The Nepal Digest - January 3, 1996 (19 Push 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Wednesday 3 January 96: Push 19 2052 BS Volume 46 Issue 2

 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "LIFE: Indulgence vs Seeking Truth - Which is your forte?" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * *

******************************************************** Date: January 3, 1996 From: Subject: From the Editor's Desk To: The Nepal Digest (

Dear TND member:

     On behalf of the global TND community, I wish you a happy and a joyous
     New Year.

     A lot has been said about TND's timely publication, TND's quality,
     financing of TND, member contributions for TND and many other things
     to better the servide of TND.

     1996 marks the begining of the 5th successful year of TND. The
     entire credit goes to dedicated and concern members like you who
     have offered many suggestions to keep TND alive. Now is the time
     to test those suggestions.

     My collegue Dr. Neil Rickert at NIU has been kind enough to allow
     publication of TND inspite of my departure from the university a
     year ago. On behalf of TND community, I requested him to allow us
     to publish TND until we found a suitable home (its own system) in
     near future.

     Now the time has come to realize that dream.
     The goal is to acquire its own hardware and dedicated Internet
     access so that TND can be a true means of information, resources,
     ideas and news sharing medium. Perhaps it can provide a virtual sense
     of chautari or new road ko pipal ko bot or tundikhel or ratna park,
     you name it, where all nepalis and friends of nepal can share
     their own piece of mind. This requires time, efforts and a chunk
     sum of money.

     For the first phase, I propose to establish TND's home page e.g. in a rented server. In my extensive converssation with
     Mr. Carlson of SuperNova and my own shoping around, I have not found
     a better proposal than what Mr. Carlson offered us. I believe the
     startup cost was $575 for 1st year (1996). To keep the TND web server
     healthy, TND Foundation will offer "Webmaster Internship" (this
     could carry some form of small stipend depending on members'
     generousity) which could be rotated every 6 months.

     Second phase would require establishing TND Foundations as a non-profit
     organization so the contributors can get tax deductions on their
     generous contributions. A lot need to be discussed amongst us to
     identify whether TND Foundations can play additional role in Nepali
     community besides just information sharing. Please be reminded that
     the core purpose of TND is to share resources, informations, ideas and
     news. We need to make sure that any additional tasks we (as TND) may
     want to pursue, should not take our main focus away from the core
     function of TND.

     Third phase would conclude the project by acquiring the physical
     hardware, internet access and a dedicated "webmaster" and TND
     Foundations' governing body to further enhance TND's role.

     Let us concentrate on first phase for right now. For us to get
     started on first phase TND requires $575.

     Please share your ideas, perhaps I have not included all the issues.

     You may send your contributions payable to:

          TND Foundations
          c/0 Rajpal J.P. Singh
          44 Greenridge Ave
          White Plains, NY 10605

Note: A list of donors and the exact amount will be published in each
      issue of TND until the goal amount $575 is met.

Thank you On behalf of TND R.J. Singh Founding Member/Coordinator The Nepal Digest (TND)

********************************************************* Date: Wed, 03 Jan 1996 14:08:30 EST To: The Nepal digest Editor <> From: "Pramod K. Mishra" <> Subject: Dollar and Sense

Dear Editor,

Talk of dollar always makes sense as remuneration when real work is accomplished. And I think that your efforts in sorting out the TND postings and mailing them to the subscribers and keeping track of their addresses must be rewarded in concrete terms. The people who post their views on TND may feel lackadaisical and postpone, if they so choose, their private musings from making public, but your task as an editor doesn't offer you that luxury. So some kind of remuneration, as some contributors have suggested, is worth consideration.
        Ten dollars a year for members in dollar-regions of the world is not a bad idea. I'd suggest, however, that this contribution shouldn't be made mandatory and coerced from the TND members, and thos who fail to pay, their name shouldn't be deleted. Instead, an announcement to that effect should be made in TND, reminding the members of the due.
        Now, a very legitimate questin that TND members can raise is Why should we contribute anything to TND when only a few vocal members voice their opinion and views on its pages? The question is serious. Why should one be made to pay for somebody's half-cooked ideas?
        My response to these very proper questions would be twofold: One, TND doesn't carry its contributors' opinions and ideas; it has a substantial coverage of news also (albeit a little stale in this age of information superhighway.) Second, the most admiring feature about TND I particularly like is its lack of censorship. Anyone, even the most bullheaded person (which at one time or another we all tend to become) can send his or her ideas, opinions, contributions, no matter how outrageous, and get published. Each of its members are free to voice his or her thoughts; TND is nobody's monopoly. It is a different matter that some members feel a more urgent itch than others, for whatever reasons, to voice their contributions. Third, I think we subjects of the nascent democracy should learn to speak our thoughts without fear and in public. Now this is a seroius matter. Very often we may get too shrill, personal, spurred by hatred or other base emotions, but there is nothing better than learning by practice. Voicing one's views is not the monopoly of only those who speak in paragraphs and quote from Socrates to the Bhagwat Gita. We have lived mute too long in Nepal, a chosen few giving orders and most following orders. Now is the time that we all must speak and be heard, no matter how trivial our concerns are. For this also, it is important to make the TND Editor a little more comfortable and reward for his labors.
        But then again, it's upto the contributors to voice more views regarding this.

********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 29 Dec 1995 17:31:56 -0500 (EST) Forwarded By: Subject: dec28_local.html (fwd) To: THE NEPAL DIGEST <>

Source: KTM Post Online

   By a Post Reporter
   KATHMANDU, Dec 27 - Except Communist Party of Nepal (CPN-UML) all
   other communist factions of Nepal organised various ceremonies to
   celebrate 103rd Mao anniversary here in the capital Monday. But so far
   no news have been heard about Nepals largest communist party (CPN-UML)
   organising any programmes to celebrate the anniversary. When asked
   about the CPN-UML celebrating the 103rd Mao anniversary, a member of
   the CPN-UML publicity department, Shanker Pokhrel said that he was
   unaware of his party organising any programmes to mark the
   anniversary. The programme held in the Open Theatre, Tundikhel
   organised by veteran communist leader Nar Bahadur Karmacharya included
   band-groups, march-pasts and traditional lakhey dances through the
   main thoroughfares of the capital. Later the mass rally turned into a
   mass meeting where they offered flowers and garlands on the pictures
   of Marx, Lenin, Stalin, Angels and Mao.
   On the other hand, SJM (Bhattarai) party who consider Maoism as their
   ideal, organised a talk programme to observe the anniversary.
   Similarly, Nepal Labour Peasants Partys student union organised a week
   long programme in Bhaktapur to mark the anniversary.
   Considering Mao as the Great Teacher of World Proletariat the
   communists not only organised various programmes but also blamed one
   another to be a reactionary or traitor. In the ceremony held at the
   Open Theatre Tundhikhel speakers Nirmal Lama, Chitra Bahadur K C and
   others called the CPN(UML) and SJM (Bhattarai) party extremists. They
   said that only their parties follow the original Maoism. Nepal
   Communist Party (Ekata Kendra) leader Nirmal Lama talking to The
   Kathmandu Post said 'Maoism is related to the working class and thus
   we are celebrating it.' According to SJM (Bhattarai)'s general
   secretary Pampha Bhushal Mao anniversary is being celebrated in Nepal
   for the preparation of a long-term peoples war. However, almost every
   communist leader accepted that no such communist leaders were born in
   Nepal whose anniversary could be celebrated and compared with Mao.
   Nirmal Lama further said that anniversaries could be observed only if
   there were leaders whose status could be compared with Lenin and Marx.
   Pampha Bushal gave a new name to late Madan Bhandari calling him a
   reactionary politician.
   President of the organising committee Nar Bahadur Karmacharya
   highlighting the importance of Mao Anniversary said Maoism means to
   move forward taking daily problems of the people. 'That is why we are
   against price hike in daily necessities,' he added.
   By a Post Reporter
   KATHMANDU, Dec 27 - Higher quality medicine requiring shorter duration
   to complete the course are deemed essential for the tuberculosis
   patients of Nepal in the present context.
   Doctors of tuberculosis hospital complain that free distribution of
   sub-standard medicine below the level of quality mentioned in Medicine
   Act 1995 is likely to increase tuberculosis patients rather than
   controlling it. The present condition is not very favourable to
   eradicate tuberculosis because use of low quality, cheap and multiple
   medicines which results in drug resistance. The medicine being
   distributed so far meets the required quality but some doctors fear
   that the medicines which will be distributed by the hospital in future
   may be of lower quality than that prescribed by World Health
   Organisation (WHO).
   About 200 thousand people in Nepal are suffering from tuberculosis. Of
   them, 16 die every year while 45 thousand patients are added to the
   list annually. The government of Japan has been providing medicines
   free to cost under its financial and commodity assistance in the task
   of eradicating tuberculosis from Nepal. The achievement is however not
   very encouraging.
   By a Post Reporter
   KATHMANDU, Dec 27 - Participants of the second phase Mechi-Mahakali
   workers training programme of the CPN-UML criticized its legislators
   and leaders over the recent increase in the salaries and facilities of
   members of parliament.
   The programme was organised by the Central Liason Department of
   CPN-UML for their Sampark Manch which encompasses party members,
   supporters and well-wishers from different districts.
   According to a party source, among the participants, 14 zonal
   representatives, were not satisfied with the reply of Amrit Bohara,
   chief of the organisation department in response to the question. Why
   did you keep quiet when the salary of MPs was being increased ?
   Bohara had said, the bill introduced by the ruling party would be
   approved anyhow. It would be meaningless for UML to speak or not to
   speak on the subject.
   Similarly, participants also criticized that the party had not been
   able to steer its government in an organised manner, that it was more
   submissive, to the decision of the Supreme Court and that the
   leadership had no optional thinking. According to the chief Liaison
   Department, general secretary Madhav Kumar Nepal in his lecture, said
   national and international situation was favourable for the communist
   movement of Nepal. He added that the UML had been able to belie the
   rumours directed against it during its nine-month governance.
   Referring to the success achieved by the communists in Russia he said
   the future was in the hands of the communists. It is an alternative
   power waiting to run the government, he said.
   Amrit Bohara, in his lecture, emphasized the need to consolidate the
   party and expand its power base. Similarly, UML has also reorganised
   its Liason Department and assigned Astalaxmi Shakya as chief,
   Shreemana Gautam as general secretary and Rebat Kunwar, Narayan
   Upadhyaya, Sanu Raj Pokharel, Dorje Angbo Lama and Bhisme Adhikari as
   By a Post Reporter
   KATHMANDU, Dec 27 - On December 8, 1995 Lieutenant Colonel Bijaykumar
   Rawat took command of the 1st battalion of The Royal Gurkha Rifles,
   according to British embassy press release received here Wednesday.
   This is the first time that a Nepalese officer has commended a
   battalion of the British Gurkhas.

[Was it racism or lack of leadership among all those VC quality Gurkhas of yore?

   Lieutenant Colonel Bijaykumr was enlisted into the brigade of Gurkhas
   in 1972 as a soldier and joined the 1st battalion 2nd KEO Gurkha
   Rifles. He was later selected for officer training at the Royal
   Military Academy, Sandhurst. He was commissioned in 1981 and awarded
   the Sword of Honour as the most outstanding officer cadet of his
   intake. He served in the brigade of Gurkhas and at staff appointments
   before attending Staff College in UK in 1989. After a further staff
   appointment, this time at the Ministry of Defense in London, he
   returned to regimental duty first commanding a company then as
   Second-in-Command and finally as Commanding Officer. Lieutenant
   Colonel Bijaykuamr Rawat will command the last remaining Gurkha
   battalion in Hong Kong and will move it back to UK before the colony
   is returned to the Peoples Republic of China on July 1, 1997. His
   battalion is then due to take its place along side battalions of the
   parachute Regiment in 5 airborne brigade.

   The Nepali Congress led coalition government completed its hundred
   days in office. Such a short span of time may not be enough to
   evaluate the performance of any government. But, we, should not forget
   that the morning shows the day.
   Unfortunately, as far as the Deuba regime is concerned, though the
   dawn was promising, the morning has been most uninspiring. For,
   together with the government, the nation has also been limping along.
   If Deuba loyalists sum up the governments performance as so-so, then
   for his detractors the summation would be not so so-so. That is to
   say, if the governments honeymoon period performance were to be
   scored, then it would just manage to scrape through with third
   division marks.
   One can easily explain such mediocre performance by the fact that the
   government has had to function under compulsion.
   Most of the first hundred days were spent in the balancing act. That
   is, in accommodating the interests of coalition partners as well as
   dealing with detractors within the Nepali Congress and keeping party
   bosses happy. This explains both the unreasonably long time Deuba took
   to expand his cabinet and its abnormally inflated size. Another thing
   that occupied the government was surgical operations - transfers and
   appointments - in the bureaucracy. The coalition government came about
   (after the Supreme Court verdict) with the intention of not plunging
   the country into frequent mid-term polls when possible alternatives
   within parliament existed.
   The judges obviously had the greater interest of the country, in terms
   of political stability, in mind when giving the verdict. So far, the
   government has apparently maintained political stability. But should
   the price for stability be development and fiscal discipline?
   From the common mans point of view, the highpoints of the Deuba
   administrations 100 day stint are: expensive foreign jaunts, sloth in
   decision making, the formation of a jumbo-sized cabinet and hikes in
   the price of water and milk. As one can see, there is nothing
   commendable in these occurrences. Political stability is necessary, no
   doubt, but development must follow. If Deuba spends all his time only
   in balancing interests, he and his government may end up like the
   person who tried to please everybody. It has therefore become
   imperative for the government to work out a long term development
   programme and a short term programme to provide relief to the people.
   A successful government is one that can deliver. Deuba would do well
   to recognise that only this will ultimately ensure his governments
   By Anil Basnyat
   Just recently, I read an interesting but rather myopic article
   entitled, Choosing between Guns and Butter, written by Mr B Joshi in
   this daily (5th Dec 1995).
   An individual or a responsible government need not master the
   intricacies of economics to understand the detrimental effects, that a
   large standing army may have on the economy of an under developed
   nation. However, the concept of governance also specifies the need to
   strike a sensible balance between the political, diplomatic, social,
   economic, psychological and security needs of a nation, whilst
   charting the future course. Considering this rationale; and the
   writers unwillingness to delve into important affairs in greater
   depth; it will be wise to put matters in its right perspective.
   Since the governments prime responsibility is to maintain the freedom
   and territorial integrity of the nation, the aim of our defense policy
   is to ensure the security of the nation to keep it united and free to
   pursue its legitimate interests and activities. In order to fulfil the
   stated requirement, the current job charter of the army ranges from
   conventional deterrence to operations other than war, such as:
     * National development activities.
     * Participation in UN peacekeeping missions.
     * Environmental protection duties.
     * Disaster relief.
     * Aid to civil power.
   Against this backdrop, an unbiased analysis of the armys past
   activities clearly supports the need to place some priority on the
   budgetary requirements for defense.
   Peace and stability are essential ingredients for development and
   these two vital factors fall within the purview of the existing
   security environment.Nepal has been given the economic status of a
   least developed country, which is derived from the wide disparity
   existing between the haves and the have-nots. This economic dichotomy,
   consequently gives birth to a plethora of contentious and disruptive
   issues. Therefore, is it not plain common sense to allocate resources
   to an organization that has historically played a pivotal role, in
   maintaining a conducive environment required for stable and equitable
   economic development.
   Nepal is experiencing the normal growth pangs of a nascent democracy.
   This has been even further compounded by the narrow interpretation of
   democracy by a large section of the populace.
   Given the common tendency of leaders and followers to take to the
   streets to resolve any issue, it is surprising that anarchy is not the
   norm of the day. Isnt it more relevant to recall the feeling of
   security that one and all have, due to the presence of a capable and
   impartial army? Simple logic should it fact point at improving
   existing capabilities.
    In the current budget, defense gets a whopping Rs 2.35 billion
   according to the writer. This figure has been conveniently analyzed
   against the budget allocated to certain sensitive sectors that, HMG as
   a matter of principle, has already been prioritizing for successive
   years. Furthermore, Mr Joshi goes on to question the rationality of
   maintaining this white elephant wearing olive green uniform.
    In the past five years, Nepal has undergone the agonizing experience
   of one interim, two elected and what is today regarded a fragile
   coalition government. This makes a grand total of four governments in
   five years. Given the peaceful nature of the transitions, it would be
   sheer stupidity to even suggest that the army has been sitting idle.
   Only a novice would question the role played by the army.
   The concept of Nepal as a Zone of Peace used to the cornerstone of
   HMGs foreign policy in the past. This proposal has been gathering dust
   for the last half decade. Surely the inclusion of such a sensitive
   issue is pure academic rambling and has no particular relevance to the
   stated topic. The inclusion of the same smacks of mischief to say the
   Environmental protection is a key issue. Protection of the rapidly
   depleting forests and wildlife of Nepal is a major responsibility of
   the army. Any defense installation can be recognized by the greenery
   surrounding it. Is preserving the environment and vital resources of a
   country harmful to the nation? Mr Joshi implies it is.
   The ability to utilize the UN to project a nation into the
   international arena and thereby reap substantial political, diplomatic
   and economic benefit, is a prioritized objective of most third world
   countries. The active participation of the army in peacekeeping
   operations has created an image in the UN where Nepal has been
   identified as a country which matches its words with deeds Isnt it
   incongruous to blame the army for harming the nation?
   The fluctuation in market prices has been attributed to peacekeeping
   jaunts. It is certainly an interesting economic eye opener to learn
   that the home coming of a mere 600 to 700 peacekeepers plays total
   havoc with the Nepalese economy. What about our globe hopping leaders,
   ministers and prime minister who go abroad on the slightest pretext
   and that too with a legendary number of followers. Does that add to
   this countrys coffer? And what about the whopping medical bills of
   leaders being footed at the taxpayers expense by the government for
   medical treatment abroad? Does that enrich this church mouse of a
   nation. On the other hand, considering that tourism is the second
   largest industry of Nepal, is it not surprising to note that the large
   influx of tourists, on a daily basis, doesnt even make a dent on our
   An army represents the values of a society, from within which the
   people opt to serve. The idea, that adorning a uniform and taking a
   noble oath to lay down ones life for the nation and the people
   transforms a human being into an ogre, is definitely mind boggling,
   and defies comprehension.
   Instead of blaming the military of doing little to foster social
   cohesion, it would have been more appropriate to address the broader
   issue the rise of anti social behavior in Nepal.
   A comparative study of the organizational structure of all government
   institutions, rips to shreds the contention that the present army, is
   top heavy in structure. To put it simplistically, the army utilizes
   the adage, ten men well led are better than a hundred without a head,
   while formulating its organization. This assures that capable and
   responsible citizens are inducted into the organization. The army at
   least unlike other institutions, had the moral courage and strength to
   frontally face the corruption prevalent within the organization.
   Without hesitation, high ranking officers were taken to task
   regardless of the damage it would do to individuals and the
   organization. It is somewhat hard to believe that, Nepal, being a
   least developed country, corruption is non-existent in any other
   organization. Instead of slinging mud at the army, congratulations
   should be due for providing the much needed example for others to
   judiciously follow.
   In an era where economic factors occupy a primary role, it is not wise
   to treat other vitally important aspects in an off hand manner.
   Defense policy aimed at countering military threat is the simplest
   form of policy to understand but most costly in terms of money and
   lives and therefore, easy to criticize. Security is a multi-faceted
   subject and ranges from the military threat through the political and
   economic to the ideological arena. The threat to a state can come in
   many forms and must be met in all those forms. Therefore in our
   pursuit for materialistic gains, let us not throw common sense,
   caution and decency out of the window and regrettably revert to
   generalized character assassination through badly researched work.
   The warning is there for all to read. No government under the present
   dispensation can afford to downplay the political, economic, social
   and cultural dimensions of the ethnicity issue.
   The complexities of the issue, further compounded by the sensitivity
   involved, make it a daunting challenge. The government would however
   do well to recognise that the sooner it tackles these issues, the
   better it will be for the country. Ethnic consciousness in Nepal is
   not something new. Voices of ethnic, regional and communal
   disgruntlement were however, effectively suppressed during the thirty
   long years of Panchayat rule. The idea of the Nepali identity was then
   used as a lid to cover up the simmering problems. It was therefore but
   natural that these voices should find an outlet after the restoration
   of multi party democracy in the country. Another aspect of ethnicity
   that has clearly emerged from the raised voices is its diversity.
   Obviously ethnicity in Nepal is much more complicated than the oft
   quoted but simplistic description of Nepal as "a garden of ''four
   jaats (castes) and thirty-six varnas (races)." Now it is up to
   the government to decide whether it wants to turn this diversity into
   an asset of cultural wealth or a political time bomb. If the
   allegations of ethnic groups are any indication, it appears that
   successive governments and major political parties prefer the second
   option. Their refusal to take the ethnic bull by its horns - despite
   all the lip service to ethnic harmony - in the name of national
   integration can have disastrous consequences. The choice is clear. It
   is possible to accept the idea of diversity and simultaneously reject
   divisions along ethnic, regional and communal lines. Only such an
   attitude can truly translate into reality the slogan "unity in
   diversity." Besides, if the government and political parties are to
   nurture democratic norms and values, they must take the way of
   However, these things are easier said than done. For, the first
   requirement is that policy must reflect the attitude. What we need is
   a comprehensive, broad based, all embracing secular policy aimed at
   bringing to the national mainstream marginalized groups. Seeking
   national consensus in the formulation of such a policy by including
   not only political parties but also groups that will be affected would
   be a step in the right direction. All parties would do well to
   recognise that only a spirit of accommodation can resolve the
   country's festering ethnic problems.
   By Harihar Singh Rathour
   JAJARKOT, Dec 25 - Workers of Samyukta Janamorcha (SJM) Nepal
   (Bhattarai Group) have been unnecessarily harassing and terrorizing
   the people living in the remote areas of Jajarkot and Rukum districts.
   They say this is their practice for class struggle.
   Workers of Janamorcha beat, threaten and gherao local people, kill and
   eat goats of those who do not agree with them, prevent musical bands
   in the marriages and stop people from worshipping, local people
   They also prevent people from going to the police office to lodge
   complaint, manhandle policemen and throw stones at them, set houses of
   Nepali Congress and Rastriya Prajatantra Party workers on fire and
   obstruct construction and development works.
   Such activities from SJM workers are reportedly increasing in the
   remote areas.
   Teachers of local schools are also found actively involved with the
   SJM workers. Teachers of a school located at a remote area including
   Sundar Rana, Dambar Bahadur Rawal, Dila Ram Bohara popularly known as
   Gaja Bahadur in the party, Man Bahadur Ghyar and Sar Bahadur Rokaya
   are actively carrying out the activities of Samyukta Jana Morcha.
   When their headmaster Rajendra Raj Chaudhari told them not to involve
   in party politics he was beaten by them and so was the chairman of the
   school cooperation committee.
   This matter was reported to the District Education Office at Jajarkot.
   The teachers were summoned thrice but they were allowed to go after
   simply asking them to give explanation.
   Earlier, the corpse of a young man was placed mysteriously behind the
   house of Gotamkot VDC (Rukum) chairman Yagya Bahadur Shahi. SJM
   workers tried to implicate chairman Shahi, on the murder case. But
   villagers were not convinced and spoke in favour of Shahi in the case.
   Immediately after the incident, VDC member Ganesh Shaha has been
   Involvement of SJM workers has been suspected in this case also.
   Police manpower in the area is far insufficient and therefore
   ineffective. Geographical difficulties have made communication between
   the headquarters and the remote villages inconvenient. People are
   discouraged by SJM workers from going to the headquarters.
   SJM workers say their party has a plan to start Janabadi Kranti from
   Sisne and Jaljala of Jajarkot. Sisne village is near the Himali area
   surrounded by thick forest.
   Over the last three months SJM workers from different districts are
   said to be taking underground training in this village. Eyewitnesses
   say, they are seen running, hiding, climbing steep ropes and firing.
   By a Post Reporter
   KAPILVASTU, Dec 25 - Hariom Chauhan of Kapilvastu municipality ward No
   2 used to say that earning money by selling only goods was an outdated
   practice. No wonder, he found something new to sell and earn money
   this time - boys. He earned 40 thousand Indian rupees by selling 20
   Hariom Chauhan is a local resident. The 20 boys who are from nearby
   areas reposed trust in him because of his local identity. Chauhan took
   them to Goyati Cement Factory of Gauriganj Sultanpur in India on the
   pretext that he would get a job for them in the cement factory.
   The happiness of the boys knew no bounds when they started working in
   the factory. However, when they were given only bread and potato to
   eat in the morning and evening meals, they asked for rice.
   Hence, 16 - year- old Babulu went to the factory owner to ask for some
   pocket expenses and was rudely shocked to know that he was sold to the
   factory six days ago.
   The company manager said he had purchased the 20 boys at the rate of
   2,000 rupees per boy. They were all badly shaken.
   19-year-old Dinesh Raidash told The Kathmandu Post that they were
   chided by the manager when they went to ask for some money.
   He said, you fools! I have bought each of you at the rate of two
   thousand rupees. You are still asking for money!
   When they discovered that Chauhan had already fled with the money he
   received by selling them, they also escaped from there. They walked on
   foot up to Rai Bareily, Lucknow. From Lacknow, they boarded a train
   and again walked on foot from Krishnanagar to Taulihawa.
   I had heard that only girls of Nepal are sold in India. But it is not
   true. Even boys of Nepal are sold in India and I am one of them,
   Babulu told The Kathmandu Post.

************************************************************** From: (basant pant) Subject: LET US THINK ABOUT TND!

Dear Editor & Mahesh Ji,

        I completely aggree with Mahesh's proposal, it is high time to think TND in financial term. B Pant Hiroshima


*********************************************************************************************** Date: Sun, 31 Dec 1995 12:57:27 -0600 (CST) From: Manoj Shrestha <> Subject: To: The Nepal Digest <>

Dear Editor,

No doubt, TND is the wonderful source of information about Nepal in the internet. Though I was silent reader in the net for two years, I would like to thank everybody who did great job to make TND more intersting and successful. Since I am moving to new place after completion of my study, I will not have access to this account. I would like you to discontinue the subscription of TND in this address.


Manoj K. Shrestha Bradley University Peoria, IL.

************************************************************* Date: Sun, 31 Dec 1995 13:07:41 -0700 To: From: Amit Agrawal <> Subject: Need Fabric Cutter info

I am looking for information on where to find info on a fabric cutter machine for a cotton industry.

If anyone has any suggestion or information as where to look for, please be kind to respond at any of the following addresses:

        Pawan Agrawal:

        Amit Agrawal:

Your help will be sincerely appreciated. Thank you. Amit.

******************************************************** From: Rajesh Shrestha <> Date: Sun, 31 Dec 1995 16:04:40 -0500 (EST) To: Subject: nepalese in USA

Cross-posted from SCN:

Nepalese in USA...

I think it was demographer, dr. kanaihya vaidya, who posted a news item in scn and subsequently forwarded to tnd, to the effect that the total population of nepalese was 3100 something.

Since i skimmed the news, i cannot rember the connection between 1 or 5% sampling, but it occurred to me that this number is a gross underestimate.

I think the estimate by Sanjay Manandhar in HIMAL in 1992 or 1993, in article on yonder green dollar pastures are greener, is more accurate.

This article gave the actual visa granting histories from UN Immigration authorities and had something of the order of 5000 till 1988 or so and he further assumed that there maybe something on the order 3 times the number in undocumented form, making a population of nepalis in us at 15000, it is probably 20,000 now, throught the 1980 the us consul in nepal alone has been granting 400-700 visas to Nepales and about 75% were students.

I wonder if we could get other estimates?

Amulya Tuladhar

********************************************** Date: Sun, 31 Dec 1995 16:07:22 -0500 (EST) To: Subject: trekking in Khumbu Jan/Febr.

Cross-posted from SCN:

I have been trekking in Kumbu in january/february during the last two years (94 & 95) and enjoyed it very much, although in 95 conditions were rather tough: icy trails and snow in the Everest area. Could anyone advise me as to whether trekking will be possible during this winter? There has been heavy snowfall during november resulting in avalanches and the tragic death of more than 60 people. Is there anyone who knows from recent experience what conditions are like? Is there much snow left?

Thank you Johan
       is the address of Johan &
                      Jan Middendorp & Marianne Braun

************************************************ Date: Mon, 01 Jan 1996 00:34:03 -0500 (EST) Forwarded By: Subject: dec30_head.html (fwd) To: THE NEPAL DIGEST <>

                                 HEADLINE NEWS Left Factions Blame Each Other Of Opportunism;
   By Gunaraj Luintel
   KATHMANDU, Dec 29 - Is the communist movement in Nepal suffering from
   left or rightist political opportunism ? Leaders of five communist
   factions sat today to discuss this where each of the factions charged
   other of being opportunist.
   They agreed that mainly two types of opportunism prevailed in the
   Nepalese communist movement - one, guided by extreme leftist
   sentiments, and the other, motivated by rightist revisionism.
   Whether the relatively liberal UML that has even gone to power through
   elections, or the extreme Maoists who have boycotted the polls, both
   have been charged with opportunism.
   CPN-UML believes in using parliamentary system for achieving its
   political goal, whereas the Communist Party (Maoist) is against the
   parliamentary system and is active in rural parts organizing the
   masses for peoples struggle. At a talk programme on Friday, UML
   general secretary Madhav Kumar Nepal appeared rather defensive in
   putting forth his partys views. The Maoist group however did not take
   part in the discussion.
   According to Mohan Bikram Singh, general secretary of Communist Party
   (Masal), UML represented rightist opportunism and Maoists the leftist
   opportunism within the Nepalese communist movement.
   However, rightist opportunism of UML is much effective than the
   opportunism of the right-wing Communist faction led by Dr Kesharjung
   Rayamajhi in the past, Singh said. He compared the opportunism among
   the Maoists with the opportunism of Lin Pyao which was motivated by
   too extreme leftist ambition.
   UML general secretary Madhav Nepal said extreme left opportunists
   always criticized good left forces. Even Lenin and Mao Tse Tung were
   charged by some extremists as being opportunists, he said. Objective
   Marxism may appear revisionist to the eyes of fundamental leftists,
   while extreme rightists may call it extreme left, Nepal added. Nirmal
   Lama, leader of CPN (Unity Centre) described opportunism as a refined,
   organized and systematic capitalistic thinking that came into the
   labour movement. Talking about the two natures of opportunism among
   leftists, he said a bankrupt lower class capitalist wants quick
   revolution, whereas a developing lower class capitalist wants peaceful
   Shambhuram Shrestha of Nepal Communist League talked of four
   distractions that inspired opportunism in the Nepalese communist
   movement. Organizational rifts, the rightist Bahudaliya Janabad
   concept, fundamentalist tendency to follow the lines of the past, and
   the so-called socialistic view as against the Naulo Janabad are the
   main causes of opportunism in our communist parties, he said.
   To call for revolution at a time when things are yet to be favourable
   is left opportunism whereas to reject change even when time calls for
   it is rightist opportunism, Narayan Man Bijukchhe declared. He said
   Jhapa uprising was an example of extreme left opportunism, whereas
   present UML line was an instance of rightist opportunism.
   Madhav Kumar Nepal said Jhapa incident was the most extreme case of
   left opportunism in Nepal. Instead of cutting ones coat according to
   the cloth, participants of the movement almost followed the opposite
   line, he recalled. The whole technique was superficial and
   impractical. Claiming that UML succeeded to strengthen the communist
   party by winning the power through change in policy, Nepal asked, How
   can UML be called revisionist ? Bijukchhe, however, considered the
   UMLs nine months in power as a bribe given by capitalist forces like
   NC and RPP to create rifts in the Nepalese communist movement. The
   communist leaders organized the talk programme on the occasion of
   103th Mao Day when the nation was celebrating the golden jubilee
   birthday anniversary of His Majesty the King on Friday.
    Reception To Honor Singh;
   KATHMANDU, Dec 29 (RSS) - A reception was held at Columbia University,
   New York on December 23, to honor senior leader Ganesh Man Singh, Mrs
   Mangala Devi Singh and the mayor of metropolitan Kathmandu PL Singh.
   The reception was organized by America-Nepal Friendship Society, the
   Nepal Forum and the International Network under the chairmanship of
   Dr, Rajendra Pradhan. Welcoming the senior leader and his family Dibya
   Hada, president of America-Nepal Friendship Society appreciated Singhs
   contribution and sacrifice over 55 years of his life to restore
   democracy in Nepal and wished him long life, good health and peace.
   Other guests speakers were Prof Ramesh Dhungel of Columbia University,
   Dr Mirendra Risal of network and Rishikesh Bhatta of the Nepalese
   Students' Union who all wished good health, peace and happiness to
   Ganesh Man Singh. Speaking about the health of Singh Dr Rajendra
   Pradhan briefed the reception on the medical reports received from
   hospitals in Rochester, Minnesota and New York. Permanent
   representative of Nepal to the United Nations Nagendra Bikram Shah was
   also present at the reception.
    Gold Smuggles Held
   BUTWAL, Dec 29 (RSS) - Bhairahawa customs has arrested two persons
   this morning on the charge of trying to smuggle out 1.78 kgs of gold.
   According to the customs office, the gold is worth about Rs 850,000
   according to the current market value. The accused are Ajaya Sunar and
   Dulichanda Sunar, both residents of Jitpur VDC ward No 3, Bara
   district. Under the existing customs regulation the accused are liable
   to a fine equal to the value of good.
    AN-26 Finally Ends Its Voyage;
   By a Post Reporter
   KATHMANDU, Dec 28 - The Kathmandu-bound Russian AN-26 aircraft that
   made international headlines Sunday after it was forced down in New
   Delhi finally arrived here today at 7 pm.
   The twin-engine Antonov was flying from Kazan, Russia to Kathmandu via
   the Pakistani city of Karachi when it was intercepted in the Indian
   air space for its suspected links with a mysterious arms-drop case in
   east India. The plane was carrying spares for the Russian-built Mi17
   helicopters for a private airliner.
   Speaking on behalf of the Minister for Civil Aviation in Parliament
   yesterday, Minister Narahari Acharya said Nepalese Civil Aviation
   Department had issued import licence for the spares required by the
   Asian Airlines helicopters. Regarding the forced landing in New Delhi,
   the concerned Russian carrier itself was responsible to deal with the
   Indian officials, Acharya added.
   There is no need for the Nepalese government to approach the Indian
   authorities holding the aircraft at the Indira Gandhi International
   Airport, he told the parliamentarians. Earlier, another AN-26 plane
   that was forced down by Indian fighter planes on Dec 17 near Puruliya
   in the eastern state of West Bengal, reportedly dropped more than 300
   assault rifles, rocket launchers, anti-tank grenades and 20,000 rounds
   of ammunitions.
    UML Hails Monarchy;
   By a Post Reporter
   KATHMANDU, Dec 28 - In a significant development today CPN(UML)
   General Secretary Madhav Kumar Nepal felicitated His Majesty the King
   on the auspicious occasion of HMs Golden Jubilee Birthday
   celebrations, becoming the first communist party to do so.
   Political observers here hail the move as UMLs attempt to distance
   itself from extreme left forces, who are busy promoting Mao Tse Tongs
   113th birth anniversary. In his message the leader of the opposition
   in the upper house has lauded Monarchy for its contribution in
   nation-building. Therefore the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal
   1990 looks up at His Majesty as the embodiment of nationality and
   peoples unity and stresses HMs role as the Constitutional king who
   works for the larger benefit of the people, the message reads.
   The UML leader also praises His Majestys contribution in nations
   pursuit of democratic ideals. His Majesty has played an important role
   in consolidating constitutional monarchy and multi-party democracy,
   abiding by the rules set by the Constitution, Nepal remarks.
   The whole nation is celebrating the Golden Jubilee Birth Anniversary,
   the message reads. On the auspicious occasion, I wish him good health
   and long life.
    The Tariff Hike And NWSC
   By SN Sharma
   The Nepal Water Supply Corporation (NWSC), announced a 23 percent hike
   in water supply tariff with effect from 1 Marga 2052 BS. The tariff
   rate is said to be applicable only to consumers using more than 15,000
   litres per month. As usual, NWSC has justifications like: overall
   increase in operational costs, requirements for more funds to enhance
   quality of service and, above all, the financial covenant imposed by
   the World Bank (WB) for extending further assistance of Rs 3.0
   A revenue increase through a tariff raise is not unusual. His Majestys
   Government of Nepal also occasionally subsidizes to meet the
   organisations cash flow requirements. That salary increments and other
   costs, financial obligations and other commitments of the corporation,
   working capital requirements and some contribution to the future
   investments necessitate tariff hike is understandable. However,
   consumers must be convinced that the increase will enhance the quality
   of services and facilities. It is unfortunate that in its entire
   history of 22 years as a corporate organization the quality and
   quantity of drinking water has ever been low. Despite two decades of
   heavy external assistance in urban water supply, NWS has not been able
   to win consumer confidence in Kathmandu and Lalitpur. In all of the 14
   larger municipalities under the control of NWSC, the supply has been
   irregular. And as for quality and quantity, the less said the better.
   Several international agencies (bilateral and multilateral) like WB,
   Japan, GTZ, UNDP, WHO have poured in millions of dollars on
   improvement of drinking water supply facilities. The major areas of
   investment include rehabilitation, improvement and expansion of
   facilities, institution building, management information system, etc.
   But with little success. Because of NWSCs unreliability, hotels and
   industries have drilled deep tube wells to meet their daily water
   requirements and this tendency has now become common even with
   households. Studies indicate lack of adequate recharge. And ground
   water extraction amounts almost to mining of water.
   Most households boil and filter drinking water to prevent desease
   because NWSC has not yet set up national standards for drinking water.
   It would not be out of context here to discuss some of NWSCs
   weaknesses and shortcomings and come up with some suggestions. Factors
   contributing to NWSCs financial difficulties are: unaccounted for
   water (theft, leakage and wastage), lack of adequate financial
   management, absence of a universal metering system and non-functioning
   meters, and surplus staff. Unaccounted for water (UFW) comprises
   nearly 50 percent of the total supply. These losses occur in wells,
   reservoirs and distribution systems in addition to that within
   consumer premises. If UFW is reduced, it will economize on operating
   expenses, energy bill and defer expansion. Because all connections are
   not metered, there is excessive wastage. Even installed meters do not
   function well. Meter tampering is also largely unnoticed. Benefits of
   metering include not only economy in production cost but also better
   services to consumers in terms of system operation, quality, quantity,
   duration, pressure, consumer satisfaction, goodwill and public
   relations. However meters need to be checked frequently to ensure
   efficient and correct metering. Consumers complain there is excess
   reading due to flow of air in the distribution system. This needs to
   be properly checked. Unauthorized connections also cause revenue loss.
   Maintenance should also be given due consideration. Preventive
   maintenance of the system is more desirable. It results in better
   economy and uninterrupted service. Though NWSCs plumbing practices
   allow service connections, they are quite faulty. Even minimum depths
   for laying service lines are not maintained. Pipe materials are often
   of poor quality. No standard operating procedures are followed. Thus
   connections often leak and need frequent repair. Regular water quality
   surveillance programme is absent. Even visible leaks take days before
   they are included in the repair list. Pumps, motors and other
   machineries tend to lose their efficiency with time and usage. It is
   therefore essential to check them. Running equipment and machinery
   efficiently can reduce energy costs. Regular monitoring process would
   thus be of great help.
   NWSCs manning ratio (population served by one staff member), as per a
   government report, is roughly 420:1, which is excessive when compared
   to other cities of developing countries. A satisfactory plan for
   laying off excess non-operational staff has become necessary. Human
   resource development as well as manpower planning, recruitment,
   selection and performance appraisal, too, need strengthening. There
   are several factors such as political interests, conditions imposed by
   lending financial institutions and the real need necessitated by
   growing operational expenses which dictate tariff increase. Consumers
   understand that tap water is not a free gift of nature but an economic
   commodity. Tariff should be increased gradually and periodically. The
   consumers would not mind paying more for better and improved services.
   But if the cost of inefficiency, mismanagement and corruption within
   the corporation is passed on to consumers by way of tariff increase,
   dissatisfaction and resistance are bound to increase. One only hopes
   that NWSC will pay due attention to these suggestions prior to
   increasing tariff next time.

******************************************************* Date: Mon, 1 Jan 1996 15:08:30 -0500 (EST) To: Subject: US company would like to develop contacts ! From:

US company would like to develop business contacts in Nepal for
 a possible business venture.

If you are a residence of Nepal, or if you will be moving there soon,

for consideration please send your resume e-mail to:

Michael W. Wildt, M.A.


P.S. Need a resume to send? Please see the resume format below. You will need to fill in the appropriate information accordingly and send it back to us via e-mail.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------- NAME : COUNTRY / AREA OF INTEREST PREFERENCE










         REFERENCES :



>From Tue Jan 2 17:08:31 1996
Received: from by with SMTP id AA14393
  (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for <>); Tue, 2 Jan 1996 17:08:29 -0600 Reply-To: Errors-To: /I=brs/G=bill/S=skinner/O=extott.02/PRMD=gc+eaitc.aecec/ADMD=telecom.canada/C=ca/ Date: Tue, 02 Jan 1996 17:56:20 -0500 Priority: normal Content-Identifier: OLIVETTI-MAIL3.0 X400-Content-Type: P2-1984 X400-Mts-Identifier: [/PRMD=gc+eaitc.aecec/ADMD=telecom.canada/C=ca/;459:960102175620] From: (SKINNER Bill -PSA) To: Subject: The Nepal Digest - January 2, 1996 (18 Push 2052 BkSm) Message-Id: <459*/I=brs/G=bill/S=skinner/O=extott.02/PRMD=gc+eaitc.aecec/ADMD=telecom.canada/C=ca/@MHS> Importance: normal In-Reply-To: <199601021801.AA08417*/>

Absent until 29/01/96. Urgent calls to Debbie Sloan: 996-0917.

>From Wed Jan 3 03:17:53 1996
Received: from by with SMTP id AA22092
  (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for <>); Wed, 3 Jan 1996 03:17:49 -0600 Date: Wed, 3 Jan 1996 11:14:06 +0200 (MET) From: To: Message-Id: <> Subject: RE: The Nepal Digest - January 2, 1996 (18 Push 2052 BkSm)

Dear Editor, I am very glad to receive Nepal digest especially from the starting of 1996. I would like to wish Happy New year to you all, who are doing a great job for us to remain in contect with news of Nepal. I heartly thank you for this service and would like to know, if I have to do i.e. to pay some wherefor the subscription. Please inform me clearly. I am more interested about current news (#3) only. Thanks Mukesh K Chettri

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