The Nepal Digest - July 10, 1994 (28 Ashadh 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Sunday 10 July 94: Ashadh 28 2051 BkSm Volume 29 Issue 2

Today's Topics:
 

        1. Letter To The Editor

        2. TAJA_KHABAR:
                    News from Nepal : PM Resigns!

        3. KURA_KANI:
                     I. Social Issues
                            Women in Hinduism III
                            Free Food for the third world

                    II. Education
                            Comments on SLC

        4. JAN_KARI:
                    Lukla Flight

        5. TITAR_BITAR:
                    Address change

 
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********************************************************************** From: rajendra@coos.dartmouth.edu (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News: PM's resignation To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Mon, 11 Jul 1994 12:52:34 -0400 (EDT)

         KATHMANDU, Nepal (Reuter) - A political crisis in the Himalayan kingdom of Nepal deepened Sunday when Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala resigned after his ruling party lost a crucial vote in parliament.
         The official Radio Nepal said Koirala had an audience with King Birendra, tendered his resignation and suggested the dissolution of parliament.
         The Nepali Congress party led by Koirala suffered a parliamentary defeat when it failed to secure a vote welcoming Birendra's address outlining government policies.
         The Nepali Congress has 113 deputies in the 205-member Pratinidhi Sabha (House of Representatives) but 38 dissident members abstained and the party could muster only 74 votes in favor while 86 deputies voted against.
         A Nepali Congress leader said Birendra was expected to ask Koirala to continue as caretaker prime minister to oversee elections expected in the next six months. But other party leaders said the king could ask the Nepali Congress to find another leader.
         ``As the Congress continues to command a majority, the king will have to give the party a chance to offer a successor to Koirala,'' party president Krishna Prasad Bhattarai told Reuters.
         Bal Bahadur Rai, a minister in Koirala's government, and Mahendra Narayan Nidhi, the party secretary, were possible candidates to replace Koirala, Congress sources said.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
        KATMANDU, Nepal (AP) -- Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala, Nepal's first democratically elected leader in three decades, resigned Sunday after losing a vote in parliament.
        His resignation set the stage for new parliamentary elections that will test the 3-year-old democracy.
        The political crisis was rooted in factional fighting within the governing Nepali Congress Party, but it also reflected frustration with Koirala's failure to make headway against Nepal's poverty, illiteracy and underdevelopment.
        Koirala, 70, submitted his resignation to King Birendra after members of his party helped vote down the government's annual policy statement. The prime minister recommended that parliament be dissolved and elections held Nov. 13. A general election had not been due until 1996.
        There was no immediate statement from the palace.
        Koirala came to power in 1991 in this Himalayan kingdom's first multiparty elections in 30 years after street demonstrations forced Birendra to become a constitutional monarch.
        Though he took some measures to modernize and liberalize the economy, Nepal remains one of the world's poorest countries, with a per capita income of $180 and an infant mortality rate of nearly one in 10. Nearly three people in four cannot read or write.
        The opposition Communists accuse Koirala's government of complicity in the death of two of its most charismatic leaders in a car accident in May 1993.
        Tensions in his own party also were building this year over the old rivalry between Koirala and former Prime Minister Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, the party president.
        The motion Sunday in parliament lost 86-74 in the 205-seat legislature when 36 Congress Party members abstained. The party dissidents, Bhattarai loyalists, claimed they were excluded from key positions and that party spoils were going to Koirala's camp.
-----------------------------------------------------------------

Agence France Presse July 11, 1994

Headline: Nepalese PM finally yields to presure from every corner Byline: Susham Shrestha Dateline: Kathmandu, July 11 Body:

   Nepalese Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala's political balancing act came to a crashing halt at the weekend when he was forced to resign and call for mid-term polls after losing a parliamentary vote.

   For the last few months he had battled against dissident MPs calling for his ouster, accusations by a parliamentary subcommittee of using his personal influence to ram through a financial deal and accusations that his government was incompetent.

   The axe finally fell on Koirala's administration Sunday when he lost a crucial parliamentary debate on his government's annual programme, a defeat which prompted him to step down after more than three turbulent years in power.

   After tendering his resignation to the country's king, he asked the monarch to dissolve parliament, and call for mid-term polls on October 18, the state radio announced earlier.

   The king accepted his resignation but has yet to make a decision on calling elections, which were not due until May 1996.

   Eighty-six MPs in the 205-seat house of representatives voted against Koirala's socio-economic and political programme, while 43 others, including 36 dissident members of the ruling party, abstained a parliamentary source said.

   Only 74 legislators voted in favour of the programme, a result which left the prime minister visibly shaken.

   Koirala has faced major threats to his position, both from the opposition and from within his own party over recent months. His resignation came as a relief to many of his opponents after he failed to live up to their expectations, observers here said.

   On Sunday night, more than 2,000 youths from various political parties took part in a victory march celebrating Koirala's resignation, chanting slogans like "Democracy hi-hi, Girija bye-bye."

   In February, Koirala found himself at the centre of a fierce political row after he allegedly undermined NC Party President Krishna Prasad Bhattarai during a parliamentary by-election in Kathmandu in which Bhattarai was defeated.

   The charge prompted the 36 dissident NC law-makers to call for his resignation, while public demonstrations against his rule became a regular occurrence here.

   He has been also accused in a recent report by a subcommittee of the powerful parliamentary Public Accounts Committee (PAC) of involvement in a ticket sales controversy with Royal Nepal Airlines
(RNAC).

   The report alleges he used his influence to get the London-registered firm Fare Limited appointed as RNAC's sales agent for Europe, leading to massive losses by the flag carrier, a PAC source said.

   The subcommittee claimed Koirala had met with RNAC directors to pressure them into providing Fare Limited with the lucrative deal, a charge he has denied.

   "Constitutionally Koirala has been proved anti-public, anti-national and moreover, he had acted against the interest of democracy," Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Lenninist
(NCP-UML) party Secretary-general Madhav Kumar Nepal said.

   "Koirala had to step down apparently because of his failure in all aspects," he added.

   The premier has frequently been accused by both opposition and NC MPs of incompetence for failing to run the government efficiently, maintain law and order and safeguard democracy, and for not providing economic relief to the people.

   "We gave Koirala an ultimatum to solve the current political crisis by Sunday but he failed to do this, so we decided to boycott the voting," Chiranjibi Wagle, spokesman for the dissident NC group said.

   The king held discussions on the formation of a new government with NCP-UML party leader Man Mohan Adhikari and secretary-general Nepal and would decide whether to dissolve parliament, a party source said.

   Nepal said Adhikari had urged the king not to agree to mid-term polls and the dissolution of parliament, saying Koirala had no right to seek fresh elections.

   The king was expected to meet other opposition leaders for talks Monday, while the NC officials were also to meet to recommend a successor to Koirala.

***************************************************************** Date: Fri, 08 Jul 1994 16:17:55 EDT To: The Nepal digest Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> From: "Pramod K. Mishra" <pkm@acpub.duke.edu> Subject: Women in Hinduism III

Dear Editor,

In my last letter, I talked about how a woman's father himself becomes an enemy and promised, or seemed to promise, an enquiry into love marriage. But my business about the upbringing of a girl is not yet finished. So I begin this letter with a further consideration of how a Hindu girl in Nepal reaches the ripe, crucial marriageable age.

A female Hindu child's life before marriage becomes, with the benign help of his father and the society of which her mother also becomes an accomplice, a panorama of injustices and disguised conspiracies. While her brother is allowed every privilege--like talking loud and clear, chasing the skirts of lower-caste women and girls, falling violently in love, tasting the pleasures of the flesh, bragging about his conquests--she, on the other hand, is not allowed even to have a hearty laugh. Do you know what is said in the villages? Well, the saying goes among the disciplinarians: Pahile chchori hansche, tes pachi fansche
(first the daughter laughs, then falls prey to male desires.) Falling prey to male desire is of course true, not by having a hearty laugh but by not having a hearty laugh. Moreover, she falls victim to the invisible, benign-looking conspiracies of the male world by emulating the thirty two (I checked my memory on the numbers and found that it was not thirty six, as I had written in my previous letter, but thirty two) virtues. By the time she masters her thirty-second virtue (I don't think in reality even in that restriction many girls are as dumb as the male-dominated world wantes them to be but most follow the instructions for fear of dire consequences and try their best to internalize the virtues), a young female teen can barely produce enough sound so that even her interlocutor can clearly understand. And what about laughter? Well, she forgets to laugh after so much effort, so much practice, and so much admonition not to laugh. To have a hearty laugh becomes her mortal sin, laughter that is one of the most precious drug-free medicines for the human psyche. She begins to doubt her physical and psychological instinctiveness to laugh. Human beings are born crying because of the stress of birth--first-time breathing the air of the mad world, first separation from the cosiness of the mother's womb, first need to depend helplessly on the outside world for everything--but soon after life instinct produces the most wornderful of the wonderful gifts of nature, laughter. Of course, every parent laughs to see the dimpled smile and toothless laughter of the child, male or female. But if the child continues to laugh and if the child is a female and continues to laugh even after the age of five or six, the elders in the family begin to warn, ever so slightly, ever so symbolically with the help of frowns and unpleasant twitch of the face. But these subtle hints do not remain subtle after a certain age, when the red scare begins. The trauma of the first menstruation and the shock accorded to a female teen forever snatches away her laughter, and whatever residue of gaety remains begins to disappear once the family members, well wishers, and the village priest, on his occasional visits, start their uninformed lessons in the thirty two virtues: walk like a duck, talk like a parrot, hide like a shy cat in the zoo at the sight of a stranger.

Call it a training? Call it a preparation? It is indeed a preparation, if it is a preparation, for doom, for a dumb, anguish-filled life, devoid of any conscious decision-making opportunity so crucial for a thinking being. The girl thus instructed and trained and forced in the thirty two virtues becomes so helpless and emotionally, psychologically, politically, philosophically crippled that any new situation, away from (or even in) her father's family and village, comes as an invitation for self disaster. There is neither freedom taught nor its concommitant virtue, responsibility, instilled in the minds of these young women. What is taught is bondage and the instinctive effort of a human soul in some to break the bondage results in chaos and self-destruction. Yet they are blamed in the name of "triya charitram" for any lapse or assertion of freedom.

Have you seen young Nepali women going crazy about films, particularly the garbage that is produced in Bombay, Mr. Editor? No wonder that some the extremist political thinkers in Nepal these days have begun to think about banning Hindi films. But that is not at all the solution. That at best is a superficial ploy to arouse the ultra-nationalistic feelings among the people and get votes like Vladimir some one (I don't know how to write his name off hand) in Russia. The solution, Mr. Editor, lies in education, political, aesthetic, secular, democratic edcation, not only what these young ones learn at school and college but at home, in the village, among the family members. In the absence of freedom's enlightening effect, these teens, particularly female, in Nepal think Bollywood's illusion-inducing drugs, originally produced for the poor richshaw pullers and such, to keep them in thrall for life, as holy as the village priest's explication of the Shree Madbhagwat Puran. Accordingly, they emulate both these sources of irresistible learning as though both the drug and the Puran were examples of real living. Because the faculty for critical thinking and analytical ability to place any sensory impression in proper, broader perspective is stifled and stunted by the thirty two virtues, these young ones begin to entertain the dream of drugged life as shown in the cheap Hindi movies as the ideal life, the best kind. The consequences that Hinduism's this habit of shutting the minds and hearts of young women by thirty two virtues produces are disasterous. I'll show how.

Most upper and middle class women among the Nepalese have indegenous sources of entertainment: no book reading, no poetry writing, no hot debate about contemporary and life issues. And there is no freedom to test ideas and impressions and learn. The only source of entertainment for most is those movies, but the consequences become disastrous for want of any critical understanding of those movies. You can naturally ask, Mr. Editor, "Then what disastrous effect Indian women face?" Well, in the first place I'm not concerned here with what Indian women do nor do I have much time to elaborate on that. But I'll say this: that in India there are many safety devices, such as the close nature of its Hindu social structure, bloody caste wars, communal intolerance, and so on. Although negative, tendencies force the worst kind of imprisonment for women and compel them to realize (it does not take long for an Indian girl) that there is a huge abyss between what happens on the screen of a movie theater and how she lives in the real society.

But the case is quite different in Nepal. Have you heard of a story, about six seven years old, that a rich young woman from Kathmandu ended up at the door of a notable filmy star in Bombay, following the pursuit of her dream? The kind star eventually called the police and handed over the girl to them and the police sent her back to Nepal.

This incident brings me to the heart of the matter I want to talk about today. You have heard that these days AIDS is spreading in Nepal like monsoon water that there are many recruiting gangs active in Nepal, not only for the mythical gorkha army in England and India but for the brothels of Bombay and other cities of India. These girls born in the villages, blinded by thirty two virtues (many of these girls may come from hill tribes but their training is not very different) and strangled in dark, odorous space of bondage, jump into marriage with the recruitors in the hope for a colorful life in Bombay as portrayed in the Hindi movies: dance and song, palace and extravagant life style, life begun amidst thorns always ending in a bed of roses. Or the reason these women jump headlong into with such men without knowing them is that Hinduism's restriction leaves no room for knowing the partner, no room for companionship, but only for chance, clandestine encounter and neat sex. These women eventually end up in the brothels forced to sell their meat. And when epidemics like AIDS strike, they are turned out into the streets, forced to flee to their villages in Nepal, like Gorkha soldiers, who, when they oppose injustice and discrimination, are sent home packing and their regiments disbanded in the name of trimming down.

And what does the Nepali patriots do? Well, Mr. Editor, they give a lot of speeches about this problem and give away a lot of prizes and attend a lot of functions and international seminars in elite hotels whose carpet lack even a speck of dust, whose wine tastes unlike anything made in Nepali homes, the dirty stuff. The outrageous thing is: for the accidental killing of a cow, or a calf or a bull, many human beings are at the moment rotting for life in Nepali prisons. For aborting an unwanted child (the result of a rape or accidental transgression), many a woman is serving life imprisonment; in fact, most women prisoners in Nepal (if my memory serves right) have been sentenced for life for abortion. The first time I heard about it was when some one, politically imprisoned himself for some time, wrote about it in a Kathmandu weekly. But no one cares to pass stringent laws to deter these predators from snuffing the life out of a young Nepali village woman, the victim of thirty two virtues, illiteracy, poverty, and Bollywood drug! Yet many a high and mighty in Nepal never tires of giving speeches about patriotism, nationalism, imperialism, and the newspapers never tire of printing these speeches. Doesn't it seem that a woman's life is worse than that of a cow in Nepal? We must think about it, Mr. Editor.

But the fathers and brothers of these women, like their middle and upper class counterparts, would say on these occasions when one of their female flesh and blood disappear for one reason or another, whether to seek a better life, choose a life partner, exercising their own blind judgement, or to fall into the abyss, forever irretrievably doomed: Ke garne chori cheli dimma jastai huncha, ekchoti futepachi, futyo futyo (What to do? unmarried girls are like eggs, once broken they never join; you cannot join them)--never for a moment realizing that the unfortunate fate for these women comes from their own blind loyalty to male dominance and the imposition of thiry two virtues that packs the bodily passions in a brittle pitcher without letting a whiff of freedom's fresh air sharpen the mind to understand the pitfalls of life. Dimma jastai, indeed! Doesn't Hinduism, Mr. Editor, makes a woman worse than a cow, as brittle and vulnerable as an egg? We must think about it, Mr. Editor; we must think about it.

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Sat, 02 Jul 1994 11:27:20 PDT To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: or5043@rccvax.ait.ac.th Subject: Objection

Dear Editor:

        Namaskar. This is in relation to a posting that appeared in 28 june 1991 issue of TND under my name. I have a strong objection on this posting because of the following reasons:
 
        1. The content of the posting was a part of my personal letter to
        a friend in USA.

        2. It was sent to the TND by "shrestha@vax.lse.ac.uk" with a title
        on it and my name at the bottom. I don't know this person with this
        address.

        3. Don't you (mr\mrs shrestha) think this is the violation of
        copy-right ? You could have inform me before sending to TND. Are
        you responsible to the damage (if any) done to me by this posting?

        4. My suggestion to the TND is, in the future we should be careful
          to publish a message sent by a third party in the name of some other
   
        people.
               
        Thanks.

        Chandra Giri
        UNEP/GRID-Bangkok

        cc. Mr. Amulya R. Tuladhar
            Clark University
%%%%%Editor's Note: TND apologizes for the confusion. Rajesh Shrestha %%%
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******************************************************************** Date: Thu, 30 Jun 1994 13:40:54 EDT To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: Jay James <jayjames@rahul.net> Subject: Re: Long-term Causes of Floods in Bangladesh

M Khalequzzaman (khaleq@brahms.udel.edu) wrote:
: >>
: >> LONG-TERM CAUSES OF FLOODS IN BANGLADESH? There is one major factor in the cause of floods in Bangladesh that has gone upreported in this fine paper-- U.S. foreign trade policy, as it results in the prevention of free trade in farm products.

Yes, you heard correctly. As documented in Bovard's book _The Farm Fiasco_, the policy of the U.S. is to dump "free" food on countries such as Bangladesh, in the form of "aid" that suppresses the normal development of their markets and decreases the incentive of farmers to farm. Also U.S. borders are closed in textiles and other areas. As a result people flock to the cities and nobody practices sound farming. Erosion and perpetual poverty are the consequences. It's called
"lifeboat economics" because the U.S keeps countries ignorant until there is a crisis and then a "lifeboat" token sop is thrown to the countries, which receives media attention.

The solution? Form a free trading block and f*ck the US--that includes US intellectual property rights (patents, trademarks, copyrights) which the US finds so dear now. If the US wants to play hardball, then so be it! Once everybody is a pirate of technology, and floods the US with parallel (grey market) imports, the US will come back to the negotiating table, but by then it will be too late.

Support the Developing Countries: Buy Counterfeit Products Today! Jay James <jayjames@rahul.net>

************************************************************************ Date: Thu, 30 Jun 1994 13:44:04 EDT To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: sshakya@lynx.dac.neu.edu (Sunil Shakya) Subject: News from Nepal

Headline: Nepal revises account statistics Dateline: KTM, June 24, 1994

The Nepali government has revised the national account statistics for the period from 1984/85 to 1993/94 to accurately reflect the national economic development. According to the revised estimate, gross domestic product (GDP) for all the years from 1984/85 to 1993/94 are higher than the previous one, Vice Chairman of National Planning Commission Sharan Mahat told a press conference here this afternoon. As for the year 1993/94, particularly, 16% higher than the previous estimate, said the NPC Vice Chairman, as a result of changes in the size of GDP, per capita income has also increased proportionately. For example, for the fiscal year 1993/94, the per capita income initially estimated at 8,600 rupees
(176 dollars) has been increased to 10,000 rupees (204 dollars). There has also been a significant change in the structure of GDP in the period, the Vice Chairman said. Previous estimate showed that the share of agriculture and non-agriculture sector in the year 1992/93 was 49 and 51%, respectively, whereas the present estimate shows that the contribution of the two sectors is 42 and 58%, respectively. The changes in the structure of GDP result in changes in the real growth rate of GDP, Sharan Mahat said. Giving the reason of the revision, the NPC Vice Chairman stressed the major changes in the social and economic structure of th e national economy since the first revision of GDP estimates in 1974/75.

************************************************************* Date: Thu, 30 Jun 1994 13:45:56 EDT To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: rajendra@coos.dartmouth.edu (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: Some News

Source: The Independent, June 15th (paraphrased)

No to Indian Films
        Spokesman of United People's Front, Dr. Baburam Bhattarai, has announced that all cinema halls in Nepal have agreed not to show Indian movies from June 14th. The UPF had called for a boycott of Indian movies to protest the Indian police raid in Baneswor.The UPF has also launched a protest against vehicles plying in Nepali territory with Indian license plates. It claims that although Indian vehicles can freely enter Nepal, Nepali vehicles need permission from the Indian embassy in Kathmandu - which can take months - to enter India. "There should be reciprocity. If they come, Nepali vehicles should also be allowed into India," said Bhattarai.

SLC results announced
        The SLC results for 2050B.S. has been announced. Over 50,000 of the around 70,000 students who took the tests failed the exams. Miss Garima Rana was declared to have acheived the top place
(board first) in the exams.

Furor over a Newsweek article
        In its June 13 issue, Newsweek ran a story on the situation in Bhutan titled "Trouble in Shangri-La". In it, the magazine claims that
"Nepal is benefitting from the Bhutanese refugee situation" because of the outpouring of international aid to the refugees. This has created a furor among aid workers in Nepal. Responding to the Newsweek article, Tahir Ali, Resident Representative of the UNHCR in Kathmandu said that he was very surprised by that sentence in the article. "Our assessment is that Nepal is suffering from the refugee situation. It is paying a heavy price in terms of hosting these people, living in densely-populated districts of Nepal which do not have the resources to sustain them. So I do not see how any detached observer can say Nepal is benefiting from the influx of refugees," wondered Ali.

********************************************************************* Date: Wed, 06 Jul 1994 10:35:49 +1200 To: A10RJS1@cs.niu.edu From: "G.P. Rauniyar" <G.P.Rauniyar@massey.ac.nz> Subject: PLEASE POST ON TDN AND UPDATE YOUR MAILING LIST

Dear Rajpalji,

Please update my TDN subscription address as follows:

G.P.Rauniyar@massey.ac.nz

For all who have know me, I have left the US for good and I have relocated at Massey University, New Zealand.

I would be particularly interested in contacting Nepalese and friends of Nepal currently in New Zealand and Australia.

Thanks

Ganesh Rauniyar Department of Agricultural and Horticultural Systems Management Massey University Private Bag 11222 Palmerston North, New Zealand

TEL: 64-6-356-9099 EXT 7802 FAX: 64-6-350-5680
********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 7 Jul 1994 08:38 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - July 6, 1994 (24 Ashadh 2051 BkSm) To: NEPAL@mp.cs.niu.edu

Dear Editor:

I would like to comment on the SLC results.

Why did only 20,000 out of the 70,000 pass the SLC this time?

It is a clear case of social engineering. Both numbers, "20,000" and "70,000" represent reductions from earlier figures of around 40,000 and 100,000.

The number 20,000 is easy to explain from numerous public interviews the Vice-chencellor of Tribhuwan University has given over the last two years. Namely, the total number of seats available in ALL the campuses of TU is around 17,000 and this number includes multiple shifts and grossly overcrowded lab and lab facilities and in some case no other educational facilities.

With ALL the private campuses included, the total intake capacity is 25,000 and many of these private campuses are our US community college equivalents, the place where anybody with a second or third division lands up when he cannot get into any of the other colleges. And although, these private colleges are said to run on "private' resources they are really subsidized almost wholly by TU. Most of the TU professors moonlight by running private campuses and many of the senior professors give prestige and credibility to such private campuses while fresh Masters who cannot get jobs because they are not adequately tied to the congress political machine slog like donkeys to run the private campuses.

The ostensible reason for reduction of pass rate in the SLC is to increase the faculty:student ratio and hopefully increase educational standard. That is the rhetoric.

The political and social agenda is different.

Politically, the reduction of students on Campus is buying political insurance for politicians playing the status quo-power game, in the name of stability, of course. In Nepal, college students have been the hotbed of politics and social change and this was true in the Pancha time and it is true in Multi-party time. Even after the establishment of multiparty democracy, the colleges have been agitational hotbeds of conflict and questioning of the politics of the country and this is not limited to only communist students but also the so-called the democratic students. The powers that be have long felt that one way to control that, other than blunt political suppression which is no longer politically correct but an option nevertheless, is to cut off and reduce the volatile student unrest from getting to campuses in the first place.

This policy has resulted in reduction of students sitting for SLc from 100,000 to 70,000, stringent restrictions at the school level and more stringent screening at the SLC exams to 20,000 so that there would be no unmanageable political pressures to gain entry to campuses as a birth right. There are other policies to keep the students divided and occupied so they would not challenge the status quo.

The social implications of this political decision are interesting. Who are the privileged who get the education? the brightest and the most deserving? Hogwash, it is the economically, socially, and politically privileged who get access to education thus reproducing existing power relations in our Nepalese society. The increase of TU tuition rate by 100% to make schooling self-reliant and serious that only the "educationally motivated" would study is one such gesture to limit the access of high education, and high class jobs and leadership in society and politics limited to the wealthy of Nepal. If one visits any campus, you see the people who study there do NOT represent the cross-section of Nepali demographics but the rarefication of the dominant elite. In Kathmandu and the science campuses, the children invariably come from the middle and upper middle class urban families.[the high class send their dumb kids to India, Philipines, and US by paying hefty monies stolen from the surplus extraction political economy of Nepal]. Outside kathmandu, the students invariably come from the rural elite of the villages, those whose families generate enough cash surplus to be able to afford their kids a college education when over half of the Nepali rural families do not generate enough production even to feed themselves for 6 months a year. Castewise, these urban and rural elite come from Brahmin, Chettri, Thakuri, Newar and
"Madhesi" upper caste groups. Untouchables, low caste, ethnic tribes in the hills and Terai are shut out in double whammies: schools and good teachers are located in their areas so they do get upto SLC and if they do they have poor grades so they are too stupid to "deserve" college education. It is ironic in this enequitable situation that these privileged college students who get a heavily subsidized, albiet academically worthless but politically and socially valuable education, should clamor for more facilities in strikes.

Amulya
(opinions based on 12 years teaching in TU]

****************************************************************** Date: Thu, 7 Jul 1994 08:52 EST From: mehta@cs.sfu.ca (Manish Mehta) Date: 3-JUL-1994 20:32:09 Description: Re: Want to Raise a Family in the US?

In article <CsBsyu.4A3@freenet.carleton.ca> ad656@FreeNet.Carleton.CA (Jai Maharaj) writes:

. . . then please read this:
             FACTS ABOUT VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN THE U.S.
              Compiled by the majority staff of the Senate
                  Judiciary Committee (July 31, 1990)

The most serious crimes against women are rising at a significantly faster rate than total crimes: during the past 10 years, rape rates have risen nearly four times as fast as the total crime rate.
     Every hour, 16 women confront rapists; a woman is raped every 6 minutes.
     Every 18 seconds, a woman is beaten; 3-4 million women are battered each year.
     Since 1974, the rate of assaults against young women (20-24) has jumped almost 50%. For young men, it has decreased.
     Three out of four women will be victims of at least one violent crime during their lifetimes.
     A woman is 10 times more likely to be raped than to die in a car crash.
     Only 50% of rapes are ever reported; of those reported, less than 40% result in arrest.
     One third of all domestice violence cases, if reported, would be charged as felony rape or felonious assault.
     Each year, more than one million women seek medical assistance for injuries caused by battering.
     The crime rate against women in the United States is significantly higher than in other countries -- the United States has a rape rate that is 13 times higher than England's, nearly 4 times higher than Germany's, and more than 20 times higher than Japan's.
     Of the American women alive today, 25 million either have been, or will be, raped at least once during their lives.
     Last year, the number of women abused by their husbands was greater than the number of women who got married.
     In 1950, police caught 83% of all rapists; in 1988 police caught only 53% of them.
     Nearly 50% of abusive husbands batter their wives when they are pregnant, making them four times more likely to bear infants of low birth weight.
     Of all those arrested for major crimes -- murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson -- rapists are the most likely to escape conviction.
     If every woman victimized by domestic violence last year were to join hands in a line, the string of people would span from New York to Los Angeles and back again.
     More than half of all homeless women are on the street because they are fleeing domestic violence.
     More than 40% of college women who have been raped say that they expect to be raped again.
     There were more women injured by rapists last year than marines wounded by the enemy in all of World War II.
     There are nearly three times as many animal shelters in the United States as there are battered women's shelters.
     Although campus studies suggest that 1,275 women were raped at America's 3 largest universities in 1989, only 3 of those rapes were reported to police.
     1 out of every 7 women currently attending college has been raped.
     486,000 of the girls now attending high school will have been raped before they graduate.
     The average age of a rape victim is 18 1/2 years old.
     Young women 16-19 years old are the most likely to be raped.
     57% of college rape victims are attacked by dates.
     Girls raped before age 18 are least likely to report the incident to the police.
     Girls aged 12-15 are the most likely to be raped by strangers.
     Rape victims aged 12-19 are the least likely to receive hospital care.
     Since 1974, the rate of assaults against young women (20-24) has jumped 48%. For men of the same age group, it has decreased 12%.
     Half the cases of women killed in this country are victims of domestic violence.

-=Om Shanti=- Jai Maharaj, Vedic Astrologer

++++++++ Can you give the figures on the same lines for India and Canada ?
  Thanks Manish

********************************************************************** From: "Raj Kumar Dubey" <RAJ@caedm.et.byu.edu> To: NEPAL@mp.cs.niu.edu Date: Fri, 8 Jul 1994 17:40:51 MST Subject: Thanks to Mr. Mishra's article on Women in Hinduism

Thanks for a very touching story on the subject of Women in Hinduism. This only shows the need to change the Nepalese society fundamentally. There has to be a change in the evils of caste system. There has to be change in our religiousity. We have to stop filling our minds with bullshits of Mahadeva and Vishnu and Ganesh and what not. The age old wisdom of self-mastery has taken a back seat nowadays. Instead people read Swastani brata Katha. I have no idea what people can learn from that. And there is TEEZ, in which if a wife eats something it is like her husband's flesh and drinks even a drop of water it is like her husband's blood. PLEASE... Though the fasting itself may be good for health, I would not let my wife do it because it is based on a wrong foundation. I would rather encourage her to fast on may 25 as a nothing day.

All this can be changed only by education. We should be bold and marry intercaste if we think the person is right for us. Arranged or love. We haaven't yet the disgusting level or casteism as the indian society has. I personally think all the bullshit comes to Nepal from India, because Nepalis are so simpletons. We should support the religious leaders who are genuinely interested in giving the Sudras their rightful place..... a place of respect.

I have always believed that first place of improvement is ourselves. Let's not let our sisters and daughters and moms not suffer the injustice we so easily denounce in somebody else's house.

Looking the SLC results, it seems to me that we will have to wait a long time to acheive that beautiful day in which our sons daughters and wives are loved and not enslaved.

The problem were well identified and points were well-made. Mr. Mishra I whole heartedly agree with you.

Prakash Bhandari Brigham Young University

P.S. Even here in America I have seen so called educated Nepalis making their wives do all the house work while they are talking bullshit with their guests. So, we definitely have a long way to go.

********************************************************************* Date: Fri, 06 May 1994 13:09:50 EDT To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu Path: black.clarku.edu!vax.clarku.edu!atuladhar From: atuladhar@vax.clarku.edu
>Subject: Questions about the Indian Thermals Contract with Nepal Electricity A
>Date: 3 MAY 94 16:16:13 GMT

A recent dateline said Nepal electricity Authority (NEA) had signed a turnkey project for 21 substations in various parts of the Kingdom. I have some questions for any knowlegeable guys:

1. Are the Indians building "thermal" plants based on somekind of fuel, petro-products or biomass or even geothermals instead of hydro-power. If so does this not mean more dependency?

2. Is this deal linked to the delay in ArunIII, an effort to meet the electricity demand until the Arun iii can chrun up some watts?

3. Why is this turnkey, meaning that the Indians would be bringing everything from India from bolts to engineers and laborers? Is this what is meant liberalization of public corporations?

4. What about the 500 + nepali engineers who are employed and several hundred in power and electricity subfields alone, Will they get jobs with these Indian "turnkey" projects? Sure, a few super-rich or super-educated engineers such as Dipak Gyawali and Bikash Babu Pandey can afford to criticize Arun III because they do not need the jobs that will be generated but what about those unemployed Nepali engineers whose futures are being adjudicated out by NEA and its antagonists?

Looking for answers, Amulya

****************************************************************** Date: Sat, 09 Jul 1994 07:48:36 EDT To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: paulb@jtec.com.au (Paul Butler ) Subject: Re: INFO REQUEST: Status of Lukla-Kathmandu fli

>In article yeom@delphi.com, yeom@delphi.com () writes:
>>
>> Is anyone familiar with the current conditions of the flight from Lukla
>> airstrip to Kathmandu?
>>
>> Recent experience, direct or anecdotal, greatly appreciated. Post here or
>> reply email. Thanks!

>The issue on flight availability is NOT the lack of aircraft -- it never
>really has been for that airport. The issue is the weather. If it stays clear
>there is no problem -- but if clouds roll in the flights can't go.

The Lukla airstrip is simply the most amazingly optimistic piece of human engineering in existence. It consists of a 300 metre, 15 degree sloped rocky runway with a cliff at each end. Landing and taking off there is the rollercoaster ride of a lifetime. When I flew in athiests were crossing themselves and the air hostess was clutching the arms of her seat, white-knuckled.

On my return from the trek I waited six days in the Paradise Lodge presidential suite (with a fine view of the runway) waiting for my flight out. I made my international flight with ten minutes to spare. This is not unusual.

The main problem is something that Royal Nepal Airlines has no control over. The Lukla airstrip is in the middle of the highest mountains in the world and the weather is entirely unpredictable. As the pilots explained, 'We do not fly when it is cloudy, because the clouds have rocks in them'.

If you miss your scheduled flight because of cloud then you go to the end of the waiting list. This is extremely frustrating unless you have absorbed some of the local Buddhist culture and see it as an opportunity to practice Patience.

Having said all that, you have got rocks in your head if you let this difficulty put you off visiting this amazing and enchanting part of the world.
  It can truly change your whole outlook on life. The scenery is simply stunning, and as one of the last places to see Tibetan Buddhism in practice in
  everyday life, the Sherpa region is a rare and precious jewel.

Just make allowances for possible delays and travel with a reputable trekking agency like Ama Dablam Trekking in Kathmandu. Deal with them direct by fax and save yourself hundreds of bucks.

Happy landings ;-)

Paul Butler Sydney 2000

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