The Nepal Digest - June 18, 1995 (4 Ashadh 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Sunday 18 June 95: Ashadh 4 2052 BkSm Volume 39 Issue 8

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

********************************************************************** Date: Sun, 18 Jun 1995 03:11:11 +0700 To: Nepal Digest <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> From: Suman Kumar Manandhar <a94314@cs.ait.ac.th> Subject: What Newarism?

The unwarranted and gratuitous accusation against Newars that recently appeared in TND is condemnable. I think Newars have stayed away from any kind of isms. I feel hurt. The man who posted such an article must be an evil one. What exactly are his intentions?

Suman Kumar Manandhar, a94314@cs.ait.ac.th, http://www.cs.ait.ac.th/~a94314/ Mail Box 261, Asian Institute of Technology, GPO Box 2754, Bangkok - 10501

************************************************************** Date: Thu, 15 Jun 1995 19:58:01 -0400 (EDT) From: mahesh maskey <mmaskey@acs.bu.edu> Subject: DDT and sex change To: The Nepal Digest <Nepal@cs.niu.edu>

            How DDT changes boys into girls
        ------------------------------------

        LONDON (Reuter) - American researchers reported Friday that they had discovered how the pesticide DDT causes sex abnormalities in males.
         It has been known for years that DDT and other pesticides have alarming effects on male animals, causing them to develop abnormally small penises, undescended testicles and, in some cases, to become female.
         Scientists thought this was because DDT somehow mimics the effects of estrogen, the main ``female'' hormone. In a report in the science journal Nature, however, Bill Kelce and colleagues of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Reproductive Toxicology Branch said the chemical instead attacks male hormones.
         Instead of ``feminizing'' males, the chemical in fact
``de-masculinizes'' them, Kelce said.
         Kelce's team tested rats with DDE, which is a metabolized, or broken-down, form of DDT. They found that DDE interfered with male hormones such as testosterone.
         Newborn male rats had nipples -- males usually don't -- and showed abnormalities of their reproductive systems.
         Doctors say DDT has been found in the brains of stillborn infants, indicating that DDT crosses the placenta to affect developing fetuses. The chemical also accumulates in body fat.
         Scientists around the world are becoming increasingly concerned about the threat to the male sex caused by environmental chemicals. Declining sperm counts, genital abnormalities and other problems have all been reported.
         French doctors reported in the New England Journal of Medicine earlier this year that sperm counts in France had fallen on average by two percent a year over the past 20 years.
         Richard Sharpe of Britain's Medical Research Council's Reproductive Biology Unit said Kelce's findings could help point scientists in the right direction.
         But in an accompanying commentary in Nature, he said pesticides and especially DDT were still widely used.
         ``DDT is still detectable in us all (mainly in body fat), despite the ban on its use,'' he wrote.
         ``Can we at least comfort ourselves with the knowledge that things can only get better? Unfortunately not,'' he added.
         ``Present use of DDT in developing countries (mainly for malarial control) probably exceeds the level of its use historically. Mexico and Brazil each used nearly 1,000 tons of DDT in 1992, according to World Health Organization figures.
         ``As well as posing a threat in these countries, the export of DDT through animals, crops and the atmosphere to the countries where its use is now restricted remains likely.''

                HOW AIDS VIRUS MAKES CELLS TO COMMIT SUCIDE!

 NEW YORK (AP) -- Scientists have found a possible explanation for how the AIDS virus makes uninfected immune system cells commit suicide, a process that may contribute to the devastation of the body's defenses.
        If scientists can find ways to block that suicide, they may move closer to developing new types of therapy, researchers said.
        HIV cripples the immune system by killing off key players called T cells. It somehow kills more cells than it actually infects, and scientists are debating whether the suicide of uninfected cells plays an important role in that destruction.
        T cells normally kill themselves under some circumstances, and they produce a certain protein that plays a role in that process.
        The new work showed that in the laboratory, two proteins from HIV -- called Tat and gp120 -- promoted suicide by making T cells produce more of their own suicidal protein.
        Tat and gp120 had previously been shown to kill T cells. Both of these HIV proteins can circulate in the blood by themselves, apart from the virus, said researcher Dr. Peter Krammer, a professor of immunology at the University of Heidelberg Medical School in Germany.
        Krammer and colleagues report in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature that concentrations of Tat that promoted cell suicide in laboratory experiments have also been found in the blood of HIV-infected people.
        Krammer said the suicide process shown in the new study might account for much of the cell suicide seen in AIDS.
        Dr. Jeffrey Laurence, an AIDS expert at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, said the study's finding is suicide is in depleting T cells in AIDS.

************************************************************** Forwarded by: atuladhar@vax.clarku.edu (Amulya Tuladhar) From: Looja Tuladhar <looza@amy23.Stanford.EDU> Date: 12-JUN-1995 20:44:11 Description: Re: Newarism: FAQ

  This was one of the most offensive postings on SCN.-
 
> Frequently Asked Questions: NEWARISIM - A BRIEF INTRODUCTION
> ============================================================
 
***************************************************************** Date: Fri, 16 Jun 1995 00:17 EST Forwarded by: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: Kunga <ws071@aix1.ucok.edu> Description: Re: Great Nepali Xavierians...

 
 atuladhar@jack.clarku.edu wrote:
 
> : This is in reference to the great Xavierians piece by Ashutosh in his response
> : to the "two tier education".
>
> : I am proud to be a Xavierian and share in the community joys of other
> : Xavierians.
>
> : While this might make other "good-English" Nepalese mad, notably BKs, when it
> : was Adarsha ViDya Mandir and Anand kuti that were the rivals in the old days,
> : ******** rest deleted ******************
 
        Amulya, there are many roads that lead to Rome, likewise there are many ways to make believe that you have quite an argumentative instinct. But, why harp on the same string ? Why make a big deal about language? Clark students like you should heed for the message and the content of any matter and not hold on to the carrier. I don't get it when you go to such length to shadow our already faded IQ owing to all the jargon postings on SCN.
 
        When Gotama said `Abiding in my practice is more than cherishing me' I presume the so called pundits didn't jerk it off as a mere superficial statement.
 
        Ashutosh seems to brag openly about `GBNC Circle'. I didn't know what this four letter stood for until only recently a friend of mine explained it. I guess that puts me beyond this elusive CIRCLE. Let'em blow his own trumpet. You know what, Outhere, we don't use such bombastic words like ELITE..BRHAMIN..IQ..CIRCLE etc... We have students from almost every school in the valley. you just name it. Despite all these differences, we have been hanging around pretty well and at times partying and dancing.
 
        I guess all ego-stricken guys oughtta come to Oklahoma. While here, you'll definitely get to taste Dheeren dai's dhal bhat & gundhruk and not to mention his awesome hospitality. I swear by the time you head back you'll find a more friendly down-to-earth attitude bubbling in you.
  so long.....
 
* The greatest enemy is enemy within you `ignorance' *
  kunga

*************************************************************** Date: Fri, 16 Jun 1995 00:17 EST Forwarded by: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: tuladhar@unixg.ubc.ca (Anil Tuladhar) Description: Re: Great Nepali Xavierians...

In article <Pine.A32.3.91.950614190320.51196A-100000@aix1.ucok.edu> Kunga <ws071@aix1.ucok.edu> writes:
>
> atuladhar@jack.clarku.edu wrote:
>
>> : This is in reference to the great Xavierians piece by Ashutosh in his response
>> : to the "two tier education".
>>
>> : I am proud to be a Xavierian and share in the community joys of other
>> : Xavierians.
>>
>> : While this might make other "good-English" Nepalese mad, notably BKs, when it
>> : was Adarsha ViDya Mandir and Anand kuti that were the rivals in the old days,
>> : ******** rest deleted ******************
>
> Amulya, there are many roads that lead to Rome, likewise there
>are many ways to make believe that you have quite an argumentative
>instinct. But, why harp on the same string ? Why make a big deal about
>language? Clark students like you should heed for the message and the
>content of any matter and not hold on to the carrier. I don't get it when
>you go to such length to shadow our already faded IQ owing to all the
>jargon postings on SCN.
>
>::kunga
  Well written Kunga! You are 100% right. I still could not understand why do people think that they are more smarter than others only because they have mastered a bit on English. I do not say that all the Xavierians are egoist and stupid but we have clearly seen a couple of them. Not only Xavierians but almost all of us who have got an oppertunity to go to a good school in the valley should think about millions of other brillient students going to the general schools of the villages with no facilities. They in no means less brillient than we people but because of lack of the oppertunity they are now there ploghing the land and we are harping in the cyberspace. So all the Xaveirians in particular know that their intelligence, if any, is due to the money of their father than from their own.
  I remember once Anshu stressing the need of mobilizing private sector in the field of education and thus relieving the Government from the stress. I do agree to some extent on privatization but not education and health. These are basic human needs. All the english schools of the valley are doing a wonderful job of an engine (Anshu's term) but pulling a private car not a public bus. It is building infrastructure for a few elits who has already mustered enough money to send their children to an english medium school.
  So the scenario is very illusionary. These english medium schools are the real cause of economic descrepacies between the rich and poor people. Such double tier education system should be completely demolished and the government should take all the responsibilities of education up to the 12 level.
 
-Anil
 
******************************************************************* Date: Fri, 16 Jun 1995 04:31:00 -0500 From: ncohen@usaid.gov To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

Why?

Why does economic liberalization make sense? It appears from a reading of the papers that nearly everyone agrees that economic liberalization was a worthwhile policy and ought to be continued. However, there are different interpretations of what is liberalization and different levels of commitment toward it. Economic liberalization is not an abstract policy put forward by the World Bank and IMF to continue global economic domination by the rich countries, just as it is not a panacea for all ills. There is no policy that will work in all countries, that can guarantee success everywhere. Non- transparent privatization is probably worse than no privatization; financial deregulation without monitoring can make people worse off.

However, saying that economic liberalization has to be tailored to Nepal is not the same thing as saying it can take almost any form.

USAID has emphasized the process of economic liberalization not because it was taught to us as a theoretical construct that works in the US and therefore must be applied universally, but because it makes sense, and is vitally necessary for Nepal's development.

What is Economic Liberalization?

Reliance on Market Prices To begin with, economic liberalization is a set of policies that begins with the premise that the allocation of resources via a freely functioning competitive marketplace is better than direct allocation by government. Governments have tried to set prices but find they cannot make the changes as quickly as necessary and politics interferes with rational policy. Economic liberalization requires a competitive environment: monopolies distort prices as badly as governments. Nepal has had government trying to set the price for many commodities, from the external value of the rupee, to the prices of goods from state enterprises, to minimum wages
(increased recently without any concern about what this might to do the number of jobs for workers), to interest rates. Sometimes government influences the price without directly controlling it.

Reliance on the Private Sector

Another central aspect of economic liberalization is reliance on the private sector. Experience in Nepal shows the harm that results when governments engage in production or distribution. In most cases there has been no new investment in state enterprises since they were constructed. Usually production has been falling, but employment continues to rise because of political pressures. We have seen of late the problems when government tries to engage in trading. The possible scandals on fertilizer, sugar and airplane
(and ticket) purchases relate to a lack of proper tendering. The losers are farmers who will receive fertilizer late, consumers who have to pay more for what they need, or whose taxes have to go to bail out corrupt and inefficient companies. That money is not available for development purposes.

Transparency

Another requirement for liberalization is transparent rules and regulations. Decisions cannot be made by a closed-door group whose decision making process is unknown, there cannot be wide discretion as this results in favoritism and makes the system open to allegations of corruption.

The legal system has to be known and predictable. The courts must be fair and unbiased. When government acts it must be in a neutral manner, with public discussion. The lack of codified rules, the considerable discretion given to government officials to interpret policy in almost any way, the lack of predictability in taxes, all indicate a serious shortage of transparency in Nepal.

Nepal's Progress

Is there another third world country that made the transition to democracy so peacefully? Or, that made such incredible progress toward economic freedom in such a short period? As we worry about the current problems, we need to reflect on the distance Nepal has travelled. There is increasingly an informed debate in a very free, and increasingly responsible, press; there is better analysis being done; there is greater involvement in decisions. Nepal must assure that she uses her economic resources as well as possible to improve the prospects for economic development.

The Panchayat's emphasis on crony capitalism where who you knew was more important than productive skills, abilities or ideas, worked against development. Its lack of development and lack of a sense that progress was possible was palpable.

Economic and Political Freedom

That there is a link between economic and political freedom is not in doubt. Political democracy cannot flourish in an economically controlled society. Similarly, people in an economically liberal environment will become richer faster than those in a state dominated environment. It does not take long for people who are used to making their own economic decisions to demand the same right politically. How long it may take for one to lead to the other, or whether economic of political freedom ought to come first, is debatable. Nepal needs both, not just as words to be said, but concepts to be implemented.

Why Rely on the Private Sector?

The success of liberalization would not have been possible without the incredible talents of the Nepali private sector. These innovative people, willing to risk their own money, possess the ideas and talent necessary to help the country become richer. But government policy has usually thwarted their abilities, and encouraged less production oriented activities. The future of the country depends on encouraging the productive investment of the Nepali business community.

In the past there have been allegations that the Nepali private sector was only interested in collecting commission fees, bribing and smuggling. There is small wonder that this existed. The economic system at the time allowed Government to designate monopolies, to award contracts without tendering with the result that greater profits could be made by bribing and through being a commission agent than in engaging in production. The previous controlled foreign exchange regime when combined with an overvalued currency and an inability of Indians to purchase foreign goods legally made it more profitable to be a smuggler than a producer. This illustrates that Nepali businesspeople were rationale, that they have the talent that now has to be applied to production as smuggling is less viable.

Without nourishing smaller Nepali businesses, and women-owned businesses, the fruits of liberalization will not be realized. USAID must make sure our assistance does not create donor-dependent enterprises, or those that cannot flourish in a competitive environment. A trait of Nepali businesspeople gives us a chance to help. The sense of service is so great, that Nepali businesspeople will, and have, donated their time to help others. We shall capitalize on that. Most of the skills needed by the new businesspeople are already possessed by other businesspeople here. We shall help to tap those resources to create sustainable development.

What did the change to economic liberalization bring?

The overall benefits of liberalization can be seen with last year's best economic performance in over a decade. Not only was growth very rapid, it was broad-based. The strength of that growth continues this year in spite of a hiatus in policy change and considerable economic instability (see the article elsewhere in ECONews on macro- economic review). The economy is strong because of the changes made by liberalization.

The benefits from liberalization were not limited to the rich. The boom in jobs helped lower income people, the greater availability of agricultural inputs helped all farmers, simplified government procedures helped the less powerful. The major beneficiaries were not the rich and powerful.

Licensing and Registration

Simplified licensing and registration opened the floodgates of new businesses of all sizes, but especially small businesses, and businesses owned by women. The number of smaller enterprises nearly doubled, investments nearly quadrupled, the number of jobs created by them each year doubled. The improvements for larger enterprises, while good, were not nearly as positive.

Finally these businesses could become legitimate and thus qualify for loans and other forms of support. This was a benefit of economic liberalization. But the bureaucracy appears to be reversing some of the gains of simplification and thus we must seek further simplification.

Financial Sector Reform

Financial sector reform increased the number of commercial banks, and allowed for the rapid development of new financial institutions. This increase in competition increased the flow of money to private businesses. But more than that, the better banks have begun developing innovative programs to service clients previously discriminated against. The changes in policy permitted the establishment of Grameen Bank clones that provide credit for the poorest rural women. This was a benefit of economic liberalization.

The new financial institutions point up a problem with liberalization. There must be excellent monitoring of financial institutions to protect investors.

The liberalization of the Nepal Stock Exchange (NEPSE) led to a burst of interest among the new Nepali middle class. The new source of capital led to new investments, and these led to new jobs. Market capitalization went from Rs1.9 billion in 1990 to Rs13 billion now.

Foreign investors have been scared off by presumed UML policies, the lack of policies encouraging foreign investment, and the political uncertainty in Nepal. Efforts to permit foreigners to buy and sell on NEPSE have come to naught. Foreign mutual funds/unit trusts that were considering investing over
$40 million (Rs2 billion), have taken their money and invested elsewhere. There is not much reason for foreign firms to invest in Nepal; Nepal must actively seek them, cultivate and nourish them, making this a favored spot for investment.

Privatization

Privatization took public sector companies that were moribund, drains on the Treasury and harmful to farmers, and sold them to private businesses. We can all take pride that the process was transparent without even a hint of corruption. Few countries have implemented privatization as well as Nepal.

But more important the result was more investment, more production, more exports, more government tax revenue, and all this without a reduction in employment (in fact, some have begun to hire new people). The money government spent on covering the losses of the privatized companies can now be spent on more worthwhile social programs.

This program's success has been noted around the world. Is there anyone who could argue that Government should run a paper factory? a brick and tile company? The benefits to the poor of the new investment in these, and other companies is clearly visible. But the process was not completed and appears to be on hold.

Privatization is more than just selling companies to the private sector. It encompasses forcing government enterprises to compete with the private sector. The benefits to Nepal of opening the domestic skies to the competition of private airlines and clearly visible. Tourists are staying in Nepal longer because it is easier to move around the country. Concerns about safety highlight the legitimate role of government: monitor the airlines to assure safety.

This year's boom in Indian tourists could have been much greater if government would permit the private airlines to compete with RNAC on flights to India. Why should Nepal reap fewer benefits because Indian tourists can't get to Nepal? Is it worth the price just to protect the monopoly of RNAC and Indian Airlines? More non-Indian tourists could come if Government would liberalize its policy toward charters. Again, why protect RNAC and hurt the nation?

Foreign Exchange

Many forget how difficult and capricious it was to secure foreign exchange before it was liberalized. In the old passbook system government told industries what their capacity was and how much they were allowed to import. Firms were discouraged from becoming for efficient and from changing production lines. Too much of the foreign exchange was diverted to smuggling as greater profits were possible there than in legitimate production.

Now any businessperson, not just someone with connections, or someone with money to burn, can walk into a bank and secure the foreign exchange needed for trade purposes. How much better the system will be when the same applies to all transactions.

Again, who benefits? The powerful received the foreign exchange they needed before and could make money by diverting the foreign exchange to items for smuggling to India. The talented, those with ideas, those interested in production and job creation in Nepal suffered. The benefits can be seen in jobs and income created.

Tax Reform

The capstone, and the most important element of liberalization, is tax reform. The Nepali system of taxation discourages innovative businesspeople; the unpredictability of taxes makes rational investment planning impossible and thus reduces investment. Corruption makes the system grossly unfair, benefiting those with power, and those seeking quick gains. Further, the meager resources available through the current system has made Nepal too dependent on foreign donors. Nepalis don't determine the nature of development now, but foreign donors decide what they, the donors, will fund. The programs desired by the Nepali people, often more worthwhile, cannot be implemented because there is no money. It is time for Nepal to begin to stand on its own feet and become economically independent.

Protectionism A worry with liberalization is that the lowering of import duties, easier access of foreign firms will lead to Nepali businesses failing. Because of past protectionist policies many Nepali businesses cannot compete internationally. Ought Nepali consumers have to pay higher prices to protect these businesses? The impact of higher prices will make other investments more expensive and thus less likely. Protecting the domestic textile industry raises prices for the poor. Maybe a solution is a clear policy of gradually removing the protection. In general, a rapid change and then constant policy is easier for business than a constantly changing environment. But the change must come. Nepali businesses must learn to become efficient. The problem is not that Nepali businesses are so small, because efficiency is no longer with the larger enterprise, but rather it is now with the smarter, quicker and more adaptive business.

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** From: Thorsten Bartosch <thorsten@nt.e-technik.uni-erlangen.de> Date: Fri, 16 Jun 1995 12:34:38 +0200 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: KHOJ_KHABAR (Inquiring about Nepal, Nepalis etc. )

Dear TND Editors,

I would be pleased to see my folliwing question published in your TND.

Question: Does somebody know an Organisation or a procedure how to support a family
(its my frinds family) in Kathmandu by paying the school fee. I thougt that it migth be possibile to transfere the money for school fees for one year and a trustable organisation (maybee the bank by itself) will be responsibile for the correct monthly payment. I would not like to hand over a big amount of money to the family at one time as I want to know its exact purpose. If somebody has an idea which could help me than please contact me via email. email: thorsten@nt.e-technik.uni-erlangen.de

Yours sincerely Thorsten Bartosch.

PS: I'm really very fond of your nice editorial work. It's an exelent opportunity for me to get information about what is going on in this lovely but also hardliving country Nepal. Good luck.

***********************************************************
>From rjha@irgate.tnrcc.state.tx.us Fri Jun 16 11:13:14 1995
Subject: Khoj-Khabar To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Fri, 16 Jun 95 11:14:21 cst

Looking for Mr. Bimalbabu Adhikary at AIT Bangkok
=================================================

I'd appreciate if anyone of you who know Mr. Bimalbabu Adhikary, currently at the AIT Bangkok, could convey this message to him. His relatives
(Rajendra Bhattarai & Samita), based in Austin, Texas, want to contact him.

Thanks in advance. Ratan Jha Austin, Texas

********************************************************* Date: Fri, 16 Jun 1995 12:46:36 -0400 (EDT) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Search

I heard that my teacher Sanjeev Upreti is in U.S.A. He was teaching in the English Department in T.U. I would appreciate if anyone knew about him . If you hear me please respond. Thanks.Nirmal

  Date: Fri, 16 Jun 1995 12:59:24 -0400 (EDT)
  From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU>
  To: nepal.cs.niu.edu@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU
  Subject: To say or not to say
  
  This is in response to A.Regmi's Public Lynching opinion.
  Harrasment of any type is bad either to human or animals.
  Everyone have diiferent experience in life and have their own way of doing
  things.But, wouldn't it have been if A.Regmi had first written personally
  to the person who harassed her and asked him to stop this nonsense.That would
  have been the first warning. And if he still continued then other action could
  have been taken. My point was, maybe to warn once is a better idea than making
  it a public lynching immediately. But I am in no way supporting haraasement.
  Nor do I mean to say that everyone can harass once, for he only gets the
  warning for the first time. But assuming that not many cases like this happpen
  in TND, I put up this small opinion. Thanks.Nirmal

************************************************************************ Date: Fri, 16 Jun 1995 14:43:32 EST From: tilak@UFCC.UFL.EDU To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: My two cents worth.

1. The great secret revealed : Have you ever wondered why Nirmal writes Ghimirez instead of simple Ghimire ? No, his parent did not kidnapped him from Spain. Neither, he is a Spaniard disguised as a Nepali. It is a simple case of 'Mapain'. That is, he is adding the Nepali honourific term 'Jee' or 'Z' himself in his name. So, do not forget to address him as 'Ghimire Jee' or
'Ghimire Z', as you deem fit. I wonder if the Spaniards were doing the same thing all along.

2. Language - Sanskrit and all that Jazz : To me a number of issues seems to be important. It is true that a large part of our culture and religiosity is based upon Sanskrit and hence we should take pride in preserving it. However, it may not be necessary for every Nepali to be expert in Sanskrit. Perhaps, a little of Sanskrit and more of Sanskriti might be better for the mundane Nepalese who wants to be an economist or an engineer, and leave the intricacies of the Deva Bhasa to the professional Aacharyas (regardless of caste). I am quite happy to listen to the Slokas or prayers in Sanskrit and feel its beauty as a religious experience. I do not care much about understanding what has been said. Perhaps, if I understand it, I might turn argumentative and less spiritual. I would rather have slokas explained to me in less emotional environment in native language as Buddha did. Perhaps I would debate and would not allow the Pundits to hide behind the curtain of the mysterious language. That is, I do strongly believe that Sanskrit should be protected as our heritage and that the new generation of Nepalese should be taught our Sanskriti.

     Nepal is uniquely endowed with many languages. I am quite proud to note that we have so many languages beside Nepali like Rai, Maithili, Tamang, Nepal Bhasha, Gurung, and so on. These are aptly recognized as Nepali national languages. Along with Sanskrit we also need to protect these living national languages of Nepal. If, God forbid, Maithili is no longer spoken, then it is not loss to the Maithili speaking people only but it is also loss to all of us Nepalese. I might add, like the extinction of a biological specie, it is a loss to the world at large. That is, I believe, we should also protect our heritage of these national languages.

     It is sadly true that in the period of Ranas and Panches, some of the ruling eliths were against our heritage of these national languages and there were many official policies to that effect. Understandably, it has fomented some grudge within the so called Jana Jatis. Which seems to be expressed as anti-Sanskrit. However, I would rather look for the solution within understanding, cooperation and common bond; than in divisive confrontational politics. A promotor of Sanskrit automatically is not against the Jana bhashas. Being anti-Sanskrit would not help Jana bhashas, either. Neither, we should blame all bahun
(bahoinan) at large for the historical injustices. Same time, promotion of Sanskrit, however noble the effort is, without being sensitive to the aspirations of the minorities, will face unnecessary resistance. We must address the concern of minorities that their language is in the verge of extinction. I have many bahun friends who enjoy chhwoila and momo with me and try a few sentences in accented Newa bhaya. I do speak Nepali fluently, though I must admit I still have trouble with 't' and 'sha'. Politics of hate and anger is not only destructive but also self defeating. Days of Ranas and Panches are long gone. The path of recrimination would lead us only to the position of Arjuna when he asked Krishna 'what is there to gain by killing my own cousins and uncles'. Let us not bother with the lengthy answer to that question yet. Perhaps we should try a healthy debate with the new generation and see what is the general consensus. I believe mutual respect and seeking strength in diversity is the way to go for us Nepalese.

     Perhaps, we should teach our youngsters Sanskrit or one of the national languages. Since many of the Buddhist literature is in Pali, perhaps we could add Pali also as one of the national languages. Ofcourse, it goes without saying that we need to learn Nepali as the common national bond and English as the window to the world at large. In the old SLC examination, there used to be a subject called extra-optional which a student may or may not take. If a student takes the test then he may get a few extra marks towards the aggregate. Perhaps, similar system can be devised that a student may learn either Sanskrit or Pali or one of the national languages as semi-required course, and happily live ever after.

********************************************************** Date: Sat, 17 Jun 1995 13:15:03 -0400 From: aa563@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (Donald W. Cole) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: The 15th Organization Development World Congress in Nepal

                CALL FOR PRESENTATIONS AND PAPERS

CALL FOR PRESENTATIONS:
     You are invited to make a presentation at The 15th O.D. World Congress being held July 24-29, 1995 in Kathmandu, Nepal. Registratin is $240 for members of The O.D. Institute and $310 for nonmembers. (A membership is $110.) The cost of airfare from Cleveland to Kathmandu and return is $1550. Call Sam in Chicago at Matchless Travel 312/271- 9897 for special rates. Room and board at The Holiday Inn just outside Kathmandu is US$90 in a single and US$60 in a double with all meals included (during the week of the Congress). This also includes two half days of sightseeing and transfers from the airport to the hotel and back. If you would like to arrive a week, we can arrange for a river raft trip and a safari on elephant back through the jungle. The week before The Congress a single at The Holiday Inn with no meals is US$78 and a double is US$48/person. Room reservations can be made by sending Thamel at The Holiday Inn a Fax: 011-977-1-417133.
    Mickey Veich, RODP is developing an O.D. consulting project for us at Kathmandu University. We will meet with them on Tuesday July 18th to discuss the details. Those interested in a river rafting trip on the Trisuli River will leave at 7:am on Wednesday July 19th by private bus for the put in point. We will stay Wednesday night at Brigend's Bend on the river in native huts with native dancing. The safari on elephant back will begin with travel to Tharu Safari Resort on Thursday July 20th for three days and two night. We will all return to Kathmandu by air on Saturday July 22nd. The river raft trip is US$184 and the safari is US$184 including food and lodging. Airfare is US$50 each way.
    The 15th O.D. World Congress will begin Monday evening July 24th and run through Saturday noon July 29th. We plan to spend Wednesday July 26th on some kind of special O.D. project. Most of our meals will be at The Holiday Inn but Laura Pincus, Congress Chairperson is arranging a special evening in Kathmandu for us on Thursday evening. The 15th O.D. World Congress is a once in a life time adventure that you will not want to miss.

CALL FOR PRESENTATIONS:
    You are invited to make a presentation at The 11th Annual Meeting of THE RESEARCH/STUDY TEAM ON NONVIOLENT LARGE SYSTEMS CHANGE being held May 19-21, 1996 at The University of South Alabama's Brookley Conference Center on the shores of Mobile Bay in Mobile, Alabama.

CALL FOR CO-SPONSORS FOR THE RESEARCH/STUDY TEAM ANNUAL MEETING
     Some of the organizations which co-sponsored the 1994 Research/Study Team Annual Meeting last May were: Peace Action
(formerly known as SANE/FREEZE) and their 150 chapters; The American Orthopsychiatic Association; Psychologists for Social Responsibility; Veterans for Peace, Inc.; APA's Division 48 on
"Peace Psychology"; The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues; The Hillcrest Club of Rotary International; The Institute for the Victims of Trauma; Social Scientists and Journalists for Peace (based in Samara, Russia); The Medical Rehabilitation Centre for Torture Victims (based in Zagreb, Croatia); The Society for the Prevention of Violence; The Israeli Institute for the Treatment and Prevention of Stress
(based in Haifa, Israel); The Ohio Statewide Peace Committee and The Organization Development Institute (which paid for the marketing and administrative costs). We are now looking for co- sponsors for the 1996 Eleventh Annual Meeting. Sponsors for the 1995 meeting included: The Cheasapeake Bay O.D. Network, The Radical Psychology Network, Efficiency Plus based in Australia. Belgrade Circle based in Belgrade, Serbia along with most of the 1994 co-sponsors.
     THERE IS NO CHARGE FOR BEING LISTED AS A CO-SPONSOR. We would like co-sponsoring organizations to publish a call for a
"volunteer delegate" to represent them and their technology at this meeting. But, this is not required. We believe that every Peace organization has dedicated members who would be happy to attend this meeting at their own expense if they were only told about it and invited to attend as a delegate. We want to build collaborative relationship between the different organizations interested in peace. There are now more than 346 little Peace organizations just in the state of Ohio. They know little about what one another are doing so they could not be of much help to one another even if they wanted to. One of the reason why it has been so difficult to achieve a great idea like peace is because the peace organizations are so badly fragmented. We would like to identify those organization that are interested in working with other Peace organizations. And identifying those organizations interested in co-sponsoring this meeting is one way of beginning to do that. We will also be looking at how easy or difficult it is to get an organization's co-sponsorship and how many bureacratic hurdles it is necessary to leap in order to gain their interest and their cosponsorship.

CALL FOR PRESENTATIONS
     You are invited to make a presentation at The 26th Annual Information Exchange May 21-24, 1996 at The University of South Alabama's Brookly Conference Center on Mobile Bay in Mobile, Alabama on on "What Is New In Organization Development and Human Resource Development". Registration before October 15th is
$140 for 1995-6 members of The O.D. Institute (a membership is
$110) and $210 nonmembers. A room with three meals included is
$63/person/day in a double and $78/person/day in a single. Because of the emphasis we place on building a learning community, we encourge you to stay in a double. There will be a series of one day workshops on Tuesday May 21rd. The Annual Information Exchange will begin on Tuesday evening with a community building program and end on Friday afternoon following The Awards Luncheon. There will be an award of $500 for the best presentation by a full-time student who is not working full-time. It is not necessary for you to submit a paper written in advance but if you want to do this, please keep it to less than 10 double spaced pages so that it can be considered for publication in THE ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL. Please contact The O.D. Institute for additional details.

CALL FOR PRESENTATIONS
     The 16th O.D. World Congress is being planned for November 3-6, 1996 in Cairo, Egypt and will include an air conditioned river boat trip up the Nile River October 31 to November 3rd and a visit to the pyramids for those interested. For more details contact The O.D. Institute.

     Louw DuToit, RODC who founded The Community Development and Management Association of Africa to train South African leaders in nonviolent change has offered to organize a visit to South Africa in February of 1996 for a team of O.D. Consultants so that you can see first hand the changes that have taken place there.

INTERNET CONFERENCING
     The O.D. Institute has been invited to help organize an INTERNET Conference. Our proposed subject would be "Organization Development Worldwide". We need the names and e-mail addresses of 10 conference speakers, each of whom guarantees to log on three times each week during the scheduled conference period. If this would interest you, please send your name and e-mail address to The O.D. Institute at the address below.

    We have just re-published a 32 page booklet on IMPROVING PROFITS THROUGH ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT which includes a system for calculating the contribution in dollars of an O.D. project to the corporation's bottom line. For a copy, send $3 for postage and handling.

     We will shortly begin work on 1996 edition of THE INTERNATIONAL REGISTRY OF O.D. PROFESSIONALS AND O.D. HANDBOOK in which we list the credentials of all those registered with us. If you would like to list your credentials is the 300 page book, price $25, please contact us at the address below.

FOR MORE INFORMATION
    For more information, please contact: The O.D. Institute, Attn: Dr. Donald Cole, RODC (Registered O.D. Consultant), Management/Clinical Psychologist, 781 Beta Drive, Suite K, Cleveland, OH 44143 USA. Tel: 216/461-4333. Fax: 216/729-9319 E-Mail: aa563@Cleveland.Freenet.edu

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