The Nepal Digest - June 17, 1995 (3 Ashadh 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Saturday 17 June 95: Ashadh 3 2052 BkSm Volume 39 Issue 7

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma sharma@plains.nodak.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta ponta@sas.upenn.edu *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha rajendra@dartmouth.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 13 Jun 1995 15:38 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: Bishwa Acharya <ACHARYA@IGS.CVIOG.UGA.EDU> Subject: Election in Nepal..

Just to share with you the latest political development in Nepal: King Birendra accepted PM Adhikari's recommendation to dissolve the parliament and call for a fresh snap poll. Elections will be held in the month of Mangsir (within a year??). Enjoy elections!!

***************************************************************** Date: Tue, 13 Jun 1995 11:14:18 -1000 From: Ratna Shrestha <ratna@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: UML and NC

Dear Panthjee,
        I fully agree with your thoughts. In addition, i would like to make some speculations on this present political situation in Nepal. I think the King will allow NC,RPP and NSP to form a coalition rather than approve a midterm poll.
        This time NC, RPP and NSP have jointly filed a petition to the King to allow them to form a coalition. This situation is different from the previous one. Then GPK had recommended the midterm poll with the consent of 74 MPs and a coalition would have been possible only with a breakaway of a faction of NC.
        What PM Adhikary did is right (for UML) if he has no constitutional power to recommend a midterm poll in case he is thrown out of the govt by a no confidence vote. I have no knowledge of what the constitution says in this kind of situation; could somebody through light on it?
                                                                 Ratna K. Shrestha Hawaii

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 13 Jun 95 14:59:58 PDT From: kanskar@physics.ubc.ca (Manoj Kanskar) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

Has Durga Dahal responded to Anita Regmi's allegation? If so, what does he have to say?

************************************************************** Date: Tue, 13 Jun 1995 12:25:04 -1000 From: Ratna Shrestha <ratna@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu> Cc: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: UML and NC

Dear Panthajee,
        My speculation turned out to be wrong although it was based on some valid reasonings. However i welcome the King,s decision. Given Nepal's socio-political situation, we need a strong democratic govt. But it will be unfortunate, if no party can gain an absolute majority in the forthcoming election also.
        I still believe that it would have been better for UML to go to the polls after facing a no confidence motion (If PM is empowered to recommend the midterm poll in that situation also). Had the king approved the petition filed by NC, RPP and NSP, there would have been a hard time ahead for UML.
        Anyway UML has evolved victorious. The scrapping of the no confidence motion, the dissolution of the parliament and the best of all the decision to conduct a midterm poll during its governance have perpetuated a feeling triumph among the UML supporters. This feeling can play a decisive role in the coming election.

Ratna K. Shrtestha Hawaii

************************************************************* Date: Tue, 13 Jun 95 16:13:36 CDT From: pramod kantha <C576346@MIZZOU1.missouri.edu> Subject: Dissolution of parliament To: editor <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>

 I have just spotted the news item on the AP that Parliament has been dissolved
 on the recommendation of the Prime minister and the elections have been schedu led for November 23, (?) 1995. The move was to preempt the no-confidence motion
 to be tried on Friday. The opposition has decided to challenge the decision in
 court.

***************************************************************** From: sanjiv@cco.caltech.edu (Sanjiv Shrestha) Subject: On Ekalabya Nepali's Newarism To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Tue, 13 Jun 1995 21:59:26 -0700 (PDT)
  
  A few comments on Ekalabya Nepali's faq on Newarism which appeared on the SCN and was also posted by Amulya Tuladhar on the last issue of TND:
 
  The fact that Ekalabya is collecting those 16 traits ( who knows where he got them from) and giving them a name "Newarism" does an injustice to the Newari community. I don't care if he gives a different name to his collection of those traits but giving a name "Newarism" as obviously derived from the word "Newar" and saying that "This faq is not meant to hurt the sentiments of anyone" is the height of hypocrisy that one can find anywhere. Furthermore, even though he goes on to say that non-newars can practice this art of Newarism, it is not very hard to figure out that Ekalabya is trying to target Newars of Newarism (as he defines it) from the very fact that he uses the word
"Newarism" as opposed to any other word to give a name to his list of traits. One cannot help but think that all Ekalabya is trying to do is portray a biased image of the Newari community here in the US.
  
  What the hell is his point of posting such a abhorrent article on the SCN anyways? See how many Newars he can annoy? If he is really desperate for a vent to his expression of biases, why doesn't he come up with Ekalabyaism instead of Newarism and assign all of those traits to it? If he is really trying to accuse Newars of Newarism (as he defines it), does he have any evidences or is it just motivated by his apparent effort at biased portrayal of Newaris. I don't see any point in his faq except his feeble attempt at marginalization of a ethnic group in Nepal and assign it patterns of behaviour based on his biases. Given the nature of the mass information medium like SCN where the responsibility of what people write is assumed by the people them- selves, maybe Mr. Ekalabya Nepali needs to revise his attitude towards responsibility considering the effect of offensive faqs like his, targeted towards a particular ethnic group in Nepal.

    The fact that Ekalabya thinks this faq is not offensive to Newars is even more hypocritical. What kind of morons does he think Newars who read this faq are? "Some Newars might see flames against Newarism as an insult to their ethnic group. But we should learn to separate the people (Newars) from the problems/issues (Newarism)". This is the biggest crock-of-bullshit I have ever heard. If Newarism ( as he defines it) is a problem which can be practiced by anybody, Newars as well as non-Newars, then why the hell does he give the problem a name "Newarism". He could have given a different name. The fact that he chose to give it the name Newarism and then go on to say that people(newars) should be separated from problem/issue (newarism) is incompatible. The words Newar and Newarism cannot really be separated. To any regular person, they will be thought of as being associated.

     ONe might as well come up with Ekalabyaism and define it as the the tendency of people to be irresponsible, immature and suffer from an absolute lack of taste. To regular people, Ekalabyaism may not be the correct word for those aforementioned traits but to Ekalabya they might sound ok given the fact that he considers Newarism ok for the 16 traits he mentions in his faq. I don't really know what to say but faqs like those however indirect they are can be thought of as awfully biased by readers and convey to them the insensibility of the author.One might say something like Ekalabyaism is about being a jerk!!! I would like to know how Mr. Ekalabya Nepali would feel about that.
                     
                                                     -Sanjiv Man Shrestha
                                                      Pasadena, California

**************************************************************** Date: Wed, 14 Jun 1995 03:23 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: forecast@teleport.com (Kanhaiya Vaidya) Description: Re: Parliamentary Election

Here's a post from a former panche or a former mandale or a pancha-bhakta. Keep your eyes and ears open. Panche-Mandale are just looking for some excuses to grab power. If NC and NPP form a new govt., the NCs and the people in general have to be wary of the snake in the house. NC is risking friendship with a poisonous snake.
  In article <3rerjh$if@titania.pps.pgh.pa.us>,
   [Manoj Jung Basnet] <pusateri@pps.pgh.pa.us> wrote:
>When will this underdeveloped country ever find political stability?
>It is time for the people to make a choice and stick with it.
                    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Remember, people didn't have a choice in the system you are advocating. It was more like put up or shut up. You can not have a freedom of choice in a dictatorship.
 
>This is the second general election in six months.
  You want to go back to Gaun-Pharka period when there was no election at all? Elections were declared with "no contest" results, remember? So, "your" system better that the current system?
 
>It is time for the king to
>take charge. He should dissolve the parliament as requested and then
>restore the monarchy as before. Lets return to the Panchayat system
>as before. Under this system foreign relations were good,
  You interpret submission as good relation? Remember what happened when the govt. refused to submit to the southern big brother?
 
>the people
>had confidence in the government.
  No. No. May be you and your likes had confidence in the Panchat government. We never had. Didn't the two elections proved to you the confidence of people on Panchayat system?
 
>There was peace and social stabilty
>across the land.
  Ha! At what cost? How can you say this? You hardly heard any openly dissenting voice, because people raising such voice were punished. You muzzle the voice of the people and declare "oh, sooo peaceful and stable sociaty"! Are you remotely aware of the numerous cases of rapes, murders, and corruptions during your "peaceful and stable" Panchayat period? People couldn't raise questions because of the fear of getting
"araastriya tatwa" label and long jail time without trial. Do you still remember the excesses of even the distant relatives of Royal family and Panches in power? (Oh God, I forgot the names of two young girls reportedly kidnapped in Kathmandu and murdered in Pokhara by a royal relative and his henchmen.) MOST of the excesses were never reported for fear of further reprisals. People were forced to keep quiet or were conveniently purged. What a peaceful period, huh.
 
>Education and individual initiative were prospering
  No. No. Only the Panche-Mandale-and-Royal_Chumcha were prospering. They were getting the best available opportunities at the cost of majority of the people. Economy was controlled by a "chosen" few. For the majority of the people, there was no room for individual initiative; there was no free thinking allowed.
 
>Lets put an end to political ping pong with the people's will and
>future. Let the King rule as King. Manoj Jung Basnet.
>
  Duh. What's in it for you? The Panchayat system was like a poison tree. The fruit poisoned everyone, the corrupts and the corrupted, both physically and mentally. For me, Panchayat system was like Nazi Germany - only more number of people were murdered by the Nazis. We the people shall never forget. Never forget the rapes and murders by the Panche-Mandale. Never forget the freedom taken away from us. We have to make sure, it never happens again. We just need to remember that the devil isn't dead yet.
  Kanhaiya Vaidya

********************************************************************** To; The Editor TND From: Anil Shrestha Michigan State University Subject: Thanks to Neal Cohen

I would like to thank Neal Cohen very much throug TND for the news and analysis
/update of the economic sector of Nepal. I also hope that Mr Banskota who has taken Neal's place will continue to provide us news from Nepal. Thank you Neal, and we expect to hear from you a lot Mr. Banskota.

********************************************************************** To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu (tnd) Date: Wed, 14 Jun 1995 12:07:23 -0400 From: Shyam Lama <shyam_lama@jsi.com> Subject: Re: Discussion on Gurkhas -Reply

Pratyoush, thank you for bringing the pertinent issues on the Gurkhas into discussion. I have the following comments:

First of all, I would be the first one to agree with what George Bernard Shaw said which is something like that there is no such thing as bravery. Only fools go to war to die. Patriotism is one thing and to defend someone's border is different thing. Has the British military done justice to the long years of Gurkha service by cutting the size of the Brigade? Yes. Was there ever a "justice" done to the Gurkhas? More on this to follow. The pertinent question we should also ask at the same time is has Nepal done justice to Gurkhas? No. To understand it one must go beyond the verbiage of academic exercise. To know it, one must have felt the pains of being a Gurkha in the present day context of Nepal. A cloud of myth, created and fantasized by those who live in celluloid world, cannot do justice to the conditions of the Gurkhas, it has only helped alienate them from the mainstream Nepal. What was the response of the Nepali government when 111 or so Gurkha soldiers were fired unceremoniously some years back? We'll find out only if the then foreign minister would write a memoir and truthfully reveal what actually happened. What was the response of the representative of Nepali government at the UN when Argentina opposed the use of Gurkhas in the Falkland war? His irresponsible answer was that he did not receive the protest letter from Argentina. Not a single Gurkha was involved in any of this decision making process which has been the historical trend in determining the future of the Gurkhas.

Judging from the treatment of the British, there is no question about the Gurkhas not being mercenary eventhough we all dislike this term and much hyped the theme at the time of the Falklands war was that the Gurkhas are not mercenaries. Back in the real world, many elite Gurkhas have confessed that the treatment meted out to them by the British even to this day is nothing but equivalent to a mercenary. Are the Gurkhas allowed to settle in Britain after retirement if they chose to do so since they successfully defended the British border?

Now, on to the point of cutting down the number of Gurkhas in the British army. Has it hurt Gurkhas? The answer to this is, of course, yes if you look only from the material aspect by judging at a very small number of Gurkhas who have prospered as compared to their kinsmen. However, cutting down in number has a bright side of the picture too. If Nepal is to be a multi-ethnic country as the constitution says, the Gurkhas definitely should be integral part of it in running the country. Their virtual absence kept them away from the mainstream of the country and perhaps it was by design of those who do not wish to share powers with this large group of people. National integration comes only when all groups are made to participate in the decision making. There was a time when every able bodied young man mostly of the mongoloid groups from the villages went to join the army - an overwhelming number to either British or Indian. The result: there is a void in the administration today in Nepal. The Gurkhas do feel alienated in the decision making and policy making of the country. It is time that the Gurkhas themselves got involved in setting their destiny whether it comes to employment or education. The time has shown that there is a need for the involvement of Gurkhas themselves in order to look after the interest and welfare of the Gurkhas in the government. The point being that the only viable and available source of employment for the Gurkhas should not be to go abroad be it a labour force or in the army. No matter how hard they serve outside the country and bring fame and money in to the country, the country is going poorest from the poorer. To serve their best interest in the long run, the Gurkhas themselves should be involved in carving the policies in their post-army job opportunities, be it a labour force abroad or in-country job. Whether or not the existing situation will allow this to happen is a big question although the efforts must be continued towards achievement of his goal. With the exception of a few projects, whatever the assistance the British government provides to Nepal, is not aimed at Gurkhas , which some ex-Gurkha officers have pointed out that it is because here again when the negotiations are done, without anyone belonging to Gurkhas. How many scholarships awarded by the British Council so far have benefitted the Gurkhas? Is the Budhanilkantha School started by the British for those students who would otherwise have been deprived of education or is it just for the kids of the privilege class people who would have otherwise afforded to send them to schools elsewhere or outside Nepal? There is no "justice" to it. The questions are numerous.

This brings me to the question of establishing a memorial for the Gurkhas. The myth and past glory aside, the Gurkhas must live to deal with reality of the present day situation of the home front. I believe the best service or the justice the British could have done to Gurkhas in recognition of their long years of service in the British Army is by establishing a university for the children of the Gurkhas at the Dharan Ghopa Camp when they vacated this large facility. The Dharan camp brings nostalgic memory to many Gurkhas; I am sure the same is the situation with the Paklihawa camp when the British Gurkhas moved out of there. We have a Sanskrit University for an exclusive group of non-Gurkha race, why not a Gurkha university for the children of Gurkhas? Education alone is the long term answer to the many of the problems of the Gurkhas facing today, and what could be a better memorial other than an educational institution dedicated to those Gurkhas who served in the British army.

8 June 1995

********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 14 Jun 1995 15:53 EST Subject: scn discussions To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: sanjay@world.std.com (Sanjay Manandhar)
  By SCN Correspondent - Amulya Tuladhar
--------------------------------------

The recent "FAQ" on Newarism was a shameless misuse of the net to incite communalism among the Nepalis.
  The recent trend on the net and in Nepal is very disturbing. Makes me wonder if there are elements out there that feel threatened by the democracy and the rise of ethnic minorities.
  Also, note that the coward used the ANONYMOUS mailer from Finland. If you feel so strongly why don't you make yourself heard like so many people on this forum have done.
  Sanjay Manandhar
 
********************************************************** From: William Pusateri <pusateri@pps.pgh.pa.us> Date: 11-JUN-1995 09:37:53 Description: Parliamentary Election

When will this underdeveloped country ever find political stability? It is time for the people to make a choice and stick with it. This is the second general election in six months. It is time for the king to take charge. He should dissolve the parliament as requested and then restore the monarchy as before. Lets return to the Panchayat system as before. Under this system foreign relations were good, the people had confidence in the government. There was peace and social stabilty across the land. Education and individual initiative were prospering Lets put an end to political ping pong with the people's will and future. Let the King rule as King. Manoj Jung Basnet.
 
********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 14 Jun 1995 17:54:21 -0400 (EDT) From: Pravignya Regmi <pregmi@emerald.tufts.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Help Nepal Save the Environment

Help Nepal Save the Environment - VII (Part - I)
              ___________________________________________
              AND THE KARNALI WILL NOT BE SINGING ANYMORE
              ------------------------------------------- Part - I : Unique Ecology Part - II: Environmental Pressure Over the Karnali Region
__________________________________________________________________________
  Probably, the Farwestern Development Region of Nepal is the most isolated parts of the country. Despite harse Himalayan environment, the region holds great diversity of flora, fauna, landscape, culture, ethnicity and people.
  Karnali is the largest zone in terms of surface area that occupies primarily northern part of the region which is linked to Tibet (People's Republic of China).
  In this write up, we will observe the unique ecologic feature in brief followed by current environmental pressures over the Karnali areas (not the zone or waters speciefically) on the next part.

The Unique Topography of the World:
  The land of the farwestern region begins from the lowland terai. Kanchanpur and Kailali are the two major flat districts of the region that gradually elevate towards the northern part of the country forming smaller Churia range (up to 1,400 m) of mountains. The landscape continues to elevate to form the middle range of Mahabharat mountains (up to 1,800 meters). The western Nepal has smaller inner flat lands between the Churia which are actually Siwalik hills (also known as Dundawa range) and Mahabharat mountains known as inner terai (vitri madhesh). The land level remains almost at the same height untill it faces a deep inner gullies of the Mahabharat mountains which is leveled at 760 meters where the Bheri River flows. The northern region of the Bheri River valley elevates again sharply forming smaller Himalaya mountains up to 4,000 to 5,000 meters. As we proceed to northern region further, we find unique highland landscapes composed of rivers, tributaries, streams, lakes and inner subhimalayan valleys. The RaRa Lake lies on the top of the mountains at about 2,987 meters, below which flows the Karnali River at the height of 1,830 meters that enters from Humla district, where the river flows at the level of 1,980 meters. Further north lie the giant Himalayas. The most famous mountains are Sisne (6,400 m), Api (7,100 m) and Nanda Devi (7,871 m). These high Himals are made up of Tibetan Tethys sediments that were deposited in southern mariginal basins of the Tethys Sea before the mountain upthrust movement (the Himalayas were created by the plate tectonic movement when the Indian island pushed into the great Asian landmass). The karnali River drianage has strongly eroded the northern arms (continious chain of the maountains) of the Great Himalayas forming a chain of ridges between 3,800 to 4,800 meters in height that forms remarkable unique geographic structures. This land is composed of Paleozoic and Mesozoic metasediments.
   The Karnali River Watershed
  Watershed is defined as the region or area that drains into a body of water. Karnali, the longest river of Nepal, is one of the three major river systems. The other two river systems are Koshi and Narayani
(Gandaki) constituting seven and nine major tributaries respectively.
  The Karnali River watershed is composed of most of the western section of the Himalayas that drains 42,690 square kilometers area north of Chisapani, where it cuts through the Siwalik hills to the Gangetic plane of the terai belt.
  The Karnali River system itself is a compound drainage system that consists of four major basins. The first or northern catchment basin constitutes the Humla and Mugu Karnali River drainage that primarily collect waters between the southern and northern arms of the Great Himalayas.
  Almost fifty percent, about 20,000 square kilometers of the entire driange system is covered by the other two major Karnali tributaries; namely Seti and Bheri in the west and east respectively. These subwatersheds are the outer Himalayan drainages that collect the waters of the Midland Mahabharat mountains.
   The Natural Environment of the Karnali Region:
  The natural environment can be described on the basis of ecological stratification, flora and fauna. 1. Ecological Stratification
  As the land of the region elevates from the sea level to more than 7,500 meters, it has created distinct ecological stratification of the environment. The whole range (i.e. from lowland to peaks) can be classified, as usual, into six major categories: Tropical (the flat terai region), Subtropical (the Churia mountains and the lower Mahabharat range), Temparate (mid Mahabharat range), Subalpine (higher Mahabharat and lower Himalayas), Alpine (the areas by the snowline, i.e. by 16,000 feet) and finally Tundra type (well above the snowlin).
  The whole successional stratification is limited within an approximately 200 kilometers of distance that forms such an OUTSTANDING geography in the world. Nowhere in the globe is such landscape where all the climatological and biological diversity could be found within such small area. Yes ! we feel glorious to say that we are Nepali.

2. Flora
   The vegetation varies according to the height, climate and topography. The lower land that consists of fluvial belt (bhavar prdesh) of Karnali, Bheri and Seti have tropical and subtropical forest dominated by Sal
(Shorea robusta) trees. Sal forests mostly occupy the dry land that have relatively low alluvials. While the moist and riverine areas are occupied by Siasu (Dalbergia sisoo) and Khayar?(Acacia catechu). Most of the moist lowlands have tropical evergreen (sadabahar) rainforest type of woods.
  There are two major kinds of Sallo, Pinus roxburghii and Pinus wallichiana (classified according to the number of needles on each holdings) occuring over the higher subtropical to the temparate
(sama-sitoshna chhetra) regions most frequently. The other major conifers existing along with these species over higher mountains include Quercus incana and Euphorbia royleana.
  The deciduous (pat-jhad) species found over the higher belt of Karnali region are Kattus (Chestnus sp.), Okkhar (Walnut sp.), Maple and Oak trees. Besides, the national flower of Nepal Laligurans (Rhododendron species) occur over the high elevated Mahabharat and lower Himilayan regions. Uttis trees occur along the gullies and dry slopes of the mountains.
  Subalipine areas are dominated by Birch forests. Other dominant vegetation over the subalpine area constitute Junipers and Spruce varieties. The land above subalpine holds no vegetations except few species of moss, liches and scrubs. Area well above the alpine region is just bare Tundra type. 3. Fauna
   Since Karnali region holds a great topographic versatility, it provides wider spectra of habitats. The southern lowland has Oriental species while northern elevated land has Palaearctic (Nepal lies at the juction of two major biogeographic regions - Oriental and Palaearctic. There are six major biogeographic realms) fauna predominate. - THIS IS A REMARKABLE FEATURE.
  Explaining all kinds of fauna in relation to ecologic feature would take a great length; therefore, I would just describe the major large animals of the Karnali region: Barking deer (Muntacus muntjak), Percupine (Hystix indica), Boars (Sus scrofa), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Tigers (Pathera tigris), Langur (Prebytis entellus), Fox (Vulpus montana), Red Panda
(Ailurus fulgens), Otters (Lutra lutra), Black Bears (Selenarctos thibetanus), different varieties of mountain antelopes such as Goral, Tahr, Bluesheeps, Muskdeer, Bharals etc. Karnali also holds some species of Weasals and Wolves. Huge Tibetan mastiffs (Bhote Kookkoor) live along with men looking after their sheep. One of the most poisonous snake, Himalayan pit vipers have been reported from Karnali region. (Note: the scientific names are provided for those who want speciefic identification).
  Well, there would be volumes of books if all ecologic environment is described. Therefore, I would leave here with a conclusion of extreamly rich biodiversity in the Karnali region.
  Therefore, Karnali is an ecologically fragile area which needs to be studied in great detail for its proctection. The region holds thousands of wonderful research potential that can be usuful to the world. If any of you reader have been there or have come from there can easily envision the exotic nature of the land. However, I feel ashamed to say that such lands have been deteriorating day by day resulting in ecological pressure. Please wait for the next part of this write up in which I will try to provide a glimps of current stress over the areas.
  [Yee dooee rastriya geet-ka ansa-haru malai Karnali sanga jodiyeko jasto lagchha - 1. "Banekochha paharale yo chhati mero, Bagekochha chhahara ragat ma mero, Pakheroo ma hurki, Taakura ma khelne ma jhukdai na jhukne Nepal ko Chhoro...." 2."Mali pyaro lagchha, malai raamro lagchha, lahara, pahara, chhaharo ko desh, Wari Pari Himalama Oodirahane baadal ko desh..."]

Finally, if we do not save our environment, we will have nothing to be proud for.

Pravigya Regmi

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepal's new democracy faces constitutional test Date: Wed, 14 Jun 1995 18:14:40 -0400 From: Amrit R Pant <arp@dhaulagiri.lcs.mit.edu>

         KATHMANDU, Nepal, JUNE 14 (Reuter) - Diplomats predicted Wednesday that Nepal would weather a constitutional crisis that has shaken the Himalayan kingdom's fledgling democracy.
         The communist government and opposition parties continued bickering Wednesday over whether snap elections called by King Birendra were constitutionally valid.
         The irate opposition called on supporters to take to the streets in protest and there were threats to boycott the November mid-term polls.
         But Western and Nepali diplomats said they expected the opposition would eventually go to the hustings, demonstrating the resilience of the 4 1/2-year-old constitution.
         ``The atmosphere is not tense here,'' one Western diplomat said. ``I expect there will be a lot of grumbling from the opposition and then the election campaign will get underway.''
         King Birendra, exercising one of his few remaining prerogatives, dissolved parliament Tuesday and called mid-term elections for November.
         The decision pleased the minority communist government of Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary, which was threatened with losing a no-confidence motion and preferred to seek a strengthened mandate at the polls.
         But an alliance of three opposition parties was outraged.
         ``We have agreed to appeal to the Supreme Court and organize protest rallies against the communist government,'' Pashupati Shumsher Rana, general secretary of the opposition Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP), said.
         ``The opposition is stunned and dismayed,'' a Western diplomat said.
         This week's events have been the latest in a series of challenges to the new constitution, which was adopted after pro-democracy protesters put a bloody end to absolute monarchy in 1990.
         Those demonstrations brought multiparty democracy to a nation long ruled by a line of Hindu kings considered to be incarnations of Vishnu.
         In 1992, the communists, then in the opposition, mounted more violent protests. Then one year ago, the communists challenged the ruling Nepali Congress Party's decision to ask for the dissolution of parliament and snap elections, only to bow to a Supreme Court decision upholding the polls.
         Elections last November gave the Unified Marxist-Leninist
(UML) communist party 87 of 205 seats in parliament, the biggest single group but short of a controlling majority.
         A long period of uncertainty followed as the communists and other parties tried to form a governing alliance. When they failed, Adhikary staked a claim to power and survived a no-confidence motion with the tacit support of other parties.
         Now an alliance of three opposition parties is contesting Birendra's decision to bow to Adhikary's demand for another mid-term election, saying they will appeal to the Supreme Court.
         Diplomats said they had expected the king to allow parliament to take up a no-confidence motion against the communist government, but he had no doubt decided on snap polls after consulting experts from the Supreme Court.
         ``Events have moved along more rapidly than we had expected, and there has not been as great a shock as many had expected,'' one envoy said.
         ``There is no major crisis,'' a Nepali diplomat said. ``The opposition will go to the Supreme Court, then they will all participate in the elections.''
         Diplomats said one sign of stability was that there was no move to restore the king's sweeping powers. ``No one, not even extremists, have tried to drag in the king,'' a diplomat said.

*************************************************************** From: Shailesh R. Bhandari <sbhandar@garnet.acns.fsu.edu> Subject: MUKTAK ABOUT PRESENT NEPAL To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Wed, 14 Jun 1995 18:33:46 -0400 (EDT)

MUKTAK

                                 NIRNAYA
                Hijo aaja Nepal maa Pratek kuraa maa
                Nikai sochera nirnaya li-in chha,
                Tyasaile,
                Vaat khaana napaaune laai
                Cake khaane sallaaha di-in chha.

                                DUI CHHAK
                Yahaa din vari jotiera kaam gare
                Vare ko chhaak laai usineko chaamal ta
                                           Abasyai chha,
                Tara voli bihaana ko chhak laai
                                           Samasya chha.

                                 VOK
                Nepal ka neta laai achamma ko rog laageko chha,
                Daanaa pani khaaekai chhan,
                Khaana pani khaaekai chhan,
                Ahile ta Jhan,
                               Kursinai khaane vok lageko chha.

                                 VABISYA
                Aamaa le rudai vani,
                "Aba ta hamro chhora le dhantna matra hoina
                                   Chorna pani thaale chaa,"
                Babu le naak fulaudai vanyo,
                " Tyaso vae, hamro chhora le pradhaan Mantri hune
                                  yogyata ko sagun batti balechha."

************************************************ Date: Wed, 14 Jun 1995 15:55:20 -0700 (PDT) From: Dahal Durga <daha9014@uidaho.edu> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: The Nepal Digest - June 13, 1995 (29 Jestha 2052 BkSm) (fwd)

                The Idiot Computer's Big Mouth

        It is interesting to read the summer break TND. No exams, no thing to worry.
        Responses start from where? In my short contact with TND I observed that most of the faquers have real big mouth. There is no happyness that someone I know is in America! Happy for what? Selfhelp is the slogan in America. Anyway I am obliged to All Nepali from Colorado, they have welcomed all interested Nepali to participate Nepali gettogether.

        Election in Nepal, so what? If interested any body can go home, register his/her name in the voter list with two registered witnesses, and be on queue, and vote any one of the candidate's list.

        Election in so short interval is the result of the Kripa of Late Mahendra, who helped his chamchas to kill rivals and earn unlimited money illegally. In the 90's the people of Nepal tried to enjoy equity. Still today they are successful to handle it. The prologue of the constitution of Nepal (1990) declares the sovereignity of Nepal on the hands of Nepali. This chamcha group is really advanced by wealth, smuggling multi country trade, partially by education, and hiring Marshall Artists to scare Nepali. Physically they are more Khailagda than average Nepali. This group got third highest voting rate of Nepali in 1994 election. It will remain as a big barrier to advance for Model Democracy in Nepal. Model Democracy, proposed by late Koirala is only possible only in Nepal in this earth. That is why only the race of Neapli is more tolerant and disciplined in this earth.

        All the elections may be each year or once in five years will help practice democracy in Nepal. No country on earth is perfect in democracy. I expect perfectness comes from Nepal after few decades.

        NEWARISM so what? Why any one feels headache by Newarism? Masketering is not a responsable name. Otherwise, I love Newarism, our Sahuji, that I trust, several of my coworkers of downtown Ghantaghar, Lalmohan, and Gudpak the tasty lunch cooked by Newars, (still in my Jibro) is one part of Nepal. Either the faquer die or fly, Newarism will not be parished for until there are sun, moon, and earth. Washing face in (there is no Bagmati in the idiot) the bathroom and forgetting Newarism will be fine. If no masketering, is someone has answer his or her ancestors for atleast seven generations not eaten Katto? That will be great.

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 15 Jun 1995 11:32:56 -0700 From: aed957196@rccvax.ait.ac.th To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Question to Rajan Pantha

Mr Rajan Panthaji , could you tell me please , who (which party was the ruling party when the first mid-term poll was held > ? what about ballet box stuffing and GHUS ? thanks. RAM BHUJEL (t)

************************************************************** From: "Kishor Sharma" <KSHARMA@wcom.riv.csu.edu.au> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Thu, 15 Jun 1995 16:26:12 GMT-10 Subject: economic liberalizaton in Nepal

By going through Neal's Memo regarding the economic liberalization in Nepal I got the impression that the govt. is against the conventional theory of economic liberalization. Our politicians must know that for liberalization to succeed invesment and trade policies must be liberalised, fiscal discipline must be maintained and administrative red tapes must be minimised, otherwise economic liberalization would be just like our development plans of the past.
 
********************************************************** Date: Thu, 15 Jun 1995 10:00 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: sanjiv@cco.caltech.edu (Sanjiv Shrestha) Description: Re: Newarism: Clarification from Ekalabya

an281287@anon.penet.fi (Ekalabya Nepali) writes:
> Newarism: Clarification from Ekalabya Nepali
> ============================================
>1. Accusation that this was an offensive post: I fully
>agree with the accusers. One of the purposes here was to show that
>making an "ism" using the name of an ethnic group is a VERY offensive
>thing for many people belonging to that ethnic group (and even to some
>sensible people not belonging to that group).
 
    Damn right you are! Seems like you just realized this.
 
>2. And it is no big deal to
>create such terms for ANY ethinc group. I hope everyone who
>uses such terms will keep in mind that he is really hurling general
>insults againt the whole ethnic group when using such terms. I am FOR
>stopping such posts from ALL sides.
 
  Man, what a hypocrite you are! You are the one who starts this "ism" business
  and then later goes to say "I am for stopping such posts from all sides". If
  you really wanted whatever you are saying, then you would never have started
  the way you did ie by targeting Newars. A bad way to start! Hope you have
  heard this saying,"First impression is the last impression". It's going to
  be really hard for you to make others believe in whatever you say you are
  for.
 
>3. A point that the offended should keep in mind is that this is
>probably the first post that has been explicitly offensive to the
>currently offended. I hope it has given them a flavor of what it means
>to be explicitly insulted on the basis of ethnicity. Now the main
>question is- if you now know what it tastes like, would you still be
>inclined to shove it down someone else's throat.
 
  I don't shove some ethnic bias dowm someone else's throat like you do, ok.
  Besides, I don't like to be offended for no apparent reason and then given
  a lecture on sensibility. If there is any person here that needs to be
  taught about sensibility, then it's you.
 
>4. And I think even probems CAN be discussed without hurling
>general insults at particular ethnic groups- but clearly that is not
>happening on either SCN or TND. And insults from a few rotten apples
>are generally enough to arouse strong emotions within most members of
>the insulted group.
 
   If you really wanted to discuss problems without hurling general insults
   at particular ethnic groups, then why are you the one who starts hurling
   such insults at Newars? In my year-long exposure to TND and relatively
   recent exposure to SCN, this is first time I have ever come across such
   demeaning generalizations about any particular ethnic group.You talk
   about "a few rotten apples". From what you have posted, you are one
   of them.
 
>5. It is also interesting to see that most of the critical responses
>do not talk about the specific characteristics of "Newarism" listed in
>the FAQ. The question is- are they so groundless that they are not
>worth addressing, or are many of them actually true (but that there
>are valid reasons for their existance).
 
   If you don't have any evidence to suppot any of those characteristics you
   mentioned in your faq on newarism, then it's baseless to assume that they
   exist. Don't just let your biased perception of any particular group make
   you think that people belonging to that particular ethnic group are actually
   like that. Here's something to enlighten your biased outlook on the world,
   "As they say, ignorance is your worst enemy".
 
>6. And lastly I would like to apologize to all Newars who were offended
>by the posting. I really could not think of a clearer way to make the
>points I hope I made in the FAQ+followup (the FAQ was actually written
>so that this followup could be posted). No malice intended. I
>do not subscribe to the term "Newarism"!!
 
    You know what, you are one of the least sensible people I have come
   across in the net. First, you piss off people on the basis their ethnicity
   intentionally without any incitement and then go on to apologize to them.
   It's like spilling milk on someone else's clothes intentionally and then
   then saying "Oh, I am sorry". Don't expect to play games with something
   that's sensitive to people and expect to get away with it.
 
                                                 - Sanjiv Man Shrestha
                                                   Pasadena, California

************************************************************** To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepalis say new mid-term polls an expensive burden Date: Thu, 15 Jun 1995 13:36:47 -0400 From: Amrit R Pant <arp@kanchenjunga.LCS.MIT.EDU>

        KATHMANDU, June 15 (Reuter) - Five years after they poured into the streets and nearly stormed the royal palace demanding elections, most people of Nepal say fresh mid-term polls are a luxury their impoverished Himalayan nation can ill afford.
         ``How can this poor country afford another general election so soon?'' asked a woman who runs a beauty parlour in Kanti Path, an upmarket Kathmandu neighbourhood.
         Man Bahadur Chwan, a mustard-oil vendor in downtown Kathmandu, said: ``Why do we need fresh elections so soon? It is simply the greed of political leaders for power.''
         The last round of polls, held in November, 1994, cost Nepal more than 640 million Nepali rupees ($12.8 million). Its average annual per capita income is 9,000 Nepali rupees ($180), making it one of the world's 10 poorest nations.
         King Birendra dissolved Nepal's House of Representatives on Tuesday and called for fresh general elections in November, accepting Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary's recommendation the house be dissolved.
         Adhikary, whose Unified Marxist Leninist (UML) party holds 87 seats in the 205-seat house, asked the king to dissolve parliament after the opposition sought a no-confidence motion against the minority communist government.
         Business executives said the fluid political situation could hurt Nepal's economy and its fledgling private sector.
         ``Political stability is very important for economic growth and the expansion of the private sector,'' Padma Jyoti, who runs Nepal's Jyoti group of enterprises, said.
         Nearly 75,000 government employees were pulled away from normal duty, including development projects, to carry out election-related work last year.
         More than 60 percent of Nepal's development budget comes from Western donors.
         But a poor farmer outside Kathmandu defended the move.
         ``I think it is necessary as political parties were fighting among themselves,'' he told Reuters.
         The Nepali Congress Party took power after Nepal's first polls since 1959 were held in 1990.
         It lasted barely three years when party dissidents forced prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala to step down.
         The UML formed a minority government with tacit support from the Congress and other political parties last November.

************************************************************** From: ponta@sas.upenn.edu (Pratyoush R. Onta) Subject: new books on nepal To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu (tnd) Date: Thu, 15 Jun 1995 14:37:39 -0400 (EDT)

I found the following books in Penn's computer database. I have not seen them and the translation of the German title, done by a friend, might not be perfectly accurate.

Author: John Martinussen Title: Democracy, competition, and choice : emerging local self-
                   government in Nepa. Published: New Delhi ; Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications, c1995

Author: Donner, Wolf. Title: Lebensraum Nepal : Eine Entwicklungsgeographie.
                  [The Territory of Nepal: A Developmental Geography] Published: Hamburg : Institut fur Asienkunde Hamburg, 1994. Description: 728 p. Series searchable as:
                 Mitteilungen des Instituts fur Asienkunde Hamburg ; Nr.
                226

Author: Gaborieau, Marc. Title: Ni brahmanes, ni ancetres : colporteurs musulmans du Nepal.
                  [Neither Brahmins, nor Ancestors: Muslim Pedlars of Nepal.] Published: Nanterre : Societe d'ethnologie, 1994.

Author: Hofer, Andras. Title: A recitation of the Tamang Shaman in Nepal / Andras Hofer. Published: Bonn : VGH Wissenschaftsverlag, 1994.

************************************************************* Date: Thu, 15 Jun 1995 10:56:28 -0800 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: greerm@ucs.orst.edu (Marsha Greer) Subject: Address for United Mission to Nepal

Dear Readers: I need the address and a person to contact at the United Mission to Nepal. Would anyone have that to share with me? Thanks in advance. Marsha Greer greerm@ucs.orst.edu

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