The Nepal Digest - June 6, 1995 (24 Jestha 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Tuesday 6 June 95: Jestha 24 2052 BkSm Volume 39 Issue 1

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma sharma@plains.nodak.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta ponta@sas.upenn.edu *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha rajendra@dartmouth.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

******************************************************** From: gshah@st6000.sct.edu (Gopal Shah) Subject: Virus in TND To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Thu, 1 Jun 1995 13:01:20 -0400 (EDT)

I support fully Anita Regmi's and Sanjay Kumar's call for exposing men as well as taking social actions against them who has been harassing women. Amulya! you were confused whether Durga Dahal is Mr. or Mrs., but I can bet Durga is "Mr.". He can't be a mother of six children while he has been tormenting a fellow female TND member. So far, we have heard he has been harassing one female TND member by using her email address and writing disgusting comments. He may have been harassing other female members too.

I URGE ALL TND MEMBERS TO CONDEMN HIS ACTIONS BEFORE IT GOES TOO FAR. He will definitely our valuable member, if he stops harassing women and publicly apologize (in TND) his actions.

********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 31 May 1995 18:03:34 -0400 (EDT) From: Aevendra Lohani <lohani@alpha.fdu.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Tiwari

We were shocked and dissapointed to read Ashu Tiwari's very recent comments . Ashu Tiwari, President(?) of GBNC with help from Pratyoush, Rakesh, Amulya, Sirjana and Binoy wrote.......
"Newcomers in Boston often marvel at the relative ABSENCE of ethnic/political or social tensons among Boston's 150 Nepalis. GBNC historians attribute such relative harmony to these two reasons.... 1. First reason: The collective IQ of Nepalis in Boston is simply too high for them to get caught up in stupid ethnic/social/political Jhagada that have, one hears, torn apart Nepali communities on other parts of the planet......"

For such comments to come from individuals that have written quality articles in the past is quite myopic, irresponsible, and childish. Quite frankly, to compare collective IQs among Nepalis scattered around the globe is laughable. Who are these GBNC historians that apparantly suffer from superior complex ? What can we really say about the IQ of individuals that assume their collective IQ to be too high ? What value should readers place on articles written by the elite GBNC group, if deep down in their gut they hold the belief that they somehow have "too high collective IQ" ?

How would Tiwari and Gang define a Jhagada ? What Jhagada are they talking about ? Are all ehtnic/social, political conflicts Jhagadas ? Are all jhagadas stupid ? What is a break-up ? Does, not having dal-bhaat at every gathering constitute a break up ? To present an opinion based on ill founded conviction is wrong . I expect something better from an individual that represents GBNC.

Mr. Tiwari: Surely, as a man of your self proclaimed IQ level, you are buttressing such statements with concrete data on collective IQ levels of Nepalese communities around the globe. Or was this simply a feeble attempt at humor?

KASAILE TAPAI BHANOS NABHANOS AFAILE MAPAI ????????

Devu & Raju New Jersey

******************************************************************************* Date: Wed, 31 May 1995 17:41:57 -0500 (CDT) From: RKP6723@utarlg.uta.edu Subject: A Poem To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu
                                Georgia
                                ------- By Robin Panday (Swayum Bhu)

                         Georgia sweet Georgia
                       You sparkled in my eyeballs
                  The sparkling brown window of your soul
                         Shines on me mysteriously
                       The subtle smile of you Georgia
                            That melted my heartyou
                      That beautiful long, black and curly
                 was moving beautifully with you and the air
                      I wonder if you know what I felt
                      I wonder if you know how I feel
                 I wonder if you know that it makes me smile
                          You know you were taped
                    I watch you again and again on TV
                            That is not enough
                    I would like to see you again Georgia

**********************************************************************
>From 23012BKS@MSU.EDU Tue May 30 12:32:46 1995
To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: "Balkrishna.Sharma" <23012BKS@msu.edu> Subject: information requested on Nepal-made home textile and art

I hereby request the names of corporations or agencies in Nepal that make quality Home textiles, home decorations and arts and crafts (items for home decoration). This information is requested on behalf of Mr Rai who presently resides in Lansing MI and wants to visit Nepal to contanct potential makers of such items in Nepal. Mr Rai's intention is to market quality products from Nepal, items that bear unique identity of Nepal and Nepali culture. Informed netters can help Mr Rai by giving such info via telephone at (517) 484-9814 or via fax at 517-484-5032 or email 23012bks@msu.edu. I will pass the info to Mr
 Rai because Mr Rai does not havwe an email at this time.
(Dear Editor, please publish this info on TND if it does not violate the rules of TND. I personally thought that if something like this helps Nepal or Nepali businesses it should could be circulated via TND).

*************************************************************** Date: Tue, 30 May 1995 13:37:52 -0500 (CDT) From: RKP6723@utarlg.uta.edu Subject: Congratulations! To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu

Anuj Aryal graduated from Math and Science School of Mississipi. He was a Senior Class President. Governor of Mississipi asked him to represent the state of Mississipi as a student. He received a full-time scholarship from Northwestern University. It is located at Evanston, Illinois just north of Chicago near Lake Michigan. Serious, yet funny, Anuj, who sang a sing along song at his graduation party and made everybody laugh to tears. He wants to pursue a medical career.

Anuj Aryal is son of Dr. Shakti and Usha Aryal. Dr. Shati Aryal taught at Northern Illinois University and now is a Proffessor at Rust College, Holy Springs, MIssissipi. Anuj's graduation was celebrated at newly built Aryal Mansion at Oxford, Mississipi in the Memorial Day weekend. There were about fifty Nepalis from Dallas, Atlanta, Chicago, Memphis, Washington D.C., and Oxford, Mississipi to congratulate Anuj. Again Congratulations Anuj!!! Keep up the good work!

-Robin Panday (Swayum Bhu)
 Arlington, TX

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 30 May 1995 18:05:20 -0400 (EDT) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Essay: Does GDP Mean Grossly Distorting Press? To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

                What follows is an essay by BIKASH THAPLIYA. This was originally published in the Kathmandu Post in August '94.

                Bikash, 24, is an India-trained Nepali electrical engineer in Kathmandu. Entering graduate school at MIT in Cambridge, Mass. this August, Bikash's interests lie in electrical engineering, energy economics and public policy. This piece appears here with Bikash's permission.
                        ------------------------------
                         Does GDP Mean Grossly Distorting Press?
                                by Bikash Thapliya

        At three in the afternoon, on Friday, June 24, 1994 the National Planning Commission (NPC) organized a press conference at Singha Durbar. Running the meeting were Dr. Ram Sharan Mahat, the Vice-chairman and his colleagues.

        This was the gist of what the planners announced: Previously uncounted business units (such as beauty parlors and others) have now been
'captured' by a new national accounting system. And this apparently led to a revised trend in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Q increasing it by 16 per cent over the period spanning from 1984/85 to 1993/94. Higher GDP, said the NPC, gave a higher per capita income (PCI) of US $ 202.

        I was at the hour-long conference with a reporter friend of mine. In my capacity as an interested member of the public, I listened to Dr. Mahat's speech, the reporters' queries and the NPC's explanations. In the days that followed, I noted with considerable interest as to how the journalists
(that is, those of Kathmandu-based Nepali and English newspapers) and other commentators communicated the NPC's findings to the public.

        "Are we rich now!?" asked Deshanter on June 26. Ridiculing the planners, the Weekly made these two comments: First, the data-tables were largely unimportant to most Nepalis. Second, the NPC-derived agricultural growth was doubtful since the figures had been supplied by the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) rather than the MOA and MOA alone.
        
        Moreover, pointing out that floods, drought, unemployment and unstable politics had all stumped last year's development projects, the vernacular ended with this question: "Since the common man refuses to believe that his living standards have gone up, isn't the government lying [about the GDP and the PCI]?"

        All this came as a surprise to me. As I recalled, at the conference, the NPC had not claimed that Nepal's living standards had gone up. Nor had it asserted that Nepalis became richer (that is, as economists would say, the real income went up). To make such claims, the NPC would have talked about, among other variables, the rates of inflation and the consumer price indices. That the NPC chose not to do so implied that it was not, at least in the conference, trying to conclude that all Nepalis are better off than before.

        Similarly, in an impassioned essay in Dristi on June 29, D. Khanal [who has since joined NPC as an economist for the UML government] slammed the NPC findings as immoral, unreliable and "a new conspiracy to fool the public". He charged that the GDP-data, especially those for the years since the Nepali Congress came to power, were "fictitious and dangerous". He too concluded by wondering how growth could have taken place in today's difficult times of load-shedding, stagnant tourism and prohibition on house-construction in Kathmandu.

        I was disappointed that Khanal did not explain what exactly were
"fictitious and dangerous" about the NPC's data. For example, he offered no relevant numbers to back up his claims as to why agricultural output was declining. As for Khanal's allegation that there was low national productivity due to fewer tourists and frequent load-shedding, the NPC had had this answer: The revenue from tourism had been higher than before, while power shortages had not affected numerous smaller industries to the extent widely believed.

        If anything, I thought that Khanal's arguments, which doubtless were sincere, would have packed more punch if he had shredded NPC's THAT justification with evidenced reasoning. Since Khanal did not do so, his whole argumentative edifice was built like castles on sand. And that was sad. After all, one cannot argue against any government policy just by saying that they are bad. One should also try to go beyond the obvious, roll up the sleeves, dig up some numbers, and, in essence, do some hard homework. Only then, one can argue why the NPC's claims do or do not stand up to economic analysis. That, I would say, would have been more exciting, effective and informative than just the usual, run-of-the-mill criticisms of any government.

        Another vernacular, Janbhawana of June 27 based its comments on World Bank (WB) data: "The nation's agricultural production has come down by 0.2 to 0.03 (sic) per cent [of what? the report did not say] due to extensive use of fertilizers and insecticides, and increasing erosion, floods and landslides."

        So the Weekly asked: "How could Nepal's GDP rise by 16 per cent, when even China, with the world's highest growth rate, shows a figure of 11 per cent?" The newspaper even went on to say that "such figures were credible only to those who shared Dr. Mahat's mentality".
        
        In its zeal to slap the NPC, Janbhawana did three acts of disservice to its readers: First, it did not inform them of the time-frame during which the World Bank data were taken. The GDP, after all, is a time-specific number, and to trash it, one requires compelling, opposing numbers for the same period of time. Second, comparing NPC-claimed GDP growth of 16 per cent over ten years to China's yearly growth of 11 per cent was misleading. And third, without analyzing why and how the GDP had risen (or alternatively, should have decreased), the Weekly thumped its slanted verdict: "[The NPC's efforts] are an outright way to deceive us Nepalis."

        Even the privately-run Kantipur Daily crippled its otherwise straightforward this-is-what-the-NPC-said report of June 25 with bad arithmetic: "80 per cent of the population is associated with agriculture, where production has decreased. That, claimed the NPC experts, is a positive sign."

         But to my knowledge, at no time during the conference did the NPC claim that agricultural production had gone down. All that the planners had said was this: The agricultural growth rate had slowed down. Kantipur should have known that slow growth rate does not mean declining production. Only a negative growth rate means that there's a decline in production.

        Finally, one last example: In an op-ed in the Kathmandu Post on July 5, Dr. Stephen Mikesell interpreted the rise in the GDP as an indicator of
"an upward trend in economic development". But he soon objected to the NPC's method of using the GDP, instead of the GNP, as one of the two variables
(the other being population) to calculate the PCI.

        Citing the WB's findings, summarized in Deshanter of June 26, Mikesell argued that Nepal was producing more and earning less. And he concluded that higher GDP did not necessarily lead to higher PCI, if the real beneficiaries were to be foreigners. Compelling though Mikesell's point was, he forgot to check the relevance of the WB data in the first place. At the conference, the NPC had dismissed the same WB data as out-dated. That aside, Mikesell questioned the philosophy behind the kind of economics being practiced at the NPC with "dethroned indicators", i.e., the GDP, GNP and PCI.
        
        As an argumentative piece, Mikesell's write-up was confusing: First, he explained the increase in the GDP as an "upward trend". Later, he discarded that interpretation to question the relevance of the premise upon which that trend was based.

        But as I remembered, the major take-home message at the press conference was that the NPC had devised a new national accounting system. Or, to explain in terms of computer metaphors: in the 'hardware' of national economy, all the data collected by the CBS, the NPC and other offices would be 'tracked' by the 'software' (that is, the new accounting system) to give various 'outputs' such as GDP, GNP and PCI.

        By only snubbing at the irrelevance of those outputs for Nepal, (an easy thing to do!), Mikesell failed to criticize the 'software' that produced them in the first place. After all, the 'software' would keep on
'spooling' such 'outputs' if its 'program' is not critically looked into by independent economists.

        All said and done, what is the message of all these? Two points come to my mind.

        First, Nepali journalists need to read more, and learn some economics. The world, including the Nepal we live in, is getting more complex and economically interdependent day by day. In tandem with this change, Nepali readers are also getting more and more well-read and knowledgeable about economic issues that affect them. As such, they are no longer interested in reading only the point-blank criticisms of the government or of anything. They now want to read articles or viewpoints that go beyond the knee-jerk criticisms of the government and offer substantial food for thought .

        Despite these emerging readers' demand, if Nepali journalists still choose to pander to their own biases with reports that show no regard for facts, analysis, homework and well-evidenced criticisms, then they risk facing extinctionQ or at least, public marginalizationQ at their own expense, as more and more educated Nepalis chhose to patronize foreign or Indian newspapers and magazines.
  
        Second, the quality of public debates, especially on issues as vital and interesting as GDP or PCI, needs to go up. My aim here has not been to take sides with the NPC, but to unsettle, and indeed challenge, the complacency and lassitude that seem to engulf, what my reporter friend calls, "Nepal's intellectual-economists." If the examples I have cited could be seen as evidences, then I would argue that the time has come for independent Nepali economists to do some wide-reaching homework and fight fire with fire with hard numbers, sharp reasoning, insightful analysis and lucid prose in English and/or Nepali languages. Failing all these, Nepali economists, no matter how or where they are trained, risk being marginal on the stage of making well thought-out, effective public policies. And that too at their own expense.
        
                                The End

One more note: The author Thapliya belongs to no political party or nor carries any political-party affiliation.

**************************************************************** Date: Tue, 30 May 1995 13:41:42 -1000 From: Ratna Shrestha <ratna@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: UML's Policy: Ratna Responds

This is in response to Amulya's comment (TND May 25) on my earlier posting
(UML's economic policy: A review).

     It is not the matter of which factor is more important but the point is that the economic policy should be formulated in view of both external factors such as WB, IMF, economic trend both regional and international and the country's socioeconomic reality.
     As Nepal is predominantly an agricultural economy, the influence of monsoon patterns on it is very critical. But it will be a costly business to completely ignore the opportunity for international trade and resort to the expansion of expensive (only expensive!) Irrigation facilities just in the name of buffering the risks created by such unpredictable monsoons. Why not invest the scarce resource on more productive sectors and buy rice from India?
     Despite a heavy govt. investment on agricultural sectors, the growth of agr. productivity in Nepal has been very little or even negative in the past years. The previous govts. failed to exploit the advantages of economies of scale and interdependent investment' in this sector. Instead the agricultural ministry, among others, has become one of the worst 'posts' for rent seeking and pork barrel activities for politicians and bureaucrats. So why not scrap all unproductive programs and use the saved money for financing fiscal deficit and other moreproductive ventures
     Less govt. expenditure means less tax on business activities and income which in turn promotes private investment - a vehicle for econ development. Similarly the investments on complementary programs have proved productive in many economies. And Nepal also needs to identify such programs for promotion no matter which sector they belong to. For, e.g., hotel business and a course on TIM at KU or TU, a national park and tourism, apple plantations at Mustang and a good transportation link between Ktm and Mustang can be a few worthwhile programs.
     The theory of interdependent investment' has a deep-rooted influence in our day to day decision making. Why Amulya is majoring in Geography and not in Eng.? Simply because he comes from forestry background which goes well with Geography. Engineering is not a sensible option for him.
     Octroi has proved hell to businesses and people in all municipalities as it has left them with little money available for investment. However, if the govt. would scrape it and finance the urban services by general tax revenue, it would benefit the urban rich at the expense of the rural poor. So what can be the solution?
     My proposal is to revise octroi (even rename it) to reflect the damages caused by each incoming commodity to the environment - in the spirit of DR system I proposed earlier(TND). The tax revenue thus collected can be used for improving urban services and environmental quality. The traditional octroi is based on the quantity or the price of the incoming goods -not the damages caused by them to the environment. This system is thus equivalent to the direct tax on the consumption of the goods. In the revised system, however, urban people will be paying for the consumption of improved environmental quality and services; -not for the consumption of the goods. I wonder if the policy makers in KTM have deliberately ignored this possibility to appease few businessmen or have no knowledge of it at all.

Ratna K. Shrestha Hawaii

****************************************************************** From: "Khatri, Sanjay" <khatri@msgate.columbiasc.ATTGIS.COM> To: 'nepal' <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Attention: TND Editor Date: Tue, 30 May 95 14:52:00 edt

I'm moving to St. Petersburg, Florida to start a new job. Please discontinue TND issues to this address. I'm looking forward to establishing a new address ASAP in order to get plugged in to the Digest again. Also, I'd love to hear from any Nepali's or friends of Nepal living in the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater area. I should be there by the end of June.
 Till then I'll be at (803)254-3046, and will accept collect calls from friends.

**************************************************************** Date: Wed, 31 May 1995 14:57:35 AEST-1000 To: The Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu> From: R. Thapa

This note is in support of Anita Regmi and is a denunciation of the lowly creatures who choose to torment women around the world. More specifically - the cowardly imbecile who does not seem to realise that women are equal to men, and persists in harassing them through the mail system. Wake up, buddy - male chauvinism is not the thing to engage in; if you think that feminism is not for nepal, you're in for a nasty shock one day.

R.Thapa Australia

********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 31 May 1995 19:27:33 -0400 (EDT) Subject: Pls post it in Nepal Digest!!! Dhanyabad!!!! To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: Pratyoush Onta <ponta@seas.upenn.edU>

Discussion: Gurkhas and Post-Army Jobs

The following statement is posted here in the hope that the large crowd of tnd readers will participate in a discussion that will be informative to all. As someone who is currently thinking and writing on various issues related to Gurkha history, I hope that the information and analysis known to and presented by other participants will augment my own knowledge of the issues involved. At the end of the statement I have attached a few questions as a way to initiate discussion but reader responses need not be limited by them. Please feel free to comment on any and all aspect of the subject. Please note that only the British "Gurkha" identity is important for the discussion below.

Pratyoush Onta

In February 1995, it was reported that about 58 former British Gurkhas arrived in Sierra Leone under a three-month renewable contract to help train the local military government troops (in guerilla and jungle warfare) to fight the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) guerrilla movement. The ex-Gurkhas were hired by the UK-based private company Gurkha Security Guards (GSG) Ltd. set up in 1988 by a group of former British Gurkha officers. GSG is said to have recruited its personnel in Kathmandu using a local employment agency.

British government officials feared that since the Gurkhas were once part of the British army, their presence could be mistaken as military assistance by Britain to Sierra Leone's government and invite reprisals against British and other foreign hostages being held by RUF guerrillas. The Communist Government in Nepal was upset by this use of the ex-Gurkhas even as it admitted that it could do very little to stop it. A government spokesman was quoted as saying that some action against the recruiting agency (in Nepal) was likely even as one former Gurkha in Nepal defended the Sierra Leone contingent by saying that although risky, the job was a form of employment similar to those pursued by many others in the Middleeast and elsewhere.

A UPI report dated 12 March 1995 mentioned that seven Gurkhas had been killed in Sierra Leone but this turned out to be a false report. On February 24, an important official of the military government of Sierra Leone, an American supervisor of the Gurkhas, and one other foreign military advisor had been killed in an ambush by RUF guerillas. Some unconfirmed reports also add that one ex-Gurkha was injured on this occasion. In mid-May the contract that brought the ex-Gurkhas to Sierra Leone where they were reportedly paid between $1,000 and $2,000 per week
(I think this should be per month but I can not be sure) expired and they left the country even as the local government hired a contingent of military instructors from the South Africa-based company Executive Outcomes.

Sierra Leone is not the only place where former Gurkhas working for GSG have served in recent times. For instance, as of November 1988, GSG had hired more than 80 ex-Gurkhas to provide security in oil and mining facilities in various countries in the Gulf and Africa. In December 1991, it was reported that more than 50 ex-Gurkhas had been hired by this firm for a variety of jobs that included mine clearing in Kuwait and guarding tea and sugar estates in Mozambique. Around the same time, the British firm Royal Ordnance had employed an undisclosed number of ex-Gurkhas for mine clearing in Kuwait. In mid-1992 private security firms in Hong Kong, such as Centurion Facility and Jardine Securicor Gurkha Services, a new company started that year by Chris Hardy, a former British Gurkha Officer, were reported to be hiring a few hundred former Gurkhas for security jobs in Hong Kong. Another mid-1992 report mentioned that about 150 ex-Gurkhas hired through unidentified labor contracting agencies were providing security to British diplomats and diamond mines in Angola.

In April 1993, a Hong Kong real estate firm hired several former Gurkhas to guard one of its prestigious estates. Ex-Gurkhas working for GSG got assignments to clear land-mines in Mozambique in August 1993 and in Cambodia in December 1993. By early 1995 former Gurkhas were guarding posh residential estates, industrial sites, banks, retail premises, car parks, stadiums, clubs and utilities in Hong Kong. They were also providing security in Hong Kong's only synagogue. One report indicated that because of their "proven track record as effective security guards" the Gurkhas were in high demand in Hong Kong where it was becoming difficult to hire local young people as watchmen. Another report has suggested that in status-conscious Hong Kong, the latest fashion amidst the rich is to have personal Gurkha bodyguards.

By January 1995, Jardine Securicor was reported to have about 900 Gurkhas in its staff. Some former Gurkhas working for this firm were assigned to secure a Vietnamese refugee centre as part of a plan to eliminate the rampant drug problem in the camp. Almost 300 former Gurkhas with engineering experiences were employed by this firm in the airport project and in the construction of the Tsing Ma Bridge across the Ma Wan channel in Hong Kong. This firm was also involved in the setting up of a new company in Macau so that former Gurkhas could work as security guards in posh residential areas there. A March 1995 report said that under the Hong Kong Government's labor import scheme, about 50 ex-Gurkhas were returning to Hong Kong every month.

To understand this new "deployment" of ex-Gurkhas in the international security-related market, it might be useful to remember some details of the most current retrenchment in the size of the Brigade of Gurkhas in the British Army. In the so-called post-Cold War era that began in the late 1980s, threats from the erstwhile Warsaw Pact countries to Britain and western Europe were perceived to be at a much reduced level than before. Pressured to trim its previously inflated defence budgets, Britain, like some other countries, resorted to military restructuring which included huge cuts in the size of the overall military personnel. While defence needs and spending were intensely reviewed and studied in the four or five years preceding 1991, the actual reorganization in British military has been carried out since 1992.

According to cuts announced in 1991, the size of the British army is being reduced from about 160,000 personnel to about 116,000. As can be expected the Brigade of Gurkhas has also been cut in size. But while the overall reduction in army personnel has been close to twenty five per cent, the size of the Brigade of Gurkhas is being reduced by about 70 per cent to 2,500 men from its previous strength of about 8,000 men. The logic of retrenchment in the number of Gurkhas has been propelled by the impending transfer of British sovereignty over Hong Kong to China in 1997. In the debates about military restructuring and the future of the Gurkhas in the British Army, it is repeatedly pointed out that the Gurkhas have mainly been used for border patrolling in Hong Kong over the past twenty years. Since Hong Kong is to go and there are no other sites for the deployment of the Gurkhas' other main purported skill, jungle warfare, so this argument goes, the huge cuts are immediately justified. However, underlying this calculation is another logic. It is that after Hong Kong, the only other place for the Gurkhas is in Europe but, it is maintained, they are not technically sophisticated enough for deployment in Europe wih complex equipment.

The reduction in the number of Gurkha soldiers began in 1992. The four regiments have been amalgamated (as of July 1994) to form a singe Royal Gurkha Rifles regiment which has three battalions currently. Only two of them will remain when the reduction to a total Brigade strength of 2500 is completed in late 1996 or early 1997.

As the Gurkhas are relieved from the British Army, they and their advocates have been trying to carve for them a second career. In this realm, we have seen a burgeoning market for private security guards in which ex-Gurkhas seem to be finding a role for themselves in an increasing number every month. Although details of this process are hard to obtain, I have tried to provide (above) a brief sketch of what is happening based on published newspaper reports. The Brigade has itself opened a reemployment bureau since Dec 1991 to assist ex-Gurkhas to find international jobs. A few hundred men seem to have been assisted by this office already.

Other commentators have suggested that the Gurkhas being relieved from the British army or the Brigade itseld should be made a central part of a permanent UN peace-keeping force that will do justice to the international organization's increasing commitments all over the world. Although they seldom specify the details of how this could be done (In an article posted in TND some months ago, I discussed some of the details that will have to be figured out if this idea is ever to materialize), it is an idea that seems to find more support as the time goes by.

Some selective points for discussion:

1) Has the British military done justice to the long years of Gurkha service by cutting the size of the Brigade by about 70 per cent? Why does Britain retain the Brigade at such reduced levels? Is it for reasons of sentiment as some advocates of all-British regiments have claimed? Or it is because this arrangement allows it to recruit more Nepali men into its army in case of war in the future as some ex-Gurkhas in Nepal have claimed?

2) If ex-Gurkhas are now in the midst of creating a new international market for themselves as security guards, what should the Nepali government be doing, if anything, to assist them in the process? Since the Nepali government has not been able to control fraudulent labor contracting agencies, should it be not involved in this matter at all? Should labor contracting agencies that are currently providing jobs to ex-Gurkhas, many of which are opened by former British Gurkha officers, be allowed to open branch offices in Nepal to facilitate the process ( I have heard that some companies are interested in doing so)?

3) Why should the Nepali government or the British government have anything to say over any form of employment ex-Gurkhas choose to do, be it in Sierra Leone or Mozambique or Angola or Hong Kong?

4) Why does anyone think that the Gurkhas/ex-Gurkhas can become good security soldiers for the UN as opposed to soldiers from other countries? Why should soldiers from a single country be majorly responsible for carrying out the peace-keeping responsibilities of an international organization with so many member countries?

5) Is Gurkha recruitment an embarrassment for Nepal? If so, for what reasons? Are intermittant calls that demand an end to recruitment voiced only be certain class/caste/communities in Nepal?

6) Should a war memorial be constructed in Nepal in honour of all the Gurkha soldiers who have died in the "line of duty"? (Such a call has been made by the group that organized the first public reception of Victoria Cross winners in Nepal in 1994).

Are there currently serving or former soldiers in the net? Are their children of current or former Gurkha soldiers in the net? If yes, do they have an opinion on any of the above and related issues? What do the rest of think?

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Thu, 1 Jun 95 11:46:43 JST From: Sagar R. Sharma <fs940007@tutor.cc.fukuoka-u.ac.jp> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: THANX

Ever since I've started receiving TND through the e-mail, I've become an instant fan of it. It has not only kept me up to date about Nepal and Nepalis, but has also made me feel a part of this unique entity called TND. I express my hearty congratulations to the TND Board of Staff and so many others who have given their valuable time and priceless opinions to make TND a reality. Thank you, indeed!

sagar sharma/japan.

******************************************************************* Date: Thu, 1 Jun 1995 11:47:04 +0100 (BST) From: B J Lawson-mcdowall <hspbjlm@bath.ac.uk> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Cost of living comparison: India & Nepal.

I am currently negotiating with a research council in the U.K. for support for a 14 month research trip to Nepal (Kathmandu, the Jumla area and the Arun valley). The research will examine the arguements around differing scales of hydel technology in Nepal, from micro systems through to Arun III.

The council in question use a banding procedure to decide on the annual level of support. While India is banded, Nepal is not. I've been asked to provide figures to demonstrate how the cost of living in the Kathmandu valley compares to that in northern India.

Is there any one out there who could

a) tell me where to start looking for precise/official figures for cost comparisons and

b) from their own experience give me an rough estimate of how much more expensive the Kathmandu valley is compared to a northern Indian town (if it is).

Thank you Bruce Lawson-McDowall Centre for Development Studies Bath University U.K.

**************************************************************************** Date: Thu, 1 Jun 95 08:48:04 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: bishow@iris1.sb.fsu.edu (Bishow Adhikari) Subject: Discussion: Gurkhas and Post-Army Jobs

Gurkhas and Post-Army Jobs

I think this is an excellent and timely subject for discussion, and one that should be of interest to many Nepalis. Thank you Pratyoush for bringing this subject up. I do not have a lot of time, but nevertheless I felt like writing a few things.

First of all, I did not know there were that few Gurkhas to start with -- you mentioned about 8000 -- I had somehow thought that before the cuts there were about 15000 Gurkhas. And I was completely unaware of the many (I had heard of the Sierra Leone case) private companies that have begun recruiting Gurkhas. I had heard of Gurkhas serving in Malaysia (in Kuala Lumpur) as security guards for some rich families. Yes, I beleive everybody (the general public) in Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei etc. fear and respect Gurkhas. Contrary to that of some, Gurkhas have a rather prestigious fame in these areas. A few may actually hate them, but never do so in public. It is my opinion, that the honest and hardworking Nepalis who come from rural Nepali gauns have done much to bring pride to our country. They have made us proud to be known as Nepalis -- and as Gurkhas, if you care. As far as the principle behind being sold as a mercenary, I keep my opinion to myself. In short, I do NOT think that Gurkha recruitment was bad, and NEITHER IS IT AN EMBARRASMENT if it is continued as, say in Brunei.

Although I obviously have a biased view I would be very interested to read the opposite.

Thanks. Bishow

********************************************************************* Date: 01 Jun 95 08:54:03 EDT From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News5/28-30 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

May 28 Talks between various parties going on Excerpts from Xinhua and All India Radio (AIR) reports

   The ruling Communist Party of Nepal (UML) Saturday held talks with the Nepali Congress (NC) and the Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP) on the current political situation in the country and on possible power sharing. No particular results came out from the talks, but the three sides decided to continue their talks in the days to come.

   The decision on holding talks with the opposition was made at the ongoing 19th meeting of the Central Working Committee of the Communist Party of Nepal (UML) with a view to getting support from other political parties and independent members of the house of representatives in the forthcoming session of the lower house.

       The RPP general secretary, Dr Rabindranath Sharma, told AIR that informal talks are also going on with the Nepali Congress.

 May 29 Mount Everest Day celebrated Excerpts from AFP and Xinhua reports

   The Nepal Mountaineering Association (NMA) celebrated "Mount Sagarmatha (Everest) Day" Monday to mark the first ascent of the world's tallest summit.

   Sir Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Nepalese Sherpa Tenzing Norgey were the first people to climb the 8,848-metre-high
(29,028-foot) mountain. They reached its summit 42 years ago Monday.

   The NMA organized various programmes in Kathmandu, including a cycle race and a one-day seminar highlighting the importance of mountaineering in Nepal.

   Prime minister Man Mohan Adhikari, speaking on the occassion, urged the nepali mountaineers to take initiative to establish a mountaineering institute in the country. He hoped that the mountaineers would come up with appropriate suggestions as to what kind of measures should be taken to maintain clean environment in the Sagarmatha area since the ever growing piles of garbage in the region has generated serious concern for all.

May 30 Nepal to check hazardous chemicals in carpet exports
    The Nepali government is ready to make available the necessary equipment to carry out research on the hazardous chemicals in carpet exports. At a seminar in Kathmandu today, Secretary to the Industry Ministry Bholanath Chalise said that the research is to deal with problems referring to the use of 20 chemicals classified as detrimental to human health. It was reported that the German government has imposed restrictions on the entry of items covering ready-made garment, carpet, leather and azodyed leather goods which contain hazardous chemicals. The German restrictions affected Nepal's carpet industry which has already been hampered by problems in quality, child labor and environmental pollution.

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 1 Jun 1995 16:48:56 -0400 From: Preb@aol.com To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: TND submission

Title: Brot Coburn Brings Nepali Aama to America Category 4: Literature Posted from: <preb@aol.com (Preb Stritter)>

Readers who enjoyed Coburn's previous book, "Nepali Aama: Portrait of a Nepalese Hill Woman" will be pleased to hear that the sequel, "Aama in America: A Pilgrimage of the Heart" is out.

Aama and Coburn were first brought together while Coburn was teaching in Aama's village high in the Himalayas and living in the loft above her water buffalo shed. Their unique two year friendship and reflections on Aama's life were documented in Coburn's first book.

Fifteen years later, before heading home to America, Coburn returned to Aama's village with his future wife and invited Aama to join them on their trip back to America. More than just a travelogue, the book offers insightful and sometimes hilarious perceptions of America from the fresh perspective of an 84-year old woman who had never left Nepal.

"Aama in America" is out in hardcover from Doubleday Anchor (ISBN 0-385-47417-2 / 320 pp. / $22.95) A re-issue of "Nepali Aama", in paperback, also from Doubleday Anchor is available (ISBN 0-385-47433-4 / 168 pp. / $12.95)

Brot is back from the hills of Nepal and hiding out in the wilds of Wyoming, still away from access on the Net - he can be reached at POBox 1022, Wilson, WY 83014; ph & fax 307-733-4124

***************************************************************** Date: Thu, 1 Jun 1995 20:33:35 -0400 (EDT) From: mahesh maskey <mmaskey@acs.bu.edu> Subject: list of Parija's works To: The Nepal Digest <Nepal@cs.niu.edu>

I have tried to present the list of Parijat's works in response to Mr. Arun Panta's interest about reading Parijat's literature systematically. I hope this list will be also useful to other interested readers as well.

1. Aakanchhya (collection of poetry) -2014 BS (publication).

2. Sirishko phool (novel) - 2022

3. Mahattahin (novel) - 2025

4. Aadim Desh (collection of stories)) -2025

5. Bainsko Manchhe(novel) - 2029
   6. Sadak Ra Prativa (collection of stories) - 2032

7. Toribaribata Ra Sapanaharu (novel) - 2033

8. Antarmukhi (Novel) - 2035

9. Usle Rojeko Bato(novel) - 2035

10. Parkhal Bhitra Parkhal Bahira(novel) - 2035

11. Anido Pahad Sangai(novel) - 2039

12. Dhupi Salla Ra Laligurans ko Phedma (memoirs) - 2043

13. Salgi ko Balatkrit Aansu( collection of stories) - 2043

14. Parijat ka Kabitaharu (poem collection) - 2044

15. Auta Chitramaya Suruwat (memoirs) - 2044

16. Paribhasit Aankhaharu(novel) -2046

17. Boni (novel) -2048

18. Badhashala Aaunda Janda( story collection) -2049

19. Baisanlu Bartaman (poem collection) - 2050 (posthumos)

20. Adhyan Ra Sangharsh (memoirs) - 2051 (posthumous)
                                                

                                        (ref. Parijat Smriti Granth, 1994)

Probably most of the readers will not have time to read all of her works. Those who are interested in novel I would recommend Sirishko phool, Bainsko Manchhe, Toribaribata ra Sapanaharu, Parkhal Bhitra Parkhal Bahira, Anido Pahad Sangai and Boni. Should not miss any of her memoirs because they provide rare insights to understand her literature. The second and third collection of her poems and stories may well represent the trends in her literary development.

********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 2 Jun 1995 15:55:33 -0400 (EDT) From: Rakesh Karmacharya <karmacha@aecom.yu.edu> Subject: Nepal couriers (fwd) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

"CALLING ALL TRAVELLERS TO NEPAL!
  The Seva Foundation, a non-profit organization based in San Rafael, California, seeks assistance in transporting medical equipment to Kathmandu. For the last fifteen years, Seva has worked to establish and support the Nepal Blindness Program, a network of eye care services throughout the country. Approximately 80% of blindness in Nepal is caused by cataract, and can be cured with a simple operation costing less than $30. Last year, Seva-supported projects restored sight to over 60,000 people. By helping to transport medical supplies, you can contribute to the reduction of needless blindness in Nepal.

We seek individuals who can carry donated medical supplies into Nepal. By serving as a volunteer courier, you help us to keep the costs of transportation to a minimum - a simple gesture which can make an enormous difference to the success of these blindness prevention programs.

Volunteer couriers usually carry anywhere from a small package to a large duffle bag of supplies. Let us know how much you are able to carry, and we will send you the supplies a few days before your departure. We also provide documentation for couriers to present to customs officals in Nepal, identifying the supplies as donated goods for charitable use. As a result, carrying the items into Nepal typically presents no problems.
  If you are able to carry some donated suppliesfor us on your next visit to Nepal, please contact us as soon as possible: Alexa Wilkie, Seva Foundation tel (415) 492-1829 or email to sevalexa@well.com Thank you!"

**************************************************************** Date: Fri, 2 Jun 1995 17:33:49 -0400 From: tgrunfeld@sescva.esc.edu To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

Dear Friends:
 
     I believe the subscribers to your e-mail list will find this of some interest.
 
     I am writing to you on behalf of the editorial board of the BULLETIN OF CONCERNED ASIAN SCHOLARS. We are currently in our twenty-seventh year of publication as a financially independent scholarly journal that is free from political and corporate influences and has been pioneering independent and refereed scholarship on women's studies, Third World development, democratization, environmental issues, and much more as they relate to Asia.
 
     Regular issues are roughly seventy-two pages in length and consist of some four or five illustrated articles, plus illustrated review essays, and reports on critical issues of the day. On occasion, we also publish interviews, photo essays, bibliographies, and translations of literary and other scholarly works. Prospective contributors are encouraged to contact the managing editors, Bill and Nancy Doub (doub@csf.colorado.edu).
 
     Annual subscriptions are $22 for individuals in the U.S.,
$23 for individuals outside of the U.S. and $55 for instituions. For more information on multi-year, air-mail and low-income rates, as well as back issues, contact the managing editors at 3239 9th Street, Boulder, CO 80304-2112, USA; phone:(303) 449-7439 or at our gopher site:
  gopher/ftp site: csf.colorado.edu under directory headings International Political Economy (ipe)\Geographic Archives\Asia.
   Table of Contents of the Current Issue
    Vol. 26, No. 4 (October -- December 1994).
  Watanabe Kazuko---Militarism, Colonialism, and the Trafficking of Women: "Comfort Women" Forced into Sexual Labor for Japanese Soldiers.
[This article can be accessed at our gopher site]

E. Patricia Tsurumi---Yet to Be Heard: The Voices of Meiji Factory Women
  Leela Fernandes---Contesting Class: Gender, Community, and the Politics of Labor in a Calcutta Jute Mill
  Zhang Yingjin---Rethinking Cross-Cultural Analysis: The Questions

of Authority, Power, and Difference in Western Studies of Chinese Films
  Ronald R. Janssen---(review essay) "Subversive Moments: Recent Studies of Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature;" The Limits of Realism: Chinese Fiction in the Revolutionary Period, by Marston Anderson; Modern Chinese Women Writers: Critical Appraisals, ed. Michael S. Duke; Reading the Modern Chinese Short Story, ed. Theodore Huters; Women and Chinese Modernity: The Politics of Reading between West and East, by Rey Chow; and Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writing and Its Audiences, ed. Howard Goldblatt
        Richard H. Minear---"An Underwater National Park at Bikini, or How I Learned to Scuba Dive and Stop Worrying about the Atomic Bomb"; Review of "The Archeology of the Atomic Bomb: A Submerged Cultural Resources Assessment of the Sunken Fleet of Operation Crossroads at Bikini and Kwajalein Atoll Lagoons," by James P. Delgado, Daniel S. Lenihan, and Larry E. Murphy
      
   Notes from the Field: The Bretton Woods Institutions
   Robert Perkinson---Fifty Years of Enriching the Few Catherine B. Wrenn---The World Bank and the IMF: Loans for What? John Gershman and Michelle Edrada---Debacles of Development: The

                                    World Bank in Asia Lisa A. McGowan---Bridging the Gender Gap Vandana Shiva---After Fifty Years, Is the World Bank Socially and

Environmentally Responsible? Kavaljit Singh---Ravaging India's Bihar Plateau Lori Udall---The Arun III Dam: A Test Case in Bank Accountability Patrick McCully---The Deadly Kedung Ombo Resettlement Fiasco
  
******************************************************************************* Date: Fri, 2 Jun 1995 19:57:23 -0400 From: Swayumbhu@aol.com To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: A Poem

Dear Editor,

I appreciate your time to put TND together almost day in and day out. I am privileged to be receiving TND. My new address is Swayumhu@aol.com. Thank you.

                                Dreamer
                                ------------
                                                           By Robin (Swayum)

I am a dreamer Don't ask me about reality Practicality is a nightmare to me Reality is a complete darkness to me I have no fear No fear of anything Only thing I fear is myself In dream I am the son of king In dream I am the son of God In dream I am the mater of the universe I am truly the master of void I am searching for the truth So I care less about trivial matter I am dreaming again I am dreaming about Georgia You sweet Georgia You are always in my dream.

**************************************************************** Date: Sat, 3 Jun 1995 18:22:44 -0400 (EDT) From: mahesh maskey <mmaskey@acs.bu.edu> Subject: Malaria scare To: The Nepal Digest <Nepal@cs.niu.edu>

MALARIA MAKES A DEADLY COMEBACK

About 750 people have died in Bangladesh and thousands infected in the past two months by a malaria epidemic that is "worse than any time before" in the history of the country. The regions affected are northestern - worse affected being Sunamganj and Sylhet which may not be very far from eastern districts of our country Nepal.

Thousands have fled from their homes in fear and government have tried to use massive amount of banned insectiside DDT , in their desperate effort to control the influx of mosquitos that are coming from the Indian border. The disease has killed most victims within 24 hours of attack. Bangladesh had successfully controlled the disease in 1960's but it made a comeback in 1980's becoming increasing virulent in the succeeding year.

------------------------------------------------------------------------- This epidemic is attributed to the influx of mosquitos from India which in turn is attributed to the increased use of anti mosquito chemicals on the Indian side.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

This is a serious pointer to the interdependence of neighboring countries regarding health and illness. Some regions of India may get rid of mosquitos but they may actually flee to neighboring region and countries. Nepal's eastern district bordering India may also be vulnerable to increased Malaria incidence because of same reason. This is one example which exhorts the importance of coordinated control measures for diseases like Malaria and Kalazar and Encephalitis across the border.

While ebola virus scared the world by its deadly attack in Zaire the killers like Malaria are also working covertly and overtly taking one life every 12 seconds and threatens over 40% of world's population across Asia Africa and Latin America. World Health Organization estimates that malaria kills 1.5 to 2.7 million people each ear many of them being the children in the poor countries.The problem is intensified because of the growing resistance to the effective anti malarial drug and the need of massive scale of environmental engineering in order to control its transmission. Poverty as usual, is a major determinant of Malaria problem.

Recently scientist have been successful to develop vaccine against Malaria. The world's first Malaria vaccine developed by Colombian scientist Manuel Patarroyo , has reduced the cases by third in a test group of children in Tanzania. He has given his synthetic vaccine SPf66 to WHO and it may be on the sale by 1998.

Doctors in Britain and United states are also experimenting with malaria vaccine. The British team has done research on Gambia and is still in experimental stage. In United States scientists are testing plasimd DNA vaccine . These vaccine attack the causative organism plasmodium at different stages of its life cycle.

These developments are extremely posetive signs for the control of Malaria, but they must not be considered "magic Bullet" simply because of the fact that they are not. They should be combined with the comprehensive measure for the control of malaria which extends from clinical treatment of malaria cases to the environmental engineering and social awareness to keep one's home and community safe from disease transmitting agents like mosquito.

( this news comment is based on the news posted in clari.tw.health)

******************************************************************** Date: Sun, 4 Jun 1995 09:48:51 -0400 (EDT) From: ashok rana <kancha@cml.com> To: Nepal digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Terms of reference

I am a recent arrival to the netsurfer bandwagon.love what you guys have been accomplishing.Just a pointer though;the last time I checked,the
"Royal" had been deleted from "The Royal Nepalese Army" Was the term
"RNA" used loosely in the various postings refering to the military? Or am I just under a huge delusion?? Please enlighten me anyone.

********************************************************************* From: ponta@sas.upenn.edu (Pratyoush R. Onta) Subject: Request for reviews To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu (tnd) Date: Sun, 4 Jun 1995 21:56:17 -0400 (EDT)

This is a reminder to TND readers to send in reviews of any variety: book reviews, journal reviews, film reviews, etc. Also notices of new books related to Nepal would be welcome.

My own stock of reviews (written during 1993-94) is all used up and I am unable to write new ones at the moment.

Pratyoush

%%%%%Editor's Note: Our sincere grattitude to Mr. Onta for insightfull and %%%%
%%%%% critical reviews of many books and publications on TND.%%%%
%%%%% We have thoroughly enjoyed every piece. %%%%
%%%%% %%%%
%%%%% Please keep the flow moving with your own reviews and %%%%
%%%%% critiques. Needless to remind, its important for all %%%%
%%%%% of us to participate. %%%%
%%%%% %%%%
%%%%% On behalf of entire TND, thank you for all your efforts. %%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

************************************************************************** Subject: Censorship/ Lynching/ Top Ten (fwd) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: Ashutosh Tiwari tiwari@fas.harvard.edu
                                                                
        Durga Dahal's call for censorship (as forwarded by Amulya) was misguided.

        Since its inception three years ago, TND has generally been a free-for-all forum for ALL sorts of news, ideas, thoughts, and opinions, analyses, questions, explanations, humor, gossip and what-not related, but not limited, to Nepal and the Nepalis. That much is obvious.

        Given TND's necessarily such a broad "mandate", it's only natural that NOT everything appearing here is bound to appeal to all the readers all the time. That is why, as a reader, I would think that learning to TOLERATE disagreeable IDEAS, is a price well worth paying to have the DIVERSITY of contributions/opinions that enrich each issue of TND.

        To be sure, tolerance of disagreeable stuff need not mean uncritical acceptance of such stuff; merely the recognition of the fact that even bad stuff ALSO need to be aired so that they can be -- NOT censored but
-- challenged with better or sharper stuff. Better and sharper by what/whose criteria, you may ask. That, I would leave to the wisdom of TND readers, to answer by their contributions.

        ----------

        PUBLIC LYNCHING: I was distressed by Anita Regmi's public exposure of some alleged harrasser on TND. Now before some my friends start to condemn my condoning -- gasp, choke, gulp!! -- harrassment , let me present my arguments carefully:

        First, I fully agree that harrassment in any form should not be tolerated. In fact, harrassment by e-mail is a CRIME in some states, or, at the very least, subject to disciplinary actions at almost all universities (including the University of Idaho) in the US.

        That said, I also know that TND is NOT some CRIMINAL court, complete with a judge, jury and prosecution and defense teams to prove the guilt or the innocence of any member about any act of alleged harassment.

        Now let's look at the "facts": Taking Anita at her word, let's agree that some male TND member did start to harrass a female member after seeing her post (therefore her address) on TND. But I would argue that the resolution of this harrasment has NOTHING to do with TND. Why? Because the harrassment did not occur on TND, but OUTSIDE of it. Had it occurred on TND, I am sure many TND readers would have objected to it in the strongest terms.

        Now what could be this outside-of-TND solution?

         Well, the first step for the victim or for that matter for Anita is to NOTIFY the respective computer system administrators at the harasser's and the victim's sites.

        Given the facts, the system admins can issue strong warnings to the harasser. They can also issue a totally unlisted e-mail account to the victim. In addition, they can, if need be, also notify appropriate college/university or AOL/Compuserve authorities for possible probations or disciplinary actions for the harrasser.

        Given that system admins ARE there, in part, to protect their sites and computer-users against CRIMES, I have every reason to believe that not one of them would idly sit by and let one of their clients/studentb users be constantly and continuously harrassed by some idiot from the University of Idaho.

        So, question number one: Did Anita advise the victim to deal with the problem by FIRST talking to her system admin? If so, what had been the results? Question number two: If the system admin had declined to intervene, then did Anita advise the victim to talk to that system admin's bosses -- assuming, of course, that she wanted to totally defang the harasser?

        The point I am trying to make is this: At most computer sites, there ARE real, well-defined processes to deal with harrassment. The idea is to to use those processes to press the point and see where it goes. Merely blurting out a name on TND does little to shame the harasser and deter other ones. [Here, I refer to alleged harasser's "brazen" posting from the University of Idaho on the May 30th issue of TND!]

        At any rate, blurting a name to accuse someone of a crime on TND sets a dangerous precendent: I mean, if Anita's friend is to pass by this time, then what's to stop Maiya Karki from the University of Antartica to blurt publicly she's been harrassed by Amulya Tuladhar or by Pratoush Onta, even when Amulya and Pratyoush have never even heard of her? Should 1400 TND readers then readily believe Maiya word for word? Should they now join hand-in-hand with Maiya to condemn Amulya and Pratoush for their alleged misdeeds? And lots of other examples abound. So, this method is open to potential misuse and abuse to wreck people's reputation even if they haven't done anything bad. And there could be done nothing about that.

        Lastly, lest I be misunderstood, I fully support Anita's call to deter/discourage and root out harassment. But I just don't think that public lynching of alleged harasser in the way she did was the right way of following that call. I would rather let the proper authorities such as system admin deal with the case than drop a name in front of 1400 TND readers in the name of 'teaching this idiot a lesson'. Disagreements are welcome.

        ------------

        Top Ten: I shall keep Pramod Mishra guessing no longer. The anonymous writer of the all the Top Ten Lists that have appeared on TND since March is Ashutosh Tiwari. A Top Ten List, by definition, is a silly, sophomoric list, intended to be amusing, ironic, humorous, stupid, infuriating, mocking and well downright idiotic. Pratoush and Amulya would agree to that characterization; and so, I am sure, would Pramod.

        Goodbye; see you all in September.

namaste ashu

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