The Nepal Digest - February 7, 1997 (25 Magh 2053 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Friday 7 Feb 97: Magh 25 2053BS: Year6 Volume59 Issue 2

Today's Topics:

                 Where IS the "Dead Goat"?
                 Nepal News
                 UNDP funding for Nepalese professionals for stint in Nepal
                 Himalayan Explorers Club
                 International College of Nepal
                 Re: Development Related Book Reviews
 
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****************************************************************** Date: Tue, 04 Feb 1997 19:17:37 EST To: The Nepal digest Editor <nepal-request@cs.niu.edu> From: "Pramod K. Mishra" <pkm@acpub.duke.edu> Subject: Where IS the "Dead Goat"?

Where IS the "Dead Goat"? No; definitely not. This is not the story of goat-meat, fresh, tempting, cherished--but a conversation about a thirty-year-old "Dead Goat," stinky, dead of some disease called multi-party system, worth consuming only for the motley crowd of "the lowest of the low" in our Hindu society. Or, are we talking about some dead ghost? In that case, we must remember that ghosts never die. They remain alive, hiding in the thick foliage of trees in and around a village; in the ditches, on the dykes or bridges--always looking for opportunity to shock and frighten the folks and fell them with fatal malaise. When an ordinary goat dies; it dies for good. Once you bury it, or take away, the matter (pun intended) ends rights there. We assume the meat will transform into soil. Unless--unless you belong to a cult
(recently I received an e-mail from an athropologist about goat-worship in parts of Pakistan and western India among the hill tribes) that worships a goat. In that case, a goat becomes sacred, like a cow for the Hindus, and it becomes difficult for you just to forget the goat, even though it's dead. Or, if you are like the dumb sevant of a devout Yogi, who so pestered his master about God's whereabouts that one day the Yogi flew into a rage and shouted, "You foolish mortal! Where do you think you can get God, 'Parmatma'?" This Yogi had prayed, meditated, worshipped, penanced his whole life just to get a glimpse of Parmatma, just a shadow of the Almighty. But to no avail. He had so far been frustrated in his efforts. And here he was, lately pestered by this nondescript sevant of his, about where the Almighty dwelt and how a mortal like the servant could find Him. So he proceeded to teach his servant a lesson. His servant came up to him again, asking about whether he, too, could find God, like the Yogi. Who could be better than the Yogi to point the way? The Yogi said, "So you, too, like me desire freedom from the cycle of deaths and births? You, too, want moksha, salvation?" "Yes, Master."
"Me, too," answered the Servant. "Good!" said the Yogi. "Now, go to the tree [he pointed out a most ungodly tree] and sit down in its shade and just chant, 'Hr hr hr hr goat! Come and eat my grass! hr hr hr hr goat, come and eat my grass' And don't forget to take a bundle of grass with you. There is no doubt that you'll find your God." Quite convinced by the master's instructions, the servant set off for that tree. It was indeed a tree quite out of the way, neither a Peepul, nor Bunyan, nor Basil, nor Ashok, nor Deodar, nor even the bitter Neem. It was something like Seemal, a most unsacred tree, whose shade itself it was hard to pin down, so tall it was. Not even ghosts seemed to inhabit that tree, all its branches bare and straight, although monkeys and langoors did hopped on its branches in the flowering season. But this servant of the Yogi trusted his master, for the Yogi had spent years of his life in the pursuit of truth and God. How could he be wrong? So he followed his instructions. He sat down in a place under the tree, put the bundle of green, tasty grass in front of him, and began his chant, "Hr hr hr hr goat! Come and eat my grass! Come and eat my grass! Come and eat my grass!" One day passed, a wild goat came and ate the grass and ran into the forest, ba ba-ing. The second day passed, another goat came and ate the grass and ran into the forest. But before it ran out, the man tried to grab its legs, but the goat cried and struggled and hit the man with its horns. The man let go and the goat disappeared into the forest. A week passed, a month passed, but the Yogi's sevant refused to give up. Every day he went out, cut fresh, green grass and sat down and chanted. In the mean time, the Yogi revelled in his ability to fool his servant, who had been so impetinent as to aspire for the highest attainable goal, beyond the reach of even the holiest of the holy. Guess what happened? Did a goat come to this foolish man? You never know. The story goes
(this anecdote comes from my childhood days of vegetarianism and Satsangha in Nepal among a sect of ascetics who followed an eclectic sources from the Hindu pantheon; it might or might not be found in the Puranas.)--the story goes that one day a goat appeared there out of nowhere. Just appeared, first on the branches and then climbing down to the man. The man kept his eyes closed and chanted, "Come goat, eat my grass; come goat, eat my grass." No sooner the goat began to eat the grass, than the Yogi's servant lunged forward and grabbed the goat's leg and held on to it. Not an ordinary goat this time, he thought, because it came down from the tree. As always happens in such stories, the goat soon transformed into a blinding light of the Supreme Being, Lord Vishnu Himself, with the wheel and all. "I'm pleased with you, my devotee," he said. "Ask what you want." There is no point in continuing the story further. Now on you know it all without my telling. Now, this "dead goat" of Dr. J. Joshee is certainly is not like the goat in this fable, nor the one I mentioned earlier, buried or consumed my some humans or vultures. When this goat was alive and running, it was not actually a goat, it acted like a most terrible predator, consuming most of the Bikas dollars, turning school children, teachers, intellectuals, bureaucrats into a flock of goats and sheep and driving them to shout one slogan, doublespeak euphemisms. And those goats who refused to do so, it caged them and stripped them of all opportunities, shut them up. So, I find Dr. Joshee's comments on Amulya's critique of Ambassador Thapa's Connecticut speech difficult to understand. Dr. Joshee's post dismissing Amulya's critique further reinforced my belief in TND's power to disseminate ideas and educate you, me, Amulya and Dr. Joshee as well. Social scientists and social critics, take note please. George Santayana, a noted turn-of-the century philospher, said that those who do not learn from their past are condmened to repeat it. One fundamental way of learning from the past is to remember it, what Dr. Joshee calls "hound on Panchayat talk." Indeed, this unwillingness to remmber the past, learn from it, constantly dig it up and interpret its lessons to every generation has been one fo the casuses of the downfall of the Hindu ciivilization. True, many pasts are too painful, therefore better forgotten and let the dead bury its dead. But we Hindu's don't forget all our past completely. Otherwise there would be no Puranas and the epics. We put sweet-coating to our past and thereby turn history into legends and myths, into a timeless struggle of good over evil(we always on the side of good; they always on the side of evil). And so whenever we want to remember our past, its not in the form of the historical past with all its bitter realities, its blood and pain that actually occurred and thousand perished--not how the past calamities still live among us, plaguing us day and night, week after week, year in year out. But as self-deluding myths and legends, in the form of what else but "Ram Rajya." I have no doubt that Ambassador Thapa as a person is a fine man. As a scholar and bureacrat, I have no doubt that he must have been efficient and thoughtful. As a politician, he no doubt had all the goodwill and sincerity found anywhere in the world. But the quesiton that any one would ask is, Why the billions of development dollars went inot the personal coffers rather than in bulding the infrastructure for those in whose name the money was pumped and taken. Ambassdor Thapa himself has admitted (at the May 1996 conference at College Park, MD) that his PhD dissertation had clearly laid out plans for Nepal's passage into modernization. But why didn't the plan come into fruition? As a governer, as a Finance minister, ambassador, and I'm sure as a functionary of other posts, he saw it all, did it all, spoke it all. As an honet thinker, he should speak what happened during his tenure? What were the shortcomings of the system? Who were to blame for the failure of the system to use the development dollars for infrastructure-building? You see we Hindus have forgotten to be ascetics any more, forgotten to speak the truth like our old rishis, if they ever were real persons. Instead, all the rishis and truth-tellers and ascetics have been born in the West, like Robert McNamara, enjoying cow-meat and all, but telling the truth about the Vietnam War. If Dr. Thapa speaks the truth of the Panchayat period, we all will listen to him and respect him for doing so. I don't think any one is better equipped in position, knowledge, skills, and eye-witness experience than Dr. Bhekh Bahadur Thapa to come out and tell us the naked truth, speak his honest mind. Now, it's a very legitimate logic for a concerned like Amulya Tuladhar to be skeptical about Dr. Thapa's pronouncements, even though they may be true. How can one believe that those pronouncements carry any grain of truth, indeed are different from his and hundreds of others' pronouncements during the Panchayat Raj? So you see, as an Ambassador, a political appointee, Dr. Thapa must speak what the present government in Nepal asks him to speak. It's his duty, it's part of his job as an ambassador to explain the present government's policy's to the people and government of the United States. But trustworthiness? Integrity? Truthfulness? These are open-ended questions; there is no fixed answer. Past comes here to steal the trust. Certainly, people like Amulya Tuladhar are not going to be terribly excited about Dr. Thapa's speeches as an ambassador, except tolerate for the sake of politness. It's not just that only the ghost of Panchayat still remains alive and working in Nepal. Look at the government; it's been only six years since the so-called revolution, and the Communits are bickering among themselves about their age-old problem as to who would be at the helms and the Congress is tooting its own diffident horn. Under these circumstances, how can Dr. Joshee ask "our ambassadors, ministers, and other leaders what they are doing for the country's growth, for the well-being of the Nepali people"? Twenty percent mandate is using fifty percent of the power and neutralizing the rest of the policy planning. In a sense, Dr. Joshee does not know that Panchayat Raj worked very well for the "Nepali people." We need count only the number of buildings and amount of wealth that multiplied in Kathmandu and other Nepali towns--and dig for their legitimacy and source. I must agree with Dr. Joshee's question about the present Nepali government's democratic values "What democracy we have in Nepa?" None--or little. But whose fault is it? It's the people's wish or ignorant wish that what has come about has come about. People, like Dr. Joshee, want harmony, like harmony, they want the old order to continue. A few students and young people of Kathmandu cannot always take to the streets and take up arms and lose lives, struggling. It's the duty of the voters as well who have the right to exercise democracy. If they themselves vote in a wishy-washy fashion, then what could these leaders do, most of whom are well-fed, well-clothed, tolerably well-educated folks. This is where intellectuals like Amulya Tuladhar come in with their "argumentative, dirty, political no brainer talk" to do (dis)service to "our country." For thirty years, we had had
"productive arguments." Now is the time to have any arguments that comes to you naturally, not as part of a lure for a post. The goats are not at all dead; as Dr. Joshee knows they are politically alive and ruling--and ba ba-ing more than ever.
          
****************************************************************** Date: Feb 7, 1997 To: The Nepal Digest <tnd@nepal.org> Subject: Nepal News

Overseas Nepali workers lead treacherous lives Source: The Kathmandu Post

KATHMANDU, Feb 5 - Thousands of Nepalis working abroad are underpaid and forced to live treacherous lives. This observation comes in the wake of recent reports, giving gory details of hundreds of illegal Nepali workers stranded in Malaysia, a country where Nepal doesnt have its diplomatic mission. According to the official data for the past five years, almost 8,000 Nepali labourers went to Middle-East and East Asia. But the officials at the Department of Labour, the authority looking after the overseas employment, say the accurate figure could be much higher than what is mentioned.
"When you consider such facts as the deaths of 50 Nepalis last year in the Saudi Air crash in New Delhi, you can get the magnitude of the outward movement of Nepali workforce," the official said. According to the Department of Labour, 4,800 Nepalies have travelled to Saudi Arabia, the most popular Gulf destination, in the past five years. The total number of people leaving Nepal for overseas employment since 2049-50 has reached to the tune of 7,898 by the end of fiscal year 2052-53. In the current fiscal year, 1,842 people have already left for the various countries. The Department of Labour has identified 13 countries as "the potential manpower export market". They are Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates in the Gulf. And Brunei, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Saipan (a tiny island east of Japan under US sovereignty), Singapore and South Korea in East Asia. Nepal government doesnt have any official agreement with Brunei, Iraq, Malaysia and Singapore.

In the past few years, skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled Nepali manpower have been entering the oil-rich countries in the Gulf and other regions in Asia in a growing number. Only few go through proper legal channels, while a large number of people are smuggled by unauthorized agencies.

Gurkhas : Made for exploitation ? By Narayan Manandhar Source: The Kathmandu Post

"I am so glad that Gurkhas were on our side", said British Prime Minister John Major. Probably, all Britons must be happy to have their toughest job being done by the cheapest and the most loyal soldiers of the world. Whenever it comes to front line warfare, it is the much acclaimed Johnny Gurkhas who do the job. Take the case of the briefly fought Falkland war with Argentina in 1982, it was the Gurkhas who made the final assault. When Argentina complained in the UN, it is said that the Nepali representative went blank and rushed back home for consultation. Are Gurkhas real British soldiers or mercenaries ? Fredrick Forsyth (author of "Dogs of War") will also not be able to answer the question as in his own televised series entitled "Sinews of War", shown in BBC Channel One in 1985 he had praised the bravery of Gurkhas. Gurkha soldiers come cheap, very cheap compared to Britains own army. A Gurkha soldier gets a paltry pension of 15 pounds while his own British counterpart is entitled to 475 pounds. There is gross discrimination on everything from perks, pensions and conditions of service. Under the veil of the tripartite agreement said to be signed between Britain, India and Nepal in 1947, the British are entitled to exploit Gurkhas forever. One who reads the history of Gurkhas will have this feeling. In a televised programme broadcast in the Central Television, entitled Gurkhas of Nepal, a British officer was seen chuckling "...pension in the context of British army is not awfully high but in the context of cost of living here (in Nepal) it is not awfully low. But low it is." The moot question is how low is it ? And according to whose cost of living? For the last 182 years, Gurkha soldiers have been serving the British army, relentlessly, without a hitch, any kind of discontent was harshly subdued like the one that happened in Hawaii in the summer of 1986 leading to the expulsion of 123 Gurkha soldiers. The poor hillmen had no alternative but to be loyal to their masters like their forefathers. Internal military discipline and external honour ascribed to their bravery put them in a double bind situation. The number of Victoria Crosses
(VCs) awarded for their bravery during wars helped to extract infinite and infallible loyalty from them. In fact the whole world was mesmerized by Gurkha Bravery until a researcher revealed the Gurkha dukkha, the pain and sorrows of the soldiers in the front line. Their dukkha at home is more revealing than what the researcher finds in the letter notes. In the aforesaid television programme, the pathetic condition of three ex-Gurkha soldiers, namely, sergeant Ram Bahadur, Mahendra Gurung (who lost a leg in Mount Casino, Italy), and Mohan Pratap (blinded by Japanese shrapnel in Singapore) was clearly shown. Last year, Sunday Express carried a pitiful story of homeless Havaldar Laxman Gurung, a war veteran and a VC holder, who lost one arm and an ear in Burma in return for killing 31 enemy soldiers. The paper was able to raise donations worth 100,550 pounds from its readers and contributors. The money was handed to him by Prime Minister Major on 19 August, the day marked to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of World War II. Historically, out migration, joining of foreign forces by hillmen was not only state motivated through the use of exploitative land taxes but also facilitated by the state which allowed the establishment of recruitment centres. It is said that the border town Gorakhapur in India was named so because it was used as a recruitment centre for Gurkha soldiers. The royalty the regime received from Gurkha recruitment was used to build huge Rana palaces. Some remaining palaces, even to date, have their verandas designed with the "Union Jack" symbol. Without recourse to a continuous source of sterling pounds, how would you shop at Harrods in the 1850s and ship loads and loads of goods back home to decorate huge palaces? Gurkhas have been the symbol of continued exploitation both by its own country and by the British. Some British projects may have started here and there, like Pakhribas and Lumle Projects, to rehabilitate ex- soldiers. They are mere whitewash. The royalty they derive from the deployment of contingents in Brunei will never be publicly known. Neither will the use of the Gurkha Welfare Fund be known. Of the total money raised by the Sunday Express, this scribe will be glad to know how much money was actually given to Havaldar Laxman Gurung. May be a guy called "Col. Lavender" will enlighten us as he often does in this paper. Time and again, I have had an opportunity to read interesting ideas in British newspapers over the possibility of deploying Gurkha soldiers in Northern Ireland, or protecting diamond mines in South Africa or tea gardens in Sri Lanka or as permanent soldiers in UN. Read British interest in between these lines. These ideas must have been backed with economic calculations, the cost-benefit analysis. If this had not been the case, in its futuristic article on privatization in the year 2021, the Economist would never argue that Gurkha soldiers have every chance to revive. It is the cheapest source of army deployment. Since quite sometime has been argued that in high-tech warfare, low tech infantrymen like Gurkha soldiers are of little use. This is the reason often stated for the retrenchment of Gurkha soldiers in the British Army. The past Gulf War had shown that whatsoever air superiority the allies may have had, the real war could be won only on the ground and for this you effectively need to deploy infantrymen. With new found democracy here, the ex-Gurkhas are making their dent. With the much publicized civic reception by the then Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala in 1992, they have established an organizational strength to pressure both the governments. It is said that the last October official visit of Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba, almost after a lapse of 88 years, was triggered by this single uncomfortable Gurkha issue. As the count down to return Hong Kong to China has already started, the British government is having to make an uncomfortable decision to take 2000 Gurkha soldiers along with their families to Britain. The group of ex-Gurkha soldiers are already pressing with their demands and preparing themselves for a legal battle with the British government by April this year if it fails to honour their legitimate demands. The world then will be watching with interest how democratic Britain will deal with the remnants of its colonial empire. Back home, some are even given to link the restlessness and frustration of ex-Gurkhas with the presently waged "peoples war" by Maoist in the remote parts of the country. Without access to the services of these ex-army men who could possibly have trained these insurgents? If this turns out to be real or even a remote possibility then it is going to be a pathetic note on the much acclaimed generosity of British aid to Nepal.

****************************************************************** Date: Sat, 01 Feb 1997 16:54:44 +0200 From: Edward Krasnov <root@ruta.kharkov.ua> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: CV

Dear Sir/Madam, I would like very much to receive any job in Nepal. But I do not know how can I do it? Give me, please, good advise. Thank you! e-mail: root@ruta.kharkov.ua

About myself: Full Names: Edward Yeugenievich Krasnov Address: 240 Druzhbi Narodov Street Apt. 28 Kharkov 310183 Ukraine Country of Citizenship: Ukraine Age: 25 years Education: 1978-1986 Secondary School 1986-1988 High School 1988-1993 Studied in Kharkov State University, Qualification: Biologist, Biology and Chemistry Teacher, M.Sc. Specialization: Physiology and Biochemistry of Plants 1995-1996(3 months) Studied in Krishnamurti Education Centre in Brockwood Park, England. Learnt philosophy, psychology, Man and Surroundings Working experience: 1992-1993(3 months) Worked in Kharkov State University as Laboratory assistant in Laboratory of microbiology 1993-1994 Worked in Plant-growing Firm as Director of Glass house 1994-1995 Worked in Kharkov Institute of Agricultural chemistry and Soil science in Agricultural ecology and biological agriculture Laboratory, M.Sc. Biology 1996-now Working in Ltd "Vitako" as Manager with using of computer (DOS, WINDOWS3.0, WINDOWS 3.11, WINDOWS 95, Microsoft office, Page Maker, Corel 4-5) Language proficiency: English, excellent Special interest: computer, philosophy, psychology, biology Give me, please, your answer on my e-mail:root@ruta.kharkov.ua

Sincerely, Edward

******************************************************************* Date: Sat, 1 Feb 1997 11:22:41 -0500 From: brajbhandari@hqfaus01.unicef.org (Bijaya Rajbhandari) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

     Dear Editor
     Nepal Digest
     
     
     I have received two issues of digest. I found it very interesting and
     hope to contribute to the Digest once I am settled in my job here. the
     discussions. Some of the discussions are very enriching. however I
     would like to see that the forum is not being used for ethnic feeling.
     After staying in Africa for some years and specially attached to the
     rural development work, I find that this bring nothing but the ethnic
     conflicts.This will bring the situation of Rwanda and Burundi. we
     should learn ethnic harmony that exist in Singapore and Malaysia and
     not Rwanda or former Yugoslavia.
     
     Looking forward to receiving the new issues.
     
     e-mail address: brajbhandari@unicef.org
     Bijaya Rajbhandari
     Harare, Zimbabwe

********************************************************** Date: Sun, 2 Feb 1997 00:44:48 -0800 (PST) From: Parag Upadhyaya <paragu@wsunix.wsu.edu> To: webmaster-tnd@nepal.org Subject: Nepal Independent View

To whom it may concern,

        Nepali community in Northwest has made a decision to create a new homepage "Nepal Independent View" which we believe would benefit Nepali people and Nepal. We are planning to commence this new page soon. Hence, we are asking everyone to publicize this new homepage. Our page is on a trial basis but in order for us to continue this page and its services we need support and participation. Therefore, we are sincerely asking and requesting you to publish or add a link to this new homepage at
        http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~paragu/niv.html

If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me at paragu@wsunix.wsu.edu. Thank You

                                Sincerely,
                                Parag Upadhyaya

************************************************************************* From: FRANK <Frank.Matthys@ping.be> To: "'NEPAL@cs.niu.edu'" <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Ganesh Himal Date: Sun, 2 Feb 1997 09:21:09 +-100

Frank Matthys Boudewijnlaan 53 8300 Knokke Belgium

Good day,

During March my wife and me we like to go trekking in the Ganesh Himal. In Belgium it is almost impossible to find some information or detailed maps about this region. Can you inform us where we can find things like that ?

Blue skies, Frank.Matthys@ping.be

**************************************************************************** From: "Sharma, Bineet K" <Bineet.K.Sharma@siemenscom.com> To: nepaldigest <nepal@cs.niu.edu> (IPM Return requested) Subject: SEARCC-CAN Info-Tech '97

Dear friends,

Here is the follow up from PLACING NEPAL ON THE GLOBAL I.T. MAP for the SEARCC - CAN Info-Tech '97 and exciting opportunity for "Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals" (TOKTEN)

Bineet Sharma bineet.sharma@siemenscom.com

From: (Beltronix) To: Sharma, Bineet K Subject: UNDP funding program for Nepalese professionals for stint in Nepal Date: Wednesday, January 29, 1997 6:38AM

Jan 29, 1997

Dear Bineet & other Nepalese professionals abroad,

The SEARCC meeting in Nepal went extremely well. The SEARCC presence drew unprecendented media attention and thus government attention naturally followed. The crowds at the CAN Info-Tech '97 were also unprecedented as a result. No amount of banging our heads against the wall or lobbying with HMG could have gotten us anywhere near to having the SEARCC meeting achieved for us! We are definitely at a peak from the viewpoint of Computer Association of Nepal credibility with HMG.

The question then becomes, where do we go from here?

One of the interesting points that came out during discussions was that UNDP has a program to fund Nepalese professionals working abroad to spend their time in Nepal professionally. This could be a very good way to explore the possibilities in information technology development in Nepal. Please spread the word, anyone of you there interested?

Bijaya K Shrestha
  President Computer Association of Nepal

BELTRONIX - computer & electronics - ENGINEERS GPO Box 1064, Pratap Bhawan, Kantipath, Kathmandu, NEPAL Phones: (977 1) 249-285, 249-684, 249-784, 249-984 Fax: (977 1) 249 - 059 & 527 - 884 Email: ceo@beltronx.wlink.com.np Patan Branch: Inar, Kupondole, Patan ph: 521-999 & 527-999

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 03 Feb 1997 18:10:58 -0500 From: Jason Joyal <shock@dsuper.net> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: The name / title of Godawa

After reading the Nepal digest recently I discovered that my family name was referred in the digest. I realize it is possibly a just a coincedence by perhaps maybe not. My grandparents immigrated to Canada from Poland near the turn of the century. They died when I was very young and I was unable to find out much about the family history. My father never really pushed them to explain many of the detail to to the fact that when he was young it was not consider very proper to push for such deatils. Furthermore I would be very interested in finding out as much as I can about the information you have pertaining to the name Godawa. Thank you for your attention. I can be emailed with the results at shock@dsuper.net Further if it could be addressed to my attention
(Paul) that would be nice. Thank you

*********************************************************************** Date: Feb 7, 1997 To: The Nepal Digest <tnd@nepal.org> Subject: Nepal News

American company to provide door to door waste collecting Service Source: Explore Nepal

A US company based in California has signed letters of intent with three municipalities of Nepal to establish a complete environmental waste management programme, according USIS press release. As per separate agreements with Biratnagar, Lalitpur and Kathmandu municipalities Americorp Environmental Services Group Inc. will develop a modern landfills with composite liner systems with full monitoring and compliance producers strictly following United States guidelines. Americorp will provide door to door collection services utilising a two container system, one for wet garbage and a second for dry household wastes and recyclables. A modern state of the art materials recovery facility will be established to separate out paper products, plastics, glass and compostables. A composting facility will also be established at the site. Americorp will register joint venture companies with these municipal corporations which will own 10 percent share of the company. The remaining 90 percent will be jointly owned by Nepalese companies and Americorp. The total capital cost for the facility at the three municipal corportions is estimated to be about US dollar 12 to 18 million. The entire project is being financed by private entrepreneurs from Nepal, the USA and South Korea. Operations are expected to commence in selected areas as early as March 1997.

****************************************************************** Date: Mon, 3 Feb 1997 20:09:47 -0600 From: Anu Baidya <anu@ait.ac.th> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Searching for Keepa Maskey's e-mail add.!

I would be grateful if anybody can provide me with the above mentioned name's e-mail add. I believe she is in New York city but I've lost touch with her since ages. I'm trying to reach her. She is an ex-SMS; batch of 1989 and Keepa if you happen to read this do contact me. Thank you in advance.

Anu Baidya

 Current Address: Home Address:
 Development Office P.O. Box 3786
 P.O. Box 4 Kathmandu, NEPAL.
 AIT , Klong Luang 12120
 THAILAND. Email: anu@ait.ac.th

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 4 Feb 1997 05:11:44 -0500 (EST) From: EllieSk@aol.com To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: response to request for information on Anuradha Shelter

Dear Sirs, This letter is in response to Robert Iannone's request for information on the Anuradha Shelter. Unfortunately, I do not the have information on this shelter. However, I can recommend that he contact a wonderful organization in Kathmandu called Maiti Nepal. The woman who runs it is named Anuradha Koirala. Her phone is 475316, fax 474492. Maiti Nepal rehabilitates prostitutes, training them for other work. They also take in children of prostitutes and other destitute women. I cannot adequately describe the organization's work because I have not spoken with them, or visited the facility. However, a friend spoke very highly of their work. Also, while I was in Nepal adopting my daughter I met a woman who was trying to adopt a baby that was placed with her by Maiti Nepal. (as an aside, all adoptions in Nepal have stopped because of corruption. What an incredible shame.) Unfortunately, the government dislikes Anuradha Koirala because she speaks out about the plight of women in Nepal. So, they put up obstacles to her work and generally make life difficult for her. Ellie Skeele

************************************************************* To: NEPAL <NEPAL.MP..CS..NIU..EDU@epahub2.rtptok.epa.gov> From: Jeff Morin <Morin.Jeff@epamail.epa.gov> Date: 4 Feb 97 8:02:30 Subject: I Me Mine

Historical accuracy is one thing.

But it is ludicrous to talk about Buddha "belonging" to anyone. I mean, is this all people care about Buddha -- who owns him?? Do you really think the Buddha Himself would care? Be real.

Besides, was Kapilvastu really called "Nepal" when Gautam Siddhartha was born? I know many "Nepalese" who still refer only to Kathmandu as "Nepal." Does anyone still call Darjeeling "Nepal"?

Jeff Morin

************************************************************* Date: Tue, 04 Feb 1997 14:11:26 GMT To: "Rajpal J. Singh" <A10RJS1@cs.niu.edu> From: shrestha@tei60.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp (Bijaya Krishna Shrestha)

SEARCHING FOR URBAN DESIGNER

I am looking for any nepalese studying "urban design" or working as an
"urban designer" either in Nepal or abroad.I will be very much thankful for any sort of information regarding it.

Bijaya K. Shrestha Department of Urban Engineering University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 JAPAN Fax: (+81)-03-5800-6963 Tel.: (+81)-03-3812-2111 ext. 6224/6222 Tel.: (+81)-0489-58-78422 (Resid.)

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Sat, 01 Feb 1997 23:18:40 EST To: Himalayans@leo.vsla.edu From: Regis Chapman <rchapman@leo.vsla.edu> Subject: Himalayan Explorers Club

Hello Former HimNet Member!

  I am sending this one mailing to former members of Dr. David Spencer's HimNet. As someone with a special interest in the Himalayan region, you may be interested in the Himalayan Explorers Club, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the Himalayan region.
    1. Please be sure and check out our club homepage at
   http://www.abwam.com/himexp/

2. We have a newsletter, trip reports, website, and our
   clubhouse in Kathmandu keeps tabs on the many trekking
   and guide services. If you have questions about travel,
   that can best be answered from Nepal, you can email our
   clubhouse staff in Kathmandu.
   3. We have a moderated mailing list titled "HimalayaNet," so
   members can exchange information and advice. This list
   operates similarly to your former HimNet.

4. While in Kathmandu, you can stop by the clubhouse to use
   the telephone or email, pick up your snail or emails,
   store your baggage, or just relax and have a cup of tea
   at our home away from home.

5. We also assist the local people of the region through
   a home-stay program, sales of local handicrafts, and
   a volunteer service placement program.
 
  If you email me your snail mail (postal) address, we will send you more information about the HEC and how you can join. Hope to see you in the Himalaya! Regis Chapman

Regis L. Chapman
(rchapman@leo.vsla.edu) Richmond, Virginia, USA

********************************************************* Date: Thu, 30 Jan 1997 17:55:15 EST To: info-tnd@nepal.org From: Christa George <cg8789a@american.edu> Subject: internships/coops

I am a Master's degree student at American University. My fields of study include peace and conflict resolutin and international law. I would like to pursue a career with an organizaton committed to the promotion and protection of human rights. I am interested in working in Nepal during the fall. I previously volunteered with a women's rights organization in Kathmandu about two years ago. Do you have any information on volunteer positions with human rights organizations in Nepal? Also have you ever heard of the International Institute for Human Rights, Environment and Development, Nepal? Also, any idea of how I would contact this group? Thanks for your assistance. Christa George

**************************************************************** Date: Wed, 05 Feb 1997 14:17:54 +0200 To: tnd@nepal.org From: Nir Weizman <nweizman@study.haifa.ac.il> Subject: Help me if you can.

Hi,

My name is Nir and i am from Israel. I traveled in Nepal in 1992. I must say it's a great country very beautiful one and very nice people.

The reason for this letter is that during my track in the annapurna base camp i caught a disease in my stomach since then i couldn't find the cause of that disease. My request is if you can connect me through the internet with Nepali doctor. The Doctors in Israel couldn't find nothing my hope is that maybe i have a very common disease that familiar to Neapali doctor. I just want to describe him my symptom in the email and see if he can help me.

I would realy appreciate it if you help me.

best regard. Nir Weizman.

****************************************************************** From: "Damber Gurung" <dgrng@CLEMSON.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Wed, 5 Feb 1997 08:17:51 +0000 Subject: Children die in Mountain Escape: World Tibet News

Two Children Die in Mountain Escape Bid (TIN)
---------------------------------------------

London - 3 Feb, TIN A 13 year old girl died from exposure while trying to escape from Tibet last month, her third attempt to flee to India, and a boy of the same age died in Kathmandu as a result of injuries received during the flight across the mountains. 500 Tibetan children try each year to reach India in the hope of getting Tibetan-medium education there. The girl, whose name was Deyang or "melodious happiness", died on 19th December last year on a 5,700 m high Himalayan pass that leads from Tibet to Nepal. She was travelling with a group of 14 other refugees to Kathmandu, from where Tibetan asylum seekers are usually allowed to transit to India and join some 100,000 Tibetans living in exile. The girl, whose name was Deyang or "melodious happiness", began to have difficulties walking as the group began the ascent of the Nangpa-la, the pass most frequently used by Tibetan asylum seekers some 100 km west of Everest and 150 km from the southern Tibetan town of Tingri. By the time the escapees reached the Nangpa-la the girl was suffering from the cold and had developed a lung infection. "She became very weak and there was no means of getting medical treatment," said one of her companions, a 14 year old boy from Lhasa, after the rest of the group, who were mostly monks, reached the Nepalese capital.
"She was coughing and could not walk, so all the people in the group took turns carrying her, wrapped in a blanket," added a farmer who was with the escape group, each of whom had paid 900 yuan to the guide who led them across the mountains. The farmer had left his home in Kantse in Eastern Tibet after Chinese officials told villagers in his area to denounce the Dalai Lama and to discard photographs of the child recognised by the Dalai Lama as the new Panchen Lama. The refugees in Deyang's group were carrying some traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicines, but these proved were ineffective in stopping her deterioration. Ten days after the group began walking from Tingri and 48 hours after they crossed the border into Nepal, Deyang died. Her body was buried by the other members of the group and prayers were recited by the monks. She was within three days of reaching Kunde hospital, the medical facility closest to the border crossing, set up by Sir Edmund Hilary near Namche Bazaar in the Solo Khumbu region of Nepal, 140 km north east of Kathmandu. It was the third time Deyang had tried to escape from Tibet, but she had not previously succeeded in reaching the Tibetan border. Her first attempt had failed early last year when she was arrested by police at Shigatse, 220 km from Lhasa and the first major town on the road to the Nepalese border. On her second attempt she had been arrested at Sakya, 80 km further from Lhasa but still 120 km north of the border. Deyang's father is a worker at a small Tibetan hotel in Lhasa frequently used by tourists, including westerners. A photograph of her obtained by TIN shows a small girl dancing with her younger brother on a table in the square outside Lhasa's main cathedral cheered on by a large crowd during celebrations for Ganden Ngagchoe, the Butter Lama Festival. It was taken on 5th December last year, the night before she set off on her last attempt to reach Nepal.

Death after Frostbite Complications -

On 28th December a 13-year old boy died in a Kathmandu hospital six weeks after reaching the capital. Tsering Phuntsog had been part of a large group of escapees who had crossed the Himalayas by the Larkya pass, which lies in the Manaslu region of Nepal, 130 km north-west of Kathmandu. The boy was one of three boys who were intending to travel to India in the hope of being educated in a Tibetan exile school. The boys were part of a group of 111 Tibetans which was caught in a storm on the pass, 55 km north-east of Anapurna. The escapees had to walk through waist-deep snow before they reached Nepali villages where local police helped them to safety and then escorted them to Kathmandu, where they arrived on 16th November. At least 43 of the group had to be treated there for frostbite, and the three boys were the most serious cases and had to have their toes or feet amputated. Tsering Phuntsog, who came from Meli in Kham, eastern Tibet, died shortly after a minor operation carried out at a public hospital in Kathmandu nearly a month after the amputation. The hospital is managed by foreign missionaries and is generally well regarded in comparison to other public facilities. Admission to public hospitals in Nepal is extremely difficult and the three children with severe frostbite had been admitted for treatment only after the hospital administrator overruled the normal admissions procedure. Tsering Phuntsog suffered from secondary infection after the amputation of some of his toes, and also contracted measles. He died soon after doctors carried out a second operation, apparently intended to apply new skin grafts to his wounds and to treat the infection. The child appears to have been severely traumatised by the experience in the mountains, even before the amputation. "He was still shivering from the cold and looked very ill," said a Westerner who saw Tsering Phuntsog the day after he was brought to Kathmandu. "He didn't want to speak to anyone, and he looked extremely disturbed and scared," she recalled.

500 Children a Year Seeking Tibetan Education in India -

About two thousand Tibetans arrived in Nepal last year on their way to seek asylum in India, of whom about 45% were children under the age of 18. Nearly 80% of these 500 or more children were sent across the mountains unaccompanied by their parents, who had entrusted them to guides or other refugees in the hope that they will be taken to one of the schools run by the Tibetan exile administration in India. Between 20 and 80 Tibetan children arrived each month last year as refugees on their way to India, with the numbers often peaking in the winter when Tibetans expect the weather to deter police patrols from operating along the borders. Exile officials say that between 6,000 and 9,000 Tibetans, including young adults, escaped from Tibet to seek educational opportunities in India and Nepal in the ten years after 1984, when relaxed travel conditions inside China made escapes to India possible for the first time since the 1950s. About 5,000 were said to have joined monasteries and nunneries, while some 4,000 had joined exile lay schools.
"[In Tibet] in order to send the children to school, we have to pay money, and also we need their manpower to help work in the fields," commented the farmer from Kantse who had helped carry Deyang before during her journey. The farmer was hoping to send his children to exile schools in India where they would learn "good Tibetan and English" and where there would be no tuition fees or costs. Deyang was a pupil at Muru primary school in Lhasa, who if she had completed the final year there would have had a statistically high chance of passing the examination for entrance into a middle school. Around 80% of Tibetan children drop out of the education system before the end of primary school, leaving less than a fifth to go on to secondary education. She may have failed to complete her primary school course, or her parents may have felt unable to afford school costs. Although official fees are low, additional costs can mount up, and a survey of 45 families in Lhasa in 1994 showed an average expenditure on education of 11,000 yuan (US$ 1,375) per year, according to a Xinhua report last June. Deyang or her family may also have wanted her to continue her education in a Tibetan medium school. All schools in the Tibet Autonomous Region switch to Chinese medium after the end of primary school, and last summer the authorities wound up a pilot project which had briefly offered Tibetan medium education at secondary level in four schools in the TAR. In 1994 the Chinese authorities in the Tibet Autonomous Region issued orders banning government employees from allowing their children to go to exile schools in India but the flow of children from families outside the government structure appears to have continued unabated, especially from eastern Tibetan areas, which lie outside the TAR. Children travelling illegally to Nepal face other threats besides illness and hypothermia. A survey by TIN in March last year documented 31 cases of children under 18 who had been either robbed, beaten, or deported by the Nepalese authorities, including two who were shot, wounded and then robbed of their possession by Nepalese border police in an incident in June 1993. In a similar incident in November last year Nepali police opened fire on a group of refugees including nine children, wounding three adults and later beating one of the children. At least 20 children were repatriated by Nepali police and handed over to the Chinese in 1995, although there are detailed accounts of children being detained and beaten by police in Tibet if caught attempting to escape.

***************************************************************** Date: Wed, 5 Feb 1997 08:36:23 -0600 (CST) From: Mickey Veich <mveich@eagle.ibc.edu>

E-Mail Friends:

The Federal Communications Commission received a proposal from local phone companies to impose per minute charges for internet service.

It is my belief that internet usage will be impaired, service diminished and the added costs, naturally, will be passed on to you the consumer. That includes university tuition costs.

The FCC created an e-mail box to record comments from users. Responses must be received at the FCC by February 13, 1997.

It appears that every phone company is in on this one. (the first time they've ever agreed on anything unanimously) In order to speed things up, there may be an attempt to tack this proposal on another bill currently under consideration in congress.

Let everyone know about this so proper hearings can occur rather than a sneak attack on many innocent users.

Mail your comments to: isp@fcc.gov

Please pass this message along to all your e-mail users, Thx. Mickey Veich

************************************************************ Date: Wed, 05 Feb 1997 13:43:05 MST To: webmaster-tnd@nepal.org From: koneill@carbon.cudenver.edu (Kevin O'Neill) Subject: International College of Nepal

The University of Colorado at Denver has opened a program in Kathmandu for students interested in eventually studying in the United States. The two year program, taught entirely in English, awards University of Colorado credit. The courses are standard CU-Denver courses chosen specifically to help students fulfill the general requirements of most American undergraduate programs. Students in the program pay less than half the non-resident tuition of CU-Denver for their first two years. They may continue to realize these same savings for a third year if the choose to study on the Denver campus in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. In only its second semester, the International College of Nepal now has 18 full-time students. This program is the third CU-Denver International College. Fully accredited 4 year baccalauriat programs are operating in Moscow and Beijing. Students from Nepal may also choose to continue their studies at either of these sites, both of which offer University of Colorado at Denver B.A. degrees. The International College of Nepal is open to high school graduates of any nationality who possess strong English skills.

In addition to the International College of Nepal, CU-Denver offers a study abroad program in Kathmandu. Sharing the same facilities as the International College, this program provides introductory courses on Nepalese language, culture, geology, and economics. The program includes a 26 day trek, a river trip and a week's homestay in a village. The intercultual exchange possibilities of studying side by side with Nepalese students in the International College, make this program uniquely rewarding.

For more infomation contact: Kevin O'Neill Associate Dean College of Liberal Arts and Sciences KONEILL@carbon.cudenver.edu
(303) 556-2848

In Nepal contact: Ram Bahadur Shrestha
(9771) 420-803 students@sann.wlink.com.np Kevin O'Neill Associate Dean University of Colorado at Denver College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Office of Extended Studies Phone: (303) 556-2848 FAX: (303) 556-4706

******************************************************** Date: Wed, 05 Feb 1997 20:41:50 CST To: nepal-request@cs.niu.edu From: Ajay Mathema <mathemaj@martin.luther.edu> Subject: internship

Hello everybody!
        My name is Ajay Mathema. I am currently Junior in College. I am looking for the summer internship on MIS field. Please let me know if anybody has any information or opening. My e-mail address is mathemaj@luther.edu. Thank you for your time.

***************************************************************** Date: Wed, 05 Feb 1997 18:33:30 PST To: tnd@nepal.org From: "Girish C. Ghimire" <GHIMIRE@caedm.et.byu.edu> Subject: Ghimires' Geneology

I am trying to prepare a geneological report for Brigham Young University Geneology Library which is one of the biggest geneolgy library in the world .If anybody has or know any book , record related to ghimire if you can inform me it will be more than appreciated . Thanks . My e-mail address : ghimire@caedm.et.byu.edu

****************************************************************** Date: Wed, 05 Feb 1997 16:24:21 -0500 (EST) From: atuladhar@clarku.edu Subject: Re: Ambassador Thapa and "Dead Goat Panchayat" speech (fwd) To: THE NEPAL DIGEST <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>,

Dear Editor:

This is in reference to Ambassador Thapa's U o Connecticut speech. I have reposted some of the major passages from dr joshi's commentary since it is difficult to say where his (dr joshi's) personal opinion ends and where Ambassador Thapa (as a public official)'s representation of Nepal begins. For purely discussion purposes I will assume that Dr Joshi's rendition of Ambassador Thapa's speech and his subsequent rebuttal of my criticism represents Ambassador Thapa's representation of Nepal (since we have not read any official denial from the Embassy yet); as such, this is public domain that is open to commentary. I thank dr joshi for inviting this critical engagement.

Please read below for my questions:=====>>>>

> Date: Sun, 26 Jan 1997 01:07:10 -0500 (EST)
> From: JJoshee@aol.com
> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu
> Subject: Ambassador Thapa's Speech and atuladhar's Reaction
>
> Mr. Atuladhar made several other comments about the content of the
> Ambassador's speech which I am not going to argue with. However, my own
> comments are that Dr. Thapa did not claim that Panchayat was a democracy.
 My
> understanding of his term of "quasi democracy" was in reference to the
> limited election and people involvement during Panchayat time. Yes, he
was a
> Minister in that era, so are many of the most powerful Ministers in the
> current government in Nepal. But I am not sure how relevant it is in
today's
> context to hound on the Panchayat talk. You know, I know, everyone
knows, and
> I am sure Ambassador Thapa knows that Panchayat is a "dead goat".
                                                        ++++++++++

"Dead goat" Panchayat? What a wonderful fancy concept? Does Ambassador Thapa and Dr Joshi mean the disappearance of the word "Panchayat" from the current political lexicon as the "dead goat" Panchayat? If so who cares?

For all those who suffered under Panchayat, was it not their hold on power that stifled the aspirations and opportunities for progress that mattered?

For many of us Panchayat and the worst in Nepali polity and socio-cultural structures that nurtures this regressive polity is alive and throbbing in :

a) the king still holds emergency powers in the constitution

b) the king still holds the real and legal monopoly over the military and security and foregin representations, ie only those close to the Palace gets to be Ambassador!

c) we still have a Hindu rastra that calls for a "king" _dom and all the social and cultural privileges of the Hindu caste hierarcy over equal rights for all peopls of Nepal.

d) we still have the Panchayat party that is leveraging both the Congress and Communist parties with thier 10% holding in the Parliament/

e) the need to court Panchayat favors have opened way for the rehabilitation of all the Panchayat intellectuals from Ambassador Thapa and former Ambassador Sainju to pontificate around Kathmandu with thier politically tainted, historically rejected solutions.

f) ah, only those whose eyes are closed to coalition govt shaking antiques of Chand and Surya Thapa will believe that Panchayat is a "dead" goat. I wish it were true...
===================
 In no way
> Panchayat was a democracy, and honestly, I am not sure what democracy we
have
> in Nepal today. As a matter of fact, I think this is the kind of
> argumentative, dirty, political no brainer talk that is disserving our
> country. How will Nepal benefit today by kicking around the already dead
> animal Panchayat? What harmony are we going to achieve today by talking
> about ancient hindus dehumanizing non-hindus? Haven't we travelled far
from
> the ram rajya? How and what Nepal gains from the political infighting?
> Panchayat was so bad with "ghoos khori and chakari" - is it really any
> different now with the so called democracy? Whats good whats bad - that
is
> today's question.
>
> Ambassador Thapa's "ram rajya" reference while he was talking about
ancient
> democratic connections in southasia had nothing to do with hindus
> dehumanizing non-hindus. I am a nonpracticing hindu by birth and I know
I do
> not dehumanize non-hindus or any other human race. In his speech, the
> Panchayat and the ram rajya was nothing but a one liner reference.
Therefore,
> my point is to not get hooked with this kind of non productive arguments.
> Rather, I would ask our ambassadors, ministers, and other leaders what
they
> are doing for the country's economic growth, and for the well being of
Nepali
> people.
>
> I thank Mr. Tuladhar for his comments. Hope others will engage.
>
> Dr. J. Joshee
> =====================

The second point of contention in the above representation is construct of a
"harmless Hindu" polity which none of us have the right to argue with "non productive no brainer talk that spoils internal harmony........"

Tell that to the millions who opposed the declaration of "Hindu" nation in the new constitution, tell that to all the Gurungs and Tamudhi and Limbuan who were violently labelled "hindu" in stat census to inflate a 90% Hindu country and who are now protesting by rejecting Dasain.

Tell that to all the Nepali women who have been denied equal property rights by the democratic leaders of Hindu male based political systems.

Dr joshi calls Hindu discriminations policies "ancient"... ah wish this were true, in Nepal it is the regressive live elements of Hindu ramrjya that are the major impediments to modernization and none other that our dean of nepali anthropologists Dor Bahadur Bista has expounded this in his book, Fatalism and Development, Nepal's struggle to modernization.

I could go on but i think my point is made.

My central argument is that : Ambassador Thapa in his U of Connecticut speech has done a disservice to current Nepal by representing only the rightist Panchayat and Palace leaning view of Nepal by claiming Panchayat is a quasi-democracy (and thereby devaluing all of the political struggles for multiparty democracy) and claiming Nepal is a Hindu ramrajya (and thereby delegitimizing the sturggles of multi-ethnic cultures for equal rights by calling them "inharmious, troublesome, unproductive" arguers. Well we did have 30 years of "sarba sammati bata nirbirodh 'chunab' and nirbikalpa , mato-suhaundo, panchayat byabastha, and aman chain" which those "bikash-drohi, a_rastriya tatwo congressi and communists" were trying to destabilize....

amulya

From: atuladhar@clarku.edu Subject: Re: Development Related Book Reviews... (fwd) To: THE NEPAL DIGEST <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>, lo12@cornell.edu,

dear Editor:

I was excited by 5 book reviews in the Nepal Digest. Given that these were coordinated by P Onta and colleagues of the Kathmandu Book Society for Kathmandu Post Book Reviews, my expectations were heightened some.

Unfortunately I learned precious little and the arguments laid out were somewhat stale and circumscribed. I hope other readers had a more worthwile experience.

My comments are confined to two of the books reviews on "Development": the first dealing with the women in development research in Nepal by Shizu Upadhyaya and the other dealing with development studies essays of Donald Messerschmidt by Narayaan Manandhar.

I say that both of these "development studies" are curiously circumscribed because they seem to blissfully unaware of the huge body of scholary work relating development theories from what is considered political left in western academia. This body of literature generally posits "Development" as strategy developed by the First World to keep what is remaining of the Third World from falling into the embrace of the Second World (the communist nation). Undergirding this geopolitics is the Marxian theories of Capital and how they operate across geography in Uneven development. It is a literature which is general enough to embed smaller theories of Women-in-development (Shizu Upadhaya) or Precapitalist economies in transition (donald messersmidth). Not only do these general theories provide larger contexts but also theoretical crossovers to link what seems like deadends faced in women in development or primitiv societies in development.

Granted the theories and research reviewed by Shizhu and Donald M provide a more contextualized here and now precision of place and time but many of these research have hit deadends that are more serious than "lack of data"
(women in development) or "natural genious " of indigenous peoples (don M studies).

In particular, instead of harping about the perennial lack of data in women-in-development research genre (a structural deficiency of the positivist committment to research) I was interested in the reviewer's comments on the serious critiques of women-in-development research genre both in generic forms and in specific contexts of Nepal. I was also disappointed by the lack of mention of alternative theoretical paradigms to handle feminist research agenda that circumvent the stale boundaries of women-in-development-depend-on-national-statistics-and-houssehold survey apporach. I will just mention a few that I am aware of: all of the nineties

In Doti, Andrea Nightingale conducted a study of daughter-in-laws going to the forests to gather fuelwood as innovative idioms of resistance to the domination of mother-in-laws who wanted to work more in the absence of the husbands touching on the effects of development and modernization causing the migration of young males out of the villages for income, the effects of this resistance on forest recuperations (touching on environmental implications).

In the other extremes, Barbara Thomas and Nina Bhatt has studies the effects of development and modernization in gender stratification of benefits, costs, and effects on the environment by both caste and ethnicity in Ghusel. In Ghusel, milk farming was introduced as a development intervenction. What this meant for more labor for women, how they changed for Tamang families vs Brahmin families, what this did to forest and grazing resources were studied aand disaggregated.

I may mention that Irene Tinker and others have reviewed the national pictures of women in development literature for Nepal. This sampling of research potrays a much more nuanced and lively research in women and development in Nepal than what appears in S Upadhya's review.

Relating Don Messerschmidt's Development studies, I was surprised by the unadulterated adoration of the reviewer. Don has a definite place in the history of development studies by the prolificity of this publications. His theoretical, political, and practical stand is just one of the many that is available and a book reviewer would do his readers good by placing Don's contribution with the rest. Don has championed the political rights of the primitive tribals, both in his research, writings, and where possible,
(here he is very strategic) in real live development project he has had the opportunity to get involved. Some of this privileging, some would say romanticizing, of the savage has theoretical traditions in cultural anthropology his discipline but this political stand has implications on circumscribing the reach of his analysis.

A serious deficiency of this work is the lack of explicit solutions for human-environmental- and economica l relationship that is happening in societies that are in transition from precapitalist, closed economies (his phd on Gurungs of Lumjung) to gradual market economies of modern state in a global economy. His work has been to document such change but he has not been able to explicitly problematize the role of political economy in the ecology and environment of Nepal. Don M deals with this by ignoring this literature in general and chasing such leftist challenges (eg his challenge of Sabine Hausler's critique of community forest in The Ecologist in 1993) as totally out of place. To get a full appreciation of what is MISSING in Don M genre of development studies, one should read political economic books on Nepal such as Nanda Raj Shrestha's "Landlesssness and Migration in Nepal." and Krishna Ghimire's "Forests or Farms, the struggle for land hunger in Nepal" or Piers' Blaikies and colleagues "Nepal in Crisis" series.

I am writing this critique in the hopes that P.`Onta and other recent returness from Western halls of academe would make special efforts to enlarge the discourse of development from the hackneyed mainstream talk that has gone nowhere and is in the danger of being repeated here in Kathmandu Post.

Date: Wed, 05 Feb 1997 17:09:49 -0500 (EST) From: atuladhar@clarku.edu Subject: The Monkey and the Simal tree... To: THE NEPAL DIGEST <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>,

Dear Editor:

I just read an interesting folk tale about monkeys and langurs in the simal tree in his "Where is the dead goat" response to Dr. J. Joshi's comments on Ambassador Thapa's speech...

My question is this: Do monkeys, rhesus or langurs,really inhabit Simal trees? I would appreciate any real-world observations.

I have been in langur and rhesus habitats of Terai from Baitadi to Chitwan National Park and have seems Simal tree (Bombax ceiba) at all times of the year but I have not seen a langur or rhesus on a Simal tree.

The simal tree, for those who have not seen it, is noted for large fluted buttresses at the base and sharp pricks all over the bark and branches. These barbs are so sharp and strong that rhino, arna, and other wild aninmals routinele use it to scratch themselves !

Once when I was teaching a jungle survival skill to my Forestry Rangers in Chitwan, I wanted to climb the nearest tree to get away from a bear or boar attack. Some of them did not make a distinction of which tree to climb and fell for the nice whorly branches of young simals (for easy struts) to climb with the rest of the classes cheering them on for speed. Well these unlucky souls had badly pierced palms, thewy will never forget that Simals are not fun trees to climb.

How wuld the monkeeys do it as these dantya katha would claim?

I know of only the parakeets that use these simal trees in bloom to feed on the nectar of the beautiful Simal tree whose crimson flowers flames on bare trees this time of the year. Once when i was camping under a simal tree, i crawled out of the tent to see the fresh bright crimson simal ko phul at my door step in the dewy grass-Sublime!

The Simal not only has barbs but also a white latex like gum that oozes out of cuts to burn hands, also from real experience so I would be surprised how monkeys avoid this.

Now I do know that monkeys and langurs routinely hop from tree to tree in the jungles and have seen leopards ad tigers roar at the tree bottom to shake a nervous monkey to his breakfast, but not from simal, can anyone help?

amulya

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