The Nepal Digest - Jan 26, 1995 (12 Magh 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Thursday 26 Jan 95: Magh 12 2051 BkSm Volume 35 Issue 15

  Today's Topics:

        1. TAJA_KHABAR - News From Nepal
                              - Edmund Hilary or Someone Else?
                              - Updraft of Indian Economy
        2. KURA_KANI
                 Social - Matrimonial on TND
                              - Re: Thank You Rakesh
                 Education - Re: BudanilKantha
        3. KHOJ_KHABAR - Looking for my bhauju
        4. JAN_KARI
                 Conference - Bhutanese Refugees
        5. TITAR_BITAR
                 Request for Recepie
                 Transfering to Different University
       
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********************************************************************** Date: 23 Jan 95 17:30:35 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News1/20-22 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

January20 Delegation leaves for talks with World Bank officials Excerpts from Xinhua report

   An 8-member nepali governmental delegation left here today for the United States to hold talks with the world bank (WB) on the proposed Arun-111 hydro-electric project. After talking with WB in washington d.c., the delegation led by hari prasad pandey, state minister of industry and water resources, will also hold talks with the asian development bank (adb), another donor agency, in manila on the arun-111 as well as other hydro-electric projects.

   Before the delegation left Kathmandu, an all-party discussion on the project was held in the prime minister's residence. At the meeting, the prime minister assured the opposition that the delegation will keep the common views of all in mind during its discussions. Earlier, minister Pandey had said that the new government is not against the project but only hopes to make some improvements to save money.

January 21 Deputy PM to visit India early Next Month

   Foreign ministry officials and local newspapers said Saturday that deputy PM and foreign minister Madhav Kumar Nepal will visit India beginning on February 6. (DPA)

January 22 Major Crimes Decrease in Kathmandu Excerpts from Xinhua report

   The rate of major criminal cases in nepal's capital kathmandu has dropped compared with previous years while minor crimes like burglary and swindling are on the rise. in the first four months of the current fiscal year, the number of cases reported was 363, out of which 17 were homicide cases, 31 related to drugs, 28 to fatal road accidents and 73 accidental deaths, according to the kathmandu district police office. however, the data pertaining to the two months up to january 14 revealed that a total of 198 cases were reported, which included 10 cases of murder, 24 suicides, 17 burglary and theft cases, 18 related to drugs, 49 accidental deaths, eight swindling cases, 33 public offenses and three cases of flesh trade. suicide cases were apparently on the rise every year, as revealed by the data. the police office has a strength of 1,300 personnel to serve 1.5 million people in the area.

NC to act as Responsible Opposition Excerpts from Xinhua report

  Sher B. Deuba, parliamentary leader of the former ruling nepali congress (NC), reasserted that his party would play as a responsible opposition in nepal. speaking at a press conference organized by the editors' society of nepal here this afternoon, deuba stated that nc did not want to embarrass the current communist-led government by going to the street as what they had done against the then nc government soon after it was being set up. instead, the opposition parliamentary leader said that "we'll do criticisms of contribution to the present government and unnecessary hindrance will not be created by NC".

   However, while stressing the importance of exercising the policy of liberalization of the country's economy, Deuba expressed his doubts whether the present government could insist on the policy which might be diverted one day. On the foreign policies adopted by the government, Deuba noted that his party would support activities taken by the government out of consideration of the national interests and integrity.

****************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 24 Jan 1995 00:56:08 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: eNews: Sunday Star-Times: I'll prove my grandfather beat Hillary. From: ncd@3tt.kiwi.gen.nz (Neville C. Dempsey,+64,25-766185,9-8343888)

Title: I'll prove my grandfather beat Hillary Author: unstated Publication: Sunday Star-Times, Section A3 Date: January 15, 1995
  An Australian climber is planning an expedition to prove his grandfather beat Sir Edmund Hillary to the summit of Mt Everest. Melbourne bourne mountaineer George Mallory II believes Englishman George Leigh Mallory scaled the world's highest mountain in 1924 - 29 years ahead of the great New Zealander.
                   [delete]
  George Mallory was last seen alive at 1pm on June 8 that year, with his climbing companion Andrew Irvine.
                   [delete]
  They were last seen by Noel Odell, who was in a support group of the British expedition, above the Second Step - the last rocky obstacle before the summit - going strong for the top.
  The the cloud clamped down and they were never seen again.
                   [delete]
  "If either of the bodies are found, it should be possible to retrieve
 their cameras," said Mr Mallory.
                   [delete]
  The body of a European climber, believed to have been George Mallory, was found in 1975 by a Chinese climber, climbing with a Japanese expedition. He told the expedition leader that the body - found at 8100m - was dressed in old-fashion clothing which crumbled when touched. He buried the body in snow.
                   [delete]
  A 35-year-old school teacher, Mallory is also remembered for the most famous quote about the killer mountain. When asked why mountaineers wanted to climb the world's highest peak Mallor replied: "Because it's there." ENDS

NCD - nz.auckland

************************************************************************* Date: Tue, 24 Jan 1995 01:00:59 -0500 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: eNews: Sunday Star-Times: I'll prove my grandfather beat Hillary.

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

>Title: I'll prove my grandfather beat Hillary
>Author: unstated
>Publication: Sunday Star-Times, Section A3
>Date: January 15, 1995
> An Australian climber is planning an expedition to prove his
>grandfather beat Sir Edmund Hillary to the summit of Mt Everest.
>Melbourne bourne mountaineer George Mallory II believes Englishman
>George Leigh Mallory scaled the world's highest mountain in 1924 - 29
>years ahead of the great New Zealander.

Tom Holzel wrote a well-researched book on this topic published in 1986 called "First on Everest : the mystery of Mallory and Irvine". His theory is that Mallory may have reached the summit without Irvine. An ice-axe belonging to either Mallory or Irvine was found below the first step by the next British expedition in 1933 (i.e. further down the ridge than where Odell thought he saw the two climbers). Holzel felt that Irvine may have turned back soon after Odell saw them, and dropped the ice-axe (and vanished before reaching the top camp), and that Mallory went on for the summit. But this is largely speculation on his part.

> "If either of the bodies are found, it should be possible to retrieve
> their cameras," said Mr Mallory.

Holzel also mounted an expedition to search for Mallory and his camera in the late 80's sometime, but was unable to find any new evidence. He even had a high-tech device that was supposed to look for some kind of resonant signature from the camera, but to no avail.

Reinhold Messner also intended to follow Mallory's route and look for evidence during his solo climb of Everest in 1980. However, he was forced to switch from the ridge to the face due to excessive snow. In his book "The Crystal Horizon" Messner expressed the opinion that he didn't think Mallory could have made it.

> A 35-year-old school teacher, Mallory is also remembered for the most
>famous quote about the killer mountain. When asked why mountaineers
>wanted to climb the world's highest peak Mallory replied: "Because
>it's there."

Of course, there's some dispute about whether he actually said this or it was invented by the NY Times reporter that interviewed him. Mallory did write the following in 1922, which I've always liked:

 The first question which you will ask and which I must try to answer is this,
 "What is the use of climbing Mount Everest?" and my answer must at once be,
 "It is no use." There is not the slightest prospect of any gain whatsoever.
 Oh, we may learn a little about the behavior of the human body at high
 altitudes, and possibly medical men may turn our observation to some account
 for the purposes of aviation. But otherwise nothing will come of it. We
 shall not bring back a single bit of gold or silver, not a gem, nor any coal
 or iron. We shall not find a single foot of earth that can be planted with
 crops to raise food. It's no use.

 So, if you cannot understand that there is something in man which responds to
 the challenge of this mountain and goes out to meet it, that the struggle is
 the struggle of life itself upward and forever upward, then you won't see why
 we go. What we get from this adventure is just sheer joy. And joy is, after
 all, the end of life. We do not live to eat and make money. We eat and make
 money to be able to enjoy life. That is what life means and what life is for.

*************************************************************** Date: Tue, 24 Jan 1995 01:01:44 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: eNews: Sunday Star-Times: I'll prove my grandfather beat Hillary. From: fkroger@coho.halcyon.com (Frank F Kroger)

>From the book: Mountains of the Gods, Ian Cameron, Imago Publishing, UK
US edition published by Facts on File. US ed page 192:

     "In 1975 a body was found.
     The discovery seems to have been deliberately hushed up at the time, and it is only recently that reports of what took place have filtered though to the ouside world. One of these reports is of a conversation which took place between two climbers, the Chinese Wang Hong Bao and the Japanese Ryoten Hasegawa. The former, one of China's best and most experienced climbers, was killed by an avalance in 1979, and it seems that the day he died he told Hasegawa that during the 1975 ascent of Everest he found 'two deads'. The first (at about 21,000 ft 6558 m) was undoubtedly Maurice Wilson, the Yorkshireman who had tried to climb Mount Everest alone, and whose body had already been found and buried by Shipton in 1935. The second (at about 26,000ft, 8113 m) was in the snow-slopes directly beneath the second 'step'. Wang apparently told his collegue: "When I touched the clothes of this dead at 8100 metres, the cloth fell to pieces and blew away in the wind.' Hasegawa asked if the body could have been that of a Russian, and Wang said, 'No, the Russians never climb that high,' and he several times repeated 'English! English!; he then etched in characters in the snow the word 'Englishman 8100' (metres).
     For years the Chinese denied that any body had been found. They then suggested the body was that of Wu Tsung-yueh, who fell to his death from only a little below the summit during the Chinese expedition of 1975. However, this makes nonsense of Wang's testimony; for how could he have confused the body of a recently deceased Asiatic in modern kit, with the body of a Westerner, in old-fashioned and disintegrating kit which had been lying on the mountain for 40 years?
     Our only other evidence is that of a well-known and highly respected British mountaineer- he insists on remaining anonymous- who was recently present when a Chinese climber said in public, 'There is no truth in the story that any other body (apart from Maurice Wilson's) was found on Everest in 1975.' However, he told the Britisher sotto voce that a body HAD been discovered, and he believed there had been a camera with it. He is also reported to have said that if the camera had contained photographs taken from the summit, the Chinese Mountaineering Association would have been unwilling to admit their existence, since this would negate the Chinese claim to have made (in 1975) the first ascent of Everest from the north.
     One wonders why, if there was not a camera on the body and the camera did not contain any such photographs, the Chinese should have been so secretive about its discovery?
     The more closely one looks into the story of Mallory and Irvine, the more likely it now seems that they did indeed reach the summit."

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Tue, 24 Jan 1995 00:50:09 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Interview: Enjoy the Updraft of the Indian Economy To: The Nepal Digest

What follows is a (no-jargon-laden) interview with Professor Jeffrey Sachs of Harvard University. This was taken in Kathmandu in August 1994, and was published in weekly SPOTLIGHT newsmagazine of September 9-15, 1994, pages 22-4)

ENJOY THE UPDRAFT OF THE INDIAN ECONOMIC BOOM

Jeffrey D. Sachs

Hailed as "probably the most important economist in the world" by the New York Times, Jeffrey D. Sachs, 39 [40 now], is the Galen L. Stone Professor of International Trade at Harvard University -- the institution from where he earned his BA summa cum laude in economics in 1976 and a PhD in 1980. A vocal and influential advocate of "shock therapy" (that is, rapid transition from command to market economy), Professor Sachs has served as an advisor to the governments of, among other countries, Bolivia, Poland, Mongolia, and was, until last January [1994], the leader of the team of advisors to Boris Yeltsin. [He was also named as one of the "Fifty for the Future: Time's roster of America's most promising leaders age 40 and under" (Time, December 5, 1994). He was said to be "to ailing economies what Albert Schweitzer was to disease-stricken backwaters."] In Kathmandu last August on a private visit, Harvard's most widely- known economist since John Kenneth Galbraith spoke to Ashutosh Tiwari in the lounge of the Yak'n'Yeti Hotel. Excerpts from the 40-minute interview:

The economic order of the world is in transition. Political changes are underway in many countries. Command markets are going the way of free markets. Meantime, critics are saying that it's not democracy that has triumphed, but consumerism. As an advocate of free market, how do you respond to this charge?

        I don't see [the worldwide economic transition] as a triumph of consumerism. I see it more as a triumph of political freedom and economic freedom. Freedom in and of itself is for the people to be able to satisfy their highest aspirations. Besides, practically speaking, we have seen that those countries which have allowed free markets, that is privately-led, outward-oriented economies, to function have prospered the most.

        Earlier, the strategy was to let the state control the market. Now, [the transition] has proven that the state-led economic growth has largely failed -- in country after country, state after state. People previously under economies that did not allow free market are now exercising their freedom to experiment with it.

In your lecture [at the Bankers' Club in Thapathali on August 26], you said that as part of economic reforms, state-led industries should be privatized. In Nepal, privatization is widely seen as giving "democracy" only to those who have "capital" as opposed to those who have "wealth." How can privatization work when, in practice, its starting premise is biased against the poor?

        Worldwide experience shows that state-led industries bleed the national treasury. Governments cannot go on bailing out the ailing firms all the time. Privatization is one way to reduce the burden of the state and make those industries accountable and responsive to the market forces.

        Privatization does not mean giving the firm to your friend: It takes great political skill and sensitivity on the part of the government to push it through. The major prerequisite to privatization is that the process should be open, honest, competitive and transparent. The workers within the enterprise and others must feel that they have a stake in firms that are being privatized. As in Mexico, the government could earmark a part of privatization funds to go into social sectors, and stick to that commitment. Shares could be sold at low prices so that even the poor can afford them -- a strategy along the lines of Margaret Thatcher's 'popular capitalism.'

        Greater the care taken to make the process of privatization fair and transparent, the greater and the more effective the benefits. Compared to India's, however, Nepal's privatization is ahead and doing well. You've privatized three or more industries; while India has privatized none . . . (laughter) you be the leader, and show India the way to reforms.

Talking of India, you have said that "[it may well be] the fastest growing nation in the developing world in the second half of the Nineties." Why?

        India has a vast reservoir of labor and talent. With stable democracy, a good legal system and able entrepreneurs, it is poised for economic growth. In 1991, it introduced economic liberalization. Its previously closed economy has opened up to the outside world. It has reduced tariff barriers, made the rupee partially convertible and done away with the license system. But all that is not enough for India to be a true powerhouse -- for which India has ample potential -- in the world economy.

Why?

        Because all those steps go only half the way to full liberalization. Trade reforms have yet to take place in India. Consumer goods, for example, are not up for trade with other countries. Indians are ambivalent to foreign direct investment
(FDI): They are afraid that Americans will start buying up their industries.

        But trade is a two-way street, benefiting all. Labor is highly regulated in India. Labor law reforms are necessary. Financial sectors such as banks should be strengthened away from the grasp of the state, and value-added tax structure, together with privatization, could pave the way to growth. In addition, private sector could finance some of India's infrastructure- building activities such as road, power, and telecom. All these would actually free the government, currently burdened with running almost all the sectors, to concentrate on the most needy sectors such as health, education, and spreading the wealth to the poor.

But given India's reluctant and suspicious politicians, what's to keep them from not going full steam ahead with reforms? What's the incentive for them to push for quick reform?

        India will have to go for full reforms. International pressure and the benefits accruing from participation in the world economy will not stall its reforms. More to the point, India is, at present, sufficiently strapped for cash. There are investors coming in with cash that India needs. Political will is important, of course. But a group of investors with money when you don't have much is also a powerful incentive to go ahead with reforms. Good reforms, after all, are also good politics, and India's politicians have realized this.

In the face of such a giant of an economy waking up next door, one wide-spread fear in Nepal is that with no correspondence legal and political reforms on our part, Indian businessmen will swamp Nepal in the name of liberalization . . . and that we will end up being cheap laborers in Indian-owned business units all over Nepal. How do we reconcile the logic of free trade with the art of safeguarding Nepal's sovereignty?

        Today's world is so economically interdependent that no country's economy can afford to be away from the reach of the global economy. Nepal is no exception. The benefits of joining the global economy with a deeper pool of finance, technology, production, and capital and labor are many. Nepal has started the process of economic liberalization . . . I say 'go ahead with the reforms.' Trade, I say again, is a two-way street.

        Ten years ago, Nepal exported 90 percent of its goods to India. Today, it exports 90 percent of its goods to the rest of the world, earning more in the process. Now that the Indian market is booming, Nepal cannot remain aloof from that regional, dynamic market. The costs of being isolated are just too high. So Nepal should look into the coming economic boom in India, and decide how best to ride the wave. So Nepal might as well enjoy the updraft of the booming Indian economy. But to get the most out of the Indian boom, legal reforms, among other reforms, must take place soon and simultaneously in Nepal.

Nepal has an open border with India. Many Nepalis think that this arrangement is not in Nepal's advantage, for Indian laborers can easily come to Nepal and take over the jobs of semi-skilled Nepali laborers . . .

        I do not know the historical details. But open borders do present complex issues. Yes, on one hand, Indians come to Nepal to work. But you must not forget that there are also many Nepalis working in India . . . Without a proper study, however, it's hard to say what is or is not good for Nepal when it comes to the issue of its open border with India.

Nepal is a country full of hills and mountains. [Dipak Gyawali pointed out in Himal magazine of May/June '94 that] market reforms widen the income gap between the hills and the plains -- with the former stuck to serve as the repository of migrant labor and stagnant resources, while the latter moves ahead with capital accumulation and industrialization. Are hill economies condemned to slide down as market forces assert themselves?

        With market forces in place, not all regions will grow at an equal rate all the time. The market is biased towards the plains. Because of a comparatively easy geography, the economy of the plains does grow at a faster rate than that of the hills. In the beginning, this will create 'politics of envy,' with the plains outpacing the hills on every economic indicator by a large margin. With right policies and political will, however, the hill economy can catch up with that of the plains. But that will take some time.

        Take India, for example. Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and northern states have not experienced the same kind of growth that Maharastra and other southern states have seen. But of course, there's more to the growth story than the fact of geography alone, even though that is an important factor.

Talking about geography, you have worked in Bolivia, which, like Nepal, is a democratic, land-locked, mountainous country with a vast rural population, and is located right next to a big neighbor
[Brazil]. What lessons can Nepal draw from Bolivia's economic experience?

        Economic reforms started in Bolivia in 1985. I think that the Bolivian experience has four broad lessons to all: First, a poor country with many linguistic and ethnic division can be stable and proud. Second, a deep economic crisis can be solved through democracy by building political coalitions and understanding. Third, even with traditional industries gone, new industries can come up to equip people to be the players in the changing, new economy. And fourth, with sound economic policies, regional geographic differentiation leads to regional specialization of production of goods and services: The low-lying parts of Bolivia [comparable to Nepal's tarai] now export soybeans, a crop not widely planted previously.

        There are also specific lessons to Nepal: Bolivia has enjoyed a strong political commitment to economic reforms since 1982, when democracy swept aside a dictatorial regime. The state has actively promoted the private sector in building the infrastructure. The government has taken democracy to the grassroutes through constitutional power and re-orientation of the tax system. By and large, Bolivians have more opportunities to participate in their country's economic and political systems.

        Bolivia's present government came to power last year. It has been pushing for popular participation and radical decentralization. With private sector being groomed to be the engine of the economy, the government is focusing more and more on education, health, and other aspects of human resource participation. Bolivia hopes to achieve a growth rate of five to six percent. So far, the response of international investors has been good.

Your impatience with the slow pace of reforms in Russia made headlines in January 1994. You blamed the West for not coming through with the pledged amount of aid to Yeltsin. With regard to the developing world, would you also advocate a sort of a modern Marshal Aid that would help countries [in transition like Nepal] speed up their economic reforms?

        Aid is necessary at the critical stage of transition. But foreign aid alone has never helped any country anywhere achieve a long-term growth. We have seen many World Bank loans and aid, notably to Africa, going bad, with no clear results coming out. Such examples aside, we are seeing that the size of bilateral and multilateral financing is diminishing. More and more nations now have to look for private international money to finance their projects.

        The Arun III hydro-electric project, for example, should not come through foreign aid. Putting all the eggs in one basket of aid is not sound economics. Nepal should look for international private financing to fund such huge projects.

        The role of aid should be limited to two areas: First, wherever there is a need to launch acute reforms; second, wherever there exists a provision for the recipients to get the aid directly. Helping the government reform its economy is one way through which aid becomes useful. This way, rather than managing every sector of the economy, the government limits itself to improving the sectors of health and education, and making and enforcing the rules of the market that are fair and wise.

Finally, two short questions: what made you want to become an economist? What does it feel like being a professional who travels from country to country to "fix" broken economies?

        I did not get into economics because I was good in math, and so on. Rather, I was lucky to be born in a family where there were intense discussions about international affairs and events. In high school, I was fortunate to visit the former Soviet Union, which helped me think along the lines of what made a society function better. Going to study at Harvard was great too. One book I had to read early at Harvard was Joseph Schumpeter's Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, which was an eye-opener. As an undergraduate, I was thrilled to discover that there was a scientific way of finding answers to many questions about society that I had been thinking of all along.

        In my professional life, meeting a variety of people in all over the world has been fascinating. Working to improve the lives of people all over the world has been the most satisfying part of my career. For an economist, what others call "vacation" is mostly work.

[Ashutosh Tiwari thanks Bikas Joshi, a Nepali undergraduate at Harvard and a promising young economist in his own right, writing his senior honors thesis under Professor Sachs' supervision, for his help in arranging this interview in Kathmandu.]

****************************************************************** Date: Tue, 24 Jan 1995 01:13:33 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Request for Recipes From: freemon@hsvaic.hv.boeing.com (Brett Freemon)

Hello,
 I am looking for a variety of Nepalese recipes. Could you send me your favorites? I would be interested in the exotic to the everyday fare. If I get a good response I will summarize/organize them and post the results, if others are also interested.

 I have had no luck in locating a Nepalese cookbook and I would also appreciate any suggestions.

 My family and I will be traveling to Nepal later this year for an extended stay in the Katmandu area.

Thanks in advance and please respond to the Email address below,

Brett Freemon, Orlando, FL USA freemon@calif.enzian.com

****************************************************************** Date: Tue, 24 Jan 1995 03:36:43 -0500 (EST) From: Rajesh Acharya <RA3371@ALBNYVMS.BITNET> Subject: Matrimonial on TND To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

This is in response to Mr. Surag Rai's (a very close friend of mine) comment several issues back that promoting matrimonial on TND was nonsensical and that it should be eliminited. I agree, as stated by Mr. Rai that the dowry system has gone out of hand, however, I disagree that arranged marriages, as implied by Mr. Rai, is nonsensical. In my opinion, arrange marriages serve a very definite purpose in Nepal. A typical family in Nepal has a father, mother, children, and if lucky grandfather and a grandmother. The family functionss as a team and it is only appropriate that all members are satisfied with the newcomer (bride) in the house. Typically, the breadwinner (usually the father) of the house decides who the bride will be. Ideally, he would confide with the rest of the family and would make sure the groom or the bride are happy with the choice. Very often the groom has not chosen a partner for life and has no reason to disagree with the family decision. And as with any other culture, there are exceptions, and myself like Mr. Rai would deplore exceptions that violate basic human rights.
        I feel that arrange marriages, if performed in a dignified manner, is inherently a good system that creates stability in the family and ensures a long and happy marriage. Quite often, Nepalese living in America get bombarded by the media as well as the culture that arrange marriages are wrong and that one must choose one's one partner in life to have a blissful and fulfilling marriage A typical reply here in America would be "are you choosing a wife for yourself or for your parents?". And again there is the never ending stream of advertisements that adore individuality and portray the charisma of choosing one's own mate. And all too often, as vulnerable as we are, tend to slowly engulf into this stream of thought and tend to believe that not only is America in the forefront of technology, but also in family planning and all other social aspects.
        One must realise that there are inherent differences in values held in Nepali culture as opposed to American culture. Assumptions implied in America are not usually valid in Nepal. Assumptions such as: 1) In America, it is assumed that 99.9% of couples are incompatible and would not be able to live life happily together. Therefore, one must choose a partner and make sure they are compatible with each other before they make a commitment. In contrary, Nepalese culture assumes that 99.9% of couples are inherenly compatible and can learn to live a happy life and that very few couples are inherently incompatible. There two basic assumptions regulate how partneres are chosen in each society. Both societies are correct in their own way.

2) In America since the parents of the newly weds live in different houses, it is normal that parents do not exert pressure on who the bride or the groom will be. Simple because the parents do not have to live with the newly weds and their role in the family is much less than a typical parent in Nepal. These cultural differences have encouraged what we call "love marriage" in America, and "arrange marriage" in Nepal.

        Thus both forms of marriage sustain the vastly different ways of life. I, like Mr. Rai abhor the dowry system when it is based on greed and when the groom bargains from a position of strength. However, it is important that Mr. Rai realize that the dowry system is not a product of arranged marriage, but rather the offspring of lack of respect for women in Nepal. I would thus urge Mr. Rai to reexamine his statement that "arranged matrimonial in TND is nonsensical".

I personally urge TND to encourage the matrimonial section, since I have personally witnessed several of my very close friends whose hearts are lonely, desperate,sad,unsatiated, sequestered,hermited,joggi babba, clamoring, scorching,ebbing and yearning for some real love and lovey dobby.

Nameste, Rajesh Acharya University At Albany,NY

P.S. The dowry system cannot be stopped by discouraging arranged marriages, but rather by encouraging more respect for women in Nepal.

********************************************************************* Date: Tue, 24 Jan 95 12:25:10 EST From: PSHRESTH@MIAMIU.ACS.MUOHIO.EDU To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Budhanilkantha School (again)

This is in response to Ashtush's article(?) in TND. I just wanted to make it clear that I didn't want to engage in a superlong debate about the validity or invalidity of his "dissatisfaction" about the set-up of BKS. Yes, I'm aware of the "little bit of history" in Himal magazine. And no, I don't understand what the funding of a few poor but very bright students has anything to do with
"Nepalese travelling down to India to become cheap bahadurs" (please refer to the last issue of TND). But I think these are trival and insignificant points. What I'm more interested in knowing is if people like Mr. Kedar Mathema(VC of TU) and a whole bunch of other presumbale intellectuals Ashtush mentioned are so against the gov't funding of BKS, then why hasn't anything been done to change that for such a long time?? To use the fashionable TND phrase, could anyone enlighten me?
                                     Prabin

******************************************************************** Date: Tue, 24 Jan 1995 14:10:59 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Thank you, Rakesh To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

My thanks to Rakesh Karmacahrya for his carpet-bombing TND by replying to my "psychobabble". Gee, if Rakesh takes my mere "psychobabble" so seriously, I wonder how he would read and interpret what follows below:

> The above line was not intended as a call for any form of censorship of
> such material but as an exhortation to the TND contributors to leave
> personal grudges aside and discuss relevant topics untainted by personal
> animosities.

> What TND serves as a forum for is largely determined by the
> articles that are posted, and certaily the more prolific writers do set a
> trend. It would be a pity if TND degenerated into a billboard for people to
> take care of their insecurities by posting irrelevant personal attacks.
> Such dastardly acts may be therapeutic for the writer, but it is unfair for
> the general readers at large to waste their time going over material that

        Rakesh: You're preaching moral science here. What you've said above is all soft, mushy and agreeable stuff, and that's very nice and warm. But what's that got to do with FREE SPEECH, which was, as I recall, the theme of your FIRST [non-ethnic] TND posting?

        Anyway, now that you have made your assertions, in all sincerity, I challenge (used in a positive sense) you, Rakesh, to show me a SINGLE example of "contributors' tak[ing] care of their insecurities by posting irrelevant personal attacks". Can you give me a single example? Or, are you just reading too closely on everybody's postings, and conjuring up concealed meanings for yourseleves? Or do you think that you are so important that TND contributors have to set aside their time to "make personal attacks", perhaps on you? Come on, get real. Rather than preaching homilies here WITH NO EVIDENCE, get to the point . . . what do you mean?

        If anything Rakesh, though TND may be far from perfect, but surely you'd agree that it has NOT quite degenerated into the cesspool that you seem to fear about . .. right? Othewise, 800 smart TND readers (and, yes, that includes you too!) would not be reading TND every other day? Or, are you, lacking clearer arguments and examples, taking a high-handed approach by saying that other readers are all stupid morons who indulge in "vapid tit and tat tussel over petty arguments" while detached and refined souls like you are, all aloof and disinterested? IF so, that's all fine; but again what's that got to do with your points on FREE SPEECH?

> Tiwarijee, given the option of the TND writers/readers using their own
> wisdom to decide what to post versus that of an editor/moderator serving
> the role of a censor, I will assure you that I will wholeheartedly go with
> the former.

        Now. where does this come from? I fail to see a logical transition here.

        At any rate, Rakesh, your moralizing argument can be summarized like this: Let there be free speech but let there be no concealed personal attacks.

        To that I say, What kind of free speech are you talking about if you are going to put a limit on it? Or, Rakesh, are you suggesting a code of conduct or a speech code for all TND contributors so that personal attacks can be wiped out ? If so, now, how do YOU reconcile that stance with your earlier absolute claim on free speech? Hello, isn't there a conflict here?

        You bet there is! And that's why I called your arguments -- NOT you, mind you -- ILLIBERAL. Because your arguments indicate that you seem to want to have it both ways -- free speech with sexual stuff but NOT free speech with personal attacks. My point is that with free speech, you're going to get BOTH stuff, and there's little you can do about it, and that's why you'd better learn to live with BOTH the concealed personal attacks and the sexual stuff. Free speech gives equal weight to both stuff though in a few caes the CONTEXTS may make a difference (racial and ethnic slurs are excepted for reasons I think you know!).

        All right, let us assume that you argue against personal attacks on grounds of taste and judgment. If so, now tell me, as Bal Krishna Sharma has already argued here, shouldn't the SAME criteria of taste and judgement be used by the editors against [gratuitous] sexual stuff? Why not? Why yes for one thing, and no for another? If personal attacks can be offensive to some people, then liberals like you should be aware that sexual stuff on TND can also be offensive to OTHER people for other reasons. But see, you'd like your sexual stuff without personal attacks thrown in, right, and I say that THAT makes a bad case for free speech, a sort of "Free speech for me, not for thee" kind of silliness that gives liberalism a bad name.

        So my point was: using your criteria -- developed strictly from your arguments -- Rakesh, how is a TND editor to decide what to cut and what to leave in?

        Only a moment's reflection would assure you that the editor can't decide anything by using your "free speech for this but not for that" kind of reasoning. From the perspective of the editor, it's much better to let EVERYTHING go so that both personal attacks and sexual stuff would be attacked by BETTER, CLEARER ideas out there . . .and that exchange out there would do justice to BOTH personal attacks and sexual stuff . . .

> I do not have the time to engage in vapid tit-for-tat volleys that often
                                        ********************************
> accompany petty arguments
> in TND. I have better things to do on a cloudy evening than sit in front
> of my computer and psychobabble.
                    *************

        WEll, I will let all intelligent TND readers to read the above paragraph and to decide for themselves how best to interpret Rakesh's remarks, and whether or not they constitute, despite Rakesh's high-handed rhetoric against personal attacks, some sort of ad hominem attacks on this writer.

        As for "psychobabble", well, I take it as a compliment.

        Thank you, Rakesh -- as Margaret Thatcher said about Neil Kinnock in her autobio -- for "playing the wrong tune all the way to the end.", and for making your PERSONAL style of arguments and justifications public. I could not have asked for a better evidence myself.

        Finally, I prefer ashu to Tiwarijee. It just makes YOU sound more natural and secure. Not to mention, easier for you to type in, hai na ta?

        Rakesh, thank you. And I look forward to your third non-ethnic TND posting, perhaps (now that Amulya has gone back to Nepal) an exposition on some sexual stuff that we can all find "educational". Hey, free speech allows you to do that, you know!

namaste ashu

******************************************************************** Date: Sat, 21 Jan 1995 14:31:42 EST To: The nepal Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> From: Dare Koslow <dk107@columbia.edu> Subject: Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal

FOR IMMEDIATE POSTING:

All are invited to attend an academic conference being hosted by Columbia University on Saturday, February 18, 1995.

TOPIC: BHUTANESE REFUGEES: An Unresolved Crisis

AIM: To bring together representatives of governments, international community and human rights organizations, representativies of the Bhutanese refugees and members of the academic community to analyze the Bhutanese refugee issue in the context of other refugee problems in the world, and to explore and recommend viable policy options that promote international law and the human rights conventions.

DATE/LOCATION: SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1995
                9:15 AM - 5:00PM

                COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
                SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS
                DAG HAMMARSKJOLD LOUNGE (SIXTH FLOOR)
                420 WEST 118TH STREET
                NEW YORK, NEW YORK

ALL INTERESTED ARE INVITED TO ATTEND.

***************************************************************** Date: Sun, 22 Jan 1995 17:48:42 PST To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: Amresh Karmacharya <psu01146@odin.cc.pdx.edu> Subject: Any One?

I am a graduate student majoring in biology here at Portland State Univ., Oregon. I am trying to transfer to a different school and I have requested to my sponsor, the Fulbright Program, to try in one of the following schools.

# Washington State University, Pullman
# Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville
# Calfornia State University, Fullerton
# Oklahoma State University, Stillwater

Therefore if there is any Nepali studying in the above mentioned universities kindly let me know. I would like to keep in touch as soon as possible.

Amresh.

************************************************************************* Date: Tue, 24 Jan 1995 12:39:40 EST To: Multiple recipients of list HDESK-L <HDESK-L@WVNVM.WVNET.EDU> From: Elysa Leventon <elevento@CC.BRYNMAWR.EDU> Subject: NETWORK POSITION

BRYN MAWR COLLEGE BRYN MAWR, PENNSYLVANIA

NETWORK SUPPORT SPECIALIST POSITION AVAILABLE

Reporting to the Assistant Director of User Services, responsible for design, installation and troubleshooting a LAN/WAN multiprotocol network using TCP/IP, IPX and Appletalk. Position provides user support for a heterogeneous client environment.

Required Education, Experience and Skills
        -Knowledge of router configuration including security and maintenance, preferably CISCO
        -Experience in TCP/IP, IPX and Appletalk administration, performance analysis, configuration and design
        -General network troubleshooting skills
        -Strong interpersonal/communication skills
        -Experience with Ethernet, switched Ethernet design as well as familiarity with network wiring installation projects a plus

Please submit a resume, cover letter and the names, titles and current telephone numbers of three professional references to: Personnel Services, Bryn Mawr College, 101 N. Merion Avenue, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010-2899. EOE M/F

Elysa Leventon

Assistant Director of User Services Bryn Mawr College 101 North Merion Avenue Bryn Mawr, PA 19010-2899

(610) 526-7426
(610) 526-7432 Fax elevento@brynmawr.edu

******************************************************************* Date: Wed, 25 Jan 1995 08:39:00 PST To: nepal-request@cs.niu.edu, From: "BHATTARAI, SAROJ" <S.BHATTARAI@CGNET.COM> Subject: request

Thanks for your update. Can you please send me the phone number/email address of my close friend Dinesh Malla. He is doing his graduate program in management (That's what I heard) . Please give him my email address. Please tell him to call me collect if he does not have a phone.

My phone number is 703-318-8856 email address: s.bhattarai@cgnet.com Thanks Saroj

 
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