The Nepal Digest - Feb 2, 1999 (18 Magh 2055 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Wednesday Feb 2, 1999: Magh 10 2055BS: Year8 Volume83 Issue1

Today's Topics (partial list):

       Nepal News
       About the book 'HUMAN FEATURES'
       Volunteering in Nepal
       Our visit to Nepal
       Tourism: An article.
       Are You Sure You Want Brand Names?
       The Nepal Digest in Kathmandu

 * TND (The Nepal Digest) Editorial Board *
 * -------------------------------------- *
 * *
 * The Nepal Digest: General Information *
 * Chief Editor: Rajpal JP Singh *
 * (Open Position) *
 * Editorial Columnist: Pramod K. Mishra *
 * Sports Correspondent: Avinaya Rana *
 * Co-ordinating Director - Australia Chapter (TND Foundation) *
 * Dr. Krishna B. Hamal *
 * Co-ordinating Director - Canada Chapter (TND Foundation) *
 * SCN Correspondent: Open Position *
 * *
 * TND Archives: *
 * TND Foundation: *
 * WebSlingers: Open Position *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "Heros are the ones who give a bit of themselves to the community" *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * *
****************************************************************** Date: Jan 25, 1999 To: The Nepal Digest <> Subject: Nepal News Source: The Kathmandu Post

Drug dealers arrested By a Post Reporter

KATHMANDU, Jan 23 - Police yesterday arrested five major drug dealers after surprise raids at their Kathmandu residences, where police discovered baggages load of drugs. Police suspect the drug dealers could be using diplomatic passports while travelling abroad.

According to police, Bhuvan Gurung, Ang Kusang Sherpa and Chitra Lal Sherchan have a long history of drug trafficking.

Police are still looking for two others - Subas Sijapati and Amar Raj Sharma - who were not home yesterday when the raids were carried out.

Their brothers have been taken into custody after police found "dubious papers" in their residences, along with the contraband.

"All five are believed to have links with international drug mafia," a police officer told The Kathmandu Post Saturday. "We are investigating the charges." Police said they were conducting further investigation to confirm their suspicions that all five could be using red passports.

More drug peddlers arrested By a Post Reporter

KATHMANDU, Jan 25 - Police here today arrested four foreign nationals -- three Americans and one Polish -- involved in international drug peddling.

Those arrested are: Harry Gerald Crespi, Steven Cvamer Chishom and Charles Bradley French from United States and one Polish national whose name could not be verified.

According chief of Narcotics Law Implementation Unit, Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP), Keshav Baral, the drug dealers were arrested on the basis of the "dubious documents" found by the police during the raid at the residences of five different local smugglers (see above news) operating international racket.

Upon raiding Crespi’s apartment on Sunday, police found few photo albums where he had tactfully hidden hashish in flattened form to smuggle out of the country.

According to Baral, they extracted a total of 5.950 kilogram of hashish out of these photo albums. Police also confiscated US $ 14,153; American travellers cheques worth US
$ 1500, a bond paper worth US $ 10,000 and other dubious documents.

Crespi has been living in Nepal for the last fifteen years as a student in Tribhuvan University (TU). However, Crespi confessed to the police that he went to TU "not more than 15 times" in 15 years.

According to Baral they were able to arrest another person while raiding Crespi's house. "As the police personnel were raiding Crespi’s apartment, two foreigners entered into the house," Baral said. "But, when they saw police they panicked and attempted to escape. We followed them, but, only one could be arrested," he added.

The arrested, Steven Cvamer Chishom, told police that he came to Nepal on January 1 and was stationed in Moonlight hotel in Thamel. He also confessed to have lived at his friend's (the Polish national) rented apartment in Chundevi for few days. Police, however, arrested the second person who fled the scene -Charles Bradley French - at his room in Moonlight hotel. French had returned back to collect his forgotten goods.

Police also found capsules containing hashish in French’s room.

On the basis of the information received from the arrested trio, police further raided the apartment of their friend -- the Polish national -- from where they confiscated 300 grams of hashish.

According to the police, the code language in the documents confiscated along with the hashish reveals that they were about to smuggle out thousands of kilograms of hashish and other goods to various countries. Police is investigating into the case.

****************************************************************** Date: Fri, 22 Jan 1999 21:34:01 -0500 (EST) From: BIPULENDU NARAYAN SINGH <> Subject: Why Nepal should be a hindu nation To:

It was nice to read your criticism of my point of view. But I would like to repeat again you are doing so owing to insufficient understanding of both Hinduism and the points I am trying to make.

Through me only you can reach the father (GOD) - This line is not out of a KKK manual but one of the direct qoutes of Jesus Christ

All who worship idols are infidels - This line is also a direct qoute of Mohammad.

Contrast this with a line from the Bhagavada gita

In whatever form you worship me you will find me

what these lines mean to me is that while Hinduism acknowledges the validity of other religions, other religions think only their way is the right way. As a hindu my religion encourages me to respect other religions but other religions don't have the same view towards hinduism. Nepal being a hindu country is not wrong because being a hindu country is the same as being a secular country ( allowing other's to practise their faith).

This conception of secular and unsecular is country alien to Nepal. These concepts took birth in the west because Christianity does not believe in the validity of other religions.

As for your criticism of the caste system, let me remind you it is a perversion the hindu religion. No scriptures justify the caste system on the basis of birth. The Rig Veda makes it clear that it is by the qualities that a person has in him that he becomes a Bramhin, or Ksyatriya and so on. Also before you denounce hinduism for the caste system remember that many of the gods in hinduism were born in "lower" castes. Krishna was born a Vaishya, Ram was born a Ksyatriya. How come the Bramhin have been worshipping them for so long. As for anyone wanting to convert to Budhism I have no problems because I think it is the same thing.

Having done with my rebuttal, let me repeat only as a hindu (I include Budhism in it) country can Nepal be a truly secular country.Only as a hindu country can we stay away from the relgious bitterness that has enveloped the whole world. (including our neigbours India

****************************************************** Date: Sun, 24 Jan 1999 10:59:51 +1300 To: From: nrdevkota <> Subject: About the book 'HUMAN FEATURES'

Hi there,

It was nice to read about the recent books published in Nepal that are reviewed by Ashutosh Tiwari. Well, lots of things are there to write about, but particulaarly, I would like to elaborate a bit more about the book
'HUMAN FEATURES' written by Dr mohan kharel.

Dr Kharel is my senior colleagues, and I know him very well. In fact we do work together at the teaching institution. Fortunately, I have also received his book and got chance to read it. I am agreed with Tiwariji that the book is merely a complex analytical approach to blend biological facts to that of human psychology and social aspects considering basically on what is suppos to be done to move towards right way by this ultimate supreme creature. ofcourse, there are very common eratra and mistakes, but what the author has clearly indicated is that his attempts are to raise the questions, rather than answering them from his own points of view. particularly, in this letter, I would like to request to all the interestered people to come forward, as I knew individuaally from the author that he would like to heighten his concept in terms of collaboration, discussions or even possibly going through second edition. I would like to congratulate Dr kharel to write something in this line in spite of his educational training background of Animal breeding and genetics.

Finally, with the permission of author, I would like to request any one who is interested in this line to contact me, so that I would be happy to make further necessary contact with the author. I am sure, Dr Kharel will have his clear contact adress in the near future. Thanks

Naba Devkota College of Sciences Institute of Natural Resources Pastures and Crrops, level II Massey University, Private Box:11222, Palmerston North New Zealand

**************************************************** Date: Sun, 24 Jan 1999 11:45:01 -0800 From: Ngawang Karsang Sherpa <> To: tnd <> Subject: Should tourists be held accountable for misfortunes on porters?

As someone whose relatives are actively engaged in the trekking business ranging from the “fat” agency owners to the “poor” porters, I have been aware of this issue for quite a while. This issue surfaced on Himal couple of times about three years ago, and the reaction of an average Joe in KTM was, “who cares?”. Well, I am extremely pleased to find that the SCNers do care, and do care a lot.

Among the well established trekking companies, there is a policy where by the porters receive a pair of socks and occasionally a pair of shoes and gloves. However, these items are hardly used even after being handed over to the porters. The porters would often insist on selling them unused at the end of the trek, and occasionally, even before the trek starts. This provision, however, is limited to a few well established agencies such as the Tiger Mountain. The lesser known and illy established agencies in KTM would apparently not care.

This does not mean that the blame should be squared onto the porters. Having gone through the reality of poverty and physical ardousness, it is too natural that these porters would try to make a few more rupees by selling the provisions instead of using them, and as long as poverty remains in Nepal, so will the porters insisting on getting a few more rupees. It is simply futile for one to attempt to tackle this social behaviour. A possible solution in this case would have been for the Sirdar to hold onto the items until most needed, especially at higher altitudes.

I would also refrain from blaming the foreigners. After all, they go to Nepal to enjoy the mountains and the culture, and are in most cases, are not even aware of the plight of the porters. Perhaps we should try to educate them, but holding them accountable for unforseen misfortunes would not be justifiable. Do we believe an average foreigner would take off his Gore-tex Jacket and hand it over to an ill-equipped Porter at Thorang-la? I don’t think so, and asking for that kind of sentiment would be just as futile as asking the porters not to sell the provisions in the first place. Further more, would it help at all to the trekking industry and hence to the porters if we were to slap the foreigners with a doze of possible jail sentence even before the trek starts? This ideal view of teaching foreigners to take care of our porters indeed sounds very romantic, but is not practical at all.

However, I would hold the trekking agencies in KTM and the staff in the trekking group directly accountable for the misfortunes. I am sure the agency owners who shell out thousands of rupees at casinoes, discoes and gazals in KTM can afford a few hundred rupees for medicine and extra clothing for the porters. The trekking Sirdars should also be instructed to pay some attention to the welfare of the porters. After all, the whole group including the porters march together, and the Sirdar should not have any excuse for preventable mishaps. If misfortunes do happen in spite of all these measures (hopefully taken), the agency and the individual staff members should be forced to pay compensation to the family of the deceased. This would definitely make the involved parties pay more attention, and take preventive measures.

It is high time that we pay more attention to this issue, and thank god atleast the SCNers are concerned with the issue.

Ngawang Karsang Sherpa Philadelphia

************************************************************* Date: Mon, 04 Jan 1999 15:35:08 PST From: To: Subject: volunteering in Nepal

To whom it concern:

I am writing to you regarding volunteering in Nepal. I am going to Nepal in 14 Jan. and I plan to stay there for about two and half month. I am particulary interested in working for organization that promote educational or public health issues.
    I was born in Nepal but I have been leaving in US for the last 14 years. I was in Nepal in 1992 and 1995. I have a BA in Molecular biology from University of California, Berkeley. I would really appreciate it if you could give me some information about organizations in Nepal. Or you could direct my inquiry to the organizations in Nepal.

sincerely, Sidhartha Gurung
************************************************************** Date: Sat, 2 Jan 1999 21:13:00 +0100 From: "systel gmbh, werner schulz" <> To: Subject: Our visit to Nepal


we intend to drive from germany to nepal by car.

as this will be done during our annual holiday we will not have the time to make it back by car but would like to leave my car (old but still working very good) in nepal.

i would like to give it to a charitable organization, i would expect them to take care of the customs procedures and pay the duties if necessary.

it would be og great help if i could contact these organizations before we start our journey, to find out and solve any details/problems beforhand.

so if you happen to have any e-mail addresses about such organizations you would do us and possible others a favour if you could sent them to us.

you can of course also forward this mail to any party that may be of help.

many thanks in advance.

Werner e-mail:

******************************************************** Date: Thu, 31 Dec 1998 14:46:32 -0800 From: Anne Surwill <> To: Subject: information

Dear Organizers:
    I am a teacher looking for information on your summer program. Please send to
                  Pattie Surwill
                  315 Voorhees Ave
                  Buffalo, NY 14216 or email tp Thank you.

***************************************************** Date: Fri, 1 Jan 1999 14:13:26 -0500 From: damber gurung <> To: Subject: DR. IWAMURA MEMORIAL HOSPITAL IN NEPAL


Born on May 26, 1927 in Japan, Professor Noboru Iwamura, MD, MPH, Ph.D. a survivor of the August 6, 1945 bombing of Hiroshima, became a barefoot doctor in Nepal for 18 years. The holocaust of Hiroshima has exacted its toil on him and his wife who developed cancer. However, his work laid the foundation to bring together the leaders of Asian communities and he conferred the "MAGSAYSAY AWARD" for international understanding. He was also a founder member of International Institute for Rural Reconstruction (IIRR). His unfulfilled vision towards the needy communities is now pursued by Ms. Purnima Gurung who he adopted and groomed under his tutelage. Purnima has established and is managing a Nursing Home, School, and a Community Development Center (for AID infected women). Currently, she is the coordinator of NGO AIDS activities in Nepal. To further the work of Professor Iwamura, we (professionals from Nepal, Japan and India) have started this memorial project -IMHARC. The ultimate IMHARC vision is to provide a holistic health care. The hospital will be located in Bhaktapur district serving about a million people in Kathmandu valley. The project will be funded from various sources. Members from Rotary International clubs in Osaka, Japan have visited the project site, and have begun to raise funds. IMHARC has also entered into an agreement with Tamil Nadu Hospital in India for technical collaboration. The feasibility study for the project will be completed in the beginning of the year 1999. For additional information on this project and on South Asian health care issues, please contact Dr. Damber K. Gurung, at the following addresses/numbers: 703-383-1009 (phone/fax); <>. We invite you to join us.

********************************************************** Date: Sat, 30 Jan 1999 13:38:52 -0500 To: "Rajpal J. Singh" <> From: Brijesh Thapa <> Subject: Tourism: An article.

        During my last trip to Nepal (early part of 1997), my inquisitive mind drew me closer to a new campaign in Nepal: Visit Nepal 1998. This concept was vaguely familiar as I remembered Thailand market its' tourism product in 1986 or 1988 with a similar concept. Following the success of Thailand's promotional campaign, Malaysia jumped on the bandwagon in 1990 to cash in on the lucrative international tourism receipts. As I recall, the Malaysians lacked the success of their Thai counterparts, who are neighbors I might add. This type of promotional campaign (Visit Year
'92) was also developed by the Association for Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) to market the region's tourism product. Similarly, in 1996, Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) attempted this process with marginal success, despite of their military terror regime. Owing to the success of the 80's campaign, Thailand recently resumed a similar campaign
"Amazing Thailand." Their success has yet to be determined. Based on all these campaigns in the surrounding region, I thought to myself and guessed it was Nepal's turn to <bold>ATTEMPT</bold> to change the stagnant tourism status quo. But reflecting back, I pondered that the time between the promotion campaign and the actual visitation year seemed only a year apart. Apparently, the initial promotional year was 1996.=20 However, it seemed only a handful of citizens knew about the Visit Nepal 1998 campaign in early 1997. In fact, a tourism entrepreneur expressed his disbelief with such words, "this campaign is the best kept secret of the world, and only the people of Nepal know about it." It was strange to note that even the tourism related businesses were least informed and did not have an idea of this "Visit Year" notion. Was this the case of a gigantic marketing blunder? How could something of this magnitude be pulled off? Did the government have something up it's sleeve or was this part of a learning process. =20

        Upon investigation with the officials involved I realized that the ultimate goal of this program was to increase visitation numbers, hence increase badly needed foreign exchange. So, the hidden agenda was to make money at all costs, irrespective of the strain on the ecological balance between the land, the people, the visitors, and the normal life in the mountain regions, as those regions are the most heavily visited by tourists. Currently, as tallied by the government statisticians, there is an average of 365,000 incoming tourists to Nepal, and this campaign is expected to increase the numbers to 500,000 tourists. Also, the government intends to capitalize on the promotion by sustaining its effort to increase tourist arrivals in subsequent years. I thought to myself, what a genuine idea, however, this idea seemed to have a peculiar motive as much thought was not given towards potential consequences.=20 Before I delve further into this issue, I would like to take some time to hopefully educate you all about some generic tourism information of Nepal.

        Tourism in the small Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal is relatively a new phenomenon as the country was opened to the "ever influencing" Western world in the late fifties-early sixties. The majestic grandeur of the sacred Himalayas and the "<bold>Shangri-la</bold>" mysticism has lured visitors from all corners of the globe. Majority of the tourists come to Nepal for pleasure and trekking, however, this trend is diversifying as other recreational activities such as white-water rafting is gaining widespread popularity among visitors. During the past thirty years+, Nepal has experienced an unprecedented growth in tourist arrivals. In 1962, there were a total of 6,179 visitors, and in 1985, the number of international arrivals escalated to 181,000. As of 1995, this influx of tourist number reached 365,000, and the current number of arrivals is stagnant. =20

        Tourism is very important to Nepal in terms of badly needed foreign exchange earnings. Approximately 20% of the total foreign earnings is associated with tourism. In terms of international tourism receipts, in 1985, the reported number was US $39 million while ten years later in 1995, the figure rose to US $170 million. Hence, tourism is a key industry so much so that it could be argued to some extent, that it represents the third most prominent religion in Nepal (Hinduism, Buddhism and Tourism).

        The distribution of tourists in Nepal has been skewed towards Indians who represent almost 33% of the arrivals (the number is a conservative count), followed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan and the United States. The Asian market has been rapidly increasing in percentage terms as Asian tourists have increased their disposable income, and also there has been more emphasis in leisure and outdoor recreation. Another factor is that tourists from Southeast Asia are attracted to Nepal due to Buddhism, as Lumbini is the birth site of Lord Buddha. A typical tourist season ranges from early March to early May and then, late September to early December. Statistics indicate October to be the most favorable month in terms of visitor arrivals. Since tourism is seasonal, the Indian market plays an important role in Nepal's tourism sector as tourists primarily come during May-June, which compensates for the seasonal factor.

        Tourism has experienced a high growth rate in tourist numbers but the potential to expand this sector to generate more income, employment and other benefits are enormous, considering the overall low level of tourism development in the country. Tourism is vital in Nepal as it has been and is still being developed by the government to a certain extent. Since tourism in Nepal contributes significantly in the generation of foreign exchange, and upon realizing this factor, the government's philosophy is to increase tourist arrivals (Example: <bold>VISIT NEPAL '98</bold>).=20 Therefore, to accommodate this influx, the tourism supply sector needs to combat the demand derived by tourists. However, in order to compete with other destinations the tourism sector needs substantial <bold>QUALITATIVE
</bold>changes in tourism development (recreational facilities) and infrastructure. Currently the rise in budget travelers has led to low spending habits of tourists, which may be a result of the tourism supply sector that has <bold>CREATED </bold>a demand for such tourists.=20 However, with quality changes in tourism development, there would be a change in the quality of tourists with regards to socioeconomic factors
(high budget travelers), which will result into high spending. This does sound like an ideal solution and has been recommended. It should be noted that with high budget travelers, there would be substantial
<bold>LEAKAGES</bold> in the economy, as the demands created by high budget travelers (luxurious goods) would only be fulfilled by importing products.=20

Although the government wants to increase tourist arrivals, it also wants to achieve certain principal objectives, as the Tourism Master Plan of 1972 which has been incorporated into the Seventh Plan indicates that increase of foreign exchange can be accomplished by attracting high budget travelers and increasing the length of stay of visitors. Also, an area of interest is to create new opportunities for employment by stimulating the tourism industry. Another critical point is to disperse tourists to different regions and promote domestic supply of goods rather than imported products. These basic principles mandated in the Plan clearly indicate the government's commitment to the tourism sector in terms of tourism development. Government's support is instrumental to the success of any large-scale tourism development. (The author currently does not have access to the new five-year "Eight-Plan").=20

        However, His Majesty's Government proposed policies in the Plan are an oxymoron to the Visit Nepal '98 campaign. The campaign intends to raise revenue by attracting more people (500,000 targeted) regardless of high or low budget travelers, while the government (tourism master plan) wants to revert to the hey days when traditionally high budget travelers visited Nepal. Regardless of conflict in policies, does increased number of arrival lead to increased revenues? Well, policy makers <bold>SHOULD LEARN</bold> to look at trend statistics before they make such uncalculated guesses. To illustrate my case in point: In

1988=3D266,000 arrivals and total tourism receipts =3D US $94 million

1989=3D240,000 arrivals and total tourism receipts =3D US $107 million

1991=3D293,000 arrivals and total tourism receipts =3D US $126 million

1992=3D334,000 arrivals and total tourism receipts =3D US $110 million

1993=3D294,000 arrivals and total tourism receipts =3D US $157 million

Hence, increase in arrivals does not necessarily lead to increase in revenue. In fact, in 1993, tourist arrivals dropped 12% from 1992 but recorded a gain of almost 42% in revenue. There are other underlying factors at play that contribute to this type of change, but this example is used to demonstrate a point. Recently, the tourist arrival figure in conjunction to the VNY '98 campaign was reported to have increased by 9.3
% compared to last year's numbers. However, it has also been mentioned that total receipts to-date account for Rs. 5.297 billion. In comparison to the previous year's receipts, the 1995/96 recorded Rs. 9.521 billion, and in 1996/97, the number decreased to Rs. 8.532 billion. According to experts, this year's number will unlikely exceed the Rs. 7 billion mark at the end of the year. So, this clearly crystallizes the notion that increased arrivals do not necessarily lead to increased revenue.

</bold> It should also be stressed that tourism within the Kathmandu valley is on the rapid decline as indicated by the tourist's length of stay in the city. The average hotel occupancy rates are below 40%.=20 Factors such as pollution, overpopulation (crowding), increased traffic and garbage on the streets, etc. have culminated to the decline in the length of stay of tourists. Also, it is clearly evident that developers are developing tourism projects outside the capital city in areas such as Pokhara, another tourist-oriented city. Pokhara needs an effective city planning/management plan to avoid the mistakes of the capital city.=20 Tourism is a service industry and a basic necessity such as hygienic atmosphere needs to be provided. It is devastating to learn that tourists wear mouthpieces to avoid the polluted air, and soon they may need to wear masks to avoid the garbage smell. Furthermore, insect repellent should also be recommended to avoid the mosquitoes that thrive on the newly created omnipresent slums of Kathmandu. This city has been labeled as the second most polluted city after Mexico City (Mexico), which I may add, is not a compliment. The process of urbanization has eaten the city to its core. Alas, what has become of this mystic city?=20 Even the prestigious Kingsway has taken its toll in the degradation phenomenon. =20

        Reflecting on the VNY '98 campaign budget which was reported to be almost US $1 million (Rs. 60 million), I was perplexed at the extravagant budgetary allowance. This sum was in addition to the annual budget allocation for the Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation. According to a prominent member of the VNY Secretariat, this sum that was spent on promotions was "peanuts in the international market." However, I ask myself, is Nepal competing in a marketing frenzy with other international destinations to capture their clients? Does Nepal really need to market itself knowing that majority of her visitors come due to word of mouth from fellow travelers? Before I ask these questions, I would be curious to know if any research were conducted to warrant this campaign. It is basic common knowledge to determine the current market before enticing clients from other markets. Motivations to visit Nepal; the information search process before selecting Nepal; the type of visitor/s; satisfaction level, comments, etc. are some of the fundamental questions that should have been researched with current visitors. Frankly, the HMG
(tourism department) needs to drastically change their approach towards tourism research. The system and measures employed by the tourism bureau
(Statistics Department?) is outdated and needs to be revamped. If the government really wants to reposition it's image as a viable destination and potentially market itself, then effective research is warranted.=20 Various other developing countries who are using tourism as a vehicle for economic development have well established tourism research units. A suggestion would be to explore how other successful developing countries are conducting research and utilizing their databases. Nepal needs an independent or auxiliary Tourism Research Institute that functions as an advisory or recommendatory agency. This unit could serve as an instrumental body to the newly created Nepal Tourism Board. Also, the unit should integrate and disseminate knowledge from various agencies involved in travel and tourism research.

        Getting back at the budget disbursement for the campaign, well, I am appalled at the thought that this campaign was recommended and implemented. Due to the mounting political turmoil and neglect of the country (in terms of infrastructure), who would want to visit Nepal.=20 Political Stability and infrastructure development are key ingredients for successful tourism development. Additionally, people of the host country should also be supportive of the initiative. Thinking in an optimistic rationale, I guess the campaign tried to revitalize the industry and such a move was needed. However, I still cannot fathom the disbursement of such huge amount of funds. This figure was known by the VNY Secretariat prior to the campaign, and they should have realized that the allotment was actually peanuts in the international marketing scheme.
 So, why waste the commoners' money! This is a big chunk of money for a country like Nepal. In defense, the prominent personality of the VNY Secretariat indicated that the campaign began as an international agenda but resulted into a national theme. I just wonder if there are any potential hidden agendas behind the smokescreen of VNY since it did involve a huge sum of valuable money. It just seems apparent that these problems and consequences were known prior to the campaign owing to the lack of a bigger budget. =20

        On a marketing note, has there been any effort by various Nepalese embassies or missions to promote VNY '98? I do not recall any efforts coordinated by the Nepalese embassy here in Washington, D.C, USA. Has there been any effort to focus on existing markets? The Nepalese embassies, if any, in those respective countries could act as a major catalyst in promoting the campaign. My point is that various marketing bonanzas could have been achieved if the VNY Secretariat employed tactful or frugal means of facilitation. While I was in New York City and happened to witness the screening of the IMAX movie - Everest, I realized that a great opportunity was missed by the Secretariat. A minute long promotion of Nepal before the feature presentation could have been a golden tool for attracting Americans. I realized that although the theatre management did not delve into any commercials, however a 20- second still promo of Thomson Travels was illustrated. I figured this travel agency was responsible for coordination of the trip to Nepal.=20 Similarly, Nepal could have brokered a deal with the producers to allow a minute promo of Nepal at no cost. This is bargaining, an oldest profession that is symbiotic and beneficiary for both parties involved.=20 I must note that these IMAX screenings lasts for several months at various metropolitan cities of the US. It must be the same screening approach at other western countries. This was an opportunity to be seized and yet, slipped by. Sometimes, little money and brains gets the job accomplished!

        <bold>NEPAL NEEDS TO DEVELOP NEPAL BEFORE TOURISM</bold>. This seems like a bold statement coming from a future tourism professional. Well, my intention with this statement is that the basic infrastructure must be modified or developed for the people before investing those huge sums of money at discreet places. Nepal needs to have an "appealable finished product" before attempting a marketing hysteria. Having a functional infrastructure in place will ultimately result in visitation by visitors and potentially prolong length of stay. For example, if that US $1 million was deployed to combat the garbage problem or the sewage system, or the water system, rather than on the so called marketing extravaganza, tourists would likely stay in Kathmandu much longer. Similarly, residents would be happy and a positive euphoria would have been instilled among the hosts as well as the visitors. This would have been a <bold>SYMBIOTIC INTERACTIONISM </bold>relationship. Why does Nepal need to increase visitor numbers when she cannot even provide a healthy environment for a good visitor experience? Increased dollars? I beg to differ? =20

        <bold>WHAT NEPAL (POLICY MAKERS) REALLY NEEDS TO DO IS TO CLEAN UP IT'S ACT AND SATISFY THE CURRENT VISITORS RATHER THAN FOCUSING ON ATTRACTING NEW VISITORS. </bold> Satisfaction and a positive experience are what Nepal should radiate. After all, word of mouth promotion is free and is an effective plus efficient means of advertising. This medium of communication could make or break a destination. Almost all tourists who come to Nepal usually have been swayed by previous visitors to visit.=20 Hence, it is imperative that current visitors leave with a good experience and a positive image. Image of a destination takes ages to develop but could be ruined within a short span of time if tourism is not properly planned. In Nepal's case, it has been estimated that at least US $90 million must be spent by HMG to restore the past glory of the
<bold>SHANGRILA IMAGE</bold>. Judging by this astronomical figure, it seems like a lost cause for Nepal. Hence, focus on what is at stake today, and the good deeds will amplify into better deeds tomorrow. =20

        Another case in point is the role of the government in managing tourism is fragmented. Although there is a single ministry for tourism (Ministry for Tourism and Civil Aviation), however, a cohesive coordination of responsibilities, monitoring, regulations, enforcement, fee collection, etc. is lacking as the tourism industry's organizational hierarchy spreads into other ministries. Since there is one ministry solely dedicated to tourism, it would make sense if that ministry were unanimously given the unilateral authority. After all, tourism is an extremely valuable export industry as evidenced by the creation of a Ministry and not a Department. Hence, sole responsibility should be allocated, and this also contributes to the smooth facilitation or operationalization of various duties in relation to the tourism industry.
 In the same context, regulations and enforcement needs to be highly emphasized. Price undercutting seems to be a major obstacle for tourism entrepreneurs, especially for hoteliers. I guess this practice is followed as everybody wants to make a quick dollar. However, who is the ultimate beneficiary of this practice? It is the tourist who seeks to gain from this venture. If a hotel room with an attached bathroom in downtown Thamel could be rented for under a US $1, then why not take it?=20 In reality, a tourist could get a clean room plus attached bath for this price. The tourists are not to be blamed for such a great deal! Why should hoteliers de-mark their value/prices? There is a certain expectation by a tourist in terms of willingness to pay for such a product. Why not let them pay the "<bold>NORMAL</bold>" or "<bold>GOING RATE</bold>" they are <bold>WILLING TO PAY</bold>. I do not think a tourist's willingness to pay in downtown Thamel for a room + attached bath would be US $1 or less. So, the question becomes as to why should hoteliers UNDERSELL their product knowing that they could get an optimal value for it? There should be a crackdown on such practices by the Hotel Association of Nepal (HAN) as it affects all those involved in the tourism business as tourists would start bargaining for everything.=20


*********************************************************************************************** <bold>NEPAL SHOULD NOT BE A BARGAIN DESTINATION BUT RATHER A DESTINATION OF VALUE FOR THE MONEY SPENT.

</bold> The Visit Nepal '98 campaign has essentially boasted on slogans such as "a sustainable habitat through sustainable tourism." But where does the word sustainability come into play? Is Nepal really practicing
<bold>SUSTAINABLE TOURISM or ECOTOURISM</bold>? Or is it just a marketing buzzword that has been periodically abused by many tourist destinations. It seems that the global trend is to be "eco" or environmentally friendly, and the collective consensus of the western world has adopted this phenomenon. But is it really being practiced? Or are marketers just cashing in on this craze? The whole notion of ecotourism focuses on<bold> LOCAL DEVELOPMENT, PROTECTING NATURAL RESOURCES, AND NATURE-BASED TRAVEL.</bold> In the context of Nepal, who are the primary beneficiaries of tourism? Is it the mountain communities or the select few urbanities of Kathmandu? Benefits must be accrued by the host community where tourism evolves, and local participation and entrepreneurship must be prominent. Annapurna Conservation Area Project
(ACAP) has been accentuated in this process and has capitalized to a certain degree of success. An important concept within these protected areas where tourism is concentrated, is <bold>LEAKAGE</bold> within the rural economy due to importing goods to satisfy tourists' demands. My major concern is as to why do tea-lodges provide western style meals in the mountain environments? Because it sells? Beers, snickers (candy), pizza etc., seem to be important import commodities. The aim should be to revolve the income within the local economy, hence, tourists should be offered Nepalese meals, in which farmers who are not <bold>DIRECTLY
</bold>involved in tourism can supply the lodges with produce and other commodities. Limit importing products within the community unless it is a basic necessity exotic to the area. This way, there are many people involved directly and indirectly with tourism, and the multiplier effect of the dollar spent by the tourist is stretched within the community.=20

        The new ban on glass bottles at Sagarmatha National Park is a momentous step in the right direction, and that ban should be implemented in all protected areas of the country. Plastic containers should also be banned, however, usage of iodine tablets/liquid should be institutionalized. Nowadays, tourists carry sophisticated water filters and banning of plastic containers should not pose as a detrimental effect. Nepal needs to be proactive in environmental issues as the resources need to be sustained for current and future generations. A good example is exemplified by neighboring Bhutan. Nepal was always considered as the lost kingdom but is losing it's market share as Bhutan has been awarded that title. Bhutan has taken extreme measures to protect their resources by limiting visitor numbers, and also imposing certain spending habits on visitors. For example, visitors are allegedly required to spend at least $200 a day. This way Bhutan is sustaining it's resources for future generations while curbing visitor numbers and simultaneously increasing a lot of revenue. =20

        As a future tourism professional, I do support the initiatives earmarked in the Seventh Master Plan and if implemented, a certain degree of success can be achieved. Increasing visitor numbers does not necessary lead to increased revenue, especially in Nepal as the market is proliferated with budgeted travelers or rather global backpackers. It has been estimated that a visitor can trek in Nepal as little as $2 a day. Why is Nepal devaluating her priceless product? Trekking in the Himalayas is a once in a lifetime dream of many tourists, but yet, making it cheap and <bold>AFFORDABLE</bold> for mass tourism will be a major downfall. The government should realize that increasing usage would lead to degradation of the resources, especially in the mountain communities where reports of deforestation, crowding and impact on the local cultures have been widely publicized in the western media. Nepal's <bold>ULTIMATE TOURISM PRODUCT </bold>is the mountain community where tourists flock to see the Himalayas, and if this golden resource is degraded then the tourists will fail to show up. It is like killing the goose that lays the golden eggs or biting the hand that feeds. Besides the Himalayas, the rich vibrant culture and cultural artifacts of Kathmandu-Patan-Bhaktapur were a great attraction, however, wear and tear as well as lack of government's commitment to restore areas of cultural interests has eroded any chances of sustaining cultural tourism. The tourism product of Nepal is not exempt from a traditional product life cycle. Nepal's tourism product is slowly reaching maturity, and if the current trends and changes in policies develop consistently, then tourism could experience a major downhill battle culminated with substantial decreases in badly needed foreign exchange. <bold>ACT NOW AND THE REWARDS WILL FOLLOW!!!

(Some information was gathered from International Tourism Reports, 1997 and The Kathmandu Post)

NOTE: Brijesh Thapa is an Instructor and a Ph.D Candidate specializing in Parks, Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Sciences (Leisure Studies Program) at Penn State University, Pennsylvania, USA). He can be reached at

****************************************************************** Date: Sun, 31 Jan 1999 07:29:57 -0500 To: From: Amsu Rajbhandari <> Subject: How can I get my hands on books by Joy Stephens?

Namaste everyone

Recently I read in one of the TND publications, forwarded by Ashish Tiwari regarding bilingual books (Nepali and English) for children. The books has the following titles:


Bhunti the Tiger


and Jungle Cat.

He also mentioned that these books are published by Sunbird Publishing House.

Can anyone help me find these books for my kids? I would also be interested in other well illustrated/ written Nepali books for children.

I thank you very much. Dhanabaad! Dhanabaad!!

Amsu Rajbhandari

************************************************************** To: Date: Sun, 31 Jan 1999 21:10:01 -0500 Subject: Are You Sure You Want Brand Names? From: AikoAnne Joshi <>

This is not directly related to Nepal per se, but I think it is relevant because of the way this company (along with other big name companies) has sucked in the general public -- no matter the country -- to buying its products. So the next time you or your child is tempted to buy Nike or LA Gear or Reebok and the like (and you are forking over the BIG BUCKS for that item -- or pounds or rupees), think about WHO made that shoe or bag or hat or sweatshirt, and think about the ACTUAL LOW COST of that product, and then ask yourself, why am I paying so much money for this; and finally, think of the exorbitant prices that you are paying as blood money. Read on and reflect:

Aiko Joshi

Could it be the same prestigious Nike that the article below talks about? How prestigious indeed...

Hypocrisy Is Nike's Sole Purpose

                November 14, 1996
                San Francisco Chronicle
                by Tim Keown

THE EVIDENCE is piling up around Nike's well-adorned feet. There are more charges of human-rights abuses in poor countries, and more evidence that Nike would prefer to keep it all quiet.

There's no stopping Nike, of course, and the company knows it. It has purchased the soul of America's youth, as well as most of its famous athletes and an alarming number of its university athletic departments. A few howling cries from the wilderness, from human-rights organizations and newspaper columnists, is a minor nuisance, not a significant threat.

Besides, is this even a sports issue? Does it have anything to do with sports when it is revealed that an independent report -- commissioned and paid for by Nike -- found the company pays young Vietnamese women $10 a week for up to 65 hours to make shoes that cost $5 to produce and sell for more than $100?

Does it matter that Nike tried to keep the report under wraps, and only acknowledged its existence when a former employee
("disgruntled" is the obligatory adjective) leaked it to the media?

Does it belong on the sports page when that same report, conducted by Ernst and Young, reveals that 77 percent of the workers in one Ho Chi Minh City shoe-manufacturing plant suffer from respiratory problems because their workplaces are insufficiently ventilated and filled with carcinogens?

Of course it does. Nike is more powerful than any individual sports franchise, more powerful than any individual league, even. Nike knows athletes are as loyal to their shoe company as they are to their teams.

Besides, Nike's hypocrisy knows no bounds. It aligns itself with just causes -- the courage of Jackie Robinson, racism in country clubs, the plight of inner-city kids -- then indignantly wonders why anybody gives a damn about the respiratory problems of a few thousand young women in Vietnam.

In some of its most cynical moments, Nike runs television spots that preach empowerment of girls through athletics. By contrast, the young female factory workers in Vietnam are empowered in unique ways; for one, they are forbidden to speak while they work. And, as an aside, the punishment for speaking is strictly corporal.

This, then, is how Nike participates in the lives of Vietnamese youth.

But that sort of gentle tweaking of image and reality is all part of the process. It's just business, good old-fashioned capitalism as employed by multinational corporations. They're selling something more profound than shoes here, so please don't disturb the fairy tale.

But where are the humanitarians now? Where is Spike Lee? Where is Tiger Woods? Where are the university administrators who believe the value of athletics travels beyond the playing field and into some deep sociological realm?

We have public universities making private deals to accept Nike's money as well as its gear. Cal's basketball team is one program with a Nike contract. Berkeley, the birthplace of the Free Speech Movement, the place where boycotts are tossed around like failed term papers, the city that can't find a gas station to fill its cars because none of the oil companies fit the exacting human-rights standards -- Cal's basketball team is funded in part by Nike.

Isn't the college campus the last resort of the idealist? Isn't it the bastion of innocent, pure and sometimes misguided dissent?

I called Cal athletic director John Kasser to see if the university had taken note of the most recent revelations against Nike. Kasser said he had noticed, but there has never been a serious discussion about the message the university sends by allowing its athletes to fly the Nike flag on the court and on television.

Frankly, Kasser was not especially interested in discussing this topic. He said the university is sensitive to such issues, but there isn't much they can do. Kasser says he reads all the materials Nike sends out, and -- surprise surprise -- everything looks pretty good from that end.

"If we started that with Nike, we'd have to go after everybody we buy from," Kasser said. "I'm not defending Nike, but if we're buying copiers, there might be issues there, too. There might be problems with the labor practices of other companies, even in U.S. plants." The copiers argument doesn't wash, of course. It might be less specious if the university's office personnel were occasionally on national television wearing Xerox emblems on their sleeves, but the "Copying and Collating Channel" seems at least three or four cable expansions away.

And besides, nobody is asking Cal to conduct independent investigations of every company that makes paper clips and magnet schedules. The evidence against Nike is on the table, right there, ignore it or accept it.

This isn't meant to pick on Cal, because the Bears basketball team is an infinitesimal spoke in the giant Nike wheel. But isn't it part of a well-rounded education to develop a social conscience when it comes to consumer goods? You know, maybe a speech that starts with, "Gentlemen, we might like the gear and the shoes, but we're going to look a little deeper here."

The whole concept of critical thought surpassing thoughtless commerce might be hopelessly naive in an era when college sports is big business and professional athletes are royalty. After all, Kasser has to keep the programs running, and a buck in the hand is worth more than a hypothetical pair of Reeboks on Sean Marks' feet.

Could you imagine how refreshing it would be if a major university -- Cal or any other one -- took a stand? Imagine the great press a university president, athletic director or coach could receive by calling a news conference to say, "We've read the reports, and we're going to wear something else for a while."

Idealistically speaking, this seems like the perfect opportunity for someone to suggest that the "student" portion of
"student-athlete" bridge the gap created by that tiny hyphen. The problem, of course, is that idealism is dead. Even it has its price, and Nike made the purchase long ago.

" It's been mentioned-- many times in fact -- the fact that me as the designer of a memorial to an Asian war was upsetting. I'm a young woman, a student. And I'm Chinese American. We're all lumped together, us "gooks".

++++Maya Lin, from Jeannie Barroga's play, WALLS

********************************************************** Date: Mon, 01 Feb 1999 10:29:32 -0500 From: Remash Shrestha <"as101@erols"> To: Subject: langueges....

Hi ,there..... Could you please help to find out how many total langueges are there in Nepal? e-mail me at Thank You...

****************************************************************** From: "Paramendra Bhagat" <> To:, Subject: The Nepal Digest in Kathmandu

Does the Digest have any readership in Kathmandu? What is its size like? Any wild guess? The Digest definitely does not seem to get many contributions from Kathmandu, though. Granted quite a few Kathmanduites have internet access now, maybe it is the content of the Digest that seems to be geared towards the ex- patriates that they find not appealing. I wish they would contribute at least. The Digest has no editorial guidelines.

Subject: Re: Why Nepal should be a hindu nation Reply to BIPULENDU NARAYAN SINGH <> My response in brackets.

(Bipulendu Bro., thanks for taking the time to explain. I am greatly appreciating this dialogue.)

"Through me only you can reach the father (GOD) - This line is not out of a KKK manual but one of the direct qoutes of Jesus Christ. All who worship idols are infidels - This line is also a direct qoute of Mohammad. Contrast this with a line from the Bhagavada gita: In whatever form you worship me you will find me."

(I attend Berea College. They say this town is part of the Bible Belt. I know of plenty of students who I have nicknamed Marxists. If you are a Marxist, the democracy-free-market thingie just does not make sense to you. It is either you or them. It is a fight until finish. Once my freshman year a guy befriended me and later showed me a world map and said,"Look at this rectangle. This is the dark part. We need to spread some light also here." The rectangle included Saharan Africa and all the way to India and further East.
        Last year I was SGA President. I addressed the Faculty and said,"We should stop calling Berea a Christian college." That cost me big time politically.
        What I am trying to say is I can see where you are coming from. There is this element in hardcore Christianity and Islam, the one that you have pointed out. So when someone comes to me now to preach, trying to
"save me," the proud Hindu I am - Buddhism being my favorite religion of all - I tell them, I am sorry but the Muslims say the same thing, that either you are a Muslim or a non-believer, so you two groups need to settle it among yourselves first before you approach a Hindu like me!
        By the way, don't get the impression Berea is a Bible School or something. It is primarily a liberal arts college. It does not attempt to be a church.
        So I am not justifying the self-righteousness that you have pointed out. What I am saying is let our constitution reflect what our religion believes in anyway.)

"Nepal being a hindu country is not wrong because being a hindu country is the same as being a secular country ( allowing other's to practise their faith). This conception of secular and unsecular is country alien to Nepal. These concepts took birth in the west because Christianity does not believe in the validity of other religions."

(Refer to above.)

"No scriptures justify the caste system on the basis of birth."

(If only the practice of religion were closer to the scriptures.)

"Let me repeat only as a hindu (I include Budhism in it) country can Nepal be a truly secular country. Only as a hindu country can we stay away from the relgious bitterness that has enveloped the whole world.
(including our neigbour India.)"

(I disagree.)

Subject: Free Trade: Fashionable?

< centamclinton_2.html>

Sunday January 24 12:19 AM ET

Central America Seeks Free Trade Nod From Clinton

TEGUCIGALPA, Honduras (Reuters) - Central American leaders will ask President Clinton to back a free trade deal when he visits next month to review reconstruction efforts after the deadly passage of Hurricane Mitch, an official said Saturday.

Honduran Industry and Trade Minister Reginaldo Panting said Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala would hand Clinton a petition to establish a trade accord that could help Central America pull itself out of the ruins.

Clinton is due to visit the four countries as well as Mexico between Feb. 10-14.

``We will jointly ask Bill Clinton to give us a free trade agreement or to allow us the same privileges that Mexico gets under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA),'' Panting said. Mexico, the United States and Canada are the members of NAFTA.

Some 9,000 people died and roads, bridges and farmland were severely damaged or wiped out at the end of October by Mitch, one of the strongest Atlantic hurricanes on record.

Subject: Nepal Sadbhavana Party in Jhapa (6 seats in the parliament)


Jhapa, a communist stronghold, is reeling after UML split

By Lila Baral

BIRTAMOD, Jhapa, Jan 23 - The split in the CPN(UML) has put the constituents in Jhapa district, a communist stronghold, in a quandary.

This district - which boasts of such heavyweights as K P Oli of CPN(UML); R K Mainali, C P Mainali and Devi Prasad Ojha of CPN(ML); and Chakra Prasad Banstola of Nepali Congress - is shattered after the division early last year in the powerful CPN(UML). The party in 1994 bagged five of the six seats up for grabs.

That was four years ago. The Lal Killa (red fort) now is a different place altogether. It been over a week since the general elections were announced but this politically vibrant district is yet to catch election fever.

Unlike in the past - when the district would first greet election dates with a gust - the voter' response this year has at best been lukewarm while intellectuals are generously contributing to the electoral disenchantment, thanks to distortions and degeneration in national politics.

Party cadres, too, seem to be in a state of confusion - very much unsure about the party's electoral prospects. While some analysts believe the split in UML could lead to the Congress' improvement, NC workers are not confident that they would be able to cash in on the UML disarray.

CPN-ML's district member Ek Raj Karki expects a mixed results this time. And there are many others who think the success of a party will depend largely on the fielding of candidates and not on the party's ideology or popularity unlike in the past when the CPN(UML) virtually dominated the political scene.

Harka Lal Giri of NC agrees, adding NC's showing will depend on who the party nominates as its candidates.

According to Dilli Kumar Mainali of UML, it is too early to predict. "The results will depend on the selection of the candidates," he says.

But they all know one thing. As in previous elections, Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP) and Nepal Sadbhavana Party (NSP) will not be serious contenders in Jhapa, and the battle will once again be between UML and NC, with the newly formed ML giving way to an interesting triangular contest.

Going by the representation in 47 VDCs and three municipalities in Jhapa, UML, ML and NC hold first, second and third positions respectively. NSP is fourth in the ranking.

After the split, UML continues to have a sway in constituency 6 and ML in constituency 2 while NC seems to be doing well in constituencies 4 and 5. And constituencies 1 and 3 seem set for a battle among UML, ML and NC candidates.

Meanwhile, NSP and RPP's vote is expected to play a decisive role in constituencies 6 and 4, and constituencies 3 and 6 respectively.

Observers say these equations may change and it is possible that electoral alliances among parties may yield unexpected results.

Subject: BJP and the Republican Party


"Saying the BJP is fundamentalist is like saying the Republican Party is fundamentalist, the official argued, because both parties have their extremist fringe groups."

How true?

Subject: NRIs in Nepal

<> NRIs in Nepal by C.K. Lal

Subject: Sadbhavana's Prospects


Present political development shows that political polarization between two communist factions may benefit other rightist forces like Nepali Congress (NC), Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP) and Nepal Sadbhavana Party (NSP)...........But country's political mood indicates that there might be a big backlash for both the NC and the communists..............Economically, too, CPN-UML's program addresses just a small faction of Nepalese society and large number of voters are isolated from it. This is one of the reasons, CPN-UML's strategists prefer alliance with RPP and NSP..............It will not be surprising if RPP and NSP may gain more by making alliance with the UML. Congress may have some advantage following polarization of the two major communist factions. But, the common man is disenchanted with the NC also...............UML's strategists hope of leading the party back to power, diminishing the influence of other communist parties which depends considerably on good performance in the terai areas. This is why UML is desperate to ally with NSP.............."We are talking with different political parties on the future alignment. We may share seats with any party except Nepali Congress," said RPP leader Rabindra Nath Sharma. "Informal meetings have already begun."...............The party has already sent its feelers to NSP and RPP led by Surya Bahadur Thapa to make loose alliance during forthcoming elections.............."CPN-UML will join hands with NSP in terai region and the party has already started informal meetings with NSP leaders," said a senior UML leader on condition of anonymity."...............UML is said to be strongly favoring alliance with NSP in constituencies in terai districts where Congress has a strong presence. After its split, the base of CPN-UML has weakened there...................Adjustment with NSP, the party believes, will substantially recover its position in more than ten constituencies in terai districts........."The strategy of all major political parties including the CPN-UML is now to isolate Congress in forthcoming elections and produce hung parliament again," said Krishna Khanal, a political analyst............Today,
(the UML) supports the free market economy, albeit with some reservations and liberal democratic values............Nepal Sadbhavana Party began its election campaign with an indefinite strike three months back............For the first time, all major political parties are looking for allies.....................

Subject: Poll Prospects - news clippings


Also, recent report of local intelligence confirms that.....According to the report, UML's position is such that it can win 65 to 70 seats, NC 85-90, ML 8-10, RPP 10-15 and RPP Chand 5-7 seats and NSP 5-8 in the forthcoming election.


"I don't think they need to be tested again as both old leaders were already exposed. How can we believe that Bhattarai and Adhikary are clean by evaluating their past performance," said advocate Prakash Osti.
"It is better to have Ram Chandra Poudel, Sher Bahadur Deuba, Madhav Kumar Nepal or K. P. Sharma Oli as next prime minister who are yet to be fully tested..........One of the most negative parts of Bhattarai's candidacy is that he is a man without vision and he looks into the past rather than into the future, said critics........As people are seeking for good governance, the capability of both candidates to deliver it seems hollow. Whoever becomes the prime minister, people can expect little to see a smooth way of governance.......Bhattrai's candidacy would have been different if he had shown some kind of courage to speak against corruption and involvement of his partymen in such practices......... their candidacy will only reflect the patriarchal thinking of Nepalese society.

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