The Nepal Digest - June 10, 1995 (27 Jestha 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Saturday 10 June 95: Jestha 27 2052 BkSm Volume 39 Issue 3

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma sharma@plains.nodak.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta ponta@sas.upenn.edu *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha rajendra@dartmouth.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

********************************************************************** From: Sanjay Kumar <sanjay@physics.purdue.edu> Subject: Harrasmanent And 'Innocent till proven guilty' To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Sat, 10 Jun 95 12:57:14 EST

Some netters have responded to Anita Regmi's call for 'Public Lynching' of men sending unsolicited mail to women, by asking her to provide a proof before they can declare their fellow TNDer guilty. My response to such querries is, Wake up guys! In what society do you think you are living? Do you really think a right minded woman will put up a harassing (possibly obscene) mail on the network for everyone to see. If a racist skinhead sends me some hate mail I can publicise it on the network, without feeling threatened. But a woman receiving unasked-for messages from a man will most likely bear the humiliation alone, or atmost tell it to some of her close women freinds. Her silence is a moot comment on the current state of society. Forget verbal abuse, only a fraction of cases of physical abuse are ever reported by women. It is so, not only in some third world society stamped with anti-women feudal ethos. It happens in Western countries, where the legal system is supposedly more transparent and fair. SImple reason being that by making their harassment a public knowledge, women infact become more vulnerable. Instead of providing any help, the current society squeezes them even more.
        Anita Regmi's metaphor of 'public lynching' may have been too harsh for some kind hearted on the netwrok. In my opinion, what she meant was an expression of outrage against men victimising women. It is sad that instead of concurring with her and helping build a fairer atmosphere on the netwrok, many of netters have tried to put her in a tight corner by asking her a concrete proof. Which obviously she won't give (and why should she?) seeing the rampant sexism of current society.
        Two other arguments have been put forward, which need to be countered. Ashu presented the argument of a woman from University of Antarctica falsely implicating a Harvard scholar. Point is, anything can be proved by citing hypothetical exceptions. Noting the fact that a woman risks a lot by accusing a man publicly, what are the chances a deliberately false implication? For millions of real cases of unreported victimisation of women by men, it will be hard to find a single case of a woman falsely implicated a man. Hypothetical exceptions change the terrain of debate in the favour of status quo, because they take away one's attention form actual reality. Second argument was 'Innocent till proven Guilty' by Amulaya. This nicely sounding, legal notion hides many assumptions which are rarely mentioned. According to current legalistic ideology, the State represents all its citizens and to protect the general interests of these citizens it has been endowed with the maximum possible resources and final power (including Decapitaion). The above mentioned legal notion is a warnig against THIS absolute power. This is but a legalsitic figiment of imagination, because in actual society the State doesn't represent everyone, but its power is used to safeguard the interests of certain class(es). In the current issue at hand the use of 'Innocent till proven Guilty' is even more farfetched and diversionary. We are not sitting on a jury to decide on someone's guilt. We are asked to express outrage against men victimising womens, and help build a suitable environment on the network so that women can participate freely and equally.

************************************************************ Date: 09 Jun 95 17:49:39 EDT From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: Newsflash: PM asks King to dissolve parliament To: nepal@cs.niu.edu, Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha)

I know I said I wouldn't send any more news mailings but here's a breaking news from Nepal.
----------------------- PM asks King to dissolve Parliament

Reuters report (June 9)

         Nepal's communist prime minister, seeking to stave off an opposition-sponsored no-confidence vote, said Friday he had asked King Birendra to dissolve parliament and hold fresh elections.
         The king earlier called a special session of parliament on June 16 to debate a Nepali Congress-sponsored no-confidence motion aimed at toppling the six-month-old communist government.
         ``I have recommended to the king to dissolve the present House of Representatives and hold fresh elections within six months,'' Premier Man Mohan Adhikary told reporters.
         Adhikary said no fresh dates for mid-term polls in the Himalayan nation had yet been fixed. They would be decided once the king accepts the recommendation, he told reporters.
         Adhikary, 74, who heads a minority government, has been under pressure from the opposition Nepali Congress, which accuses him of politicising the bureaucracy and schools, and failing to curb inflation, to resign.
         He said the current political situation had been created by the decision of the Congress to move a no-confidence vote against the government.
         Adhikary, who accused the Congress of ignoring his party's efforts to seek a national consensus, said the cabinet was in consensus for holding fresh polls.
         Adhikary's Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) Communist party cited a constitutional provision that said elections would have to be held, but the Nepali Congress said it would first have to be given a chance to form its own coalition.
         Asked to comment on the king's reaction, Adhikary said: ``In a nutshell, he gave the indication that it was the prime minister's prerogative to dissolve the house.'' He did not elaborate.
         The Congress, which has been drumming public support against Adhikary, had asked the king Thursday to convene a special session of parliament to debate the no-confidence motion.
         Nepali Congress, which ruled the Himalayan kingdom from 1991, after pro-democracy movement abolished absolute monarchy, until last November, holds 82 of the 205 seats in the House of Representatives. The UML has 87 deputies.
         Friday, tens of thousands of anti-communist demonstrators poured into the streets of Kathmandu to join a massive Congress-sponsored protest rally against the government.

*********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 9 Jun 1995 19:21:19 -0400 (EDT) From: uc_ece_1167 <rpanth@uceng.uc.edu> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Thanks

Rajendra P. Shrestha, You have done a great job and done the Nepalese in North America a huge service. You deserve a lot of credit for your selfless work. Too bad I can't say "Keep it up" so let me just say "Thank You"!!!! Rajpal Singh also deserves a lot of credit for TND but we can praise him later on after he decides to "retire"

(rpanth@uceng.uc.edu)

%%%%%Editor's Note: At times like this, I wish TND was an established %%%%%
%%%%% foundation so that we could present contributors %%%%%
%%%%% like Rajendra "A token of apreciation award". %%%%%
%%%%% Until such time, TND members, please join me %%%%%
%%%%% in thanking Rajendra whole-heartedly. We wish %%%%%
%%%%% you all the very best! %%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

*********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 9 Jun 1995 23:26:15 -0400 From: CTHAPA@aol.com To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: The ex-Gurkha soldiers

     A daughter and a sister of ex- Gurkha soldiers myself, I am in complete agreement with Seira Tamang on many of the issues raised by Pratyoush Onta.
 I beg to differ, however, on at least two of the issues raised by Seira.
 First, considering the recent abuse and plight of Philippina maids in the Arab households, I feel that the Nepalese Government has moral and legal responsibilities to regulate the Gurkha labor market to prevent similar abuse from happening to the Gurkhas. Second, having worldwide fame for bravery and courage in combat is nothing to be ashamed of. The Gurkhas earned their fame during WWII, a JUST WAR. they are known for their courage, good humor,loyalty, and an endless reservoir of inner strength during times of crisis; they are not known as some some cruel and demonic killing machine.
 I am a registered nurse. Some of my patients have been veterans of WWII, and some have been young soldiers still serving in the US army. They are in awe of the Gurkha soldiers and their reputation for being the bravest fighting men. The only place Gurkhas are not appreciated is in their own homeland because the ruling class and elites of Nepal consider the tribes that constitute the Gurkhas inferior to themselves. I am not by any means condoning violence and senseless killings; I abhor war. Call me naive, but I strongly feel that if women held the majority of top government positions around the world we would not have wars. Women would exhaust all options before sending their sons and other womens' sons to war. They would talk, listen, and negotiate, unlike male arm-chair warriors who seem to function on testosterone when it comes to confrontation. Another isssue I wish to address is the proposal to build a monument to the Gurkha soldiers, in Nepal.
 I strongly feel that a Gurkha monument in Nepal would be an excellent way to honor our brave fathers and brothers. Such a monument would prevent the noble history of the Gurkhas from being forgotten from the collective consciousness of all Nepalis. There should also be scholarships established for the children of ex- Gurkhas based on merit and need. The British Government (they owe it to the Gurkhas) and the Nepalese Government should provide funds for these projects.
     Someone on the net sought verification for whether Gurkha soldiers served as bodyguard to the Queen. Yes they did, and my father was on of them. However, they were ceremonial bodyguards who accompanied the Queen durintg social and military functions. They were all officers and, as I understand, the cream of the crop. I remember my father talking fondly of his experiences in the palace.
    Let me add a little bit about my father. After surviving WWII and numerous skirmishes with guerillas in the Malaysian jungles, my father faced his biggest challlenge in Nepal, after his retirement. He built an elementary school fot the children in ours' and nearby villages. The school was solely run by small contributions from the villagers. My brothers and I used to teach there when we were home on high school or college vacations so the teacher could have some free time. This school is now funded by the Government. After building the elementary school my father took on the challenge of building a high school and a college before he died. He also spent about six or seven gruelling years, and some of his own money, providing running water to our village. Before this, women in our village had to get up at four in the morning to hike for a half an hour down the hill to the river, and back up the hill with their loads. My father used to say,
"I served most of my life for another country and now it is time to serve my country." All this accomplished by a determined and desciplined self-made man who was practically illiterate when he first joined the British army in India.

Chandrakala Thapa Cranse

******************************************************************** From: S Hrestha <shrestha@arts.adelaide.edu.au> Subject: Nepal needs Parties with big Heart To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Sat, 10 Jun 1995 16:05:40 +0930 (CST)

                   Nepal Needs Big Hearted Piliticians
                   ===================================
                                                               Kumud Shrestha

        All of us know that election is very expensive. Nepailese government had

allocated about 330 Million rupees for last election. Ministry finance says that

the expenditure is much higher than allocated amount. There are election

related costs in almost all government agencies, it is hidden but still a big

amount. Six months before election District Administration has to work for

election, so day to day business stops. Lecal people who come for a day work

in district head quarter has to wait for one weak. Even after a weak he/she has

go back without completing his work, because Mr X of Y office has gone somewhere

in connection with election business. Although, it is very hard to evaluate

these costs in term of his opportunity, those are very substantial. If somebody

is lucky his farms and animal will be taken care by his other family members.

Many have to depend upon mercy of his neighbours for taking care of farms and

animals. Can we afford such expensive election soon again?

        There is big amount of indvidual money spend for election. All political

parties get donation from some citizens. Many are very loyal to the political

party in which they belong. Most of them would rather avoid a meal and give

donation to the political party whom they support. There is big amont of money

generated for election campaign from the poor citizens.

        Many of us say that food production is declining because of these (many)

reasons. It is a big problem. People are not getting safe drinking water. Some

even die in winter because they lack warm clothes in the winter. Problems are

massive, severe and urgent. For the time being let us not consider problem of load shading, smoke and dust pollution, and urban waste in Kathmandu. We assume this is not the problem of all Nepalese, it is only problem of urban dwellers. The situation in the villages are pity. Let us not talk about per capita income, if we can smile we can assign a $ to each smile which Nepalese had. In such a situation whether Nepalese people go for new election to find out which party has mandate to rule the country? Can we affort it so soon ? Or we act against the root cause of poverty.
        We think that Nepalese expected big heart from political parties to let another party rule and one party watch action of government ruled by other party. Last election has clearly Last election has clearly shown how good it is to be in oppositon. It is not harmful to be in opposition and work for organizational strenthening of the party. Will big political parties realize these thing? So, I think it is crucial time to show big heart by big political parties. Why do not NC let rule UML and be in opposition or vice versa? Is political parties are feeling the heart beating of the people? If Nepalese people (general public and govt. employees) work efficiently as in the election time, most of the problems which we are facing can be solved within a few year. So, what is lacking is a big heart from big political parties.
        Nevertheless, politics is a strategic game of push and pull. Let us see who will push whom. Or they would rather realise the actual condition of Nepal.

************************************************************************ Date: Sat, 10 Jun 1995 10:26 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: tuladhar@enci.ucalgary.ca (Raju Tuladhar) Date: 7-JUN-1995 22:29:13 Description: Re: Censorship/ Lynching/ Top Ten (fwd)

Ashutosh Tiwari (tiwari@husc7.harvard.edu) wrote:
: Durga Dahal's call for censorship (as forwarded by Amulya on TND)
: was misguided.
: Since its inception three years ago, TND has generally been a
: free-for-all forum for ALL sorts of news, ideas, thoughts, and opinions,
: analyses, questions, explanations, humor, gossip and what-not related,
: but not limited, to Nepal and the Nepalis. That much is obvious.
: Given TND's necessarily such a broad "mandate", it's only
: natural that NOT everything appearing here is bound to appeal to all
: the readers all the time. That is why, as a reader, I would think that
: learning to TOLERATE disagreeable IDEAS, is a price well worth
: paying to have the DIVERSITY of contributions/opinions that enrich each
: issue of TND.
: To be sure, tolerance of disagreeable stuff need not mean uncritical
: acceptance of such stuff; merely the recognition of the fact that even
: bad stuff ALSO need to be aired so that they can be -- NOT censored but
: -- challenged with better or sharper stuff. Better and sharper by
: what/whose criteria, you may ask. That, I would leave to the wisdom of
: TND readers, to answer by their contributions.
  At least on this issue, I have to support Ashu. Thousand thanks and cheers to those who started SCN news group and TND. They give us a forum to express and exchange the ideas and views freely, openly and uncensored.
  If people want only censored and sanitized news, they can listen to some government radios or read the govt. news papers.
  Since there are no editors or controllers, people should expect all varieties: pleasant or unpleasant, good or bad, meaningful or senseless.
  As everybody is responsible by themselves to what kind of news he will post, similarly everybody is also responsible by himself to the kind of news he reads. I think SCN or TND was not created to mouth feed only govt. news, or few people's dogmas. They serve as a open forum for every body. A great job is being done by few people in posting national news, govt. news and other info., but if SCN or TND was limited only to these news, then what differences are there between SCN or TND and the Rising Nepal or G. Patra? Censorship is not possible in an electronic news group, and it should also not be done in TND so far as the news poster have revealed his identity.
  People have the right to express their dis-satisfaction on any news, but if somebody expects to see only the kind of news he likes, then he is being too impractical and out-of-reality.
  Besides, who can control the kind of news that is posted in SCN or TND?
  And, WHO ARE WE TO DICTATE TO OTHERS WHAT THEY SHOULD POST?
  R. Tuladhar (tuladhar@enci.ucalgary.ca)
 
************************************************************************* From: sanjay@world.std.com (Sanjay Manandhar) Date: 9-JUN-1995 10:48:30 Description: Re: Koirala's Jailyatra (some reflections from a NON-POLI-SCIENTIST) To: The Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Nepal seems to have laws for everything. But enforcement is weak, to non-existent. In fact, these laws are especially insidious because if the authorities don't like you, they will enforce to the letter of the law, but if you are a "aphno manchhe" (on the good side of the authorities), they look the other way.
  I remember all the different "kanda"(incidents) from "galaicha"(carpet) to buying the second Boeing 727 to the democracy movement to more recent dramas. Yet, nobody goes to jail, even for a token ONE day. Hence, we have repeat and brazen violations.
  Would it be fair to say that, in Nepal, among the three branches of government, the executive has the most power (hence, the rat-race to become the PM or a minister) and then comes the legislative (and a similar rat-race to get elected by hook or by crook) and as a distant third comes the judiciary. In most countries, the judiciary is held in very high regard and a "judgement" from a judge is very powerful. How many times have we heard judgement from the Suprement Court of Nepal only to go unheeded, especially if the judgements are againist the government (executive branch). When the government itself make s a mockery of the judiciary, how can people hold the judiciary in high regard and be even somewhat fearful of committing obviously wrong or corrupt crimes?
  In a country where all the elite (criminals) know ("are in bed with") all the other elite (criminals), I doubt we can successfully prosecute anybody. This forebodes terrible times for Nepal in the future. When the average person sees obvious criminals go free, and enough of these happen, I posit that these create very dangerous ingredients for social unrest (even the democracy movement is a manifestation of social discontent and frustration).
  Sanjay Manandhar
 
********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 7 Jun 1995 10:52 EST Subject: scn discussions on cows: laughter and slaughter... To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: tuladhar@enci.ucalgary.ca (Raju Tuladhar)
 
  Here are some types of cows for your enlightenment (errr.. entertainment, I mean)
  This list EXCLUDES Hindu OR Nepali COWS. (They are busy presently in other issues,
  or too busy in Ason for free vegetables).
  
  Compiled at Princeton. If you have more type, send them to:
  
  ewtileni@pucc.Princeton.EDU
 
 
              --==>> GUIDE TO COWS <<==--
                   as you've NEVER seen them before!
 
  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 
           (__) (__) (__) (__)
           (oo) (oo) (oo) (oo)
    /-------\/ /-------\/ /-------\/ /-------\/
   / | || / | || / | || / | ||
  * ||----|| * ||W---|| * ||w---|| * ||V---||
     ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
       Cow Cow laden Same cow Nancy Reagan-type
                     with milk after milking cow with milk
 
 
           (___) (___) * (___) (___)
           (o o) (o o) \ (o o) (o o)
    /-------\ / /-------\ / \-------\ / /-------\ /
   / | ||O / | ||O | ||O / | ~#>-+|O
  * ||,---|| * ||@\--|| ||,---|| * ||,----|
     ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~
       Bull Same bull after Rotc bull after Red-blooded American
                  seeing above cow seeing other bull Bull shooting the Rotc
                                                        bull
 
 
           (__) (__) (__) (__)
           (oo) (oo) (oo) (oo)
    /-------\/-* /-------\/ /-------\/ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   / | || \ )*)(\/* / * / | ||
  * ||----|| * \ |||/)|/()( ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  \/|(/)(/\/(,,/ \)|(/\/|)(/\
    Cow munching Grass munching Cow in water Cow in trouble
      on grass on cow
 
  send e-mail for complete list

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** From: kungarotta@aol.com (KungaRotta) Date: 1-JUN-1995 01:35:33 Description: :: child labor talk ::

    Among us there are many who deplore all kinds of child labor and there are others who hold on to the bitter reality and deny any wrongdoing. Would these kids end up in the streets had they not been employed by various factories? Only God knows. But, seeing what our government has to offer for a better education, the odds are high that these kids will ever get to see even a small part of what we outhere take it for granted.
 
    Recently, there have been various unnecessary speculations regarding the waning exports on carpet. Could it be a curse bestowed on our already fading economy owing to employing innocent kids? I believe there is more to it.
 
    It was in so called 'domotex fair', Hanova, Germany. A video clip was shown on how carpet is manufactured in Nepal and in it small shrivelled kids were shown labourously weaving rugs and carpets. This was shown by some Indian businessmen. It was later known that the same clip was shown in the German national TV too. Thus the tragic ordeal unfolded then on.......
 
    Should the consumers buy only products that are not made by underaged children, I can assure you that all the Indian products from a mere match stick to Tata trucks would not cross the Indian border.
 
    Denouncing child labor by those who can't do without it is like watching BEAVIS & BUTTHEAD and claiming to be politically correct at the same time.
 
    I may hold some grudges against our so called beloved southern neighbour but, with all the unfair treatment & bullish attitude, we should all hold more of these grudges and hopefully someday we'lll be able to voice our concern and have it implemented.
                          *** no offense to anyone concerned*****
 
- kunga

*************************************************************** From: mikeghouse@aol.com (MikeGhouse) Date: 4-JUN-1995 01:20:28 Description: Re: On_Cow_Slaugher_Again!!

philosophically, I am proud to be a Hindu, the very meaning of Ahimsa, is accepting and respecting other creatures, including humans.... I think it would be being a great religious person letting other people eat what they want to eat... let's not impose our eating patterns on other people. Let them have the freedom.... some day, if the other people become majority, are we sanctioning them the right to deny us from what we wear, eat? Think about it. Being a great Hindu is being tolerant, being respectful and being acceptive of other people. That's the greatness of Hinduism. mikeghouse

From: daha9014@raven.csrv.uidaho.edu (Dahal Durga) Date: 4-JUN-1995 16:50:38 Description: Re: Return on Education vs. Child labor

Child Labour is every where in this world. That is how a family runs. I found children working for pocket money as allowance. Thanks.
  Singh Abadhesh (singh932@raven.csrv.uidaho.edu) wrote: > Keshav ji,
> Namaskar,
> I think all you have said in your article is agreeable.
> However, I would like a little to it.
 
> Yes, Carpet industry is the place where child labor is quite conspicuous.
> But it is certainly not the only place where children are seen working. I
> believe that no one will deny seeing grimy children in dirty rags and
> with soiled body and face and matted messy hair rushing from table to
> table and from kitchen to wash-room at the yell of the manager in general
> hotels and restaurants. Similarly, a little retrospection of the rural
> life in our country will present the pictures of children running after
> their cattle under the hot summer sun and wiping their sweat, hinding
> under a tree to protect themselves from the ferocious monsoon rain,
> trying to warm themselves by hugging one another in the freezing cold of
> Paush while their cattle are grazing. Another picture that will appear is
> of the reddened faces of those who are crushed under the heavy load of
> firewood and/grass. It would appear to be fortunate for some children to
> have just to look after their brothers and sisters. But it is no less a
> drudgery to try to soothe and lull a hungry baby crying for its mother's
> breast-feed who has gone for the day to work for a "chhak".
> An unanimous answer to "why do the children have to toil?" is, of course,
> what you have said: to earn their daily meal- "chhak". But I guess you
> will agree that it is ceratinly not the only reason. There are other
> reasons as well.
> 1. Even today some parents are ignorant of the importance of education.
> Though they have enough for "dui chhak" with "alikati chillo", they think
> that if they send their children to school while they themselves go to
> work on the fields, who will take the cattle for grazing or who will
> bring grass for them? My brother -in-law, who now holds the degrees of
> B.Ed. and M.A. in economics and is an English teacher at Saraswati Ma.Vi.
> in Biratnagar, sometimes tells me his story of his childhood. His great
> uncle (thul-ba), as the guardian of the family and the family being
> joint, would go to school and ask the teacher to let him go to graze the
> cattle. The teacher would try to convince him, but he would say, "I don't
> want to see the cattle starve." At his insistence the teacher used to
> send my brother-in-law off the school. How he earned his degrees and
> became an English teacher is a different story which is not relevant
> here.
> 2. Some parents are compelled to send their children to work and to
> shoulder the responsibility for their debt which they might have incurred
> for some reasons, like, marriage and medical expenses.
> 3. Sometimes family break-down renders the children helpless and they
> resort to work.
> 4. Maltreatment by the parents is another cause that drives some children
> out of home and to work.
> 5. In Nepalese Society, an educational certificate means license to
> get a job. But some boys and girls, who have secured some certificates by
> some means but are incompetent to get any job, set examples for the
> parents to think education does not ensure a job. And in Maithily they
> say, "Karab kheti ghar dhane dhan" and "harak nasa sab ke asha" which
> imply that laboring on the farm fills your house with rice and it is the
> plough to which every one looks forward for the sustenance of life. What
> I mean to say is that the incompetent boys and girls become the
> background for the parents to think negatively of education.
> 6. Economic disparity is another reason. Some children are not clothed
> well and fed well and they do not have the play things which other
> children of the neighbourhood have. They think that it is money which
> buys food, good clothes and good play things - which it really does-
> and they think that they can earn money and buy those things. They fancy
> that in big cities they will get much money for their work and they run
> away from their home. I doubt that they get the things of their fancy,
> but it is sure that they have to labor hard for their "chhak". Sometimes
> "dalals" (brokers) are found to play vicious roles in making the children
> run away from their homes.
> 7. In most of the schools there are teachers who have never known what
> educational psychology is and how they should manipulate the young
> children. Their conduct, instead of enticing the children towards
> school and eductaion, repel them and the children go truant. Parents
> are careless and teachers are repelling. Children develop the habit
> of enjoying truancy so much so that they never like to come back
> to school. They'd like going to the forest and collecting fuel-wood
> and grass, to graze their cattle and play with other children, and
> smoke "bidi"; to work in the hotels is even better since there is
> lower chance of being beaten and higher chance of getting
> cigarettes and even "tharra".
 
> There may be some more reasons which, together with those I have
> mentioned above should be considered to reduce the school drop-outs. The
> reformation in education system and provision of break-fast and lunch
> and incentive for the children to go to school will certainly be of
> great help in improving the situation. You have talked aboutlegal
> enforcement of compulsory education and penalizing the parents for not
> sending their children to school. I doubt that compulsory education
> will be successful and parents will be ready to penalized until their
> economic problems are solved. Transporting "khair" (Acacia catechu) to
> India and selling it there, for example, brings a very harsh
> punishment, even the bearer can be gunned down, but I have met
> people who prefered being gunned down to starving. I don't think the
> legal enforcement has been successful in conserving the "khair"
> forest and cause of its failure lies in the government's failure of
> solving the economic problem of the people and making them aware of
> the importance of forest. By this analogy, I want to suggest that
> legal enforcement of compulsory education will be successful only if
> the ecnomic problems of the people are solved and they are made aware
> of the importance of education.
 
 
 
 
> Keshab Bhattarai (kbhattar@lynx.dac.neu.edu) wrote:
> : Despite social and moral issues, return on primary education in several
> : countries has been estimated anywhere ranging from 20 to 40 percent (Ses
> : Sacharoupoulous, 1989 returns on education).Though,I have not found any
> : estimate of earning function in of people having primary education, I
> : believe that return of primary education here is as high as in other
> : countrie.
> : Major problem, however, not
> : so much addressed here is funding for education. When there is are means
> : to fufill daily meal-"chhak", only providing free tution as it is done
> : now, is not enough, if the objective is to reduce
> : school-drop out ratio to a minimum acceptable point. This needs wide reform in
> : the education system, such as school break-fast lunh program etc., to
> : those in need.
 
> : Solid support to primary education, by transfering funds from privatization
> : of most of the supports going to higher education, may be a good solution to
> : this problem. If there is enough encentive for a child to go to school,
> : why he or she would like to go for a tedious job carpet factory instead of
> : going to school. Investment in school level education, particularly in
> : primary level is the best form of investment, I suppose. Legal
> : enforcements to make primary education compulsory, or to penalize
> : parents not sending their kids to schools, may help ruduce the magnitude
> : of the problem but will not solve it.
 
> : I don't think any parent able to provide basic minimum need likes to
> : send his/her children to a carpet factory.
 
> : -Keshab
 
******************************************************************************** Date: Wed, 07 Jun 1995 11:04:50 -0400 From: Anita Regmi <aregmi@mailbox.econ.ag.gov> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: The latest harassment issue.

  I am glad that the topic is generating some discussion. Again it is amazing that women TND members have remained silent on this topic. Perhaps they fear "labelling" and "social ostracizing"! Add to this the fear of cyber-harassment. It would be sufficient deterrent to keep them mute.

  I agree with Ashutosh Tiwari that my solution gives room for unjust accusations. Perhaps we can first validate the accusations. I personally feel that if we wish to encourage women participation (which I personally seek) his suggestion of "Victim Beware" attitude is no good. In other words why be anonymous! Blend in with the background? Goodness! We want the same freedom of speech that the rest of you enjoy. It will be Kathmandu all over again! That is, if you want to avoid harassment go to PK not ASCOL, don't ride bicycles, don't go swimming, don't this, don't that, etc etc. I'm sick of it. No woman should be forced to cyber-surf in anonymity because men harass her!

   In anycase I hope all of you will think through this in an unbiased way. I can't! I'm too angry over all this. I wish all of you men would spend some time thinking what a stiffling, suffocating life women in Nepal are made to endure. I an inclined to just lash out in rage.

   Another issue is, I may be silent for a while. I am changing jobs and E-mail (if any) addresses. So please carry out a healthy, stimulating discussion. I shall jump back in at the first opportunity. My thanks to all of you that came to my support and to the editors for proving that TND is not just a "Naya Sadak ko Pipal ko Bot".

PS. Please remove me (temporarily) from the mailing list.

********************************************************* Date: Wed, 7 Jun 1995 10:11:10 -0400 (EDT) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Thank you, Aevendra Lohani To: nepal@cs.niu.edu
        
        I was quite surprised to read Aevendra Lohani's lambaste against a part of my tribute to Mahendra Man Shakya aka Honda. The tone of that piece was certainly IRREVERENT, trying-to-be-jocularly-jabbing-yet-not-quite and so on. Nontheless, the piece WAS filled with details that do make Mahendra Man Shakya unique and cherished in Boston and elsewhere.

        But first things first.

        Pratyoush, Srijana, Rakesh, Binoy and Amulya are in NO WAY responsible for the stuff I wrote. Nor is Honda responsible for the stuff that appeared under my name. I would also like to emphasize that each of these friends does not necessarily share my views; and so I solely am responsible for what I wrote.

        In other words, those friends are all independent people, who gave me independent advice as to how to proceed with the piece, and I am grateful to each of them for that. That I took or did not take some or all of their advice is my decision, not theirs, and so I have no problem now, to read Aevendra's scolding for what it's worth.

         Beyond that, I fully stand by what I wrote. On that post, there was NOTHING offensive to anyone, nothing worth making apologies for. So, I fail to see what the fuss is really about.

         I urge Aevendra to read that paragraph once again on a crisp June morning, and decide for himself whether or not the charges he has leveled against me are really valid on the basis of my written words..

         So, having little more to say, let me sincere thank Devu and Raju
(using Aevendra's e-mail account) for their comments, and add that hey are welcome to interpret my posting in any way, as seriously or as light as they want. That is their right.

        Finally, unlike Aevendra, I remain confident that, upon reading that part of the post, many Nepali friends across the world were probably more AMUSED and, as such they proably greeted it with a "Oh, Come on!" kind of mock-seriousness than glaringly MISinterpret it with "shock".

namaste ashu

************************************************************************* Date: 07 Jun 95 16:01:43 EDT From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: My final news mailing To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

This is my final news mailing to the TND. Thanks to everyone who wrote me with kind words. I apprciated the compliments. Sagun Karmacharya has volunteered to be the news correspondent for TND from this fall.
-------------------------------------------------

%%%%%Editor's Note: Please welcome Sagun on board. TND still hopes to %%%%%
%%%%% to get a volunteer for "Women's Forum". Please send %%%%%
%%%%% in your name or encourage someone today. %%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

Newsreports: June 4-7
*************************

June 4 Six soldiers killed in avalanche UPI report

   A sudden landslide triggered by rains buried alive six soldiers Sunday morning while they were sleeping in their tents, Home Ministry officials said. The landslide occurred about 87 miles (140 km) southeast of Nepal's capital of Katmandu. The soldiers were engaged in a road construction project, the ministry said. Home Minister K.P. Sharma Oli expressed condolences on the deaths of the soldiers, the official national news agency said.

June 5 Nepal Considering cheaper fee to scale Mt. Everest AFP report

    Nepal is considering lowering the 50,000 dollar fee it charges people to scale Mount Everest, in a bid to attract more foreign climbers to the world's highest peak.

   The seven-man team royalty on Everest has risen five-fold since Autumn 1993. Up to three extra climbers are allowed to join an expedition for a further 10,000 dollars each.

   Bhim Bahadur Rawal, Nepalese Minister of State for Tourism and Civil Aviation, said the royalty was raised because of destruction of environment and dumping of garbages on and around the 8,848m
(29,028ft) peak by mountaineers and trekkers.

   The hike in the Everest royalty, previously set at 10,000 dollars per team, was to discourage mountaineers from climbing it and also to check pollution on and around the peak.

   But mountaineering groups said that as many as 20 expeditions have diverted their ascent route on Everest via Tibet.

   The royalty on from the Tibetan slope is about one fifth of the charge fixed by the Nepalese authorities and the Chinese officials have also not restricted the number of expeditions, an official of the Nepalese Mountaineering Association (NMA) said.

   Meanwhile, Rawal confirmed the arrest of a tourism under-secretary Indul Khatri Chetri for allegedly accepting 31,000 rupees (600 dollars) from an American Everest summitteer, Randy Todd Burleson, 35, of Woodenville, Washington.

   Burleson was permitted to ascend 8,516-metre-high (27,938-foot) Mount Lhotse and Everest, Rawal said.

June 6 Western Nepal jarred by an earthquake Excerpts from AFP report

   The western part of Nepal was shaken by a tremor that measured 4.3 on the Richter scale, Radio Nepal Tuesday reported the Department of Mines and Geology as saying.

   The radio said the quake struck at at 1245 GMT Monday evening, and its epicentre was located near Dograkot in Bajura district, 395 kilometres (246 miles) west of Kathmandu.

   No casualty or damage reports have been received so far, the radio added.

June 7 Nepali Congress set to stage a protest rally on Friday Excerpts from Reuters report

        Nepal's main opposition party said on Wednesday it plans a large protest rally in the capital this week as part of its stepped up campaign to topple the six-month-old Communist government.

         ``We'll tell the people in large numbers the reason why we want to overthrow the present government,'' Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, president of the main opposition Nepali Congress party which has called Friday's rally, told Reuters.

         ``We want to withdraw our support and topple the government as it has betrayed us and reneged on the conditions we laid down while giving support,'' Sher Bahadur Deuba, Nepali Congress' parliamentary leader, said in an interview with Reuters.

         He said the Communists were rolling back gains from an economic liberalisation programme launched under Congress rule.

         ``They (UML) are going to introduce a policy of protectionism, state intervention and subsidies, and cripple the economy,'' he said.

         Deuba accused the Communists of politicising the bureaucracy and educational institutions, ignoring a decentralisation programme in favour of party cadres, creating social tensions through land reform and failing to curb inflation.

************************************************************** To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Gurkhas, ex-Gurkhas (Military/Foreigh Policy) Date: Wed, 07 Jun 1995 18:11:08 EDT From: Shreekrishna Pandey <skpandey@MIT.EDU>

Hi, can you include it with your next issue of TND? Thanks!

Pratyoush Onta's article on "Gurkhas and Post-Army Jobs" (TND May 30) was very informative and thought-provoking. It also made me add some of my own views on the questions he raised on the article.

1)On the decision by Britain to reduce the number of Gurkhas sharply:
  ------------------------------------------------------------------ The decision to cut the number of Gurkha troops by 70% while the overall troops cut was only about 25% is certainly absurd. As Pratyoush notes, the key reason given is that of the transfer of Hong Kong and the end of the Cold War. This forces us to think that Gurkhas were hired by Britain for a very particular job: to ward off Communism and to maintain security in Hong Kong. However, if I remember correctly, Gurkhas have been with the British long before World War II, let alone the Cold War. So, the rationale given by Britain can not be justified. Britain certainly did not do justice to the Gurkhas in its decision to cut their number so drastically.

If Britain is really grateful to the service of the Gurkhas, it should find them somewhere else to work, most possibly in Europe where the bulk of the British forces is concentrated. With a little training for the ones who have not used the sophisticated weaponry, there is no reason the Gurkhas cannot do any better than the non-Gurkha part of the British forces. Britain cannot insist that since they are not technically sophisticated enough, the Gurkhas cannot serve in Europe. Britain should not forget the fact that Gurkhas were not first rate machine-gunners at the age of two: they were taught after being recruited.

2)On the Nepali government's role in the international hiring of ex-Gurkhas:
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------- I think the Government's role should be minimal. From Pratyoush's article, I get the impression that the ex-Gurkhas are not being exploited by the employers. If, however, they are being exploited, it is the moral obligation of the Government to assist them; maybe make them more aware of the situation before they get hired. The Govt. could also set more stringent requirements and seek guarantees from the hiring agencies regarding the benefits at the workplace.

3)Why should the Nepali or the British govt. be concerned about the form of job?
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Employment of ex-Gurkhas in jobs not related to Nepal's or Britain's national security should be a matter of concern to both governments. Here we should not forget that (ex)-Gurkhas are related to Nepal/Britain in some way, and their hiring by certain governments like the Sierra Leone govt. to crush opposition within the country will be interpreted by the rebels as military support to the govt. by Nepal/Britain. At least Nepal, being a non-aligned country, should not be encourage such activities.

4) Why does anyone think that Gurkhas are better security soldiers for the UN?
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Part of the reason might be the overwhelming publicity all over. Britain hired Gurkhas for their bravery during the Nepal-Britain war (1814-1816). India also employs them today. They are also known for their determination and loyalty. Positions like the bodyguards of the British queen have been entrusted to them (someone please verify). Last but not the least, the financial condition in Nepal does not give the Gurkhas enough alternatives that are comparable to employment overseas.

Maybe Gurkhas should not be the only ones responsible for peacekeeping worldwide. Maybe they should be joined by troops from other countries, but they should have a sizable role if something called "UN Peacekeeping Force" is ever created.

5) Gurkha recruitement: an embarrassment for Nepal?
   ----------------------------------------------- I don't know why it should be an embarrassment. Ironically, certains groups that call for an end to the recruitment neither have the consent of the would-be-Gurkhas (or Gurkhas), nor can they suggest any alternative that is as good to the Gurkhas.

6) War Memorial in Nepal in Honor of Gurkhas killed in 'the line of duty'
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------- I think this should be left to the ex-Gurkhas and the Gurkhas to decide.

Comments are welcome.

Shree Krishna Pandey skpandey@mit.edu

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