The Nepal Digest - March 19, 1996 (6 Chaitra 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Tuesday 19 March 96: Chaitra 6 2052 BS: Year5 Volume48 Issue2

  Today's Topics:

        1. Message from the editor

        2. KURA_KANI
              Environment: Electric Vehicles In KAthmandu
        3. JAN_KARI
             GBNC's Nepali New Year Celebration Program
             Announcing a new journal on Nepal
             Establishing Nepal Foundation Update

 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * *
 * TND Foundation: General Information *
 * Founder: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
 * Webmaster Correspondent: Pradeep Bista *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "LIFE: Indulgence vs Seeking Truth - Which is your forte?" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * "We have guided missiles and misguided men" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Heros are the ones who give a bit of themselves to the community" -SK *
 * *

***************************************************************** From: TND Foundations <> To: The Nepal Digest <> Subject: TND Foundation Contribution Fund

Dear TND members:

     TND Foundations is accepting your generous contribution in an effort to
     find a permanant home for The Nepal Digest (TND).

     We are still short of required amount to pay for 1996 on-line
     services for TND Foundation.

     You are encouraged to send your contribution payabale to:
            TND Foundations
            c/o Rajpal J. Singh
            44 Greenridge Ave
            White Plains, NY 10605

     Following members have been kind with their generous contributions:

     Biswamber Shrestha Rockville, MD
     Malla Treks (Sushil U. Stan A.) Kathmandu, Nepal
     Mahesh K. Maskey Arlington, MA
     Rajpal J. Singh White Plains, NY
     Padam P. Sharma Bismarck,ND
     Lynn B. Reid Jamaica Plain, MA
     John Mage New York, NY
     Shyam Lama Arlington, VA
     Raju Tuladhar Alberta, Canada
     Robin Rajbhandari Nashville, TN
     Katharine N. Rankin Ithaca, NY
     Bhanu B. Niraula Flushing, NY
     Amulya R. Tuladhar Worcester, MA
     Rajesh B. Shrestha Worcester, MA
     Abi Sharma British Columbia, Canada
     Nirmal K. Bhattarai St. Paul, MN
     Suresh R. Sharma Rome, Italy
     Mary Deschene Baltimore, MD
     Tatsuro Fujikura Chicago, IL
     Pawan/Nilima Agrawal Rancho Cordova, CA
     Pratyoush Onta Kathmandu, Nepal
     Anita Regmi Wheaton, MD
     Gregory G. Maskarinec Honolulu, Hawaii
     Robert Peirce Portland, OR
     Mahesh Gurung Chicago, IL
     Nirmal Ghimire Millersville, PA
     Raja Ram K.C. Somerville, MA
     Hari Koirala Mansfield Center, CT
     Sanjay Shrestha Chicago, IL
     Bal Krishna Sharma East Lansing, MI
     Subas Sakya Pumona, NY
     Marian E. Greenspan Beltsville, MD
     Sanjay B. Shah Blacksburg, VA
     Paul Johnson Santa Cruz, CA
     Bhaskar R. Dawadi Tallahassee, FL
     Damber K. Gurung Clemson, SC
     Sagar Shakya Boulder, CO
     Murari Pradhan Salt Lake City, UT
     Pramod Parajuli Syracuse, NY
     Raksha D. Malakar Amherst, MA
                  Total 1160.00
     TND offeres heartful thanks to all the generous contributors. If you
     have sent the contribution and do not see yourself on the list, please
     accept our apologies and let us know.

Sincerely TND Foundation

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 07 Mar 1996 10:37:15 CST To: From: Subject: Request


Dear Members of The Nepal Digest Foundation, Nepali friends, friends of Nepal and Travel Agencies working in Nepal;

Let me introduce myself first. My name is Mahabir Pun. I graduated from the University of Nebraska in summer 1992 and went back to my village in Myagdi district. I worked as a volunteer teacher for three years and helped the villagers to start a high school. My report of the community development works in Nepal was published in February 20 issue of the digest under "A School in Myagdi Needs your Help". I had sent the report to one of my friends who e-mailed it to TND.

Now I am back to Nebraska. I am trying to find ideas to produce an educational video film on the Himalayas and Nepal for high school students abroad. The purpose is to raise money for the school and rural development programs we have started in Nepal. Ten professors of the University of Nebraska are helping me to develop the script of the video film. However, their help is not enough. They have never been to Nepal and don't know much about Nepal. Therefore I would like to request all friends to provide information and ideas on Nepal to make the video one of the best film. Please read "Abstract and Outline of the Video Film" given below and send me your comments, suggestions and your ideas too. Every word of your opinion will be valuable for developing the script of the film.

Secondly, I need to find financial support for the production of the video film. I also need a camera, cameraman, and other technical assistances. Therefore it is my earnest request to all Nepalese friends, friends of Nepal and travel agencies to help find hands and resources for the production of the video film. Your assistance will certainly be a great service to Nepal. Talking about assistance, it doesn't matter how big or how small.

Some of my Nepali friends told me that they felt guilty for doing nothing for Nepal by residing in America. For me, it doesn't matter where you live but what you do. The world has shrunk such that Nepal has become a country of "next door". You can do a lot for Nepal even residing in America. It is my call for help to all the Nepalis living in America. I request you to put the agenda of the video project in any of your upcoming meetings or gatherings. Friends, Let's Do it.

I will be back to Nepal in June. If you want to know about the project and its progress you can also call to Dr. Leonard Skov (308-865-8844), Dr. Marvin Glasser (308-865-8277) and Dr. James Roark (308-865-8490).

Thank you very much. Sincerely, Mahabir Pun Ludden Hall 334, UNK Kearney, NE 68849 Phone:308-865-3857, E-Mail


Why is this a Special Project?

This project is special in three ways. It will;

1. -produce an inquiry type video film to inform students about the Himalayas and Nepal through a teaching packet involving discussion and inquiry.

2. -create a home page on the Internet to provide extensive detailed information and pictures on the Himalayas and Nepal for classroom use. The Internet will also be used to initiate direct communication between the students from Nepal with students of other countries.

3. -use the money from the sale of the video and teaching packet to assist the school and rural development programs in the rural region of Nepal.

In order to maximize student learning, this project will attempt to bring the students of two countries in direct contact through the Internet. A program called "Let's Share Ideas" through e-mail will be developed with teachers to facilitate the communication. High School students and any other persons abroad, desiring to know more about the Himalayas and Nepal may ask their questions or share suggestions for solving environmental issues through e-mail.
(The language won't be the barrier)

Beneficiaries of the Video Program:

Four groups of people, directly or indirectly, can benefit from the project.

1. The students of the English speaking countries will get to learn about the geology and geography of Nepal and the Himalayas.

2. The Nepalese children will get a better education in their schools due to the money generated from the project.

3. The rural people will benefit from the initiation of income generating programs we will start in the villages on the local level .

4. The tourist agencies will use this video to give a direct invitation to the
"future tourists", the students from all over the world.

Strategy of the Video Field Trip:

Most educational video films contain just two components; Show and Tell. There is no doubt these two components of teaching can help students to remember contents, however, this video includes a third component "Involvement" often not found in educational videos. Thereore the idea of "Video Field Trip" was conceived to maximize the learning of students by "involving" them in topics of interest. Students become"Explorers" not just watchers.

Approach for Making the Students Curious and Interested:

To excite students about learning, the video will be inquiry in nature. A hypothetical "super plane" will be created along with sound effects to take the students on a real life field trip. In order to give the students a real feeling of being on a field trip, the video will feature a narrator who will get students "involved" by talking with them and leading them along on.

Components of the Film; The following components will make the film to make it
  exciting, informative and educational.
         1. Fun Component

a. Working with potter wheel b. Elephant riding, bathing and feeding c. Tharu festival and dance d. Ploughing the field with oxen, harvesting e. Riding ferris wheel, swing, river rafting f. Dancing with the mountain people g. horse riding in the northern Nepal h. playing Nepalese musical instruments

2. Cultural Component
         a. Pagoda style temples, palaces, crafts b. Farming in Nepal c. Birth place of Buddha d. Festivals and ceremonies in the plains and mountains e. Schools in the mountains f. Family structure and life g. Features of the highest mountains of the world h. Houses of Nepal
         3. Educational Component

a. Plate tectonic and formation of the Himalayas b. Geological Features; folding, uplifting, fossil, natural gas, hot springs,
 weathering, rocks etc, c. Altitude vs. climate and vegetation d. Endangered wild animals e. Problems created by over-population f. Conservation awareness of fragile Nature g. Intersting habits of rhino, yak, bear, elephant etc. h. Subsistence farming and living i. Features such as rain shadow, tree-line, snowline j. Glaciers and glacial activities such as cirques, horns, moraines

Assignment for Students:

Teachers will receive a teaching package containing worksheets and quiz sheets for the students including a teachers' manual, some posters and slides. Teachers will be asked to have students write about Nepal and the Himalayas zeroing in on such things as; a. Nepal's geographical world records b. facts interesting to students c. Geological evidences of the Himalayan formation d. the environment and the over-population problem

The teachers will be asked either to e-mail or to send a copy of the best suggestion the students provide for preserving the nature and solving the environmental problems of Nepal to Himanchal High School Nangi-2, Ramche VDC Myagdi district, Nepal. Those suggestions will be shared with the students.


The trip will be divided into the following segments;

1. Flight from home across the Pacific ocean. On the flight, short introduction of the continental drift theory and plate tectonic that might have caused the uplift of the Himalayas will be given. (starting, 5 minutes)
         2. Arrival in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Visit different historical places, temples, native Newar people and see festivals in the Kathmandu valley.(10 minutes)
         3. Visit the southern plains including national parks. See the protected wild animals such as rhinoceros, tigers, bears, elephants etc., and types of vegetation. The life styles and cultures of the native Tharu people will also be addressed. Also visit Lumbini where Buddha was born and describe it's importance. (10 minutes)
         4. Travel from southern to northern Nepal to observe the dramatic changes in physical features, climate, vegetation, cultures, people etc. and impact of overpopulation on the environment of the middle mountains. Geological evidences of the past such as fossil sites, Tethyan sediments, folding, tilting, faulting, Tibetan plateau, hot springs will also be discussed.(10 minutes)
         5. Visit interesting places in the Himalayas up to 18,000 feet above sea level, see 7 out of the 10 highest peaks of the world, and others Nepal's world records, Yaks, native Sherpa people, the Himalayan wild animals, and glacial activities. Students will be made aware of the impact of tourism on environment and the efforts being made to improve it.(10 minute)
         6. Back home across Atlantic. Show the diverging plates of the mid-Atlantic.

Extension of the Video!!!

The followings are more facts for students who want to know more about Nepal in detail. The topics have been selected to also attract the interest of college students and general viewers. About fifteen minutes will be given to each topic, making the video cassette about two hours long. (If you have some more topics you want to put in this section please write to me. Also send your comments, negetive or positive, on the following topics. I need to spend more time on this section.)

a. Impact of tourism on the fragile mountains;

Up until 1950, less than 300 people had visited Nepal, because Nepal was a closed country. Today, more than 250,000 tourists from all over the world visit Nepal each year. About half of them enjoy trekking (hiking) in the overpopulated mountain regions. The "new guests" help the economy but create some problems too.

This section will talk about growing tourist business in Nepal. Information will be presented on both the positive and negative impacts tourism has brought to Nepal's physical and cultural environment. Students will learn how to become responsible tourists.

b. The Family Life.
         There is joint family system in Nepal. A household includes grand parents married sons and their families and sometimes other relatives as well. Everyone in the family has a role, even the youngest children take care of the chickens goats or sheep. Older children carry water and help their parents in the field. Older people also help in the fields and do light work around the house.
  This section will portray a typical family and their lives in the mountain. It will also present sustainable living pattern of the villagers and their economy.
         c. Impact of Modernization in Nepal.

Nepal is a country caught in two different worlds, "having one leg in the 16th century and another in twentieth century". Within the last 45 years, Nepal has been influenced by Western material culture which has produced some negative impacts on a peaceful society.
         This section will describe the economy of Nepal and the direction Nepal has taken on economic development and modernization. Emphasis will be placed on the lack of preparation of the young generation to handle the changes and need of proper education for them.

d. Rivers of Nepal and the Potential Hydro-power.
         The melting ice of the Himalayas and mansoon rain are the sources of water for rivers in Nepal. Because of the steep topography and high run off, the potential harnessing of water for hydro-energy is great. It has been estimated that 42,130 MW could be economically harnessed. However, by the end of 1990, the installed hydro-power was 238 MW which is less than 0.6 % of usable power potential. The power would be a source of national income and help reduce pressure on the natural resources.
         This section will show the river system of Nepal and how the water floods the plains in India and Bangladesh. The potential of hydro-power on Nepal's economy, industrial development and nature conservation will also be stressed.

e. Musical Instruments and Dances of Nepal.
         This section will show different types of musical instruments such as Sarangi, Madal, Tabela, Murali, Panche Baja, Marchunga, Damphu etc. It will also show dances of different tribes of Nepal.

f. Religion: Nepal is a Hindu country. About 90% people are Hindus, 5% Buddhists and the rest other religions. However, Hinduism and Buddhism are blended so that it is hard to separate them. The Hindus and Buddhists go to each others' temple and revere each others' god. There are small groups of Muslims and Christians also. As a result of this religious toleration, there is no religious tension in Nepal, unlike other South-Asian countries.

This section will show how the Hindus, Buddhists and other religious groups are co-existing with their shrines built side by side.

****************************************************************** Date: Fri, 08 Mar 1996 13:58:58 To: From: Subject: HIMAL SOUTH ASIA



NEW DELHI - South Asia's quality of life is fast falling to the level of sub-Saharan Africa, and unless governments urgently invest in their people the region will see instability and human misery on an unprecedented scale, according to HIMAL South Asia, a new regional magazine that was launched here last week.

The magazine says that vital resources in South Asian countries are being diverted from basic health and education to weapons and mega-projects.

"South Asia is just not prepared to enter the 21st century. It does not invest enough in its people," writes former Pakistani finance minister Mahbub ul Haq in the magazine's cover story, titled 'Alms Race'.

Despite the crushing poverty in India and Pakistan, the two countries are spending US$ 20 billion a year on defence -- twice as much as Saudi Arabia. Even in Sri Lanka, a model developing country, a large chunk of the budget for social services is being diverted to the war in the north.
  HIMAL South Asia is the region's very first magazine and is being published monthly from the Nepali capital, Kathmandu. The magazine's editor, Kanak Mani Dixit, says: "At present South Asia falls in the media blind spot between the international newsweeklies and the Hong Kong-based magazines. We need a common voice -- even to talk to ourselves."

"As South Asian journalism becomes a reality, and this magazine is part of the process, long-held geopolitical dogma on all sides will erode," Dixit predicts.

The magazine has a staff of four editors in Kathmandu, and contributing editors in most South Asian countries. Well-known South Asian academics, politicians, diplomats and activists will contribute columns and commentaries.

Other articles in the first issue include:

* How India's neighbours perceive a possible BJP victory in the upcoming general elections.

* Are we seeing the dawn of the Age of High Dams in Asia?

* The decline of Urdu cinema in Pakistan.

* What will happen to Indians in Hong Kong after 1997, and why Bangladeshis do not cricket.

Satellite television footprints today span national boundaries in South Asia, and the magazine hopes there will be a demand for a journal to provide perspectives, recognise trends, raise vital issues, and encourage interaction and debate.

Himal's South Asia goes beyond the SAARC, and will include coverage from Afghanistan to Burma, and Tibet. The magazine will also provide relevant coverage of outlying regions, including Southeast Asia, Central Asia, and the Gulf.

The magazine already has a subscription base of 8,000 and hopes to reach 30,000 by the end of the year. It will also be distributed by exclusive dealers across South Asia and will also be available at news-stands in North America, Europe and East Asia.

For subscription information, please contact: Suman Shakya Manager Marketing Himal South Asia GPO Box 7251 Kathmandu, Nepal or Barbara Bella & Associates 500 Sansome Street, Suite 101 PO Box 470758 San Francisco, CA 94147

********************************************************************** Date: Sat, 9 Mar 1996 11:00:50 -0500 To: From: (Padam Sharma) Subject: News from our neighbors...

China says its boy Lama accepted by Tibetans
    By Paul Eckert
     BEIJING, March 8 (Reuter) - The six-year-old boy named by China as the reincarnation of Tibet's second-holiest monk has won the approval of Tibetan clergy and contributes to stability in his homeland, government officials said on Friday.
     "Both clergy and laypersons in Tibet are satisfied with the reincarnation," said Raidi, chairman of the standing committee of parliament in the Tibet Autonomous Region.
     "Tibet enjoys social stability and economic development and Tibetan people are content with their work and life" -- thanks in part to the smooth reincarnation arranged by China, he told a news conference in Beijing.
     The boy, Gyaincain Norbu, was identified as the recipient of the spirit of the 10th Panchen Lama, who died in 1989, in a ceremony presided over by a Communist Party official in the Tibetan capital, Lhasa, in December.
     The enthronement provoked controversy because it superseded the announcement of a different reincarnation by the Dalai Lama, Tibet's exiled god-king, whose calls for greater Tibetan autonomy are condemned by Beijing as attempts to split China.
     The row between atheist China and the exiled spiritual leader also raised fears about the fate of Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, the six-year-old named last May by the Dalai Lama as the reincarnation of the Panchen Lama.
     The London-based human rights group Amnesty International says the boy named by the Dalai Lama is missing, along with his family and other monks.
     Reports of the boy's imprisonment were "sheer groundless fabrication," Raidi insisted.
     "On the young boy's well-being, I can assure you that he is living happily with his family," he said.
     "How can a little boy as young as Choekyi Nyima commit any crime and be imprisoned?"
     The 11th Panchen Lama had taken up studies of the Tibetan language and basic scriptures of Tibetan Buddhism, he said.
     The studies would make the boy "a patriotic great Buddhist master who is devoted to the motherland and well-versed in Buddhism," a Tibetan member of China's parliament said on Thursday.
     State media heaped abuse this week on the Dalai Lama, the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize winner, calling him "a political exile who works to split the motherland under the cloak of religion."
     The Dalai Lama and thousands of followers fled to India in 1959 after an abortive anti-Chinese uprising, but he continues to command the loyalty of many Tibetans.
     The region has been rocked by often violent pro-independence protests since 1987, and China has jailed many monks and nuns who have spearheaded the independence movement.
     China asserted sovereignty over Tibet, sending troops to purge Tibetan
"feudalism" and install socialism, after communists took control of China in 1949.
     Tibet's economy grew 10.6 percent in 1995, the first time in history the region had achieved double-digit growth, said Raidi.

****************************************************** Date: Sat, 9 Mar 1996 18:59:21 -0500 (EST) From: Manu Jain <mjain@ECE.concordia.CA> To: Subject: Note For Nepali Digest



I am sending this note on the advice of RJP Singh. This is basically to inform all ex- TAFS / AFCS ians that you have a cyber home now!!

I maintain a TAFS homepage that was initially started more as a list of my class mates from TAFS and has now attracted attention from other Aravalians also. I am happy to say the list of Alumni is growing!!

So if there are any of you who were in TAFS at some point of time get back to me ASAP and make my day.

My email address : My home page URL : The TAFS page URL:

Remember to mention the batch you were in ( or would have been if you had stayed long enough! ) and any other info that you feel is relevant.

Your comments and contributions are not just welcome but desired.

Aravalians from Shakti, Shanti, Kirti, Jyoti and Jagriti ... UNITE!

Manu Jain. 1444 Mackay, #1501 Montreal, PQ H3G 2H9 Canada.

******************************************************* Date: Mon, 11 Mar 1996 01:13:31 -0700 From: To: Subject: Electric Vehicles In KAthmandu

Dear Editor,

Please post the following article to our netters.

Electric Vehicle Interest in Kathmandu (Will Continue in other TND Editions too)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Shobhakar Dhakal(ETA957093@RCCVAX.AIT.AC.TH) Energy Program AIT, BAngkok

I just returned to Bangkok from Kathmandu after one and half month long data collection which is essential for my thesis. I am doing masters in Energy Economics and Planning here in Asian Institute of Tech. and these days I am working on my thesis about electric vehicles, economics and implications on environment and the electric utility.
        "Safa Tempos" looks really fine and very much appreciated from all sectors in Kathmandu. Lots of interest have been shown by different sectors as a green substitute of "Vikram" in the polluted and dusty roads of Kathmandu. USAID, who provided funding for this project, is trying to accelarate this interest through the participation of private sector in electric vehicles business. Electric vehicles Industry has been already set up in KAthmandu and within next few months nearly 80 Safa Tempos will replace the test phase 8 safa tempos. Except contributions of USAID & Global Resources Institute other public bodies such as, Kathmandu Municipality,Department of Transport Management, Traffic Police and other concerned agencies are helping to promote electric vehicles in Kathmandu.

Why Electric Vehicles ?

1. Kathmandu is perfectly suitable for electric vehicles. The main limitation associated with the electric vehicles is the capacity of the battery and its charging infrastructure. This leads to the problem of low driving range, speed and accelaration. The daily average vehicle travelled in Kathmandu is very low and at the same time, speed and accelaration required in urban areas is considerably low.

2. Various studies in AIT as well as in the KAthmandu by various agencies
 have revealed that the share of "transport sector induced air pollution" is the highest in the total air pollution in Kathmandu valley. Electric vehicles therefore can play very significant role in the reduction of air pollution in Kathmandu. Since "KAthmandu Valley Vehicular Emission Control Project" in 1994, the vehicle emissions limit have been set. This is only limited to the CO and
 Smoke for Petrol and Diesel Vehicles respectively and not to other pollutants. This limit is 3% CO by volume and 65 HSU (KVVEP recomended 75 HSU & afterwards Environmental Protection Council/National Planning Commission adjusted it to 65 HSU).

3. Electric vehicles is answer to the dilemma of depleting oil reserves.
 The share of Transport sector has been always highest in the total oil
 consumption in Nepal.Therefore the real benefit from the oil substitution donot limit only to direct cost of oil import but also to the indirect cost in terms of foreign exchange required, energy security and energy independence.

4. Nobody can claim that electric vehicles donot impose any environmental problems. Thermal power plants which use either oil or coal as their energy sources, emit substantial pollutants into the air. But in the context of hydro- dominated systems like Nepal, the situation is far better as compared to other countries. In any case emission will be shifted from vehicle tail-pipe where it is very difficult to control and monitor, to the remote central power generating stations where it is relatively easy to control and regulate.

5. The off-peak surplus energy can be utilized in powering electric vehicles. If load is managed properly with off-peak hour incentives by Nepal Electricity Authority, the load factor of NEA can be increased effectively and at the same time no extra power stations are needed to power lots of electric vehicles.

6. "The Himilayan Sangrila" can attract more tourists, which is a prominent source of foreign currency in the country.

7. Electric vehicles business has potential to create lots of job in
 Kathmnadu and bring new drive in the transportation system. Infrastrural development associated with electric vehicles and battery development will open up other new sectors for the business and the job. SAfa Tempos are using either 108 Trojan battery with each 2 volts or battery developed in Bangladesh which is of 6 volts each and 36 such batteries consist of one pack. Why cannot we develope such batteries in Kathmandu ? In fact we can become leader in this business.

        Due to these reasons electric vehicles could be one of the excellent
 ways for development of sustainable transportation system in the valley.

Comments Please !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

********************************************************************** From: Rajesh Shrestha <> Subject: GBNC's Nepali New Year Celebration Program To: Date: Sun, 10 Mar 1996 15:28:08 -0500 (EST)

                          On the occasion of
                      Nepali New Year 2053 B.S.

                Greater Boston Nepali Community (GBNC)


                    "B A I S H A K H I R A A T"

                         an evening featuring

                 * Nepali Songs and Dances
                 * Ethnic Ensemble/Costume Show
                 * Instrumental Music
                 * Comedy

                Time: 7:30pm, April 27 1996
                Venue: Dante Alighieri Society
                        41 Hampshire Street
                        Kendall Square
                        Cambridge, Massachusetts
                Ticket: $10 each

              For tickets and more information contact
         Bhupesh at (617) 492-2092 or Rabi at (617) 868-2128

                     Refreshments will be served


*********************************************************************************************** Date: Sun, 10 Mar 1996 21:49:58 -0500 (EST) From: Subject: Nepal related NSF-funded reserach (fwd) To: THE NEPAL DIGEST <>

Title : An Asian Paleoclimate Workshop; Nepal; April 1995 Type : Award NSF Org : ATM Date : April 1, 1994 File : a9401953

Award Number: 9401953 Award Instr.: Standard Grant Prgm Manager: Herman Zimmerman
              GEO DIRECTORATE FOR GEOSCIENCES Start Date : May 1, 1994 Expires : October 31, 1995 (Estimated) Investigator: Paul A Mayewski p Sponsor : U of New Hampshire
              Durham, NH 03824 603/862-1234

NSF Program : 5740 CLIMATE DYNAMICS PROGRAM Fld Science : 41 Atmospheric Sciences Fld Applictn: 0319000 Climate Related Activities
     Abstract ATM-9401953 Mayewski, Paul A. University of New Hampshire
     Title: An Asian Paleoclimate Workshop, Nepal, April 1995 Climate Change
     is one of the great intellectual challenges faced by science and one of
     the great unknowns for civilization. Due to the extreme socio-economic
     ramifications of the environmental changes produced as a consequence of
     climate change, the international scientific community is currently
     attempting to understand this phenomena. This award provides for the
     partial support for an international workshop entitled: "Himlayan/Tibetan
     Plateau Paleoclimate Workshop." The workshop is scheduled to be held in
     Nepal during early April 1995. This meeting will be held also under the
     auspices of IGBP/PAGES and builds on the recommendations of the PAGES
     meeting on "High Resolution Record of Past Climate from Monsoon Asia,"
     (Taiwan, 1993). The Nepal workshop will focus on interpreting and
     developing paleoclimate records from central Asia, a key region for
     completing the spatial framework of the global paleo-dataset required
     for understanding global climate and environmental change. Researchers
     from Asia, the United States, Europe, and Canada will synthesize,
     organize, and stimulate a rigorous paleoclimate program for Asia.
     Workshop participants will produce a substantive summary and
     interpretation of existing paleoclimate records, followed by a Science
     and Implementation Plan with recommendations for the future course of
     paleoclimate research in this region.

Title : Dissertation Research: Cultural Variation and Ethnic
              Identity in Nepal Type : Award NSF Org : SBR Date : May 25, 1989 File : a8911601

Award Number: 8911601 Award Instr.: Standard Grant Prgm Manager: Stuart Plattner
              SBE DIRECT FOR SOCIAL, BEHAV & ECONOMIC SCIE Start Date : August 1, 1989 Expires : December 31, 1991 (Estimated) Investigator: Bernard S Cohn Sponsor : University of Chicago
              5801 South Ellis Avenue
              Chicago, IL 60637 312/962-8805

NSF Program : 1390 CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY Fld Science : 81 Anthropology Fld Applictn: 0312000 Population
              0314000 Rural Development Abstract :
     This dissertation research project will study the construction of
     an ethnic identity by an aboriginal group in Nepal. A cultural
     anthropologist will conduct participant observation and survey
     interviews in several villages in rural Nepal. The hypothesis to
     be examined is that the settlement of aboriginal lands by
     different groups and the general impoverishment of the aboriginal
     group has strengthened the common ethnic identity of the
     aboriginal groups.
     This research is important because different ethnic groups
     interact in all countries of the world. Increased understanding
     of the conditions under which a group's ethnicity is strengthened
     or weakened will help us understand the basis for ethnicity-based
     claims for special treatment in any society.


On March 7th, the Senate Judiciary Committee held its second markup day on Senator Simpson's sweeping immigration bill. The vote on splitting the bill back into an illegal and legal immigration bill was deferred again. But the news of the day was Senator Simpson's surprise announcement that he plans to drop all employment based provisions from the bill when the Committee gets to the relevant sections of the proposed legislation. Senator Simpson complained that the business community was spreading "gross distortions" and that business was trying to split the bill in order to kill the legal immigration provisions rather than trying to deal with the issues at hand. Senator Simpson said that he is clearing out the employment immigration issues in order to improve the chances of passing the major family immigration provisions in the bill.

But while Simpson's announcement significantly improves the likelihood that business and employment immigration will not be affected, other Senators may still try to push changes. Senator Kennedy, for example, has noted that he still intends to offer several amendments to the bill in order to protect US workers from companies who fire US workers in order to hire foreign workers and push down wages.

On the House of Representatives side of the debate, the House Rules Committe has called for amendments to the Smith Bill, the Simpson Bill's counterpart. Among the amendments to be offered are provisions which would strike out the legal immigration portions of the bill. Floor debate is scheduled to begin on March 20th.

The time for contacting your Senator or House member is now. If you would like information on doing this, please visit our Web site.

   EB-1 Outstanding Researchers and Professors
   This category in the law allows researchers and professors to pursue
   permanent residency without having to secure a labor certification (a
   certification by the US Department of Labor that a regulated
   recruitment campaign for a position has failed to yield minimally
   qualified US citizen and permanent resident applicants). The Simpson
   Bill would place these applicants in the same category with other
   lower categories and would impose a labor certification requirement as
   well as a condition on the green card requiring the applicant remain
   with an employer for at least two years.
   Labor Certification Tax
   Current law imposes no fees on labor certification applications. Under
   the proposed bill, employers would be required to pay a surcharge of
   the greater of 10% of the alien's annual salary or $10,000. The money
   would go to private sector retraining funds. The Department of Labor
   would also be able to charge a processing fee.
   Special Handling Labor Certifications
   The labor certification test for university teachers and aliens of
   exceptional ability in science or art is more relaxed than normal.
   Rather than demonstrating that there are no minimally qualified
   applicants, the employer must simply demonstrate that there are no
   "equally qualified" US applicants available.
   New Restrictions on H-1B Visas
   H-1B visas are available to professional workers in positions
   requiring at least a bachelors degree and which pay at least the
   prevailing wage. Applicants can stay in H-1B status for up to six
   years. The Simpson Bill would cut H-1Bs to just three years and
   require employers to pay at least 105% of the prevailing wage for the
   position. One good piece of news - the Department of Labor would have
   to separate universities from private industry when determining
   prevailing wages.
   Experience Requirements for Employment-Based Permanent Residency
   While many employment-based permanent residency categories have
   specific experience requirements, the Simpson Bill would impose a
   general three year experience requirement for most employment-based
   New Restrictions on F-1 Student Visas
   The Simpson Bill would impose a processing fee on student visas, set
   up a mandatory tracking system for non-immigrant students at
   universities that would require reporting of specific information by
   universities, remove confidentiality protections for academic records
   of foreign students and require students to demonstrate normal
   progress in pursuit of their degrees.
   National Interest Waivers
   Current law provides for a waiver of the labor certification
   requirement for EB-2 advanced degree professionals and exceptional
   ability workers where the applicant can demonstrate that he or she
   provides a substantial prospective benefit to the US national
   interest. The Simpson Bill does not provide for a national interest

********************************************************* Date: Tue, 12 Mar 1996 18:13:44 +0100 To: From: Merina Gorkhaly <> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - March 7, 1996 (24 Falgun 2052 BkSm) (fwd)

Dear Editor,

I would like to request you to send TND regularly .I am studying in Flensburg University, Germany. I am searching email addresses of following friends
         Mr. Pratyoush Raj Onta
         Mr. Suresh Manandhar (Eddenburg,UK)
         Mr. Jaya Man Singh
          Mr. Shishir Belbas

Thanks for your kind help and cooperation Merina

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 11 Mar 96 21:42:38 -0800 From: Keith Hudson <> To: Subject: (no subject)

My wife and I are visiting Kathmandu on holiday from 18 March and I am wondering whether there is anybody in the city who would like to meet us and have a chat for an hour or so.

Keith Hudson, Bath, UK

********************************************************* Date: Mon, 11 Mar 1996 20:49:56 -0500 To: From: (Padam Sharma) Subject: Neighborhood news...

Courtesy: The India Digest (3/11/96) Europeans march for Tibet's freedom

   BRUSSELS, March 10 (UPI) -- More than 3,000 people demonstrated in front of the Chinese Embassy in Brussels Sunday in a call for Tibetan independence and an end to human rights violations by the Chinese, who have occupied the Himalayan country since 1950.
   The demonstrators, marking the 37th anniversary of the unsuccessful Tibetan uprising on March 10, 1959, heard speakers say atrocities committed by Chinese authorities in Tibet were on the rise, in parallel with increased pressure by Beijing on Hong Kong and Taiwan.
   "We are calling on China to stop violating human rights, to stop the oppression, the environmental degradation and economic exploitation of Tibet," said Professor Samdhong Rinpoche, leader of the Tibetan parliament in exile.
   After trying unsuccessfully to deliver a letter to the Chinese Embassy, where officials watched the crowd through windows behind well- manned Belgian police barricades, the demonstrators marched through Brussels to the European Parliament.
   There they were addressed by several European MPs as well as by Emma Bonino, the European commissioner for humanitarian affairs, who spoke in an unofficial capacity, thanking the participants for their show of solidarity.
   Organizers of the demonstration, which drew participants from France, Italy, Germany and Hungary, called on Western governments and those "who care about human rights and human dignity" to put pressure on China to negotiate with the dalai lama, spiritual leader of Tibet.
   In an interview, Samdhong said it was unfortunate the Europeans did not raise human rights issues during the recent EU-Asia summit in Bangkok designed to increase political and economic relations between the two continents.
   "Apparently human rights have become negotiable but trade is not negotiable," he said.
   He noted with dismay the acceleration in the past several years of increased Chinese industrialization and "sinosation" of Tibet, bringing in Chinese immigrants and reducing the proportion of native Tibetans.
   "This will turn the Tibetans into a powerless minority and make them strangers in their own land," he said.
   The demonstrators denounced the house arrest of the 6-year-old pachen lama, the second most important religious figure in Tibet who was hand- picked by the dalai lama, according to Tibetan custom.
   Last November, seven months after the choice was made, Chinese authorities installed their own 6-year-old candidate for the pachen lama position and subsequently placed the dalai lama's choice, Gendun Choekyi Nyima, under house arrest along with his parents and 50 monks and laymen in his entourage.
   "They have taken this 6-year-old boy and made him the youngest political prisoner in the world," Samdhong said.
   The professor said Tibetan culture is being eliminated by the Chinese out of their communist belief in military supremacy of Asia.
   "China still thinks it must be in charge of liberating the world," he said, and that control of Tibet gives China an edge for supremacy in Asia over its major competitor, India.
   In a message read to the gathering from the dalai lama, the spiritual leader warned of a "hardening policy from China and increased militancy toward Hong Kong and Taiwan."
   "China has once again showed total disregard for the sentiments of the Tibetan people," he said.
   Noting that official Chinese media have likened conditions in Tibet to the Polish Solidarity movement in the early 1980's, the dalai lama said this has raised fears among authorities.
   However, he repeated his oft-prescribed path of non-violence and said the current dark days are merely a sign that democratic sentiment is alive and growing in China.
   "The Taiwan election will have a tremendous transforming effect on the mainland," he predicted.

******************************************************** Date: Tue, 12 Mar 1996 00:21:14 -0500 From: deschene@JHUVMS.HCF.JHU.EDU (Mary Des Chene) Subject: Announcing a new journal on Nepal To:

Studies in Nepali History and Society (ISSN: 1025-5109) provides an interdisciplinary forum for original research. SINHAS aims to further understanding of cultural politics and social conditions in Nepal through a commitment to historical analysis, attention to Nepali scholarship, and a willingness to explore new terrain. The journal's emphasis is on work that i) opens up to scholarship areas of study that have not traditionally been part of "Nepal Studies" and ii) casts new light on familiar topics. Detailed studies from any discipline are invited. All papers must have a substantive focus on Nepal, but comparative work is welcome.

SINHAS will be of value not only to scholars of Nepal, but also to development practitioners, and to other South Asianists who seek to understand the rich and complex history of Nepali society. SINHAS encourages clear and jargon-free prose. Thus it will also be a valuable source for travellers and others interested in Nepal who seek a more complex picture of Nepali society than that provided by guidebooks and travel literature, and for Nepalis abroad who do not study Nepal professionally, but who maintain an interest in social problems and developments at home. Contents of SINHAS include:

i) Research-based articles by academics, development workers and social activists

ii) Essays on Nepali history and social life by creative writers

iii) Multi-volume book review essays

iv) "For a Scholarship of Nepal", a forum for critical reflection on the state of Nepal scholarship.

***** For further details about the journal see The SINHAS Web Pages at:

***** Subscriptions:

Each volume (2 issues) will be approximately 400 pages.

Nepal and India: Single Issue, Rs. 250; Annual, Rs. 450 Elsewhere:
        Individual: Single Issue, $15; Annual $25
        Institutional: $50 annually.

Payment may be made by Visa, MasterCard, American Express or bank draft to:

Studies in Nepali History and Society Mandala Book Point GPO 528 Kantipath Kathmandu, Nepal

Tel.: 977-1-227711 Fax: 977-1-227600

***** Editorial Correspondence:

>From South Asia correspondence should be directed to The Editors at the
Mandala Book Point address given above.

>From elsewhere:

The Editors Studies in Nepali History and Society Department of Anthropology University of California at Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106-3210 USA

Fax: 805-893-8707

***** Table of Contents, Volume 1, Number 1 (June 1996)


Arjun Gunaratne: The Tax Man Cometh: The Impact of Revenue Collection on Subsistence Strategies in Chitwan Tharu Society.

Pratyoush Onta: Creating a Brave Nepali Nation in British India: The Rhetoric of Jati Improvement, Rediscovery of Bhanubhakta and the Writing of Bir History.

Kate Gilbert: Nepali Family Law: Myth, Programme, and Reality.

Abhi Subedi: Literary and Artistic Response to Panchayat Utopia.

Mary Des Chene: Ethnography in the Janajati-yug: Lessons from Reading
"Rodhi" and Other Tamu Writings.

Mark Liechty: Paying for Modernity: Women and the Discourse of Freedom in Kathmandu.

Lazima Onta: Street Children: Contested Identities and Universalizing Categories.

OCCASIONAL SERIES: "For a Scholarship of Nepal"

Krishna Bhattachan: Sociological and Anthropological Research and Teaching in Nepal: Western Adaptation versus Indigenization.

LITERATURE REVIEW: Bikas Joshi: Prescriptions for the Nepali Economy.

***** Volume 1, Number 2 (December 1996)
        Special Issue on Development: "In the Name of Bikas".

Articles by Rajendra Pradhan, Bikash Pandey, Manjushree Thapa, Tatsuro Fujikura, Kamal Adhikary, Pratyoush Onta & Mary Des Chene, Katharine Rankin, Lazima Onta, Bhushan Tuladhar.

***** For more information see:

The SINHAS Web Pages

**************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 12 Mar 1996 19:10:11 PST To: From: Steve Miller <stevmill@LaSierra.EDU> Subject: janek hotel

i need the following information for the janek hotel in kathmandu, nepal

telephone number

fax number

thank you for any help that you might give

thanks, steve miller

************************************************************ Date: Tue, 12 Mar 1996 18:54:58 +0100 To: TND@NEPAL.ORG From: Mukunda Shyam Ranjit <> Subject: KHOJ KHABAR

                                                        12 March 1996. To,

The Editor, The Nepal Digest.

I would be very much grateful if you could publish this letter of mine in your next edition of TND.

I'm Mukunda Shyam Ranjit and presently doing thesis work for my post graduation in,
        Artes Institute,
        Flensburg University ,Flensburg ,

I am looking for the books / publications on ,-

- Data regarding the housing demands in urban and rural areas in Nepal.
- Data regarding the building materials demands in urban and rural areas in Nepal.
        So if any reader comes across this message and knows books / publcation s on these topics ,please be kind to drop me a line.
        Sincerely yours,
        Mukunda Shyam Ranjit,
        e-mail <>

        Postal address,
        424 Flensburger Burse,
        Jahnstr. 2
********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 7 Mar 1996 23:27:15 -0500 To: From: (Padam Sharma) Subject: Nepal Foundation Update...

Nepal Foundation Update

Just to update you on the foundation idea that I was working on. It is moving along in a slow and gracious pace like a baby.

The originally proposed name, "International Foundation to Empower Nepal
(InfoNepal)" has shed its qualifiers. I circulated a revised draft under a proposed name of "Friends of Nepal Foundation" which was preferred by many respondents. Further comments on the name suggested that we should drop
"Friends of " qualifier and simply call it "Nepal Foundation" to give it a wider perspective. We believe that, individuals and organizations who continue to help Nepal in their own ways are greatest Friends of Nepal.

We are going ahead with the legal incorporation of "Nepal Foundation" in Washington DC. Few of us diehards are coordinating to form a working group to brainstorm various aspect of the foundation structure. The first informal meeting of the working group is planned for the Easter weekend
(April 6) in Chicago. If any of you happen to be in the proximity of Chicago during that time and have an interest to participate in this informal session, please let me know.

I am planning to present the foundation idea under the general theme of
"Stewardship of Nepal" at a panel discussion in the upcoming meeting of the Nepalis and Friends of Nepal (organized by the America Nepal Council and the Association of Nepalis in Mid-West America) at College Park, MD during the Memorial Day weekend (May 25 - 26). We may have another informal brainstorm session during the MD meetings. If you are interested to participate in this informal session, again, please let me know.

I thank all the friends who sent their feedback on the foundation idea and those who have continued to support me in this endeavor. We are still open to your valuable comments and support in the organizational details of the project.

The latest draft of the "Nepal Foundation" is attached below. Please send your comments and suggestions on the foundation to:

Coordinator Dr. Padam Prasad Sharma 812 West Divide Avenue Bismarck, ND 58501, USA. Phone: 701-258-2066 Fax: 701-667-1811 Email:

                        NEPAL FOUNDATION

Nepal Foundation is a global network of individuals and organizations dedicated to the mission of supporting the people of the Himalayan country of Nepal improve and sustain the environment and quality of life. The vision of Nepal Foundation is to enable Nepalis to ascend the Himalayas of human dignity, economic prosperity, and environmental quality.

                              MISSION ACTIVITIES

1. Build an international network of individuals and organizations interested in quality of life enhancement and environmental restoration work in Nepal.

2. Pool resources and coordinate activities to promote 4-E focus areas of quality education, environmental restoration, economic development, and enlightenment of general public on stewardship of human and natural resources.

3. Facilitate network members to volunteers services, provide technical assistance, teach classes, conduct research, demonstrate appropriate technology, evaluate policy alternatives, and organize seminars and workshops.

4. Edify individual's role in participatory democracy by encouraging philanthropy, volunteerism, communication, personal integrity and responsibility, and delivery of quality goods and services.

5. Disseminate Foundation activities, research and development news, and Nepal related database to the benefit of general public by supporting global information outlets in the cyberspace and other media.


Nepal Foundation is a public supported non-profit corporation to be incorporated in Washington DC. Upon incorporation, the Foundation will generate funding by soliciting volunteered contributions, gifts, endowments, and grants. The Foundation contributors participate in its mission activities by volunteering their faculty to the organizational development, membership enrollment, fund raising, providing expert services, implementation and evaluation of projects, and disseminating progress reports to the stake holders. Nepal Foundation will work with creditable individuals and organizations to coordinate its activities, disburse available funds, disseminate information resources, and provide technical assistance to selected projects in Nepal.

Nepal Foundation will be guided by an elected and/or nominated board of directors representing individual and corporate sponsors, Nepali organizations, Peace Corps Volunteers, expatriate consultants, and institutions with interest on Nepal. The details of the organization structure will be developed through its article of incorporation and bylaws.

                              THE 4-E FOCUS

Needs abound in Nepal. The desire of the Nepal Foundation volunteers and the rate of flow of pooled resources determine the boundaries of its activities. Nepal Foundation will encourage interdisciplinary and volunteered approach to community development and environmental restoration projects. Depending upon the availability of resources, matching participation from volunteers, and from disbursing agencies in Nepal, the board of directors will set priorities based on the 4-E mission focus areas listed below.

   I. Advocate and contribute towards improving literacy and the quality of education
  II. Promote education of girl children and women
 III. Support adult education activities
            -- nutrition, preventive health, and family planning
            -- traffic and occupational safety

   I. Support research and demonstration of ecologically sustainable farming system that improve productivity and sustain environmental quality
  II. Advocate wise use of natural resources by promoting soil conservation, reforestation, and rehabilitation of grass lands, waterways and natural habitats
 III. Encourage stewardship of monuments of cultural, historical, and
              anthropological heritage
 IV. Succor urban environmental schemes such as recycling of solid waste,
       transportation and traffic safety, housing, and restoration of water and air quality
  V. Promote technology transfers to utilize alternative energy and mechanical devices to reduce women's drudgery of cooking, cleaning, and water transport
  VI. Promote proper waste disposal and clean water projects to prevent spread of communicable diseases and parasites

   I. Promote small business and entrepreneurial activities that utilize the abundance of human resources
  II. Support development of farmer's markets, improve quality of urban
              markets, and disseminate indigenous products and services from Nepal to international markets
 III. Inform international entrepreneurs for investment opportunities on
              eco-tourism, alternative energy, and other environmentally sustainable enterprises in Nepal

   I. Provide training opportunities for effective communication, leadership development, and productivity improvement skills
  II. Promote self esteem, personal integrity, and bona fide delivery of
       quality products and services by individuals and institutions
 III. Encourage volunteerism and philanthropy for community development

                            THE RATIONALE

Nepal is Beautiful

Sitting on the lap of the majestic Himalayas in South Asia, Nepal is the most picturesque country in the world. From sub-tropical plains in the south to temperate Himalayan peaks in the north, from humid east to semi-arid west, Nepal displays a panorama of mountainous landscape and bio-diversity. To the traveler of this landlocked mountain kingdom of terraced hillslopes and valleys, Nepal presents a romantic challenge of mountain trekking and climbing. Nepal invites visitors with warmth, friendliness, and the mysticism of the land of Himalayan "big foot", the Yeti.

Known around the world by the valor of Gorkha soldiers and the endurance of Sherpa mountain guides, Nepalis are proud of their country's independent heritage. Developed in ecological niches of mountains, valleys, and plains, the cultural diversity of Nepal's 22 million people demonstrates a unique character of ethnic and religious harmony.

Nepal Lacks Resources to Sustain its Beauty

Beneath the facade of natural beauty and rich cultural diversity, Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the World. Agriculture is the subsistence activity of 90 percent of the population with annual per capita income smaller than $200. Due to poor soil quality of cultivated lands and lack of appropriate technology to improve and sustain yields, the agricultural productivity is very low. The abundance of clean tilled slopes and deforested hillsides fail to dissipate erosive energy of monsoon rain and runoff. Accelerated soil erosion and landslides further reduce land productivity, pollute water, damage expensive irrigation and hydro-electricity infrastructures, and cause annual havoc of floods in the plains.

The population pressure and mismanagement of limited resources have aggravated unemployment and degraded the quality of human life and that of the environment. The lack of alternative employment and entrepreneurial activities in the villages is driving more unemployed people from hills to terai and to bigger cities. During the last decade, the beautiful city of Kathmandu has grown into an urban slum with its holy rivers turned into a big waste disposal swamp. Filth covers the rich cultural history of the capital; polluted air chokes the young and the old; smog blindfolds the Himalayas blessing the valley.

Democracy Brings Hope and Anxiety

Development priorities and choices made by autocratic governments of the past are partly responsible for today's Nepali underdevelopment dilemma. With the generous assistance of international community since 1950's, the centrally controlled economy under the Panchayat System did solve some education and health care problems while perpetuating corruption and foreign-aid dependency.

With the onset of democracy in 1990, there came a glimmer of hope that common populace will be motivated and empowered to participate in nation building activities. Until now, continued bickering within and between various political factions has produced unstable governments and precluded political leaders from developing a shared vision for the future of Nepal. Despite massive financial and technical assistance from developed countries around the world, and to the bewilderment of ingenuous and optimistic citizens, Nepal continues to slide down the quality of life scale.

Behind the cloak of democracy, the power structure is still centralized and caught in a vicious spiral of egoistic "What is in it for me?" culture. This politico-bureaucratic culture thrives on selfish-opportunism, corruption, discredition of talents and honesty, and intolerance to democratic norms and alternative view points. By perpetuating dependency and frustration, the selfish culture continues to breed social discontent and anger. If the current state of socio-political chaos is allowed to deteriorate, the probability that Nepal may experience unmanageable civil discontent, inter-religious and ethnic violence, and anarchy by unscrupulous elements is very high. In fact, symptoms of civil strife and anarchy have already erupted questioning the myth of "beautiful and peaceful" Nepal.

Successful development begins from within. The germination and growth of a healthy plant is a good metaphor for the holistic growth of individuals and institutions. Nepali people made great sacrifices to germinate the seedling of democracy. Given the current state of lack of vision and impatience, the factional forces that stunt and skew Nepal's natural democratic growth are overwhelming. To achieve full genetic potential, this newly germinated seedling needs proper climate, irrigation, fertilization, and most of all, an integrated pest management. Continued international assistance and the combined goodwill, energy and resources of Nepal lovers from around the world will provide inputs to change the development climate in Nepal. To enable future Nepali generations to harvest the optimum yield of democracy, the timing and method of application of these inputs is very important. Otherwise, this beautiful plant will wither and die endangering the survival of Nepali identity and culture.

Need a Quality Based Paradigm for a Better Tomorrow

To effectively disseminate the fruits of democracy, Nepal needs creditable individuals and organizations producing quality goods and services. One positive gain of continued international assistance is that Nepal has developed a critical mass of highly educated people who believe in democratic values and practices. Some of these dedicated individuals are making significant contributions in Nepal. Due to lack of stable institutional support and recognition, many others are disheartened, demoralized, and their talents underutilized. By supporting and recognizing the work of dedicated individuals in Nepal, friends from outside can help to bring out the best in them. Only by uplifting the morale and strength of its workers and institutions, Nepal can withstand the forces of accelerating political pendulum and stay the course of national development

Delivery of international assistance through government channels has not helped due to poor quality of government institutions. Since the onset of democracy, non-governmental organizations are making efforts to sieve and disseminate technology needed to improve productivity in different sectors of community development. However, efforts of a plethora of these NGO's need to be evaluated and coordinated to insure quality and efficiency. International efforts should be guided to promote individual to individual and NGO-NGO contacts and emphasize the integrated role of both human and environmental quality on national development. Only by promoting quality education and enabling individuals to achieve their highest potential in a healthy environment, crawling Nepal can take the first step towards the Sagarmatha of human dignity and nirvana.


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