://www.northpark.edu/acad/history/Classes/Sources/Baldwin.html> A Letter to my Nephew on the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Emancipation

Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968):

<http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/black/mlk.htm> The Negro is Your Brother

<http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111mlk.html> Letter From A Birmingham Jail, April 16, 1963

<http://www.msstate.edu/Archives/History/USA/Afro-Amer/birmingham.king>

<http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/D/1951-1975/mlk/dream.htm>
"I have a dream" speech, August 28, 1963
<http://eserver.org/race/free-at-last.txt>
<http://bcn.boulder.co.us/government/national/speeches/spch3.html>
<http://www.civnet.org/resoures/teach/basic/part6/38.htm>

The Black Panthers:

<http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111bppp.html> Party Platform, 1966

<gopher://wiretap.spies.com/00/Gov/US-Docs/civil91.act> Civil Rights Act, 1991

Jesse L.Jackson:

<http://www.manship.lsu.edu/faculty/perlm/texts/million.html> After the Million Man March, October 23, 1995

Maya Angelou:

<http://redfrog.norconnect.no/~poems/poems/02217.html> I Know Why Caged Birds Sing

<http://redfrog.norconnect.no/~poems/poets/maya_angelou.html> Poems

<http://redfrog.norconnect.no/~poems/poems/02211.html> A Poem from the Million Man March

Other Ethnic/Minority Movements

<http://www.civnet.org/resoures/teach/basic/part10/70.htm>Clyde Warrior,"We Are Not Free," 1967- Speech by an American Indian activist.

Subject: The National Economy and the New Millenium

<http://www.nepalnews.com/contents/spotlight/1999/Feb/Feb26/coverstory.htm> Agenda For The New Millennium
-By BHAGIRATH YOGI
(Spotlight)

******************************************************** Date: Sun, 28 Feb 1999 20:36:13 -0500 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: Philip Lieberman <Philip_Lieberman@brown.edu> Subject: the building

 Dear Ram, Namaste: I am glad to read that your health is much better. I hope you will stay well, and please go to the doctor if you have any problems again.
  We have discussed giving the building to CWIN, and I had a message from Gauri Pradhan, the director of CWIN, saying that he is interested in seeing the building. Charlie and Ricky agreed that they could give the building good use. I gave Gauri Pradhan your e-mail address and this phone number, 430 980, and this fax number, 427 191, and told him to contact you. He will want to come and see the building. So please arrange a time for him to come and see it. Let me know what happens.
  Best,
  Marcia

>Subject: can I send a message?
>
> I would like to make contact with someone who wrote a book review for you:
> Ms. Manjushree Thapa. Is this possible? She is an old friend who went back
recently from the USA to Nepal, and I am looking for a way to make contact because I don't have her address in KTM, or phone number, or e-mail address there. Could you please post a line for me, asking her to contact Marcia Lieberman, at this e-mail address:
> Philip_Lieberman@brown.edu
> Thanks very much,
> Marcia Lieberman, in Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

************************************************************* From: "Anil Shrestha" <shrestha@plant.uoguelph.ca> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Tue, 2 Mar 1999 09:56:21 EST Subject: The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and Nepal.

The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and Nepal. News from the pages of CIDA.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS IN NEPAL.

CANADA'S DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION PROGRAM

During the 1980s and early 1990s, Canada sought to increase food and energy production in Nepal while preserving the environment and livelihood of Nepal's. Canada's latest strategy focuses on two areas: improving the living standards of the poorest people through rural development, and developing the potential of considerable water resources through appropriate and environmentally sound water and energy resources management. Current development assistance objectives are institution strengthening in water and energy resources management, and good governance through community development.

The following section outlines environmentally focused bilateral activities currently underway.

CURRENT BILATERAL INITIATIVES

Project Title: SMALL PROJECTS ENVIRONMENT FUND (SPEF ) Project Number: 676/19080 Project Duration: 1995-98 CIDA Contribution: 0.5 M Implementing Agency: Canadian Cooperation Office
- Kathmandu

The purpose of this fund is two-fold: (1 )To support public sector initiatives which strengthen policy implementation and institutional development in water and energy resource management, in line with Nepal's National Conservation Strategy and Environmental Action Plan;
(2) to improve environmental NGOS' participation at the community level by developing their management, financial and technical capacity. 15 projects have been approved, 9 of which are completed. Among the most noteworthy successes we find: The Karange Watershed Conservation and Management Project, which demonstrated the capability of local communities to manage their natural resources when provided with the necessary technical and financial resources, and underlined the importance of collaboration between government and local community; the Environment and Agriculture Project, in the eastern district of Dhankuta, which proved the necessity and benefit of linking poverty alleviation measures with environmental conservation initiatives through an integrated program of horticulture/ vegetable farming in degraded mountain slopes, leading to substantial income for project beneficiaries through the sale of agricultural produce; and the Project to Strengthen MOPE's Capacity to Coordinate Environmental Activities, which established a national environmental forum which has facilitated coordination and linkages between the major environmental stakeholders.

Project Title: WECS INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
(WIDP ) Project Number: 676/19219 Project Duration: 1996-2001 CIDA Contribution: 9.5 M Executing Agency: Canadian International Water and Energy Consultants
(CIWEC)

The project seeks to increase the capacity for environmentally sound water and energy resource management in Nepal by:
(1) assisting Nepal's Water and Energy Commission Secretariat (WECS) in its efforts to become a sustainable institution; and
(2) strengthening the institutional capacity of WECS to develop and coordinate water and energy policies and to advise water and energy program implementation agencies. To achieve these objectives the project will provide an effective strategic planning process, a human resource development strategy, technical assistance and in-service training, and a series of "action linkages" with other government ministries and agencies.

********************************************************** Date: Wed, 03 Mar 1999 09:20:37 -0500 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: Philip Lieberman <Philip_Lieberman@brown.edu> Subject: To the Editor

 I am seeking help to contact a friend in Kathmandu, who has written a book review for TND. Could you please post a notice for me in TND? It should read like this:
  Manju Thapa, please contact Marcia Lieberman at Philip_Lieberman@brown.edu
    
 (I am hoping to locate her and get her e-mail address so we can make contact. She is an old friend who recently finished a Master's degree program here in the US and went back home to KTM. Now I do not have an address for her. I hope you can post this notice for me. Thanks --
 Marcia R. Lieberman)

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** From: "Paramendra Bhagat" <paramendra@hotmail.com> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: More links for discussions on the National Economy Date: Wed, 03 Mar 1999 15:04:19 PST

Yahoo! News on the Global Economy (Full Coverage)
<http://headlines.yahoo.com/Full_Coverage/Business/Global_Economy/>

Yahoo! News on the Asian Economy (Full Coverage)
<http://headlines.yahoo.com/Full_Coverage/Business/Asian_Economy/>

United Nations Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis Statistics Division
<http://www.un.org/Depts/unsd/>

India : Trade & Export
<http://www.welcometoindia.com/trad_exp/>

Capitalism: Frequently Asked Questions
<http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~shadab/>

The Information Economy
<http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/resources/infoecon/>
<http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/resources/infoecon/International.html>

European Single Currency, a Window of Opportunity - speech delivered by H E Prof. Dr. J Soedradjad Djiwandono, Governor of Bank Indonesia, June 17, 1997.
<http://www.bi.go.id/pidato/speech.htm>

G-77
<http://www.g77.org/>

Institute for International Economics
<http://www.iie.com/homepage.htm>

Hot Topics in International Economics
<http://www.iie.com/HOTOPICS/hotopics.htm>

FOCUS on the Global South
<http://focusweb.org/index.htm>
<http://focusweb.org/focus/pd/pd.html>
<http://focusweb.org/focus/mm/mm.html>

NYU GlobalBeat: EU Integration & Enlargement
<http://www.nyu.edu/globalbeat/emu.html>

What does the Euro mean for China?
<http://www.nyu.edu/globalbeat/emu/Silguy102998.html>

EDIRC
<http://ideas.uqam.ca/EDIRC/index.html>

Multinational Monitor
<http://www.essential.org/monitor/monitor.html>

World Bank
<http://www.worldbank.org/>

Age of Social Transformation
<http://www.theAtlantic.com/atlantic/election/connection/ecbig/soctrans.htm>

Asia Inc. Online
<http://www.asia-inc.com/>

Asia Pacific Economic Review
<http://www.moshix2.net/APER/>

Economic Encounter
<http://cariari.ucr.ac.cr/~jvillasu/english.html>

Economic Trend
<http://www.sumitomocorp.co.jp/econo/e-index.html>

Eureka
<http://eureka.belspo.be/>

G7 Information Center
<http://UTL1.LIBRARY.UTORONTO.CA/www/g7/index.html>

Global Economic Forum
<http://www.ms.com/GEF/>

Global Policy Forum
<http://www.sbpark.com/inn29.html>

Institute for Economy in Transition
<http://koi.www.online.ru/sp/iet/>

Institute for Int'l Economics
<http://www.iie.com/>

Int'l Economics and Business
<http://dylee.keel.econ.ship.edu/intntl/int_home.htm>

International Economics
<http://www.brook.edu/es/wp/bdp/discpapr.htm>

International Trade Review
<http://www.usitc.gov/ier.htm>

JFEO - Japan
<http://www.keidanren.or.jp/>

Mexinews
<http://www.livelyarts.com/mexinews.htm>

OECD Jobs Study
<http://www.oecd.org/sge/min/job.htm>

Public Policy Research
<http://www.ippr.org.uk/>

The Japan That Can Say No
<gopher://hoshi.cic.sfu.ca/1m/dlam/business/japan>

What Is an Economy For?
<http://www.theAtlantic.com/atlantic/election/connection/ecbig/whatecon.htm>

UNICEF: The Progress of Nations 1998
<http://www.unicef.org/pon98/contents.htm>
<gopher://gopher.unicef.org:70/11/.s498pon>

UNDP Nepal
<http://www.nepali.net/undp/>

*********************************************************** Date: Sat, 06 Mar 1999 08:58:55 +0500 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: "Rai International Trading Co." <ritco@wlink.com.np> Subject: Third batch of BKS

Dear Editor,

Could you please publish this message in The Nepal Digest.

Thanks.
        Kind Attention - Third batch of BKS

We are trying to contact all ex-students from third batch
(intake 1975)of Budhanilkantha School. We are also planning to bring out the directory in a near future. So please contact with us.

Bharat Rai

Mailing add.

RITCO Post Box No. 12804 Kathmandu, Nepal Tel: 977-1-543214 Fax: 977-1-531355 Email: ritco@wlink.com.np

***************************************************************** From: "Paramendra Bhagat" <paramendra@hotmail.com> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Links: Int'l Development, Int'l Trade Date: Sat, 06 Mar 1999 11:43:23 PST

Starting point:
<http://dylee.keel.econ.ship.edu/intntl/int_home.htm>

Resources for International Development
<http://dylee.keel.econ.ship.edu/intntl/INTDEV/Dev-hom.htm>
<http://dylee.keel.econ.ship.edu/intntl/INTDEV/ldc.htm>
<http://dylee.keel.econ.ship.edu/intntl/INTDEV/asia.htm>

List of Developing Countries in Alphabetical Order
<http://www.oecd.org/dac/htm/ldc-alfa.htm>
<http://www.oecd.org/dac/htm/regped.htm>
<http://www.oecd.org/dac/htm/regped.htm#S_C_ASIA>

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 1996
<http://www.worldbank.org/html/extpb/gep96eng/en-sa.html>

(gopher) International Debt Crisis
<gopher://gopher.undp.org:70/00/undocs/gad/RES/45/214>
<http://dylee.keel.econ.ship.edu/intntl/intfin/debts.htm>

World Wide Web Virtual Library: International Development Co-operation
<http://www.alcazar.com/wwwvl_idc/>

Resources for International Trade: Theory and Policy
<http://dylee.keel.econ.ship.edu/intntl/trade/trad-hom.htm>

WTO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
<http://dylee.keel.econ.ship.edu/intntl/trade/gatt.htm>

NAFTA
<http://www.sice.oas.org/trade/nafta/naftatce.stm>
<http://dylee.keel.econ.ship.edu/intntl/trade/nafta.htm>

European Union
<http://dylee.keel.econ.ship.edu/intntl/trade/eu/eu.htm>

World Bank, IMF, WTO, OECD
<http://www.worldbank.org/>
<http://www.imf.org/>
<http://www.unicc.org/wto/>
<http://www.oecd.org/>

Current and Historical Data for the United States and over 150 countries, including Stock Markets from 1690, Exchange Rates from 1590, Interest Rates from 1700, Commodities from 1500 and Inflation from 1264
<http://www.globalfindata.com/>
<http://www.globalfindata.com/samples.htm>
<http://www.globalfindata.com/looking.htm>
<http://www.globalfindata.com/euro.htm>

International Trade at Yale
<http://www.library.yale.edu/un/un3b6.htm>

Progress of Nations 1996 - calls the deaths of nearly 600,000 women in pregnancy and childbirth each year "a conspiracy of silence... a story of unimaginable suffering."
<http://www.unicef.org/pon96/contents.htm> Progress of Nations 1997 - UNICEF report on living conditions around the world
<http://www.unicef.org/pon97/mainmenu.htm> Progress of Nations 1998
<http://www.unicef.org/pon98/contents.htm>

************************************************************** Date: Sun, 07 Mar 1999 15:45:53 -0500 From: Mary Des Chene <deschene@jhuvms.hcf.jhu.edu> Subject: SINHAS Vol. 3, No. 1 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

Studies in Nepali History and Society Vol. 3, No. 1, June 1998 (Asar 2055)

Table of Contents:

Sherry B. Ortner
              The Making and Self-Making of "The Sherpas" in Early Himalayan Mountaineering
        pp. 1-34

       Jagannath Adhikari and Hans-Georg Bohle
              Rural Livelihoods at Risk: Determinants of the Abilities of Nepali Hill Farmers to Cope with Food Deficiency
        pp. 35-86

       Mark Liechty
              The Social Practice of Cinema and Video Viewing in Kathmandu
        pp. 87-126

       Mahesh Maskey
              Jan Andolanmaa Chikitsakharu: Smritimaa Korieko Euta Andolan-katha.
        pp. 127-180

       Pratyoush Onta
              A Suggestive History of the First Century of Photographic Consumption in Kathmandu
        pp. 181-210

For abstracts of articles and other information about the journal, go to: http://jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu/~deschene/sinhas/index.html

***************************************************************** Date: Mon, 8 Mar 1999 06:22:00 -0500 (EST) Forwarded by: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@fas.harvard.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Book Review I

KPBR Feb 28, 1999, Vol III No. 21, Coordinator Manjushree Thapa

Proud Publishers: American Literary Magazines

By Samrat Upadhyay

In a world propelled by the market economy, the literary world, too, is rife with an attitude that prizes profit-making above valuing works of literary merit. The book publishing world is subject to the same laws as the rest of the market, so some American publishers treat art as commodity, as we already observed in the case of the beauty (Arundhati Roy) and her beast (The God of Small Things): readers forgot that the woman on the back cover was not a model endorsing the book, but the author who spent torturous hours writing it. One corner of American publishing, however, has consistently published quality work without glossy book covers or sales spawned by prominent displays in national bookstores.

American literary journals and magazines take pride in publishing fine works of established authors and introducing new talent to the public. With an average circulation of only about 2,000, often operating on a shoe-string budget, and continuously threatened with extinction, these journals nonetheless have been proliferating across America, especially with the tremendous growth of creative writing programs in the past decade. In a sense, then, literary magazines are more reliable sources of real literary talent existing in the country because they publish writers whose work they admire, not writers they think will sell. They thereby eliminate a large contingent of commercial writers with their plot-driven drivel.

The 1999 Poets Market lists more than 1,000 American and Canadian literary journals and magazines (or "little" as they are sometimes called) which are open to poets, and the 1999 Short Story and Novel Writers Market (both published by Writers Digest Books, Cincinnati, Ohio) lists about 600 markets for short story writers. Not all of the magazines listed are of a literary nature; some carry exclusively mystery or horror genre. But a large number of magazines explicitly state that they don't care for genre writing, and that any theme or style is acceptable as long as it is of "high quality" (implying, with some degree of accuracy, that genre writing cannot be of high quality).

Among the journals that have acquired giant reputations, The Paris Review, published out of New York despite its name, is a strong leader. Started by George Plimpton and Peter Matthiessen, this journal consistently publishes interesting contemporary writing, as well as interviews with eminent authors under "The Art of Fiction," and "The Art of Poetry." Other journals of considerable repute are The Georgia Review, Iowa Review, The Southern Review, The Missouri Review, Prairie Schooner, and Ploughshares. Many journals are affiliated with universities and colleges, thereby relying on a dedicated tribe of other academic writers as subscribers. Some critics say that this network fosters incestuous relationships among academics (who purportedly have brains of the same feather), and therefore stunts innovative writing. But the truth is that many literary journals boldly publish experimental fiction and poetry, and delight in exposing American audience to international writing. For example, Manoa, published by the University of Hawaii, devotes each issue to publishing Asian/Pacific writers in addition to American writers, providing a lively forum for international work of diverse nature. Overall, most journals are extremely rigorous in their selection process, and stories abound of big-name writers getting miffed when small-time journal don't accept their work.
         So how hard is it to get your work published in these journals? Consider this: a journal like Shenandoah gets about 500 story submissions a month, and it publishes 16 stories a year, which means that you have a 1/400 chance of getting published in that journal anytime you submit. Extreme competitiveness, combined with delay in response time (journals can take a year or more to say no), have forced many writers to resort to what is known in the industry as "simultaneous submission": sending the same story to several journals at once to increase chances of getting published. A few editors frown upon this practice, and old-timers nostalgically recall the days before computers when writers meticulously typed one copy of a story and prayed that the editor's dog wouldn't eat it. Despite the ethical question raised by simultaneous submission, many editors now accept this practice.
         What makes some journals especially interesting is that they are run entirely by students in creative writing programs. This doesn't mean student-run journals are shabbily produced. Indiana Review, edited by Masters of Fine Arts students at Indiana University, won the American Literary Magazine Award in 1996. Hayden's Ferry Review, edited by students at Arizona State University, is one of the few journals chosen to publish Associated Writing Programs Intro Awards winners, and it was ranked in 1991 by Columbia University as among the top one percent of literary magazines in the country.
         And of course there's a whole new breed of literary journals cruising in cyberspace. Web magazines, or e-zines, can offer wide readership to beginning writers who are having a tough time getting published in the print journals. With names like Lonzies Fried Chicken Literary Magazine and Zuzu Petal's Quarterly Online, these internet lit mags have become popular in the last few years, even as they raise concern about quality control.
         The world of American literary magazines is an exciting one, providing many opportunities for serious writers to flaunt their craft. Even that old curmudgeon T. S. Eliot once said, "Without literary magazines, the vitality of the world of letters is greatly reduced."

S. Upadhyay is the fiction editor of Hawaii Review, 1733 Donaghho Rd., Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA.

-------------------- KPRB Feb. 28, 1999, Vol III No. 21, Coordinator Manjushree Thapa

Che in Today's World by Hari Roka

Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara by Jorge G. Castaneda New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997

Many biographies have been written on the legendary revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara, the latest of which is Jorge G. Castaneda's Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara. As a long-time professor of political science at the National Autonomous University of Mexico and a visiting professor at many U.S. universities, Castaneda is well-positioned to write about Che's significance in present-day North American politics. He does so with thoroughness and care.

Companero begins at a little school of La Hingura, in the Bolivian southeast, where, with the help of the CIA, the Bolivian Army captured and executed Che. Through the description of Che's death, the author succinctly expresses his own belief that the revolutionary's vision is still relevant today, as are the values of his generation. The book's best writing is found in these beginning pages, starting with the vivid first sentence: "They uncovered his face, now clear and serene, and bared the chest wracked by forty years of asthma and months of hunger."

The rest of the book follows Che's life chronologically, beginning with his birth, in 1928, to a family of blue-blood aristocrats in Rosario, Argentina. He was a brilliant student who read voraciously during his frequent asthma attacks. Willful and spirited as a teenager, he began to mature in his views after leaving Argentina for trips through the American continent while completing his medical studies. By the time he reached Chuquicamata, Chile, the site of the world's largest open-cut copper mine and a bastion of the Chilean Communist Party, he had witnessed much poverty, injustice and exploitation. He was particularly impressed by the dedication of one communist couple actively fighting for "bread for the poor." It is said that Ernesto Guevara then started to become
"Che." After Chuquicamata, Castaneda describes Che to be in a state of revolutionary incubation, speaking passionately against "Yankee" imperialism and Latin American subjugation as he toured Peru, Panama, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Bolivia.

It was in Bolivia, after witnessing the National Revolutionary Movement's failure to effect socio-economic transformation, that Che first realized that politics-whether traditional or revolutionary-could be complex and contradictory. Later, in Guatemala, he saw the collapse of President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman's reforms with the naked intervention of the United States. At that time his Peruvian first wife, Hilde Gadea, who a true revolutionary, helped him become a Marxist Leninist.

In 1955, Che met several friends of Cuba, including the student leader Raul Castro. Raul's brother Fidel Castro impressed Che as an extraordinary man, and they soon organized a group, trained them in arm combat, and launched the Granma expedition for Cuba's revolution. This was Che's first experience of organizational work. Having entered Cuba, he spent a year and a half waging guerrilla warfare from the hills of Sierra Maestra, and introducing, to the poor farmers they lived among, the idea of "land to the people." Dissidents in the cities - middle-class democrats, doctors, lawyers, small businessmen, and communists - funneled them money, guns and information. Incredibly, the fighters eventually grew to the thousands who marched into Havana in triumph in 1959, ending the regime of Falguenio Batista. This event marks a break between the failure of Latin America's democratic left in the 1950's and the emergence of a new revolutionary subjectivity with Che and Castro as its leaders. It was this revolutionary leadership which faced the 1961 US "Bay of Pigs" provocation, and also survived the
"Missile Crisis" of 1962.

Castaneda then follows Che's work in the Cuban government, paying close attention to divergences between his views and Castro's. In his work setting up Cuba's trade links with the Soviet Union, Pakistan, India, Japan and Indonesia, and later, in his capacity as the Minister of Industries, Che engendered international support for the revolution, and thus helped transform Cuba from a playground for US gangsters to an austere experiment in socialism. Yet, though he sought Soviet alliance in some matters, he began to question the increasing Soviet influence over the Cuban economy. He also expressed disappointment at the class privileges of the Soviet Union's government and party officials. Moscow, in return, accused Che of following Maoist principles in his continued calls for armed revolution. Che was even accused of espousing the theories of the hated Trotskyites.

Che's growing contradictions with Havana's leadership, especially Raul Castro, led him to take off, with a small group of fighters, to participate in the unsuccessful rebellion waged by Congo's Committee for National Liberation. Visiting Tanzania, Mali, Guinea, Ghana, Algiers, and Egypt at that time, Che wrongly assumed that opposition to imperialism could unite groups that had themselves been at war with each other. The failure of African revolutionary efforts was a difficult lesson for him in the limits of internationalism.

Yet Che left the Congo believing, more than ever, in guerrilla warfare. He then went to Bolivia to carry out the unsuccessful guerrilla mission that led to his capture and cold-blooded execution. In these last chapters Castaneda again focuses on the conflict between Castro and Che, and highlights the fact that Castro did not authorize a rescue mission, even when it was clear that his life was endangered: "Fidel might well have decided that a Che martyred in Bolivia would better serve the Revolution than a Che living frustrated and discouraged in Havana." Indeed, Castaneda seems to exaggerate the conflict between the two leaders at times.

Nevertheless, he ends the book with clear appreciation for Che's successes, and critical sympathy for his failures. With its footnotes, first-hand research and many interviews, Companero is a sometimes overly-detailed, but mostly well-written, record of this legendary revolutionary's life. Che's bold vision of the international revolutionary cause, his charismatic personality, his willingness to struggle, and the many victories and defeats of his generation are worth reexamining at this time of gathering for imperialist and capitalist forces.

H. Roka is an alternate member of CPN(ML)'s Central Committee.

--------------------- Environmental History : A New And Practical History By Jagannath Adhikari

The Wealth of Nature: Environmental History and the Ecological Imagination by Donald Worster New York: Oxford University Press, 1994

General academic history suffers from two main lacunae. Firstly, it has not dealt with nature and its transformation under the influence of past human experiences or (culture) and vice-versa. Secondly, academic history has no inclination to produce any guidance for public action. To fill this gap, the new academic field of
"environmental history" has now been instituted in most western universities. The Wealth of Nature by Donald Worster is ideally suited to understand the theoretical ideas and practical uses of this new academic field. And even though this book is mainly concerned with ecological developments in the United States (which are entirely different from ours), it provides a good example of how history can be of guidance for public action to solve everyday problems confronted by people.=20

Even though the book contains sixteen essays written at different periods and for different occasions, they all underpin one main argument: that nature cannot be conserved through the institution of the market or by the materialist world-view of industrial capitalism developed since the 1776 publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations. Worster considers technological or economic solutions alone to be insufficient for the effective conservation of resources, or for maintaining the natural order. He asks for a total change in culture with a set of new values that emphasize non-material ends in life and an aesthetic apprehension of nature, by which he means the understanding of the beauty of unaltered nature. At present, modern life rests on progressive, secular and materialistic philosophies which make production and consumption the sole ends of life. The author argues that unless we challenge such philosophies at their foundations by adopting other ends in life - like material simplicity and spiritual richness - environmental goals cannot be achieved. The habit of aesthetic apprehension discussed in the book is an ability to see the whole rather than pieces. Unaltered creation and the conserved landscape represents wholeness, and there is beauty in it.=20

The essays presented in The Wealth of Nature can be categorized into three main sets. The first set of essays describes the meaning, scope and practical application of environment history, which the author defines as the 'interdisciplinary study of the relations of culture, technology, and nature through time.' The essays, particularly
'History of Natural History' and 'Transformation of the Earth,' discuss the connections that history has made with other fields like ecology, geography and anthropology.

The second set of essays deals with problems faced by US society in areas like agriculture, soil conservation, public land and national parks, water management and river training. In all these essays, the author describes the historical development of these problems in order to identify their root causes. These essays conclude that the attitude of profit-maximization and the treatment of resources merely as objects have been the main causes of the varied problems in the above fields. The problems of the dust bowl, the increase in the incidence of cancer due to pesticides and fertilizers, the loss of topsoil, large-scale flooding, the decline of the water table, and the salinity of soil have been considered in the book as the result of the unethical commercialization of nature.

In the last set of essays, the author discusses the philosophical and religious foundations for the environmental movement in the US pursued by leaders like Henry David Thoreau, John Muir and Aldo Leopold. The impact of religion in shaping the minds and characters of these environmental leaders is discussed. Similarly, there is also a discussion on the shift of approaches taken by ecological scientists, and on its impact on controversial arguments on topics like natural order, harmony, ecological climax and stabilization, and on the recent approach of chaos in nature. The author agues that the contradictory theories developed by scientists are the result of the social conditions at the time of the formulation of these theories; because what a scientist observes or can observe is conditioned by his/her mental development, which is shaped by the social environment. Moreover, the author blames Judeo-Christianity for instilling a value system that emphasizes 'anthropocentrism', i.e., placing man as the supreme creation of God, allowing us to subdue and dominate nature. This has been detrimental to the environment. Worster also considers many arrogant scientific ideas and inventions to be the products of this value system. He criticizes the most popular concept of 'sustainable development' on grounds that this concept also treats the natural world as a means to serve the material demands of human species; it is thus based on the assumption of the supremacy of science in its ability to determine or exactly study natural phenomena. Furthermore, the author considers this concept of "sustainable development" to be merely a product of political negotiations.=20

In the book's last essay, the Worster criticizes Adam Smith for not linking 'the wealth of nations' with 'the wealth of nature', even though the former is just a part of the latter. As a result, Worster argues, Adam Smith's approach of individual freedom for the accumulation of wealth has been successful in increasing the wealth of nations, but at the cost of the wealth of nature. To save the world from ecological crisis, the author opines that new ideas in the form of a new religion are required to maximize the wealth of nature.=20

Even though The Wealth of Nature mainly deals with ecological problem vis-=E0-vis economic and ecological policies in the US, it can be useful for policy makers in Nepal, since Nepal is also adopting some of the policy measures experimented on and implemented in the US. Four main nature conservation approaches have been adopted in the US, including accepting a moral responsibility (land ethics) towards nature; adopting a utilitarian approach (currently much in practice in Nepal also); bringing nature under public or common ownership; and engendering an aesthetic apprehension of nature or aesthetic spiritualism. In the future, new, context-bound approaches will enhance the wealth of nature. Ideas suitable for a country like Nepal, facing different historical realities regarding natural resources, may well be found in the field of environmental history.=20

J. Adhikari is conducting research on food security and the environment.=20

----------- KPRB Feb 28, 1999, Vol. III No. 21, Coordinator Manjushree Thapa

Recent Arrivals for Feb 1999

Trends, Issues and Policies of Education in Nepal (1998, Kathmandu, CERID) by Hridaya Ratna Bajracharya, Bijaya Kumar Thapa and Roshan Chitrakar is an analytical introduction to achievements and limitations in educational development in Nepal. The authors examine the educational policies included in the Ninth Plan (1997-2002) and discuss at length the major current issues related to education in Nepal. In the final chapter, the authors conclude that there is a lack of "procedural co-ordination" in the development of programmes by the various donors and the "effectiveness of donor contributions in bringing educational development in Nepal remains an area for investigation."

Rudraksa: Mahatwa ra Kheti Prabidhi (Dhankuta, Pakhribas Krishi Kendra) by Chet Nath Kanel is a fine introduction to one of the most religiously important plants in Nepal and its cultivation practices. The author claims that Rudraksa has also assumed economic, medicinal, aesthetic and environmental importance before describing its cultivation in a few hilly districts in east Nepal. The last four chapters detail the cultivation techniques, including ways to tackle diseases and post-harvest procedures before the rudraksas reach the market.
 

The First Five Years: A Critical Perspective on Early Childhood Care and Education in India (1998, New Delhi, Sage Publications) edited by Mina Swaminathan brings together 16 essays that examine various experiments in early childhood care and education (ECCE) in different parts of India. The different authors discuss multiple approaches to ECCE, both from a macro and a micro perspective. The book should be useful to educational planners, practitioners and activists in Nepal as well.
  I Power (1998, Kathmandu, Ekta Books) by Ken Afful explains the strength of the power of individuals in organisations, irrespective of their rank or status. This booklet draws upon the writer's experiences and studies on individual and organisational behaviour. It develops the concept of self (I-power) and then, WE and THEY power. This book will be of use to those organizations suffering from 'personality clashes' as it explains how recognition of the other I's and subsequent creation of the WE can result in the reduction of tension and other negative elements within organisations.
  Appropriate Post Harvest Technology of Fruits in Nepal: A Case Study of Apples (1996, Kathmandu, Udaya Research and Development Services) by Krishna B Shrestha is an analysis of technologies that need to be developed to reduce post harvest losses of fruits in Nepal. Based on rigorous studies done in Rasuwa and Kathmandu for the case of apples, the author reaches several conclusions, some of which are described in specialist language not available to the general reader.

-------------- KPRB Feb. 28 1999, Vol III No. 21, Coordinator Manjushree Thapa

A War Zone of Mind Battles By C.K. Lal

War and Anti-War By Alvin and Heidi Toffler New York: Bantam Books, 1994

The future may already be a "colonized territory." In an apparent extension of Edward Said's postulates on colonialism/Orientalism
("The corporate institution for dealing with the orient-dealing with it by making statements about it, authorizing views of it, describing it, by teaching it, settling it, ruling over it: in short, Orientalism as a Western style for domination, restructuring and having an authority over it...") and Michel Foucault's concept of power/knowledge (that the two implicate each other), Ziauddin Sardar of Middlesex University argues: "Anticipating the future nowadays means little more than forecasting the future. And forecasting is one of the major tools by which the future is colonized. No matter how sophisticated the technique-and they are becoming more and more refined and complex-forecasting simply ends up projecting the (selected) past and the (often privileged) present to a linear future." (Seminar 460, Dec. 97)

In that mission of colonizing the future for the Pentagon, Alvin Toffler appeared as an advance foot-soldier in the seventies of the American Century with Future Shock. The book had the intellectual worth of a Mac Burger and sold just as well. Having quenched the reader's thirst as deceptively as a can of Coke, Toffler followed up with The Third Wave and Power Shift, and, in between, with a bag of chips tantalizingly termed Previews and Premises.

The underlying assertion in these airport lounge yawn-combat accessories was that Americans were invincible because they had knowledge. In the end, Americans did win the Cold War, and the role of the creators of authorized knowledge wasn't negligible in engineering that victory. In the expression of Tim Flannery (The Future Eaters), human beings did "eat the future."

Winning the Cold War, however, has not been enough. The Americans must now win the peace too, for the "knowledge-based" "third-wave" societies of the West to foreclose the future for the non-West. In come the intellectual marines: the Toffler couple-Alvin and his wife Heidi-with War and Anti-War.

The main contention of this book is that peace is an interlude in anticipation of war, and Leon Trotsky is right: "You may not be interested in war, but war is interested in you." A catchy phrase, perhaps, but similar ideas have been expressed by Vegetius in the fourth century: "Let him who desires peace prepare for war;" by George Washington in the eighteenth century: "To be prepared for War is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace;" and more recently in 1984 AD by Ronald Reagan: "It is weakness... that invites adventurous adversaries to make mistaken judgments."

Having started with these assumptions, the Tofflers traverse familiar terrain to arrive at fairly predictable conclusions. The first part of the book sets the stage of a trisected world where first, second and third wave civilizations of agriculture, industry and knowledge respectively are poised for inevitable confrontation.

In the second part, lessons of the Arab-Israeli War are applied by the Pentagon to transform itself into the most futuristic fighting force of the world. (The Pentagon brass is intelligent because they ask their officers to read Third Wave). Part three records and extends the CNN coverage of the all-out American assault on Iraq. Part four weaves a spin of the manipulation of information, and the book ends by setting the agenda of "anti war" for the West in part six misleadingly titled "Peace."

The West won the Cold War by fragmenting Eastern Europe. The next agenda is to break the back of China, a potential challenger in the short-term. The Tofflers speak through George Yao, the Cambridge and Harvard educated Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore, a
"thirty-seven year old brigadier-general with a laser-like intellect" who imagines a future China composed of hundreds of Singapore-like city-states." Obviously, it will be the West that will guarantee them peace, just as they did in the former Yugoslavia. An insult to the intellect? Well, propaganda is never any better.

To make sense of War and Anti-War, perhaps it is useful to resort to a Marxist critical framework. From a socialistic perspective, research conducted by liberals view societal problems as resulting from immediate causes. Hence liberal scholars propose ameliorative programs of action without questioning and seeking alternatives to the underlying system that generates and perpetuates social inequities in the first place.

The Tofflers urge the world to fight the "anti-war" on the space delineated by the West, using the moral justifications of the West, relying upon the knowledge of the West, and employing tools manufactured by the West, to arrive at an outcome acceptable to the West. If this is the future war-zone, then the first battle of minds is already lost for the non-West. Ziauddin Sardar is right: the future is already an occupied territory whose liberation is the most pressing challenge for the peoples of the non-West if they want to inherit a future made in their own likeness.

"Force rules the world-not opinion," observes Blaise Pascal, "but it is opinion that makes use of force." Spin-masters like the Tofflers help create a climate in which Americans repeatedly bomb sanction-stricken Iraq, dirt-poor Sudan and strife-torn Afghanistan almost at will. This brazen call for a New World Order, in the worlds of the damning indictment of Noam Chomsky, "proceeds-in the US completely and in Britain to a large extent-not without criticism but without any public awareness about it.... This action is in fact a call for lawless world order in which the powerful will rule. The powerful happen to be the United States and Britain, which is by now a pathetic puppy dog that has abandoned any pretense of being an independent state."

War and Anti-War is pure hype, designed to draw the attention of the non-West away from the pursuit of peace. It is precisely for that reason that a critical study of the book is necessary to understand the ways of neo-imperialism.

CK Lal is an engineer.

***************************************************** From: "Paramendra Bhagat" <paramendra@hotmail.com> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: NSP in News Date: Tue, 09 Mar 1999 06:55:18 PST

NSP declares candidates
<http://www.nepalnews.com/contents/Ktmpost/1999/Mar/Mar09/index.htm#5>

****************************************************************** Date: Thu, 11 Mar 1999 12:16:56 -0500 (EST) Forwarded by: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@fas.harvard.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Goings on in other Nepali communities (fwd)

To Whom It May Concern:

As a founding member of Nepal Australia Friendship Association in South Australia, I am getting very concerned by branch stacking by the Nepalese students belonging to the Maoist Bampanthi Morcha. Our Association was small and full of harmonious cultural activities. Suddenly, the Maoist Comrade Deepak Bista of Pyuthan penetrated the society. Now all the members of Chetriya and Bahun types are excluded on the basis of their close cultural links with Vishwa Hindu Parishad. NAFA is being investigated by Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission in Sydney. The dictatorial Deepak Bista has unconstitutionally discriminated founding members because of their disability and racial and ethnic background. A case is being heard before the Full Court of the Federal Court of Australia as Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission's processes is not able to function, in matters concerning ethnic conflicts like the Nepalese community in Australia. Due to the dysfunctional behaviours of the Nepalese national leaders in Nepal, even in diaspora of Nepalese all over the world, the conflicts are spreading well beyond Nepal. It is a pity that only Lacan would be abble to pscho-analyse why the Nepalese are being so power hungry? It seems the Nepalese all over are existing in scizophrenic dimension. I hope that only community discussions and participations could be beneificail to us all. This is a general statement of reality.

Kind Regards, Dr.Deepak Pant Sydney, Australia

 ******************************************************************************
 * *
 * The Nepal Digest(TND) is a publication of TND Foundation, a global *
 * not-for-profit information and resource center committed to promoting *
 * issues concerning Nepal. All members of tnd@nepal.org will get a copy of *
 * The Nepal Digest (TND). Membership is free of charge and open to all. *
 * *
 * TND Foundation Home Page: http://www.nepal.org *
 * http://www.himalaya.org *
 * http://www.gurkhas.org *
 * For Information: tnd@nepal.org *
 * webmaster: tnd@nepal.org *
 * *
 * TND Foundation contributions (TAX-DEDUCTIBLE) can be mailed payable to: *
 * TND Foundation *
 * P.O. Box 8206 *
 * White Plains, NY 10601 *
 * USA *
 * *
 * Subscription/Deletion requests : mailto:TND@NEPAL.ORG *
 * Provide one line message: sub nepal "lastname, firstname, mi" <user@host> *
 * [OPTIONAL] Provide few lines about your occupation, address, phone for *
 * TND database to: <TND@NEPAL.ORG> *
 * *
 * Postal-Mail Correspondences to: TND Foundation *
 * P.O. Box 8206 *
 * White Plains, NY 10602 *
 * USA *
 * *
 * Digest Contributions: mailto:NEPAL@MP.CS.NIU.EDU *
 * THE EDITOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO EDIT ARTICLES FOR CLARITY. *
 * Contributors need to supply Header for the article, email, and full name. *
 * *
 * Postings are divided into following categories that are listed in the *
 * order below. Please provide category-type in the header of your e-mail. *
 * *
 * 1. Message from TND Editorial Staff *
 * TND Foundation News/Message *
 * 2. Letter to the Editor *
 * Letter to TND Foundation *
 * 3. TAJA_KHABAR: Current News *
 * 4. KATHA_KABITA: Literature *
 * 5. KURA_KANI: Economics *
 * Agriculture/Forestry *
 * Health *
 * Education *
 * Technology *
 * Social/Cultural Issues *
 * Environment/Population *
 * Women/Children *
 * Tourism *
 * Foreign Policy *
 * History *
 * Military/Police *
 * Politics *
 * 6. CHOOT_KILA (Humor, Recipies, Movie Reviews, Sattaires etc.) *
 * 7. JAN_KARI: Classifides (Matrimonials, Jobs etc) *
 * 8. KHOJ_KHABAR (Inquiring about Nepal, Nepalis etc. ) *
 * 9. TITAR_BITAR: Miscellaneous (Immigration and Taxex etc. ) *
 * *
 * COPYRIGHT NOTE *
 * -------------- *
 * The content contributors are responsible for any copyright violations. *
 * TND, a non-profit electronic journal, will publish articles that have *
 * been published in other electronic or paper journal with proper credit *
 * to the original media. *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% %
%% END OF "THE NEPAL DIGEST". %
%% %
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%



This archive was generated by hypermail 2b29 : Tue Jan 11 2000 - 11:16:07 CST