The Nepal Digest - February 6, 1996 (23 Magh 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Tuesday 6 Feb 96: Magh 23 2052 BS: Year5 Volume47 Issue2

  Today's Topics:

        1. Message from the editor

        2. TAJA_KHABAR (Current News)

        3. KURA_KANI

                 Technology - Energy Issues

 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
 * Webmaster Correspondent: Pradeep Bista *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "LIFE: Indulgence vs Seeking Truth - Which is your forte?" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * "We have guided missiles and misguided men" -Dr. MLK *
 * *

***************************************************************************** From: TND Foundations <> To: The Nepal Digest <> Subject: TND Foundation Contribution Fund

Dear TND members:

     TND Foundations is accepting your generous contribution in an effort to
     find a permanant home for The Nepal Digest (TND).

     We are still short of required amount $575 to pay for 1996 on-line
     services for TND Foundation.

     You are encouraged to send your contribution payabale to:
            TND Foundations
            c/o Rajpal J. Singh
            44 Greenridge Ave
            White Plains, NY 10605

     Following members have been kind with their generous contributions:

     Mahesh K. Maskey Arlington, MA
     Rajpal J. Singh White Plains, NY
     Padam P. Sharma Bismarck,ND
     Lynn B. Reid Jamaica Plain, MA
     John Mage New York, NY
     Raju Tuladhar Alberta, Canada
     Bhanu B. Niraula Flushing, NY
     Amulya R. Tuladhar Worcester, MA
     Rajesh B. Shrestha Worcester, MA
     Abi Sharma British Columbia, Canada
     Mary Deschene Baltimore, MD
     Pratyoush Onta Kathmandu, Nepal
     Anita Regmi Wheaton, MD
     Bal Krishna Sharma East Lansing, MI
     Subas Sakya Pumona, NY
     Marian E. Greenspan Beltsville, MD
     Sanjay B. Shah Blacksburg, VA
     Tatsuro Fujikura Chicago, IL
     TND offeres heartful thanks to all the generous contributors.

Sincerely TND Foundation

********************************************************************** From: Rajesh Shrestha <> Subject: Nepal faces pressure to change fixed rupee policy To: Date: Tue, 6 Feb 1996 13:50:35 -0500 (EST)

Cross-posted from

         NEW DELHI, Feb 6 (Reuter) - Nepal's government is under pressure to delink its currency from the Indian rupee after the giant neighbour's currency plumbed new lows, analysts and officials said on Tuesday.
         But officials said ending the fixed-rate regime could spell political trouble for the Nepali Congress-led centre-right coalition government as it could lead to a rise in the price of consumer goods.
         Businessmen warned that business could be hit as the currency market turned uncertain.
         The exchange rate between the two neighbours is fixed at 160 Nepali rupees to 100 Indian rupees, and Nepal's central bank has revised its U.S. dollar rates to avoid a flight of capital that may result from the fixed rupee.
         The dollar opened at 60.30 rupees on Tuesday, two rupees higher than Monday's closing rate.
         ``We have to maintain some parity (for the dollar). Otherwise our dollars fly to India across the open border,'' Nepali Finance Minister Ram Sharan Mahat told Reuters in Kathmandu.
         Recent weeks have been volatile for the Indian rupee, and through that the Nepali currency.
         The Indian rupee's fall followed three years of stability, when it stood at around 31.50 rupees to a dollar, which fetched around 49.0 Nepali rupees. The Indian rupee came under free market rules in 1992.
         Thakur Nath Pant, a research scholar at the Centre for Policy Research and Analysis (CPRA), said the Kathmandu government had two alternatives to consider -- free up the Nepali rupee from Indian currency or revalue the Nepali currency's fixed exchange rate with the Indian rupee.
         ``In the present situation the only alternative is to leave the Indian rupee free in the open market,'' Pant told Reuters, referring to the Indian rupee's fluctuating value.
         Mahat said the government was reviewing the situation. ``We are studying the pros and cons of different alternatives,'' he said.
         A Finance Ministry official said freeing the Nepali rupee from its Indian counterpart could jack up import prices and pose political problems for the coalition government. It would also hit exports, said the official, who did not want to be named.
         India accounts for 29 percent of the Himalayan kingdom's foreign trade, and more importantly, Nepal has a staggering
$304-million trade deficit with its giant neighbour, linked to an annual import bill worth $363 million.
         Tuesday's fall of the Nepali rupee was the second in less than a week, and marked a 15 percent fall against the dollar since the coalition government was formed last August.
         Nepali businessmen expressed concern over the fall in their currency value and said it made business uncertain.
         ``The economy is heading towards a crisis and the government should lower customs tariffs to give relief to the consumers due to the depreciation of the rupee,'' said Gajananda Aggrawal, former president of Nepal Foreign Trade Association.
         KATHMANDU, Nepal (Reuter) - An international team of archeologists has reported discovering the chamber where Buddha was born more than 2,500 years ago, 16 feet beneath an ancient temple in southwestern Nepal.
         The archeologists said they had found relics under the Mayadevi temple in Lumbini, 200 miles southwest of the Himalayan kingdom's capital Kathmandu.
         Nepalese Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba said late Sunday the discovery put to rest an international debate on whether Buddha, whose followers now number nearly 350 million worldwide, was born in Nepal or India.
         ``The discovery proves that Lord Buddha was born at this sacred place,'' Deuba told tourism developers late said. ``It is a matter of pride for all of us that the sacred birthplace of Lord Buddha has been discovered.''
         Government officials said Nepal, with the help of the Japan Buddhist Federation and the United Nations, planned to turn Lumbini into a major tourist attraction and site of pilgrimage.
         Buddhism consists of various sects, some of which preach that meditation, prayer and self-denial will enable the soul to reach nirvana, a state of release into ultimate enligtenment and peace. It also believes in reincarnation.
         Archeologists from Nepal, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Japan said they made the discovery nine months ago but the Nepali government delayed making an announcement until it had finished consulting experts.
         The archaeologists said they found a commemorative stone atop a platform of seven layers of bricks dating from the era of Emperor Ashoka, who ruled over much of the Indian subcontinent and visited Lumbini in 249 B.C.
         Buddhist literature says Ashoka placed a stone on top of bricks at the birthplace of Prince Siddhartha, the founder of Buddhism who was born in 623 B.C. and later called Lord Buddha. Ashoka also built a nearby pillar which still stands.
         Ancient writings say Buddha was born while his mother Mayadevi, the queen of nearby Kapilvastu kingdom, was traveling toward her parents' home in Rangram, located in Nepal's Nawalparasi district.
         Passing through Lumbini, she went into labor, bathed in a sacred pond and walked 25 paces to deliver the child.
         Lok Darshan Bajracharya, former chairman of the Lumbini Development Trust which is developing the site into a tourist attraction, said the stone was some 25 steps from a pond.
         ``It proves the authenticity of the descriptions given in Buddhist literature and religious texts about the exact spot where the Lord was born,'' he told Reuters.
         Babu Krishna Rijal, an archeologist with Lumbini Development Trust, said a detailed report on the team's findings would eventually be made public.

********************************************************************** From: (Dr. Braj K. Singh) Subject: Rainforsest to Space Shuttle To: Date: Fri, 2 Feb 1996 15:29:48 -0600 (CST)

Dear Sir:

I am a Nepali citizen from Bara district. I am a professor at the EARTH University in San Jose, Costa Rica. It is an international university with emphasis on the natural resource management. I am working with medicinal plants from Tropical Rainforest to find cure for Chagas Disease, also known as poor men disease which affects over 25 million people in Latin America alone. We have been able to identify plant extracts that block the activity of a key enzyme present in the respiratory cycle of the parasite, a causal agent for this disease. However, to study the structure of the ENZYME-EXTRACT complex, we need the condition of microgravity to grow some perfect crystals. It can be achieved only in the space under reduced gravity. The cost is very high. NASA has approved to fly our experiment on February 22, 1996 in Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-75. This is the first experiment ever sent to space by the research institutions in Latin America. Most of the TV and Radio stations in Costa Rica and Chile have lauded this achievement. It is on the agenda of several head of the states of this region. On February 21, a special press conference will be held in Radisson, Orlando, in the presence of the US and the Latin American press authorities to make this work public. Some of my previous works were broadcasted on World Net and CNN.

I just wanted to share this information with our friends of Nepal Digest and hope that by doing so this information will have even a broader diffusion.

Thank you for excellent service to the Nepalese community and friends of Nepal WORLD WIDE.

Braj K. Singh

********************************************************************** Date: Sat, 03 Feb 1996 13:01:10 CST From: To: Subject: Nepali transportation information

Namaste everyone!!! I am conducting a term paper about the transportation system of Nepal: Airways, railways, and roadways (motorable roads) such as bus and truck service for my transp. of econ. class. Since I am from a different country, my professor insisted that I should do research on such topics of my own country. I have not been able to find much information through the library. I am looking for help from those who might have some knowledge in regards to this matter. Any sorts of information, comments, or suggestions would be highly helpful. Hope to hear from some of you TND readers and viewers.


Sudhir Shrestha (Univ. of Wisc.-Whitewater) e-mail: SHRE9460@UWWVAX.UWW.EDU

*************************************************** From: DAVISF@AIKEN.SCAROLINA.EDU Organization: University of SC at Aiken To: Date: Sat, 3 Feb 1996 14:15:51 GMT+5 Subject: E-mail Address foor Ramesh Shrestha/Shanker Travel

I have been looking for an e-mail address for Ramesh Shrestha. If anyone knows him and whether her as an e-mail address, would you please send me a reply. Thanks

********************************************************************** From: Rajesh Shrestha <> Date: Sat, 3 Feb 1996 23:55:28 -0500 (EST) To: Subject: FYI: DV-97 visa lottery

Cross-posted from SCN:

To those folks who don't have a "Green Card" and wish to get one:
        Get ready. It's that time of the year again. And the ritual begins.

U.S. State Dept. has just published the rules for DV-97 visa lottery. Applications must be received between February 12 and March 12. The dates were pushed back because of the federal government shut-downs.

The rules are basically the same. However, this time around, you must send a photograph of yourself and sign the application sheet. Therefore, you cannot fill out the application for your friends and relatives and send from here.

The rules can be accessed through:
        then goto "consular &travel information"
             ==>> "Publications, Releases, Testimony"
             ==>> "96/01/29 Instructions: 1997 Diversity ... "

I'm sure this info is helpful to some of you.

Kanhaiya Vaidya

*************************************************************** From: Rajesh Shrestha <> Date: Sat, 3 Feb 1996 23:56:36 -0500 (EST) To: Subject: Looking For Family

Cross-posted from SCN:

        My name is Suresh Ojha. I have grown up in the US since I was 8 years old( I am now 25) and I am intensely interested in tracing down my family tree.
        My grandfather's name is Balla Dev Ojha. He came from Doti to Kathmandu about (I'm guessing here) four generations ago. He was able to purchase a large size house in Outo tole (Pronounced Oh-too) for 2,500 Rupees, this may help pinpoint the time. He had four sons: Chandra Dev, Tarak Raj, Narayan Prasad, and Murari Prasad. The youngest, Murari Prasad, is my father.
        Going to Doti has been a burning desire of mine, but unfortunately, during my last trip home the weather was not conducive to travelling to Doti.

        If you think you are related to me, have information about my family, or can tell me the best time to travel to Doti, PLEEEAZE contact me.

        Also, if you are a Nepali engineer in the area of microwaves, RF, or any other aspect of wireless communication, please contact me.

Dheri, Dheri Dhanyabad!!!



********************************************************** From: Rajesh Shrestha <> Date: Sat, 3 Feb 1996 23:58:16 -0500 (EST) To: Subject: FYI: Indian Immigration

Cross-posted from SCN:

The following article is from the monthly Migration News. The articles original source is given at the bottom. -- Kanhaiya

From: MIGRATION NEWS, Vol. 3, No. 2 February, 1996
      Editor: Philip Martin

Indian Immigration India and Nepal have a free migration agreement, and some one million Nepalese live in Bombay. There are also thousands of Bangladeshis in India, many of whom stayed after Pakistan was partitioned in 1971. Some Indian politicians consider the Bangladeshis to be illegal immigrants, and want them expelled. More than 300 Bhutanese refugees demonstrated at the Indian- Nepal border on January 24. The Bhutanese want Indian officials to allow them to proceed to their homeland to press for democratic reforms and early repatriation for their countrymen living at camps in Nepal. The protesters also demanded the release of 150 refugees detained by Indian police in west Bengal on January 17. They were detained after they tried to march to Bhutan through West Bengal from camps in Nepal. The protesting refugees had planned to travel through India and into Bhutan to appeal to Bhutan's king to allow them back into the country. Indian police on January 23 erected barricades on a bridge over the Mechi River, which divides Nepal and India, and the marchers subsequently set up camp on the Nepalese side of the border. The refugees are staying in Nepal, where they are being assisted by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. Five years ago they were allowed to travel across India unhindered after they were evicted from their homes.

Bhola Rana, "Bhutanese continue Indian border protest, "UPI, January 24, 1996. Bhola Rana, "India stops refugee march to Bhutan," UPI, January 23, 1996.

****************************************************** Date: Sat, 3 Feb 1996 23:59:36 -0500 (EST) To: Subject: Latest CHAUTARI is out. From: Rabindra Tripathi <>

The Jan issue of newsletter CHAUTARI is out.

Apart from the regular items--Newsbits, Nepal in Numbers, Legal issues(there is a very useful table about types of employments possible for F-1 students) and poems etc.--we have pieces about:

        -Kathmandu Mayor P.L.Singh's promise to CLEAN Kathmandu very soon,
        -CHAUTARI's exclusive conversation with Mr. Ganesh Man Shing and
                Mrs. Mangala Devi Singh,
        -Analysis of Nepal's performance in SAF Games 1995, including the
                final medal standings,
        -piece about Late Dr. H.B. Wood,
        -An article about Driving Taxicab in New York city,
        -Travel descriptions,
        and more.

You can receive a copy of Chautari by sending your name/address to:

or 45-13 79 st. #2
        Elmhurst, NY 11373.

You can also call:
        (718) 898-6556
        (718) 457-2386
        (718) 729-6836
        (212) 489-3498

CHAUTARI is available in WEB at:
        (please note the change) The issue in WEB right now is the last one. New one will be posted soon.

------------about CHAUTARI--------------------- CHAUTARI is a non-profit newsletter of Society of Nepalese Students in New York(SNSNY). It's not affiliated with any political party or beliefs.

All the editors are students in New York City, devoting whatever time they can spare out of their work and school to this Newsletter.

It's sole objective is to be a platform for interaction for Nepalese community in North America. Though, primarily, it's an effort of students in New York City, it doesn't want to limit itself by profession or geography.

Please send us articles and comments.


Member, Editorial Board.


*********************************************************************************************** SOME NEPAL RELATED PHD ABSTRACTS, courtesy HIMNET, No.26 III Date: Sun, 04 Feb 1996 16:26:25 +0100 From: Himalayan Network <> To: Subject: HimNet - Himalayan Network: No. 26 (III)

    Himalayan PhD Thesis Abstracts (1994-1995)
                From: David A. Spencer (

        These are the latest Himalayan PhD Thesis Abstracts (1994-1995) that are available from "Dissertation Abstracts". The theses can be ordered if a number is given with the abstract. Contact: UMI, 1490 Eisenhower Place, PO Box 975, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.


Subject: GEODESY (0370); GEOPHYSICS (0373)

Abstract: In March 1991 35 control points were measured in the collision zone between the Indian and Asian plates using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Twenty-eight points are located in the Nepal Himalaya, and 7 in S. and E. Tibet. In October 1992, 6 of the Nepal points were remeasured together with 3 bedrock points in Bihar State, India, 5 points in E. Tibet, and one in Urumchi. The average WRMS GPS position repeatability between 1991 and 1992 improved from 8 mm to 5 mm in the north, 16 mm to 7 mm in the east, and 32 mm to 25 mm in the vertical components. Himalayan convergence rates of 20 mm/yr may be resolved to 10% accuracy within 5 years with these uncertainties. Unless improved vertical measurement techniques are introduced many decades must elapse before regional secular vertical motions may be resolved. The 1991.3-1992.8 measurements are consistent with geologically determined Himalayan convergence rates of less than 20 mm/year. Spirit leveling data from the Nepal Himalaya between 1977 and 1990 indicate localized uplift at 2-3 mm/yr in the Lesser Himalaya with spatial wavelengths of 25-35 km, and at 4-6 mm/yr in the Greater Himalaya with a wavelength of $\approx$40 km. Leveling data with significantly sparser spatial sampling in southern Tibet between 1959-81 suggest that the Himalayan divide may be rising at a rate of 7.5 $\pm$ 5.6 mm/yr relative to central Tibet. We use 2D dislocation modeling methods to examine a number of structural models that yield vertical velocity fields similar to those observed. Although these models are structurally non-unique, dislocation models that satisfy the data require aseismic slip rates of 2-7 mm/yr on shallow dipping faults beneath the Lesser Himalaya and rates of 9-18 mm/yr on deep thrust faults dipping at $\approx$25$\sp\circ$N near the Greater Himalaya. Unfortunately, in the leveling data cannot constrain long wavelength uplift ($>$100 km) across the Himalaya and unequivocal estimates of aseismic slip in central Nepal are therefore not possible. In turn, the poor spatial density of leveling data in southern Tibet may inadequately sample the processes responsible for the uplift of the Greater Himalaya. Despite these shortcomings in the leveling data, the pattern of uplift is consistent with a crustal scale ramp near the Greater Himalaya linking shallow northward dipping thrust planes (3-6$\sp\circ)$ beneath the Lesser Himalaya and southern Tibet. Aseismic slip on the potential rupture surface of future great earthquakes beneath the Nepal Himalaya south of this ramp appears not to exceed 30% of the total convergence rate between India and southern Tibet resulting in an accumulating slip deficit of 13 $\pm$ 8 mm/yr.


Abstract: Based upon research in the state of Himachal Pradesh in the Western Himalaya of north India, this dissertation examines ways various people know, have access to and use forest resources. It examines knowledges which are privileged and those less so, and accompanying expressions of power in negotiating access to those resources. Here knowledge is seen as inextricably tied to maneuverable, situationally contingent enunciations of power. If exercises of power are understood as related to people's interpretations of the parameters of the
"positions"--both social and geographical--that they operate within, then categories such as government official or villager, tribal or nontribal, women or men, townsfolk or forest communities, high caste or low are not seen as unified or fixed ones in terms of interpretations of or access to power. Since some institutionally defined positions are perceived as imbued with more or less inherent power, this combination of institutional as well as individual notions of power is examined as these relate to differently valued knowledges about forest resources. These shifting ideas about and expressions of power are additionally affected by literal movement across landscapes. Areas traversed, distances covered, length of time in a region and the appropriateness of such motion to particular positions all contribute to the valuation of different knowledges. Positionality and related knowledges are tracked through this literal as well as figurative movement, reflecting varying Degrees of "room to move" through various social and physical realms for particular individuals. Methodological approaches include: participant observation, semi-structured interviews, cultivated and noncultivated plant matrices, plant list testing, map comparisons, discourse analysis of historical and contemporary documents, and travel and investigative questioning within the broader area of the Western Himalaya for regional contextualization. The dissertation shows that forest-related activities are directed by specific knowledges, and related notions of importance or value of those knowledges. The valuing of state knowledges over local use-knowledges prevents productive cooperation between various groups on forest related projects. The sometimes contradictory expressions of knowledge and exercises of power are a result of people responding to various inconsistencies in their lives related to the availability of forest resources. Corruption and subversion are two responses to such contradictions. Problems of diminishing forest resources, and limited access to them, must be, it is concluded, situated within these fields and relations of power.


Abstract: The topography of the Earth reflects the long-term history of both tectonics and climate. In this dissertation, I explore some of the physical mechanisms for the origin and evolution of mountain topography. Much of the Earth's topography is directly attributable to fluvial processes. The observation that topography is fractal, regardless of climate or tectonic setting, suggests that scale invariance is fundamental to these fiuvial processes. A diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model presented here provides a robust means of generating fractal drainage patterns. The inherent "shielding" of the DLA model results in drainage networks with fractal dimensions slightly less than the space-filling condition D = 2.0, a feature in good agreement with real networks. While continental plateaus, such as Tibet or the Bolivian Altiplano, lie in rain shadows, the margins of these plateaus can experience extremely heavy orographic precipitation. A combination of modeling and observation suggests that the present topography of Nepal and the Beni basin in Bolivia is directly attributable to the intense precipitation, erosion, and subsequent isostatic response. This "erosion machine" may be self-perpetuating. Actual rates of Neogene erosion may be calculated by summing volumes of sediment in basins. Such calculations indicate that up to 70% of the Neogene tectonic influx into the Himalaya has been removed due to erosion, and that erosion rates in the Amazonian Andes may have increased during the Plio-Pleistocene. Topography can also reflect a purely tectonic origin. In the Tibetan plateau, Mio-Pleistocene grabens are bounded by uplifted rift flanks. The analysis of digital topography suggests that these uplifts are flexural in origin, indicating a flexural rigidity of $\sim$10$\sp{20}$ Nm. The small scales of both the grabens and the uplifts suggests that isostatic compensation must be occurring in a ductile mid-crust. Minimization of work may provide an intuitive and realistic way to model the deformation associated with mountain building. A numerical least-work model presented here highlights the competition between gravitational and frictional work. A result of this competition is the formation of a tapered topographic wedge, with the topographic slope proportional to the friction coefficient.


Abstract: This dissertation examines the nature of gender relations among the Nyishangba, an ethnic Tibetan Buddhist group from northern Nepal. This study is particularly concerned with the interplay between changing trade patterns, gender meanings and cultural identity. My approach to the study of gender takes a historical perspective and considers a complex array of factors including kinship, marriage practices, division of labor and social ideologies. I examine the various historic and culturally specific conditions that initially gave rise to a gender egalitarian society, then subsequently, I consider how gender relations have been influenced by new forms of economic production and by the larger forces of social change including: urban migration, greater incorporation into the Nepalese mainstream, and increased exposure to foreign ideologies, including Hindu and Western values stemming from global trade and market economies. This dissertation considers how adult Nyishangba women in their roles as economic, social and moral agents have maintained their cultural centrality and their customary authority in Nyishang society. Adult women see themselves, and are perceived by other members of the community as the foundation and preservers of the Nyishang homeland and cultural identity.


Abstract: Central Asia represents one of the largest voids with respect to our understanding of geochemical cycles in the continental troposphere and hydrosphere. Fortunately, the vast extent of glaciers in central Asia provide several high elevation ($>$5000 m) locations from which to recover glaciochemical records, and thereby furnish a unique window through which to study biogeochemical cycles in the mid- to upper-troposphere. Snow and ice samples collected from nine glacier basins spread throughout the mountains of central Asia were analyzed for their major ion and particle content. Aerosol samples collected from four sites in central Asia were analyzed for their water soluble major ion chemistry. The data are used to characterize the spatial distribution of major ion, particle and snow accumulation in central Asia. Tropospheric aerosols from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show chemical compositions and concentrations that are comparable to previously reported measurements in the remote troposphere. The general composition and spatial pattern in summer snow chemistry is similar to that for aerosols. The spatial distribution of major ion and particle content of central Asian snow is controlled primarily by the influx of dust derived from the arid and semi-arid regions of Asia. Glaciers in the northern and western regions of the Tibetan Plateau, which are surrounded by large source regions for mineral aerosol, show elevated levels of major ions and particles. Glaciers in the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau show lower levels of major ions and particles due to longer transport distances from mineral aerosol source regions in western China. Glaciers in the Karakoram and western Himalaya show high annual fluxes of major ions and particles derived from sources to the west and south. Snow from the southern slopes of the eastern Himalaya snows very low concentrations and annual fluxes of major ions and particles. High elevation mountain sites in the Himalaya, Karakoram and south-eastern Tibetan Plateau preserve glaciochemical records of regional to hemispheric significance and provide isolated platforms above the planetary boundary layer from which to investigate the composition of the remote continental troposphere. Glaciers in these regions are the ones most likely to contain longer-term glaciochemical records which detail annual to century scale variation in the strength of the Asian monsoon and long-range transport of Asian dust.


Abstract: Field work in the Kali Gandaki region in the spring of 1991 transected three tectonostratigraphic units: (1) the Lesser Himalayan sedimentary sequence (Lesser Himalaya); (2) the Greater Himalayan metamorphic sequence (Greater Himalaya); and (3) the Tibetan sedimentary sequence. The Lesser Himalaya comprises biotite-grade quartzite and pelitic and calcareous schist and garnet-grade carbonate rocks. The Greater Himalaya is $\sim$6 km thick and consists of kyanite-grade quartzo-feldspathic and pelitic gneiss and migmatite, garnet-hornblende-diopside-bearing calc-silicate gneiss, and discordant sheets of foliated garnet-tourmaline-bearing two-mica leucogranite. The Tibetan sedimentary sequence is $\sim$11 km thick and consists of Cambro-Ordovician to Eocene passive-margin sedimentary rocks that locally reach biotite-grade in the structurally lowest levels; Mesozoic rocks have Gondwana and Tethyan affinities. The two main tectonic boundaries in this region are the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and the Annapurna detachment fault
(ADF). The MCT is a moderately northeast dipping (38$\sp\circ)$ crustal-scale, ductile-brittle shear zone that has displaced the Greater Himalaya southwestward over the Lesser Himalaya. The ADF is a moderately northeast dipping (30-40$\sp\circ)$ ductile-brittle normal fault that juxtaposes the Tibetan sedimentary sequence of the hanging wall with the Greater Himalaya. Structural and metamorphic relationships indicate a two-stage normal faulting history on the ADF: the first occurred at middle crustal levels, followed by static recrystallization; the second occurred at upper crustal levels forming a discrete zone of brittle deformation. New data indicate that the prominent fabrics and structures preserved in the Kali Gandaki region formed during the first phase of ductile deformation on the MCT over a time span that ranges from 0.1 to 1.3 Ma. Ductile deformation on the MCT was completed by 21.8 $\pm$ 0.5 Ma. Following static recrystallization at middle crustal levels, the Greater Himalaya was rapidly uplifted with little motion on the MCT and tectonically denuded by the ADF. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)


Abstract: The Langtang Valley exposes $>15 km of high-grade metamorphic and anatectic rocks (The High Himalayan Crystallines, HHC). Metamorphism within the HHC is 'inverted', with kyanite-grade rocks at the base overprinted by sillimanite-grade migmatites at high structural levels. Both metamorphic events reached >700\sp\circ$C but pressures differed from 8-10 kbar
(kyanite) to 4-6 kbar (sillimanite). Five units, distinct in petrography,
$\sp{87}$Sr/$\sp{86}$Sr and $\delta\sp{18}$O constitute the Langtang HHC. The length and complexity of deformation history is greatest in the upper units. Kyanite-zone foliation development predates peak metamorphism, and post-metamorphic deformation is minimal. Sillimanite-grade rocks record syn-metamorphic deformation which continued beyond peak conditions, and down to chlorite-grade in the topmost units. The kyanite-sillimanite isograd, and hence metamorphic 'inversion', is tectonic in nature. Fluid-rock interaction also increases up-section. Kyanite-zone mineral
$\sp{18}$O/$\sp{16}$O fractionations record temperatures within error of those derived using thermobarometry, requiring anhydrous, closed-system cooling. In sillimanite-migmatites, oxygen-isotopes were mobile until
$\sim$600$\sp\circ$C, when melts crystallised and/or deformation ceased. At the highest structural levels, calc-silicate and gneiss $\delta\sp{18}$O values are in equilibrium with water exsolved from interlayered granites. Granite mineral $\delta\sp{18}$O values are inconsistent with closed-system cooling, requiring exchange with an external fluid. Centimetre-scale depletions in $\sp{18}$O along brittle fractures record late-stage meteoric fluids. Two granite types exist in Langtang. The earliest intruded as foliation-parallel, micaceous granites, geochemically distinct from typical High Himalayan Leucogranites (HHL) and deformed with the surrounding gneisses. Later, generally tourmaline-bearing granites, with typical HHL chemistry, post-date all but the latest deformation. $\delta\sp{18}$O and
$\sp{87}$Sr/$\sp{86}$Sr data indicate that both granite types were derived from rocks equivalent to those exposed in the kyanite-zone, and not from observed migmatites. The required melt transport supports fluid-absent melting.


Abstract: Detailed paleorecords of terrestrial environments are critical for interpretations of late Miocene hominoid evolution and environmental conditions associated with hominid origins. The long terrestrial Neogene Siwalik sequence in the Potwar Plateau of northern Pakistan provides an excellent opportunity to study the ecological context of hominoids over millions of years. This thesis examines the paleoenvironments associated with sivapithecine hominoids, present between 12.5 and 7.4 Ma, with three types of faunal analyses that focus upon medium- and large-sized ungulates. These include morphometric studies of dental and postcranial elements to estimate body weights and evaluate changes in the size structure of herbivore families through time, and dental microwear and isotopic studies of species to reconstruct paleodiets and infer aspects of the paleovegetational structure. These data are interpreted within the context of the faunal and climatic records. The faunal analysis and morphometric, dental microwear and stable carbon isotope data provide new information about the paleobiology of selected herbivore species. Body mass estimates show marked increases in maximum body size within several families at around 14 and 9 Ma. Several Miocene artiodactyl families appear to have been relatively megadont based on comparisons of dental and postcranial body mass estimates for species. Application of stable carbon isotope and dental microwear analysis to the same species provides a more complete dietary reconstruction than either method alone. Stable carbon isotope analysis of enamel apatite of a suite of herbivores documents a shift from predominantly C$\sb3$ to C$\sb4$ based plant diets between 9.5 and 5 Ma. This dietary signal shows the presence of C$\sb4$ grasses in the region significantly earlier than previous work on stable carbon isotope analyses of pedogenic carbonates, and has significant implications for the evolution and dispersal of C$\sb4$ grasses. The dental microwear data indicate that several species were consuming C$\sb3$ grasses prior to the advent of C$\sb4$ grasses in the region. Woodlands and open forests with significant amounts of grass in the underlayer are proposed as the predominant habitats associated with the Siwalik fauna between 14 and 9.5 Ma, with increasingly open habitats after 9.5 Ma.

*************************************************************** To: Subject: Could you help me please Date: Sun, 04 Feb 1996 19:43:51 CST From: Sudha Shrestha <>

      The Nepal Digest

I am studying in Iowa State University majoring in Water Resources. This is my second semeter. For two of my course work and seminar course I have to present a term paper. For one of the course Environmental resources management and planning I am thinking to present about drinking water in Kathmandu Valley. I have some background since I was working in related field but I needs the fact for that, if you know how enter the system to get such available data in NETSCAPE could convey through e-Mail.
                The another problem I have got e-mail address for my mother's office: I tried several time but only one of the e-mail worked out. If I could be in touch with her through e-Mail it would be a great help, because she (SAVITRI SHRESTHA) has also worked in related field and some of them are collected by me.According to Some of my friend here the system is not working due to the difference of model between the computer that I am using and MY mother's office has got, other are saying that it is due to the far distance between here and Nepal. I can't confirmed whether my message is received or not through my computer. If it is due to technical problem then I should give up the hope the getting message. Do you have any suggestion and could you kindly help me.
                  Looking forward for your reply.

                                                  SUDHA SHRESTHA
********************************************************* To: From: "Diwaker Basnet" <> Date: Mon, 5 Feb 1996 13:27:30 CET DST Subject: Kura Kani ( Technology)

I have the following comments to make on what Bikash Thapaliya wrote in TND (Jan 30, 1996)

1. Load Shedding

It is true that there is a deficit in NEA supply to the grid especially during the peak load hours and that NEA should have been forced to carry out load shedding during these hours. One of the temporary option for NEA to augment the supply so as to keep the supply demand balance is by running the only storage type hydel plant
(Kulekhani I and II ) during these peak load hours. This way NEA can supply the needed electricity until the reservoir turns dry, which might happen a long time before the monsoon rains come to the rescue as you have mentioned.. If this is the case, we know it is not the rational way to do things.

I however disagree with the capacities of the DG (diesel generators) sets in the Nepalese factories(stated as 1-3 MW, which of course Rana stated ,I guess). When I was working for the Ministry of Water Resources , I had gone for a tour in mid June,1995 with a couple of "big bosses" from NEA.The aim was to see the capabilities of the DG sets which were lying around idly and being used only when there were cuts from the unreliable grid. I think it was the idea of one of the then minister to see that such a mammoth investment be of use to both the industry owners and the
"malnourished" central grid. I was astonished to see that only in the major industries in the Narayani and Janakpur zones where we carried out the survey, the total installed capacity of the DG sets amounted to about 15 MVA.

It can be thus be approximated from these figures that the total generating capacity of the DG sets scattered through out the kingdom is much more than the deficit in the grid. The technical problem of synchronising these sets to the grid however exists. I observed that factories like Hetauda Cement( 3250 KVA) even had synchronising panels and were successful in connecting this generator to the grid. The other industries with significant generating capacity in that region are Birgunj Sugar Factory( 3000 KVA), Everest Paper Mills(3*325 KVA),Jyoti Spinning Mills(405*3 KVA),Surya Tobacco(nearly 1 MVA) etc.

What does all these figures mean? Well, one better option to give its customers uninterruptable power until the BIG projects come to be a reality is to make use of all these machines which the factory owners had to buy because of the unreliable supply. For technical reasons if the DG sets cannot be connected to the grid , NEA can of course tell the factory owners to simply run their sets and not take any power from the grid during the peak hours( the intention of our visit was to convince the factory owners). Obviously NEA will have to pay these industries with some kind of compensation for running their own sets and not taking power from their grid. This way these factories can get some return from their investment and the public will not have to stay in the dark.

Currently I am here in Germany studying, I would like to know what happened to this
"great" idea which NEA had. Has it been implemented ? Was it just a political gimmick? Are there some difficulties? or is it just lying in the rusty file cabinets of NEA?

2. Energy Policy

I think they have some kind of a Energy Policy in the " Eighth Five Year Plan" published by National Planning Commission. Under the section" Alternate Energy Policy", it is stated that institutional arrangements will be made for setting up an alternate energy agency to implement and co-ordinate different energy related programmes. Is this the Alternate Energy Development Centre ? I think ITDG also had made a draft proposal to have this established. Could someone tell me what is going on as I am a student studying Renewable Energy and it is of especial interest to me. Interested persons on Renewable Energy with relevance to Nepal can also write to me.

Diwaker Basnet H 105 Huntemann Strasse 2 Oldenburg 26131, Germany Ph # (441) 5600 748

************************************************************ From: ds8s@fermi.clas.Virginia.EDU (J D. Sapir) Subject: Nepal photos Date: Thu, 1 Feb 1996 16:33:42 GMT

Fixing Shadows, a web site devoted to still photography, has just posted a set of 16 photographs of Nepal street scenes by Richard Robinson, a very talented Washington free lance photographer.

The address (url) for Robinson's site is:

Take a look!

Sincerely, J. David Sapir University of Virginia J. David Sapir (804) 924-6821 Department of Anthropology University of Virginia

********************************************************* Date: Mon, 05 Feb 1996 13:47:00 EST From: rimal@UFCC.UFL.EDU To: Subject: RE: The Nepal Digest - February 2, 1996 (19 Magh 2052 BkSm)

Dear Editor,

I am a Ph.D. student in resource and environmental economics program at the University of Florida. My research topic is "Groundwater Economics". I am thinking of emirical testing my model using data from Nepal. A search of Ph.D. abstract shows that nobody has done any Ph.D. type of reserch in Groundwater in Nepal. I am not sure if there are students working on it. I would like to exchange ideas and information on this topic if there are researchersinterested in doing so
 interseted in doing so. My e-mail address: Thanks Arbindra Rimal

****************************************************** Date: Tue, 06 Feb 1996 18:42:48 EST To: From: pramit bhasin <bhasin@UMDNJ.EDU> Subject: Asian_Medicine_Lectures

Hello everyone,

I just recieved the following message.

                         Asia Society
                     in cooperation with
    the Dharam Hinduja Indic Research Center at Columbia University


ASIAN MEDICINE GOES MAINSTREAM IN THE WEST A three-part lecture series exploring the growing use of Asian medicine in Western healthcare

*Wednesday, February 21 - 6:30pm New Age Ayurveda or What Happens to Indian Medicine
  When it Comes to America?
    by Kenneth G. Zysk, NYU and Columbia's Hinduja Center,
    disucsses the adaptation of traditional Indian medical
    practices in the West.

*Wednesday, February 28 - 6:30pm Integrating Chinese Medicine into a Conventional Medical Practice
    by Woodson C. Merrell, MD, Columbia University College of
    Physicians and Surgeons, examines how acupuncture, herbs,
    homeopathy, and nutrition are currently being used in
    conventional medical practice.

*Wednesday, March 6 - 6:30pm Compassion is Our Business? A Tibetan Buddhist Medical Perspective
  on Modern Halthcare
    by Eliot Tokar, Asian medicine practitioner, explores how
    a healthcare system could be created that emphasizes freedom
    of choice based on Tibetan Buddhist and other ancient medical

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Asia Society Individual Lectures: + Where Asia and America Meet
   $7 members; $10 nonmembers + 40th Anniversary 1956-1996 Series: +
   $19 members; $27 nonmembers + 725 Park Avenue Student and group rates available + (at 70th Street)
                                  + New York City FOR TICKETS and INFORMATION, call + 212-517-ASIA +

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