The Nepal Digest - March 17, 1995 (3 Chaitra 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Friday 16 March 95: Chaitra 3 2051 BkSm Volume 36 Issue 7

  Today's Topics:

        1. TAJA_KHABAR - News From Nepal

        2. KURA_KANI
                 Religion - Re: Asian Christians

        3. JAN_KARI
                 Book Reviews - Gurkhas - Warrior Gentlemen
                 Samachar Bichar Publication

 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * SCN Liaison: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *

********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 10 Mar 1995 15:56:44 -0800 To: From: bhushan@Tanner.COM (Bhushan Mudbhary) Subject: Asian Christians Insult Hiduism at NYU

Not to worry. As Swami Vivekananda said on religions and such:

" Why argue over the basket when the fruit has fallen into the gutter"

Morons that argue against other religions do so out of their own deep seated lack of faith in God.

Om santi. Bhushan Mudbhary

************************************************************ From: (Pratyoush R. Onta) Subject: Book Review To: (tnd) Date: Fri, 10 Mar 1995 21:11:59 -0500 (EST)

Locating Gurkha Representations Beyond Texts

Lionel Caplan (1995) Warrior Gentlemen: "Gurkhas" in the Western Imagination. Providence and Oxford: Berghahn Books.

by Pratyoush Onta

This is a short book by anthropologist Caplan that tries to make sense of the representations of the Gurkhas found in (mainly) 20th century regimental histories, memoirs, diaries, autobiographies, picture books, handbooks, and popular works written by British officers.

In the introductory chapter, Caplan justifies his project by saying that postmodernist concerns with texual representations "provide few guidelines as to how we might relate the character of specific works to the particular circumstances of their creation and the historical location of their creators." After arguing that attention to the historical, socio-military and 'extra-textual' relationship between the British military authors and their Gurkha soldiers is necessary for an adequete appreciation of these texts, Caplan discusses the familiar historical inflections of the Anglo-Gurkha encounter.

In chapter two, he describes the Gurkha home front highlighting the 'push' factors behind recruitment and its demographic, gender, educational & political implications as well as the scale and the impact of Gurkha earnings in the hill economy.

In the third chapter Caplan elaborates the culture of commanding British officers. He argues that a new kind of officer gentleman was produced in the late 19th century by adapting the notions of chivalry, patriotism and sportsmanship within the domain of public school education so that an expanding middle class could serve large imperial projects. Within the hierarchical division between the Royal and the Indian armies in India, these gentlemen officers carved out their own niches by highlighting discrete Gurkha regimental identities. However, Caplan adds that along with the cut-backs in the number of Gurkha soldiers in the late 1960s following the end of the Malayan 'Emergency', the demise of the regimental officers began as they were forced to make changes in their career concerns. This then was the background in which many of the texts examined by Caplan were written.

In chapter four, Caplan discusses the representations of the Gurkhas which invariably highlight their martiality. The various strands of the 19th century notion of martial races are discussed along with the ethnic mapping of Nepal that took place on their basis. Part of the notion of Gurkha martiality was the notion of their manliness and their proverbial loyalty which, it was said, could only be fostered by the 'firm hand' of British officers. The officers and the Gurkhas, it was thought, shared a special 'bond of trust' whose representation in the pastoral mode offered pet-like affection to the inequal and dominated Gurkhas. Caplan provides alternate readings of this relationship by discussing the 1947 'opt'
(whereby a majority of the Gurkhas opted to stay with the Indian army), and the 1986 Hawaii incidence (where some hundred plus soldiers were summarily dismissed after "refusing to cooperate with an investigation ... into an affray during which a British and a Gurkha officer were attacked and injured").

In the fifth chapter, Caplan contrasts the descriptions of deliberate courage of British officers "directed to high moral purposes" with those of Gurkha courage (including an obsession with their khukuri) identified as unthinking acts of passion. Gurkha perspectives on this topic - talk about the mundane aspects of military campaigns, explanations of their penchant for obedience in terms of obligations toward their families and suggestions that recognition of bravery is a retrospective act by military bosses or a question of bhagya - are then presented. But adds Caplan, the making of the Gurkhas as 'warrior gentlemen' is completed when they "are depicted as endowed with many of the qualities of the officers who command
(and write about) them." Imbued with a spirit of martiality, both fight honourably and fairly, love sports and hunting, and have a keen sense of humour, all qualities that separate the Gurkhas from the subcontinental plainsmen for whom, it is added, they share a disdain with Europeans. If the Gurkhas are endowed with the same public school English gentlemanliness, the hierarchy is maintained by "disallowing ... [them] the status of full adulthood." The Gurkhas are thus rendered as diminutive gentlemen, constituting a special case of 'othering'.

In the last chapter, the persistence of these representations are explained by Caplan by making references to the grossly unequal field of play in which the authors of these works authenticated their depictions, to the collusion between the writers and their audience in the reproduction of the genre and most importantly to the drastic alterations in the Gurkha regiments following World War II. In this last context which saw the rise of the career officer and of non-individual techniques of warfare, "the continuity of Gurkha portraits might... be understood as an attempt to preserve an image of something which no longer obtains, but which [the regimental officers] feel should be cherished."

Caplan falls slightly short of his announced aim of relating particular
"works to the particular circumstances of their creation and the historical location of their creators." This is partly the function of the impossibility of dealing with all the individual biographical circumstances of the authors and of a failure to adequately distinguish works as distinct as Vansittart's military handbooks (written before 1915) and popular histories (such as those of E. D. Smith published in the 1970s). Caplan assumes and does not demonstrate the persistence of the public school qualities of the officer gentlemen first imparted during the Victorian imperial era through much of the first six decades of this century. These two examples exemplify the sometimes ahistorically panoramic quality of his work. Nevertheless it will be valued for its many insights into the 'Gurkha project'. END

(This review has just been sent off to a Kathmandu newspaper)

************************************************************* Date: Sat, 11 Mar 1995 13:10:45 +0200 (IST) From: Kumar Yoshi <> To: Subject: Re: Change of E-mail adress

 Dear Editor
 I would like to thank all the members of TND team for your excellent job. We
 appreciate your effort.
 Thank you.
 Roshan Shrestha
 Ben-Gurion University

*******************************************************8 Date: Sat, 11 Mar 1995 13:53:48 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <> Subject: samachar-bichar: Further info To:
        The latest issue of Samachar-Bichar, that litlte "journal" of Nepali thoughts, views and ideas, is out from Boston, Massachusetts.

        Published by the Greater Boston Nepali Community (GBNC) and edited by BHUPESH KARKI and JAGDISH PANDEY, the samachar-bichar, now in its FIFTH year, is a quarterly in English language, featuring some of the finest and though-provoking writings/pieces/opinions of Nepali students/scholars and others in the Boston area, and beyond.

        Samachar-Bichar is apolitical, and has therefore no political agenda, except that is committed to give space to views of ALL persuasions.

        The latest issue features essays by:

        SANJAY MANANDHAR on the status of Nepali women,
        ARNIKO PANDAY on "Things are not so bad" [In Nepal],
        ANISH BANIA on why small-scale industries are good for Nepal, and
        VALERIE JACKSON writes about Newari Tantrik Dance.

        A one-year subscription for four issues is only five dollars. And that is only for printing and mailing costs. All other work is done by Boston's Nepali volunteers.

Send e-mail to Bhupesh Karki, the editor at:

        Or, send in your check, payable to GBNC at:

        P.O. Box 391-251
        Cambridge, MA 02139

Support this on-going venture of Boston's creative, energetic and enthusiastic Nepali students and professionals!!

namaste ashu

************************************************************** Date: Sun, 12 Mar 1995 02:03:50 -0500 To: Subject: Expedition project work (Discovery Expeditions) From: cyberia5 <>

I (Brook) am looking to gather facts on possible projects to benefit Nepal. I have recently returned from an expedition to Nepal and am looking to return in 1996 with a multi disciplined team from England. Discovery Expeditions hosted an expedition called the Asian Elephant Investigation. the thrust of the expedition was to track a large Elephant on the Indian/Nepalese boarder. We are concerned about elephant damage and are investigating ways in which the existing set up can be supported as it is currently
 successful, however with the increasing population of wild elephants the authorities will need further assistance. If you can assist us in any other project concepts regarding Nepal I would be greatful. Danye bat, Namaste.

*************************************************************** Date: Sun, 12 Mar 1995 02:07:47 -0500 To: Subject: Modern colonialism? From: Falko von Ameln <100413.3513@CompuServe.COM>

Hello everybody!

I4m interested in any kind of facts and opinions about the impact of
"modern western civilization" on the traditional culture, customs and values in Nepal.

Please reply to

Falko von Ameln

*************************************************************** Date: Sun, 12 Mar 1995 03:54:10 -0500 To: Subject: SAMATHA-VIPASSANA MEDITATION From: (Samak Sunanchai)

Dear sir,

        If you are interested in meditation, please send you address to me. I will send a good method based on the Vijja-Dhammakaya approach, the detail below :

                        The Vijja-Dhammakaya Approach

                           Based on the Teachings of

              The Venerable Chao Khun PHRA MONGKOL-THEPMUNI

                  Late Abbot og Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen

                           Bangkok, Thailnad

Thank you,

Internet :

" A wise man sefeguards his Earnestness as his precious treasure."


*********************************************************************************************** Date: 12 Mar 95 23:21:18 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News3/10-12 To:

 March 10 UML government Completes 100 days in office By Kedar Man Singh in Kathmandu for AFP

    Nepal's first communist government has completed its first 100 days in office under opposition criticism that it has failed to deliver on its campaign promises.

   The Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist (NCP-UML) rode into the history books with a potent mix of promises that succeeded in ousting ruling Nepali Congress (NC) as the country's biggest political party.

   But since then, Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikari has been assailed from outside the party for failing to make good on pledges to provide relief for low-income groups and for not having a detailed economic program.

   And those within the communist camp criticize his abrasive managerial style and handling of a controversial road accident in which two communist leaders were killed.

   When it was in the opposition, the NCP-UML blamed the NC government, headed by Girija Prasad Koirala, for the deaths, charging they were murdered.

   The NCP-UML government, however, says its first 100 days, which passed on Thursday, are full of achievements, despite what it said was the economic mess left by the Koirala government.

   But Koirala responds: "The NCP-UML government is hindering the process of democratisation, dismantling socialist economic infrastructure and leading the country down the path of communist authoritarianism."

   "In fact, I do not revile the communists, I simply want to remove them from power," he said.

   "A government which is short of a majority has a short life too," Koirala added.

   The new government, however, said that it has formed a high-powered National Land Reform Commission to resolve long-standing property disputes and will be implementing scientific land reforms in the country.

   NCP-UML Deputy Prime Minister, Madhav Kumar Nepal, placated fears that the installation of a communist government in the kingdom would discourage foreign aid donors.

   "Contrary to such apprehensions, the western donors have been positively responsive to the government's approach for financial assistance," he said.

   Finance Minister Bharat Mohan Adhikari said "financial aids from the donor countries have been increasing and pouring into Nepal. "

   "This has boosted our morale and will greatly help the government's developmental projects", Adhikari added.

   Mahesh Acharya, former minister of state for finance, said that,
"In its 100 days in office, the NCP-UML has made one hundred mistakes."

   Nepali Congress President Krishna Prasad Bhattarai said: "We have continuously helped the UML in taking each and every decision ... and the time has come to test whether UML has learnt anything from it."

   "We will wait for some more days. Let the UML choose the noose which it needs to commit a political suicide," Bhattarai added.

   The mid-term polls last November resulted in a hung parliament after none of the parties managed to get a simple majority. The NC did not have enough votes to form a government, but said it would not stand in the way of the communists forming one.

Police baton-charge Tibetan protestors AFP report

   Police baton-charged more than 2,500 Tibetan demonstrators at a Buddhist shrine north-east of Kathmandu Friday when they tried to march on the main street raising slogans denouncing China, a police source said.

   No arrests were made, the source added.

   More than 10,000 Tibetan refugees and monks living in Kathmandu attended a special prayer meeting at the Baudha Nath stupa to mark the 36th anniversary of the uprising against the Chinese occupation of Tibet.

   The Tibetans lit 10,000 lamps around the shrine and burnt incense to mark the occasion, witnesses said.

   Some of those present then tried to stage a demonstration carrying placards reading "Down with China's occupation of Tibet" and "Chinese quit our motherland Tibet," the sources said.

   Police used batons on the demonstrators but no serious clash occurred, police said.

   The area was cordoned off to prevent the demonstrators from heading as planned for the Chinese Embassy to present a letter of protest.

Radical Communists join UML party Excerpts from UPI report

   Nearly 5,000 radical communists, including a former member of Parliament, switched Friday to Nepal's mainstream communist party. Among those who joined the Unified Marxist Leninist party was Kamal Chaulagain, a former member of Parliament whose United Peoples Front was eliminated in the November parliamentary vote.

   Deputy Prime Minister Madav Nepal welcomed the radicals into the mainstream movement, saying, ''The main hurdle facing the communist movement in Nepal was ideological and narrowmindedness.'' ''To save themselves, leftists in Nepal have to save themselves from dogmatism.''

    Even as the leftists consolidated, the opposition Nepali Congress party found consolation in results released Friday showing its supporters swept elections in the Nepal University Teachers Association.

   But the communists won annual elections held simultaneously by student unions nationwide, showing communists still dominate student politics over the social democrats in the Congress party. Both elections are seen as important gauges of the mood in different sections of Nepali society.

March 12 Government tries to Stop Gurkha Recruitment for Sierra Leone Army UPI report

    Nepal's new communist government is trying to stop the recruitment of Gurkha soldiers to help the government of Sierra Leone fight a two-year insurgency, a Foreign Ministry official said Sunday.

    ''The Labor Ministry is going to take action against the recruiting agency'' that solicited the soldiers, Foreign Ministry spokesman Badri Khanal said. ''But it will be very difficult to implement the government decision. (The Gurkhas) are not being sent abroad as mercenaries. They are being recruited as watchmen.''

   Katmandu's actions against recruitment could range from the cancellation of agencies' licenses to jail sentences. The effort came amid reports that a new batch of soldiers recruited by a manpower agency left for west Africa, where seven Gurkha soldiers have already died, published reports said.

   ''We have alerted all concerned ministries...We are (trying to) stop further recruitment,'' Khanal said Sunday.

    Some 58 Gurkha soldiers recruited as mercenaries independent of the government are reportedly in the west African state, where rebels are holding 17 hostages, six of them British. The news that Gurkhas are helping government fight rebels in Sierra Leone has embarrassed Nepal's Communist Party, which in its successful November election campaign vowed to end recruitment of Gurkhas in foreign armies, especially British and Indian armies.

   But stopping recruitment will not be easy. ''It is very difficult to know the real intentions of people when they go abroad. And getting a passport is a...right of every citizen,'' Khanal said. Gurkhas are recruited into the British and Indian armies through a tripartite treaty.

   The Gurkhas were reportedly sent abroad by a Nepali recruiting agency on behalf of a British firm, published reports said. A British Embassy official told the Sunday Dispatch the embassy isn't involved in the recruitment. ''These allegations are not only fictitious but deceitful. The employment of Nepalese abroad has nothing to do with the British government,'' the unidentified embassy military attache told the weekly newspaper. ''Once discharged from the British Army, we are only concerned with their pension and social welfare.''

   But defending mercenaries in west Africa, Bhagwan Thapa, a retired British army major, said, ''It's risky. But it is...a form of employment, like going to Korea or elsewhere. Deputy Prime Minister Madav Nepal told British officials during a recent visit to London that his government does not plan to end the recruitment of Gurkhas into the British army.

****************************************************************** From: SOHAN PANTA <> To: Date: Mon, 13 Mar 1995 09:02:38 GMT Subject: TND issues

I received a following request from Mr Ganesh Pandey, but have been having problems is getting it through to him, so lets hope he gets this one.......
> - - - - - - - Forwarded Message Follows - - - - - - -
> From: Ganesh Pandey <GANESHP@CIVIL.Lan.McGill.CA>
> Organization: McGill Univ. - Civil Engineering
> To:
> Date: Thu, 2 Mar 1995 18:02:57 EST5EDT
> MIME-Version: 1.0
> Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
> Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT
> Subject: TND issues
> X-pmrqc: 1
> Priority: normal
> X-mailer: PMail v3.0 (R1a)
> X-PMFLAGS: 35135616

> Hello Sohan Ji
> Namaste

> I am interested in getting some old issues of the TND. Will it be
> too much of work for you if I ask you to send the TND issues of
> Dec, Jan and febuary? If possible, please send me the some of the
> issues.

> Thank you very much.

> Dhanyabad.

> ganesh pandey
> MTL, canada
> Ganesh R Pandey, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
> tel: (514) 8429057 (h), (514) 398 6871 (o)
           Dear Ganesh, All last week I have tried to send you the past TND's you requested
,but the mail keeps bouncing back to me. I have also tried to mail it from different EMAIL addresses, but the same problem occurs. I will try later again this week.

Thanks Sohan

******************************************************** From: (DURGA) Date: Mon, 13 Mar 1995 12:57 EST To: Subject: Nepali Summer Intensive
          March 13, 1995 12:57pm MAIL IS - FROM: Durga Delvry&View Private TO: The Nepal Digest SUBJECT: Nepali Summer Intensive

This is another reminder about the Nepali Summer Intensive sponsored by Cornell University Summer Sessions. The program is held from June 12 to August 4, 1995. For information on housing, funding and applications, please contact Durga Bor, c/o South Asia Program, 170 Uris Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 or e-mail

Thank you.

************************************************** Date: Sat, 11 Mar 1995 00:28:57 +0100 (MEZ) From: Daniel Amor <> To: Subject: Nepalese Culture


I saw your mag on soc.culture.nepal and would like to ask you some questions about Nepal. I'm preparing a CD-ROM with facts about the world and would like to add some cultural aspects.

Do you know of any famous Nepalese Writers? Do you know of the Nepalese Anthem? Do you know of Nepalese recipes/cooking? Do you know the Nepalese language? I'd like to add some basic vocabulary.

Thanks for responding!


                          Premier Adhikari in Bonn

Bonn, March 14.

Prime minister Manmohan Adhikari of Nepal on his way to Danemark was here in Bonn on 8th and 9th of March. Speaking to the Germany-Nepal Friendship Associat ion in an evening gathering organised by the association on his honour,Premier Adhikari expressed gratitude to Germany and Germans for their constant help in the development of Nepal. In his 3 minute speech, he made it clear that the pre sent government is in power with the verdict of nepalease electorates and is ef forting its best in developing Nepal.He reiterated the need of politikal stabil isation, and enough assistances from developed countries to put Nepal in the foot of sound development.

                                                          G pradhan

************************************************************************ From: (Diwas Khati - student) Subject: directory To: Date: Tue, 14 Mar 1995 09:59:04 -0500 (EST)

Dear readers (reposted)

If you want to have yourself included in a "directory" you can do so by sending me your name, add and e-mail at <>. Any person/s sending me their information for inclusion in the directory will be assumed to have consented to the circulation of such information in the network. The first issue will bee- mailed out during the last week of March.

This project can be terminated at any time in the future without prior notice, so please do not express your disappointment through the TND (TND might not be the appropriate place for that purpose) if you are not pleased for any reason. And be brief when writing to time for
"beli-bistar" right now.

   To address some questions regarding the directory compilation project
(by the way, thanks for the support), your name and address will be listed in the directory in the way shown below. For different reasons, only your name and E-Mail address will be listed in a standard way. In some instances some information, like College name, office, dept. etc will also be added. If requests come from countries other than the US, the country will be also mentioned.
  For example, the standard way of listing will look like this for Mr Bir Bdr's entry:

Nepali, Bir Bdr. <e-mail address>

if necessary, the listing will be modified to:

Nepali, Dr Bir Bdr. (TheBigUnivColo) <e-mail address>

foreign addresses will be listed as:

Nepali, Bir Bdr. (Nepal) <non US e-mail address>

hope this answers some of your questions.


******************************************************* Date: Tue, 14 Mar 1995 18:00:31 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <> Subject: To:

        In the name of public service and worldwide information, :-) I hereby QUOTE the following from a recent piece of snail-mail received by the Greater Boston Nepali Community (GBNC) from the Royal Nepalese Embassy, Washington DC:

        " . . .His Excellency Mr. Basudev Prasad Dhungana, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Kindom of Nepal to the United States of America, accompanied by his wife Mrs. Shiba Dhungana, arrived
(sic) Washington DC on March 1st, 1995. The presentation of his Letter of Credence to His Excellency the President of the United States is scheduled to take place on March 20, 1995."

        Attached to the cover letter was Ambassador's "Bio-data".
        Notable points:

        "Born: March 11, 1933, in Kathmandu, Nepal.
        "Education: BA, BL"
        "Profession: Lawyer, Senior Advocate."
        And positions held in vrious law-related and political offices
        and committees

*************************************************************** Date: Wed, 15 Mar 1995 07:33:49 +0200 (IST) From: Kumar Yoshi <> To:

Heard Manoj Pradhan, the secretary of Nepal Press Institute Almuni Association, has recently arrived in US. Manoj, if you find this message please contact me.

Kalpana Ben-Gurion University

***************************************************** Date: Wed, 15 Mar 1995 17:17:23 +0800 (WST) From: Jharendu Pant <> Subject: Nepalese in Perth To:

March 12, 1995, Perth. Nepalese Association of Perth organised a get together and BBQ in Lake Moonger Perth. The program was especially organised to welcome the newly arrived students and professionals.All worked together to prepare BBQ, Vegetable Salad and sandwiches. Two young gentlemen Sugam and Nabin of Curtin University were very activein arranging necessary things. We started to eat as the foods were ready. Chilled EMU beer, wine and soft drinks were very helpful to fight with hot dry weather.

The total number of Nepali here is around 50 and around 40 heads were present on that day. Six Nepali were added in the list of Nepalese in Perth this time and I was also among new.

Everything was perfect except the starting time, which was given 12.30 sharp, but majority arrived only after an hour of that.However, it was really a nice day that a big Nepalese group met and shared ideas and feelings in this corner of the the world. Organisers deserve special Thanks.

Jharendu Pant Bio. and Env. Sciences Murdoch Univ. , Perth Western Australia

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