The Nepal Digest - June 8, 1995 (25 Jestha 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Thursday 8 June 95: Jestha 25 2052 BkSm Volume 39 Issue 2

 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *

****************************************************************************** Date: Wed, 07 Jun 1995 02:10:49 PDT To: The Editor <> From: Sanjiv Shrestha <> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - June 6, 1995 (24 Jestha 2052 BkSm)

The following is a response to Ashutosh Tiwari's argument on public lynching:

    I don't totally agree with Ashutosh Tiwari's arguments regarding public lynching. If somebody is harassed through email, then the harassed person has every right to make sure that the harassment stops through the most effective means available to him/her. If public lynching is the most effective means available to the person for getting back at the harasser, then so be it. Besides, the fact that there is a possiblility of public lynching will be a strong deterrent to any potential harassers.

   As to the misuse of public lynching, I agree to what Ashutosh has said. There is a possibility of people getting at each other's throats on the TND and the rest of the readers not knowing what to believe and what not to believe. However, if it is a issue concerning something serious like harassment and if the TND readers are going to benefit from it in the sense that such public lynching will put a shiver down the spines of any potential harassers, then I think public lynching does add benefit to TND community (by this, I mean the TND readers). I admire Anita Regmi for coming out and letting us know of the harassment she has encountered. Maybe, there are other female members or male members among the TND readers who are being harassed through email. The fact that there are people who are not afraid to come out in the open and let the whole 1400 members of the TND community know that they are being harassed by a particular person serves as a strong warning, I am sure, to any harassers out there whether it be male or female that the world is not as safe a place for them as they thought.

    Finally, let it suffice to say that in this new age of information, hopefully what Anita Regmi has done to get back at her harasser serve as a reminder to potential harassers of the possible effects of their actions. These are just my amateur views. Please feel free to comment on them.

                                               -Sanjiv Man Shrestha
                                                Pasadena, California

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 05 Jun 95 13:58:27 EDT From: Seira Tamang <> Subject: discussion: Gurkhas and post-army jobs To:

As the daughter of an ex-Gurkha, and having written on the topic of Gurkhas fro m the viewpoint of military wives (Senior Honors Thesis, Govt department, Clark
 University), I do indeed have an opinion on some of the very interesting and relevant issues raised by Pratyoush Onta. 1) As to the question of whether the
 British military has done justice to the long years of service provided by the
 Gurkhas, I think that one would only take this seriously if one believes that,
  according to the literature on Gurkhas written pre-dominantly by ex-British o fficers, that there is some "special bond" between the British and the Nepali m en that they employ. Apart from the orientalist nature of the "martial race" c onstruction and all its accoutrements of loyalty, that this literature propogat es, such writings obscures the very capitalist nature of the relationship

between the Gurkhas and their British employers. According to supply and deman d, current global situations are such that the British no longer perceive it ne cessary to continue to have such a large contingent - hence the cut-downs. Sen timent (due to the internalization and reconstitution of the very myths that th ey created) may indeed account for the retention of a number of Gurkha troops; thereby allowing the expansion of numbers if and when necessary. The first que stion as posed, as either sentiment OR for for future more utilitarian purposes
, misses the complicated nature of such decisions. 2) In reference to ex-Gurk has creating a market for themselves as security guards, it seems to me that this is very much in accordance with the globalization trends of today.

Globalization is as much about labor migration (maids, itinerant workers etc) a s it is about technology and consumer products. As it appears the Nepal gover nment has no ideas about how to effectively integrate the ex-servicemen (whose skills if not finanical capital should really be tapped into) there appears to be no other alternative (as opposed to the idea as I personally am due to the r epercussions it has in terms of continuing the dysfunctional structure of famil y life started by the British Brigade of Gurkhas regulation on "family permissi on"). That being the case, Nepali government regulation can help in facilitati ng such contract work - thereby, hopefully, minimizing exploitation and moreove r establishing concrete minimal requirements for the employers. For example,

the South Korean government regulates all labor services to the Middle East, no t only handling contracts, but making sure that the living arrangements and wor king hours are provided at a certain standard. So it is that South Korean work ers have decent housing, a cafeteria and other facilities. While I am not sayi ng that the Nepali government can afford the same standards, it is something to
 aim for rather than bemoan its lack of funds, services or whatever. 3) The qu estion of the extent to which the Nepali or British government have a say in th e employment of ex-Gurkhas is more problematique. Whilst on one level I can se e where the concerns of both governments would enter - moreso the British consi dering the extent to which it has propogated the British-Gurkha connection -

it seems to me that according to the capitalist nature of the worker/employer r elationonce that relationship is ended by the employer, to forbid the worker to use the skills attained during the employment is tantamount to saying that the capitalist still retain rights over the labourer and his labor. As "free" labo urers, these men should have the right to seek employment where they can. If a nything, it fall on the British, in the same way they established the initial B ritish/Gurkha link, to deal with the negative repercussions (perhaps akin, if I
 can stretch it, to "dealing with the "monster" they've created). 4) As to th e question as to why it would be Gurkhas who are exalted as the perfect securit y and potential UN force - why, again, we're back to their IMMACULATE reputat ion as the "bravest of the brave", the loyal, and most valuable for the UN - ne utral. (Of course, neutrality brings into question British denial of Gurkhas b eing mercenaries). 5) - Gurkhas as embarassing to Nepal? And the calls for th e end to recruitment? Well, it seems that for quite a long period of history w e have been content to see the "blood" (as opposed to "brain") drain occur - ha ve we reached the point when we realize that the rest of the world has been try ing (see NICs examples) to upgrade the nature of marketable skills - and that perhaps we ought too as well? And this of course does not touch the more moral
 issues of the predominantly Tibeto-Burman nature of the blood that has been sh ed for the undisclosed amount to the Nepali government, and the barbarism

of war and fighting in general. Which leads me to the 6th issue - the war memo rial. I personally think that such a memorial would serve to glorify war in ge neral and propogate the myth of the "Gurkha martial race", and reinforce violen t ideas of masculinity. I would rather have money collected and put into a fun d for the establishment of schools, for widows of Gurkhas, to help ex-servicmen
 find alternative employment, towards factories etc etc. I, obviously have not
 thought this through, but from the visceral level, it seems that the money for
 a war memorial could be more productively used for other , still Gurkha relate d, things.

******************************************************************* Date: 06 Jun 95 00:09:59 EDT From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News5/31-6/4 To:

May 31 Sweden Bans Nepalese and Pakistani carpets Excerpts from Reuters report

         A Swedish group seeking to end child labour in South Asia's carpet industry said on Wednesday conditions in Pakistan were very bad and must change.

         Members of the non-governmental group representing carpet importers, trade unions and some other groups, told a news conference that Sweden had banned carpet imports from Pakistan and Nepal because of child labour in the industry.

         ``The situation in the Pakistani carpet industry is very bad and a change has soon to become a reality,'' said Hakan Londahl, leader of the Swedish Work Group for the Abolition of Child Labour in the Carpet Industry in Southern Asia.

IMF, WB ignore ordinary people, says Nepali economist Excertps form Xinhua report

   A Nepali economist said the economic management led by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) have ignored the welfare of the ordinary people. Devendra Raj Pandey, a noted economist and former government official in Nepal, made the comment on Tuesday when addressing a national seminar on structural adjustment program and its impact on the work force organized by the Nepal Foundation for Advanced Studies in cooperation with Friedrich Ebert Stiftung of Germany.

   Pandey said that the way structural adjustment has proceeded around the world at the behest of the IMF and the WB serves the interests of the donors or of the most powerful section of the recipient nations. What concerns the ordinary people is the condition of employment, possession of land, capability of supporting families and access to either political or economic market, he said.

   The economist pointed out that Nepal has got into vicious trap of unemployment sparked by high rate of population growth, low economic growth and low productivity and wages, adding that no sign of getting out of this trap has been seen so far.

   Nepal embarked on the adjustment path in the early 1980s. However, the process resulted in serious macro-economic imbalances though the country achieved a better growth, according to the Nepali economist. The Nepali government had to adopt a stabilization program in 1985 to 1986, supported by the IMF, the structural adjustment program financed by the World Bank and an IMF program to overcome the imbalances.

June 1 Citizenship Report submitted Excerpts from Xinhua report

   The Nepali high level Citizenship Commission submitted its report on the citizenship problem to Home Minister K. P. Sharma Oli today. The Commission was formed in March this year by the government to study the nature of the problems facing distributions of citizenship certificates, its causes and effects and to submit to the government its suggestions on policy and working process need to be adopted for the resolution of the problems.

   Citizenship has been a long-time controversial and thorny issue among political parties in the Kingdom. According to Oli, among the country's 19 million people, 2.6 million people were yet to be identified for citizenship as 9 million out of the 12 million people who are over the age of 16 had already been issued the necessary documents.

Two killed in Traffic Accident in Jhapa Excerpts from Xinhua report

   Two passengers were killed on the spot and 31 others injured in an passenger bus accident which took place in Jhapa district last evening. The tragedy happened when a passenger bus which was going from Birtamod to Kabeli fell down about 30 feet below the highway, according to the Jhapa district police office. All the injured including the driver are now being treated in local hospitals. The main cause of the accident is yet to be known, police said.

Nepal seeks release of captured soldier Excerpts from UPI report

    Nepal is demanding the release of a Nepalese officer being held by Bosnian Serbs, and is asking the United Nations to seek his immediate release, the Defense Ministry said Thursday. Maj. Baldev Ran Mahat is among the more than 300 international soldiers being held by Serbian rebels in Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Defense Ministry said. Mahat is one of five Nepali soldiers working as a military observer for the U.N. protection force. There are about 900 Nepali troops in the U.N. peacekeeping force in Croatia, which like Bosnia was once part of Yugoslavia. Nepal's government is urging the United Nations to seek
''the immediate release'' of Mahat, a government statement said.

[Note: Maj. Mahat was released by the Bosnian Serbs on Friday, together with 120 other peacekeepers.]

 June 2 Cancellation of Nepal Bandh urged Xinhua report

   Four Communist parties of Nepal have issued a joint statement here today calling on the sides concerned to cancel the countrywide close down program proposed for June 4 and 5. The four parties warned that a crisis has been created in the country over the cow issue that is likely to disturb the communal harmony in the country. The four parties are the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Center), the Communist Party of Nepal (Masal), the Communist Party of Nepal (MLM) and the Communist League of Nepal. It was reported that a Nepali Hindu organization had proposed the program to protest the reported speech by Minister for Health and Labor Padma Ratna Tuladhar in a speech last month that the cow, national animal of the Hindu Kingdom, could be slaughtered. It was said that the program was supported by the World Hindu Federation, which held a press conference Thursday denying the organization had anything to do with the Nepal close down program.

 June 3 More organizations urge cancellation of Nepal Bandh Xinhua report

   Some more Nepali non-governmental organizations have demanded parties concerned to cancel the Nepal Bandh (country-wide strike) program planned for June 4 and 5. The National Hindu Youth Association said in a statement issued today that it is not involved in any way in the Nepal Bandh protest program. Appealing to the concerned parties to call off the Bandh, association spokesman Rajan Sharma warned in the statement that "in the present circumstances, the country will be drawn along the path of anarchy and instability by the Nepal Bandh". Meanwhile, Nepal Tamang Ghedung, another NGO association also issued a statement criticizing the Bandh protest program. It will harm the religious tolerance existing among the Nepalese and undermine communal harmony, the statement pointed out. The World Confederation of Buddhists also issued a statement today, stressing the importance of calling off the Nepal Bandh for the sake of peace and mutual good will. The Nepal Bandh was reportedly proposed by a Nepali Hindu Organization to protest against the so-called speech made earlier by Minister for Health and Labor padma ratna tuladhar that "cow could be slaughtered". However, Tuladhar said that his speech had been wrongly quoted.

Ganesh Man urges formation of National Government Excerpts from Xinhua report

   Ganesh Man Singh, Nepali senior political leader and former supremor of the main opposition the Nepali Congress (NC), has called for establishment of a national government united by all the parties in the parliament to achieve political stability in the country.

   "This is the only way to ensure that politics does not go out of the politicians' hands. Therefore, the CPN-UML government should show magnanimity and take initiative to form a national government with the inclusion of all political parties and viewpoints within the parliament," the Kathmandu Post today quoted Singh as saying during talks with the daily Friday.

    Singh said, "the solution to the present problem will not come from either the UML-RPP (the Rastriya Prajatantra Party) or the NC-RPP part. It is only the national government that is capable of solving the existing problems of the country."

   In order to save the minority government and avoid a possible mid-term polls, the ruling communist party is holding talks with various parties including NC and RPP.

NC to launch anti-government rally Excerpts from Xinhua report

   The Nepali Congress (NC) is going to organize an anti-government rally and mass meeting on June 9. It was announced by NC leader and former Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala while addressing the national conference of various student unions held in Kathmandu Friday.

   "The rally will be the death knell for the government led by the Communist Party of Nepal (UML)," said Koirala, calling on the NC activists and supporters to participate in the rally which, he claimed, would prove decisive in the history of Nepal. The former prime minister lambasted the UML government of interfering in communication, education, judiciary and religion unnecessarily.

   On the same occasion, NC president Krishna Prasad Bhattarai said that the UML minority government has surpassed the Panchayat regime in spreading state terrorism. The NC president also accused the UML government of dismantling the foundations of the development established by the Nepali Congress.

   Addressing the party workers of Makawanpur district, central Nepal, Deputy Prime Minister and General Secretary Madhav Kumar Nepal warned that the ruling Communist Party of Nepal (UML) and the Nepalese people would not remain mute spectators if someone attempts to act against the spirit of the constitution of the kingdom. The Deputy Prime Minister urged the opposition parties to rise above their party interest and participate in various development activities launched by the UML government.

June 4 Nepal Bandh Not Successful Excerpts from Xinhua report

   With various vehicles running in the streets of this capital city as usual from early morning and all shops open, the Nepal Bandh
(countrywide strike) called is actually not effective. The Nepal Bandh, planned for June 4 and 5, was proposed by one Hindu organization to protest against a so-called speech by Minister for Health and Labor Padma R. Tuladhar that "cow could be slaughtered." Tuladhar had claimed that his remarks had been wrongly quoted.

   The situation outside the Kathmandu Valley is also calm and peaceful, sources said, adding that up till now, no reports of controversies or conflicts were received.

  Yogi Narahari Nath, one proposer of the bandh, was taken into police security Saturday evening, according to local press reports. "Yogi was taken into police security with dignity on receiving a tip-off that his opponents could harm him in view of the current situation," Yogi's private secretary Ramesh Chitrakar was quoted as saying.

    Home Minister K. P. Sharma Oli and Yogi Narahari Saturday had talks for three and a half hours in connection with the Nepal Bandh on June 4 and 5 and Singh Durbar picketing on June 9 called by the Pashupati Sena, one Hindu organization. However, the talks ended in failure.


*********************************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 6 Jun 1995 14:14:36 -0400 (EDT) From: Pravignya Regmi <> To: Subject: Help Nepal Save the Environment

            Help Nepal Save the Environment-V (b)

"The earth can satisfy everyones need but not everyones greed"
                                              -Mahatma Gandhi

  [In the previous article (TND May 22) we observed some of the major intense statements of arguments over the Arun III project. In this section we will examine the project's economic and environmental aspects.]
   The rationale of the Arun III
   The basic economic rationale behind the Arun III is that it will generate economic growth of Nepal and help to alleviate poverty. In simple words, when the project begins, the money spent on it will have direct benefit to the local people, it will generate employment and other development oppertunities and secondly, there will be the huge powerhouses supplying electricity. The power supply will help industrialization; thereby, increasing GNP and whatever all come along with the development. Furthermore, the construction of 122 Km road will increase public accessability and enhance the development activities over the local areas.
  Unfortunately, I was not able to attend the talk program organized by Bikas Pandey, Alliance for Energy, whose effort to stop the Arun III is admirable, in Boston in 1994. As far as the material that I have been able to gather since last couple of months to research on Arun III issue, I found Martin Karchar's economic analysis as the most brilliant and comprehensive. Following points are based on his interview by the Environmental Defense Fund in September 9, 1994 and the letter by Korinna Horta (Staff economist) and Bruce Rich (Director, International Project) at the EDF to Lewis T. Peterson, President, The World Bank in October 26, 1994.
  As Nepal is a developing country, it should be focused on preparation of infrastructures for development rather than investing a huge amount of money in one particular area. The present status of some of the important social sectors such as education, health and service is extreamly poor in Nepal which needs to be prioratized first to uplift th quality of life by intensive investment that will have direct impact on the real people. Furthermore, the important point to bear on mind is that the large investments in the power sector, once having started can not be stopped, are liable to crowd out investments in the social sectors. In that case the results of such huge investment will be at neither this nor that end. Such results can worsen the economic conditions of country like Nepal (whose annual budget is less than the Arun III project)
  The product of the project as calculated is highly expensive. The priliminary estimation was 53.7 cents (WP Nov 6) which is approximately N Rs. 27 per Kw hour (per unit) of electricity at todays rate. The Vice President, south Asia World Bank, Joseph Wood replies to this question posed by EDF on the Washington Post of Nov 6, "World Bank economists do not assert that the people of Nepal would be willing to pay 53.7 cents for a Kw hr. of electricity. The figure on which the projection have been based is about 10.4 cents in todays price" (WP Nov 28). This projected rate is equivalent to N Rs 5.20 per unit at present exchange which is still very expensive for the vast majority of Nepalese people. Please compare the rates that the people in Washinton, whose per capita is US $ 12.184 (Env Alm 1994) pay 6-8 cents per unit (Wp Nov 6) to the Nepalese, whose per capita income is Us $ 172 (Env Alm).
  Who is going to buy the surplus power? Obviously the answer is either India or China. Surprisingly, there has not been any agreement for the power trade with any of the countries. Therefore, if we generate power, whose cost of production even at the projected rate is expensive, without any agreement with the countries will make our bargaining position weak. We will be losing 6.4 cents (at the production figure of 10.4 cents per Kw hr) in each unit at India's present buying rate of 4 cents per unit from Nepal. Furthermore, Arun III may suffer from lack of water supply if China builds dam or diverts water in Tibet. This might result into water rights problems.
  There is a contradiction between the Bank objectives to alleviating poverty and the type of investment. Mr. Karchar imposes serious questions,
"since poverty alleviation is the overriding objective of the Bank's country assistance strategy, how does the proposed large scale, capital intensive power sector development program fit into such a strategy? How will it contribute to broad based, labor-intensive economic growth and how will benifits tricle down to the rural poor, who constitute the overwhleming majority of the poor in Nepal?". The people who get its direct benefits are the 10% people living in the electrified urban areas but not really the poor people who just have circled Nepali cap on their head. How long will it take to reach the project's benefit to those people?
  Large and sophisticated schemes are expensive in every terms. The repairs and maintainance also costs a significant sum of money. How will Nepal take care of such large dam once it is built and handed to the government which is still unable to maintain its already built roads and hospitals?
  The large sum of grant from the major donor countries forwards a serious risks of diverting domestic and international funds from the other important development projects. Such channalization of resources can create economic deficiency as Nepal's development budget is mostly supported by foreign aids.

Arun III is environmentally unsound !
  There has not been any studies done regarding the diversity of aquatic species in the Arun River. Therefore, the construction of dam will have direct impact on any endangered or native species living in there. For example, the Gandak Nahar has directly affected on maintaining the population of Gharials despite captive breeding and releasing of the animal, some other fish species also have been reported to be affected by the Gandak dam.( I recommend to look at the Snaildarter case in the US also)
   Several thousands of virgin land will be adversely affected that is liable to destroy the natural ecology. Furthermore, the alteration of the local ecology will have direct environmental impacts.
  The road thru the forest willl have "fragmentation impacts". Forest fragmentation result in several problems in ecological dynamics. Arun III is also likely to create unbalanced local development (often due to poor planning) over the fragmented areas. Such local development destroy the environment rapidly and further risk the ecological stability
(Those who have visited the Marshyandi Hydro Project on the Prithvi Highway can easily visualize the local ecological disasters - who will pay for those devastations to restore the ecology ? ) The large Arun III is not an environmentally sustainable project. It is a mega development model that actually does not fit into the rhythm of the natural ecosystem.
  Arun III project is still in debate. The WB tends to withdraw from the loan scheme to Nepal due to over criticizm (similar to that the World Bank faced over the Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) dam in western India. Sardar Sarovar was also related to the relocation issues). However, the Nepalese government wants it as the project will prospare the country with US $ 750-1000 million. Besides, the Economists writes, "And the possibility of rake-offs that comes with foreign money no doubt makes the project attractive to some civil servants". However, a point is still there to remember that if the Bank offers the amount (US $ 175 million), Nepal's total debt to the bank will rise about US $ 850 million (Ibid). Neverthless, the Nepalese government needs money which is clearly stated by the government spokesman, "Nepal has the second largest hydropower potential in the world and the Nepali government is determined to go ahead with the big projects, as a lot of time and energy has already been invested in preparing it and putting together the financial package. The alternative medium scale would deprive Nepal of the financing that has already been prepared (WP Nov 6, 94). Evaluate the statement !
 Any mega development projects, such as the Arun III, are actually always deleterious. Often such huge project seem to carry mass economic benefits but are never healthy. Economic value alone can not override the other intrinsic values such as spiritual, ethical and educational. Therefore, only the cost benefit is an inadequate substitute for an environmental ethic. Charles Anderson says, "even an ideal benefit-cost analysis normatively incomplete...... Efficiency is best regarded as an instrumental value, a tool for comparing policy options in terms of other values. Efficiency is merely an economic criterion once other needs have been met". To a sensitive, educated and responsible man there exists the aesthetic and/or ecological beauty and meaning in a heap of mud which holds great values that can not be captured by the economic peripheri. Devid Feldman asserts, "ethically defensible nature resources policy is one that satisfies a broad range of human needs, from survival and biological exigency to an enlightened exixtence in harmony with one's inner character, with others and with nature......" Having firm faith on these ideas, I urge all of you to voice to save the Nepal's environment from any devastating development projects.

Pravigya Regmi

*********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 6 Jun 1995 14:37:28 -0400 (EDT) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <> Subject: This (fwd) To: (Ashutosh Tiwari) writes:

> The point I am trying to make is this: At most computer sites, there
>ARE real, well-defined processes to deal with harrassment. The idea is to
>to use those processes to press the point and see where it goes. Merely
>blurting out a name on TND does little to shame the harasser and deter
>other ones. [Here, I refer to alleged harasser's "brazen" posting from
>the University of Idaho on the May 30th issue of TND!]

        A friend of mine thinks that, despite these points above, TND should also be "more involved" in rooting out harassment.

        He says, "It would have been infinitely better if Anita (while protecting the name of the victim) had forwarded ACTUAL/REAL harrassing messages to TND. That way, instead of a mere name and mere accusation of harrassment, all readers would actually SEE the nature of harassment, and decide for themselves just what kind of an idiot this guy from the University of Idaho is."

        According to this friend, letting Anita post the "real evidence of harassment" would be TND's involvement in "a good cause" to deter the harrasser and other potential ones.

********************************************************************** To: Subject: Gurkhas, ex-Gurkhas (Military/Foreigh Policy) Date: Tue, 06 Jun 1995 18:38:39 EDT From: Shreekrishna Pandey <skpandey@MIT.EDU>

Pratyoush Onta's article on "Gurkhas and Post-Army Jobs" (TND May 30) was very informative and thought-provoking. It also made me add some of my own views on the questions he raised on the article.

1)On the decision by Britain to reduce the number of Gurkhas sharply:
  ------------------------------------------------------------------ The decision to cut the number of Gurkha troops by 70% while the overall troops cut was only about 25% is certainly absurd. As Pratyoush notes, the key reason given is that of the transfer of Hong Kong and the end of the Cold War. This forces us to think that Gurkhas were hired by Britain for a very particular job: to ward off Communism and to maintain security in Hong Kong. However, if I remember correctly, Gurkhas have been with the British long before World War II, let alone the Cold War. So, the rationale given by Britain can not be justified. Britain certainly did not do justice to the Gurkhas in its decision to cut their number so drastically.

If Britain is really grateful to the service of the Gurkhas, it should find them somewhere else to work, most possibly in Europe where the bulk of the British forces is concentrated. With a little training for the ones who have not used the sophisticated weaponry, there is no reason the Gurkhas cannot do any better than the non-Gurkha part of the British forces. Britain cannot insist that since they are not technically sophisticated enough, the Gurkhas cannot serve in Europe. Britain should not forget the fact that Gurkhas were not first rate machine-gunners at the age of two: they were taught after being recruited.

2)On the Nepali government's role in the international hiring of ex-Gurkhas:
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------- I think the Government's role should be minimal. From Pratyoush's article, I get the impression that the ex-Gurkhas are not being exploited by the employers. If, however, they are being exploited, it is the moral obligation of the Government to assist them; maybe make them more aware of the situation before they get hired. The Govt. could also set more stringent requirements and seek guarantees from the hiring agencies regarding the benefits at the workplace.

3)Why should the Nepali or the British govt. be concerned about the form of job?
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Employment of ex-Gurkhas in jobs not related to Nepal's or Britain's national security should be a matter of concern to both governments. Here we should not forget that (ex)-Gurkhas are related to Nepal/Britain in some way, and their hiring by certain governments like the Sierra Leone govt. to crush opposition within the country will be interpreted by the rebels as military support to the govt. by Nepal/Britain. At least Nepal, being a non-aligned country, should not be encourage such activities.

4) Why does anyone think that Gurkhas are better security soldiers for the UN?
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Part of the reason might be the overwhelming publicity all over. Britain hired Gurkhas for their bravery during the Nepal-Britain war (1814-1816). India also employs them today. They are also known for their determination and loyalty. Positions like the bodyguards of the British queen have been entrusted to them (someone please verify). Last but not the least, the financial condition in Nepal does not give the Gurkhas enough alternatives that are comparable to employment overseas.

Maybe Gurkhas should not be the only ones responsible for peacekeeping worldwide. Maybe they should be joined by troops from other countries, but they should have a sizable role if something called "UN Peacekeeping Force" is ever created.

5) Gurkha recruitement: an embarrassment for Nepal?
   ----------------------------------------------- I don't know why it should be an embarrassment. Ironically, certains groups that call for an end to the recruitment neither have the consent of the would-be-Gurkhas (or Gurkhas), nor can they suggest any alternative that is as good to the Gurkhas.

6) War Memorial in Nepal in Honor of Gurkhas killed in 'the line of duty'
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------- I think this should be left to the ex-Gurkhas and the Gurkhas to decide.

Comments are welcome.

Shree Krishna Pandey

********************************************************************* From: (Pratyoush R. Onta) Subject: Clarification To: (tnd) Date: Tue, 6 Jun 1995 22:49:01 -0400 (EDT)

In the last TND a note regarding Ashu's posting of the "thank you" note to Honda was posted. It began as follows:

From: Aevendra Lohani <> To: Subject: Tiwari

We were shocked and dissapointed to read Ashu Tiwari's very recent comments . Ashu Tiwari, President(?) of GBNC with help from Pratyoush, Rakesh, Amulya, Sirjana and Binoy wrote.......
"Newcomers in Boston often marvel at the relative ABSENCE of ethnic/political or social tensons among Boston's 150 Nepalis. GBNC historians attribute such relative harmony to these two reasons....

1. First reason: The collective IQ of Nepalis in Boston is simply too high for them to get caught up in stupid ethnic/social/political Jhagada that have, one hears, torn apart Nepali communities on other parts of the planet......"

CLARIFICATION: I did not help ashutosh to write that note. After he had written it, he sent it to me to ask if anything else should be added. I said no. The same day or the day after Rakesh told him that the above paragraph was not relevant to the note about Honda. That Ashotosh chose to retain the paragraph despite this suggestion is something that he should be responsible for. I and others did not help him write it and are not responsible for it.

Pratyoush Onta

************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 6 Jun 1995 23:03 EST From: Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - June 6, 1995 (24 Jestha 2052 BkSm) To:

MORE ON Anita_Durga_Aashu Ambivalence and Accusations

I am profoundly confused about the whole ruckus of Anita Regmi, Durga Dahal, and Aashu debates about email harrassment, public lynching, TND abuse.

Many readers have jumped on the side of Anita and supported her decision to
"expose" Durga Dahal and he (Durga Dahal) seemed to help his accusers' condemnation of him by publicly mis?abusing TND to "beg" for phd seat from a American Professor.

But as Ashu pertinently pointed out, is it fair to condemn and convict Durga Dahal in the court of public opinion that is TND? I think not.

This is not so much a theoretical issue but an empirical issue. Theoretically, we call agree if X was harrassing Y, X should be punished. But how do we define what is harassing? Sure we should privelege the voice of the pained one but what protections does anybody have from malicious accusers who may be 1 in a million but definitely not zero?

My sources tell me Durga is after all a "crook" and certainly his public behaviour on the internet available to Nepalese would suggest that he is at least unconventional but does this justify Anita publicly brandishing him?

I guess this depends very much on the nature of the "harassment". If she is seeking a "social" participation of TND readers to condemn some party, the least she is obligated is to offer the TND society evidence of such harrassment. And the dangers of this process, by the nature of the beast, is that although she may very well have suffered real pains, some members of the society may not share her opinion and some may.

Aashu has brought some methods of redress for email users who suffer unsolicited internet harrassment like taking up the harassment with system operators and believe me they do care this privilege is not abused. I am not sure if Anita should be taken to task if she has not taken this route, it is entirely possible she may not be aware of them, or she may have judged that the alleged harasser deserves a penalty that is one notch-Up.

Yes I am confused.

I would like to suggest that every should feel free to air their pains socially but the least they should consider is to offer as much specific evidences to persuade TND readers from contracting the benefit of doubt that is behind the "Innocent till proven guilty". I also urge our sypathetic readers to be vigilant and demanding of more information before offering their powerful condemnations or salutations.

I would be interested in other variety of opinions expressed in this case.

Amulya Tuladhar

************************************************************** Date: Wed, 07 Jun 1995 09:56:59 +0200 To: From: (Subedi Pushp Kamal) Subject:

I am leaving Austria on 25th June, 1995. Please discontinue TND issues to this address from 23 June, 1995. At last I wish to express my sincere thanks to all the members of TND for providing information about Nepal and its people.

Pushp Kamal Subedi Lecturer Central Department of Population Studies Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal

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