The Nepal Digest - Dec 8, 1994 (22 Manghir 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Thursday 8 Dec 94: Mangshir 22 2051 BkSm Volume 34 Issue 7

               To the Students: Good luck in the finals!
               To everybody: Happy Holidays!

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**************************************************************** Date: Fri, 25 Nov 1994 09:33:25 GMT To: "Rajpal J. Singh" <A10RJS1@cs.niu.edu> From: SOHAN PANTA <K945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk> Subject: Past TND issues

I had recently volunteered to help in strore past TND issue and I am writing to clarify that at present I have all the TND issues dated back from 17/10/94 till this day.

I would be happy to pass it on to anyone who requests past issues. Thanks

Sohan Panta BSc Computer Science Kingston University Surrey

%%%%%Editor's Note: Welcome aboard Sohan ji. Your efforts are very much%%%%%
%%%%% appreciated by TND members. Please send your past %%%%%
%%%%% issues requests directly to Sohan Panta ji. %%%%%
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********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 6 Dec 1994 12:42:56 -0500 (EST) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: cheap talk

I do not who sent that article in, but it seemed like it should not be there. It is good to have sex eduacation and learn about it. Especially at this time of AIDS it seems essential. Maybe trying to find out how many people suffer from AIDS in nepal is informative,and what our government is doing for that.I know that many Nepalese understand the meaning of abstinence,and many have been following that. So, we do not have big sexual problems there.

What is the point of going into someone's personal life. How people have sex , is their personal choice.it is not of something importance to bring it in TND. It seems rediculous to see such things.How,when they have sex,why do we bother? I think it is not something good to bring things as that.She did her research and found out this good for her, she completed her assignment. But we are not interested inthat.I know many will suggest that if you are not interested just skeep it. No, it looks cheap when you have such a publication.

There are many talk shows here in T.V. which only shows who had affair with whom ? What Princess Diana is doing her with whom she had affair ? All these reflects the culture of that place. Cultuarlly we are very rich and we are supposed to have been civilized long time back. It is not our culture to get involved in what is going in others sex life and how many times they perform it. That was someone's research and let it be her research. TND, I suppose is not interested inthat.To preserve the TND culture,my humble opinion is maybe such articles are not for it. It is only my opinion, and I may be wrong.Any comments are appreciated.Maybe the person who put it in has mnay positive points to say. Let us hear .Thanks.

Nirmal

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************************************************************************ Date: Tue, 6 Dec 1994 13:52:38 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: New Cabinet Formed From: irc_rj@vax.clarku.edu

Two prominent UML people not to be included in the cabinet are Sahana Pradhan and Jhalanath Khanal. Is it that the UML, like NC, sees the ministerial posts as "rewards" for the contribution of its leaders in the pre democracy days? So as both Pradhan & Khanal have had their share in the cabinet led by Bhattarai, they would no longer be eligible for future enrolment? Or is it that Man Mohan adhikari is conscious enough not to make the 9 full ministerial posts a family "deal"? Sahana is his sister in law and his brother Bharat Mohan is already the Finance Minister not to mention the Mainali brothers. But how about the once outspoken Comrade JN? Is he being marginalised?

S Wagle,

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 06 Dec 1994 15:43:09 -0500 (EST) From: rpanth@uceng.uc.EDU (Ranjan Panth) Subject: Biased King To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

Dear Editor,
        This is in responce to an article about the "biased King Birendra". I do not have any comment on Ajay Pradhan's complaints about how G.P. was allowed to continue as the P.M. even after he lost a crucial vote in the house. I just hope the King can be consistant in that the day Man Mohan loses a critical vote in the house ( which I feel is inevitable), he will allow him to continue.
        I do disagree about Mr Pradhan's complaints about how the King allowing all parties to come up with 103 seats is "biased". You either have 103 votes or you don't. The King just wanted to know if anybody wanted to form a coalition government. If the RPP and NC stated that they wanted to do so and sowed necesary support, why should the King give the UML a chance when he knows 205-103=102 is the maximum support the UML can have ? If he did so, the UML would take over, form a govt., not be able to gain the necessary votes (because the NC and RPP want to form the next govt) and then he would have to repeat the whole process.
        Maybe this whole thing could be explained to Mr. Pradhan in a simpler fashion.

        We have 205 dollars on the table. Three people randomly divide the money. If my friend and I have a combined total of 103 dollars then that means you don' have more than 102.
        In such a case, giving you a month to show that you have 103 dollars when the King knows you don't is pretty stupid. So he just asks the parties involved if anyone can show a combined total of 103. There's nothing wrong with that.

        How can Mr. Pradhan accuse the King of being biased when he probably hasn't read the constitution. His accusations are baseless. He "assumes" that the King wouldn't have done the same thing to the Congrees if it were the other way around and blasts the King on that assumption. Pathetic!

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 6 Dec 1994 19:42:27 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Ke bhannay khai? To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>
                                                                
        Special thanks to Prema Oza and B.K. Sharma for their most recent contributions to TND. Prema writes:" How can [TND] allow such hurtful [to gays and lesbians] postings . . . [on the net]". And B.K. Sharma wonders whether TND could be kept garbage free, devoid of sexual content.

        Hurtful postings: TND is committed to the free expression of ideas and thoughts. Regrettably, that also means giving space to views that the editors themselves (who are all, by the way, BUSY, SLEEP-DEPRIVED students and professionals like all of you!) also find ridiculous, tedious, absurd or even offensive.

        Happily, their regret is tempered by the knowledge that ALL of you are highly intelligent and well-informed TND readers. And so it is to YOUR collective wisdom that they humbly appeal to -- to challenge, to modify and to comment on bad ideas with better ones, weak arguments with stronger points and prejudiced views with dispassionate analyses. After all, bad ideas proliferate when even good men and women like yourself with spelendid ideas keep silent, hai na ta?

        Sexual content: 99.999% of the time, TND is G-rated, approved for all persons of all ages. Still, such statistics aside, and to indulge in a purely tongue in cheek speculation, I think that the occasional sexual stuff emanating from a certain town in central Massachusetts may give hints as to what the second favorite activity (the first being, reading TNDs!) of one of our most prolific, well-informed, articulate, thought-provoking and lively contributors is. So, that's that :-)!!

        Garbage: Again, we appeal to your collective wisdom to NOT recycle cyber-garbage ad nauseum on TNDs. But really, that's a matter of individual preference over which none of us has control.

        Oh, testai cha jinda-gani. namaste ashu

************************************************************** Date: Tue, 6 Dec 1994 21:35:09 -0500 (EST) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: landreform and other issues

It was nice to read the discussion about land reforms. But how is the land going to be evaluated?According to the area or according to its value. Some landlords may have say around 20 ropanis of land in some village and nothing in the big city. Some other person may have only two ropanis in kathmandu and nothing else. Now,if we see the area then the landlord has a larger area but if you see the value the two ropani in Kathmandu is worth more. How is this going to be seen. What do Marx and lenin say in this I do not know. But it is hard to resolve this.

Secondly every party has to go through a acid test.There are two symtomps which will let us know what's going on. The problem that every party makes in Nepal is that they love promising a lot. They make too many promises. Acid test is positve; 1. If the party does more and says less. 2.Less meetings and more work

Acic test is negative; 1.If it once again blames the 30 black years and the past two years of congress. 2. Any change is seen in reality and not in statistics or speeches.

They have a very less time for this tough test. Litmus paper is on ots way, let us see. Wish they will succeed. Usually, empty vessels makes more sound,I hope that will not apply to the current party. A party may loose and win but always the sufferers are the people.I only hope a day will come when we can say Yes, we are finally progressing. Starting is half the battle won. Good luck to the new party. Any comments are appreciated. nirmal

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 6 Dec 94 22:44:54 CST From: sbshah@gumbo.bae.lsu.edu (Sanjay B. Shah) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: Land Reforms in Nepal

Dear Editor,
            
     I wish to add something regarding the issue of land reforms in Nepal. First of all, a small correction of what Amulya had to say about land
 owners colluding with King Mahendra to oust BP's govt.to prevent promulgation of land ceiling laws. BP's govt. was dissolved in 2017 BS whereas the first land ceiling act was introduced in 2023 BS. BP had more than his share of
 landlords supporting him not only from the Terai but also among the `upper caste', which makes the landlord-king nexus not very likely. Besides, why would the ex-king pull a fast one on his `collaborators' few years later? Regarding the issue of land reforms, I have the following submission to make
*Impose a fresh ceiling, but instead of confiscating the extra land outright give the landowner compensation in the form of Rashtriya Bikash Patra,
 accruing an interest and maturing in 10-15 years. The finance minister talked in a similar vein about giving shares in public sector industries. I personally dont find that very attractive but that is a beginning.
*Allow agricultural companies (private or joint) to operate farms for cash, vegetable, fruit crops, etc. Develop rules and regulations so that big
 landowners do not circumvent the ceilings laws using this as a pretext.
*Let the landowners have the choice of keeping or removing a tenant (mohi) from his/her land - but increase the tenant's share from 25 to maybe 50%. The tenant can atleast call himself a landowner and pledge his land for loans. The landowner may like to run a professionally managed farm, which will definitely yield better returns.

*In the hills, where the population is scattered wide apart, it is difficult to take the fruits of development to every household. Examine the possibility bringing them together, wherever possible, something on the lines of `Transmigration', as in Indonesia. But it has to a totally voluntary approach, no coercion.I think bi- and multi-lateral agencies. Start with a pilot district or two. I would like to add in conclusion that our poverty does not stem from capitalism but from feudalism. I agree that our concern should be the
 interests of vast majority of small farmers, who, if provided with a level playing field could do well for themselves. But I am sure there will
 be a niche for professionally managed large farms, that will concentrate on high value-add commodities for export. After all they have the economics
 of scale to their advantage.

Lastly, underemployment is the biggest problem in the agricultural workforce. That situation will only be alleviated when we have more industries that will cause a shift of labour from the agricultural to the better paying industrial sector.

Sanjay Bikram Shah sbshah@gumbo.bae.lsu.edu

************************************************************* Date: 06 Dec 94 11:50:38 EST From: "C. K. Tiwari" <74641.3624@compuserve.com> To: <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Nepal under Communist Government Message-Id: <941206165038_74641.3624_BHW92-1@CompuServe.COM>

                Post-Election Analysis II: Nepal Under UML

By Chitra K. Tiwari, Ph.D.

On November 30, 1994, Nepal's King Birendra consecrated the first Royal Communist Government(RCG) headed by Nepal Communist Party-Unified Marxist & Leninist(NCP- UML) President Man Mohan Adhikary. The formation of the 15-member RCG was made possible by the results of the mid-term elections held on November 15.

This article is divided into two parts. The first part will analyse and present a brief resume of events that occurred between November 24, the day of the publication of final results, and November 30, the day of the formation of the UML government. The second part will analyse the formation of UML cabinet and its future potential.

With the publication of final results on Nov. 24, Nepal, as expected, produced a hung- house (monkey house!). The largest parties, the UML and the NC, received 88 and 83 seats between themselves. On November 25, Friday, King Birendra, in accordance to Article 42 (1) of the Constitution, asked all 205 legislators to come up, by November 28, with a list of 103 or more members to form the government.

The NC has spectacularly received more seats than anticipated by many independent observers including myself. How did it do it? The answer I have gathered from different sources is: blatant rigging in counting. My sources tell me that in 18 constituencies UML's victory was turned into defeat in the process of vote counting. There is reason to believe in this. International Observers have clearly written their report accusing the NC party for masterminding election rigging in many places.

It will take months, if not years, for the election tribunal to decide on the complaints. But the last minute rigging in vote counting created a very different political situation in Nepal. Both the UML and NC emerged as leaders of a potential coalition government in alliance with Rastriya Prajatantra Party(RPP) which commanded 20 seats in the parliament.
  The NC's defeat (actually Koirala group's defeat) in the election led to the emergence of RSS (Ram Chandra, Shailaja & Sher Bahadur) in Nepali Congress. On November 24, while proposing for a coalition government with RPP, the RSS group rebuked both Bhattarai and Koirala at a CWC meeting for their statement in which they had made a point to stay in opposition while supporting the UML to form the government. Party President Bhattarai had argued that "RPP is still hated all over the country" and that
"democracy is safe in their (UML) hands." Forming coalition with RPP, in Bhattarai's views, was to further tarnish the image of NC. The RSS, however, was not prepared to listen to this seasoned argument. To them, it was the end rather than the means that was more important; the end being the capture of power by hook or by crook.

The RSS's hopes of forming a coalition government with RPP was dashed on November 25 when the latter rejected coalition with the former. Foreign powers, especially India and the Anglo-American group, reportedly played a significant role in trying to bring the two together. Why did the RPP reject an alliance with the NC? I will answer that question a little later. But now I would like to explore the reasons as to why the RSS proposed for an alliance with the RPP in the first place.

Why did the RSS propose for an alliance with RPP? And was it an independent move?

First, India did not want to see an UML government for at least two reasons: first, UML is a communist party; second, UML will not recognize India's avuncularism; thirdly, UML President Man Mohan Adhikary had publicly disapproved Indian Ambassador Professor Bimal Prasad's partisan moves.

Times of India had written an editorial couple days ago warning the parties of Nepal that any government that goes against India's basic security interest would not succeed. Despite UML leaders' assurances to respect India's sensitivities, New Delhi does not want to take a chance. It sees its security and economic interests safe in the hands of RPP and NC's RSS coalition. Indian Ambassador's hectic meetings with the leaders of RPP and RSS clearly demonstrated the extent of New Delhi's nervousness with the political developments of Nepal.

Second, western donors too were not comfortable with UML's plural victory. They wanted to avoid a situation in which they had to rub their shoulder with "commies." Besides this, they were nervous over issues of foreign investment and privatization. The UML manifesto's description of NC government's selling of corporations to foreigners as anti- national was a point for western fears.

Thirdly, the Rana-Thakuri landed aristocracy which controls the army in Nepal was not at all happy with UML's election manifesto which promises for the confiscation of illegal lands (i.e. over the limit prescribed by law) without compensation.

Fourthly, the coalition with RPP would give NC's RSS group a chance to promote their self-serving political ambition i.e. to be the Prime Minister; supporting UML would not assure this position.

Ii would have been crystal clear to everyone had there been a coalition of RSS/RPP that such coalition was the result of the maneuverings of foreign powers in collaboration with Rana-Thakuri aristocracy of Nepal. Whoever from the RSS may have assumed the Prime Ministership in Nepal in NC/RPP coalition, Nepali people would have understood that their Prime Minister was consecrated by foreigners: Shailaja by India; Sher Bahadur by Rana-Thakuri aristocracy and Anglo-Americans; Ram Chandra; mixed support of each of the above.

Five days of hectic negotiations with RPP bore no fruit to NC. The RPP categorically rejected an alliance with NC. But why did it do so?

First, NC continued to be divided over several issues. It could not produce its own parliamentary leader. Four persons, Ram Chandra Poudel, Ms. Shailaja Acharya, Sher Bhadur Deuba and Arjun Nar Singh K.C., were reportedly contending for the position. Koirala faction, too, was making a silent bid for Girija Koirala. In this situation NC could provide no more than confusion to its proposed coalition partner, the RPP.

Secondly, the RPP could not count on fragile NC which could split into two parties anytime. How could RPP trust NC parliamentarians some of whom had pulled the leg of their own government forcing GP Koirala to dissolve the House and call for fresh elections? There was no stability in the horizon in such a coalition.

Thirdly, the RPP had nothing to lose. They could not dream for Prime Ministership. Getting ministerial assignments, too, was not attractive to them because many of them had been ministers during Panchayat time.

Fourthly, and finally, the RPP's proposal for a national government based on proportionality, while acceptable to NC was firmly rejected by the UML.

Meanwhile, King Birendra, extended his deadline to 5 P.M. of November 29 for the submission of majority list in accordance to Article 42(1) of the constitution. As no one returned with majority signatures by the deadline time, King Birendra exercised Article 42(2) of the Constitution and invited Man Mohan Adhikary, the UML President and the leader of the largest party in Parliament to form the minority government as Prime Minister.

THE FUTURE OF COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT

Foreign powers' failure to strike a deal between NC and the Rana-Thakuri aristocracy led to the formation of UML's minority government. Opoosition parties have promised to give floor support to the new government when it will seek vote of confidence in the parliament within 30 days of the inauguration. Political observers have naturally raised questions about the viability of this government: will it last five years?
     
     A GLIMPSE OF THE CABINET

With the exception of Chandra Prakash Mainali, who holds the portfolio of Local Development and Supplies, all other 14 ministers belong to the "majority" group of the UML, although Adhikary brothers (Prime Minister MM Adhikary and Finace Minister Bharat Mohan Adhikary) are said to be middle roaders. Deputy Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal, who also holds Defense and Foreign Affairs portfolio, is considered to be the de facto Prime Minister.

This cabinet has already been criticised on regional, ethnic, and gender grounds. Attentive public in Terai has already begun to criticise the UML for not including representatives from Terai. Mr. Salim Miya Ansari is looked upon more as representative of Muslims than as representative of Terai as a whole. The four ministers representing Jhapa and Morang, namely, Radha Krishna Mainali, Chandra Prakash Mainali, Khadga Prasad Oli, and Bharat Mohan Adhikary, although representing Terai districts, are not considered to be the representatives of Madhese people. The ethnic representation is heavily tilted towards Brahmins with 8 cabinet ministers among them. Among the mountain tribes, only a Limboo and a Rai is included. Gurungs, Magars and Tamangs have reasonable grounds to grumble. Chhetris, whose population in the country is higher than that of Brahmins, too, are under-represented with only two State Ministers. Regional representation is heavily tilted towards eastern region followed by central, far-western and mid-western region. There is not a single person representing western region comprising Gandaki, Dhaulagiri, and Lumbini zones. Another major criticism has come, quite understandably, from the women's group.

Some analysts even maintain that the formation of this cabinet has violated the parliamentary principles by eliminating the members of the shadow cabinet ministers from the real cabinet. More than half of these cabinet ministers, including Deputy Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal, were NOT members of the shadow cabinet in the previous parliament. There is yet another State Minister, Hari Prasad Pande, who is not a member of either House of Parliament. Although it is constitutionally possible to include a non-member of parliament in the cabinet for a period of six months, critics have questioned his qualification for being "inevitable."

Still others have criticised the cabinet on grounds of professionalism. Many point out towards Deputy Prime Minister who also hold foreign affairs portfolio that often requires professional training and experience. Mr. Nepal does not have a degree in Political Science, International Affairs or diplomacy. UML insiders say that he was not even a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the UML that had been overseeing the developments in Nepal's foreign policy in the last three and a half years of NC government's tenure.

Reports of disgruntleness inside the UML along the lines mentioned above is pouring down into local press. The UML party/government leadership is reportedly trying to woo internal dissatisfactions by promising cabinet expansion after the vote of confidence which is expected to take place sometimes in the third week of December. A rumour to include 20 more persons as ministers is being currently circulated in Kathmandu.
      Irrespective of these distortions in the formation of cabinet, this scribe, however, is not willing to make any comment on the structure of this cabinet until it finishes its first 100 days or what is often called the "honey-moon period." It will be unfair to begin hounding a government which has not even started its engine. Let us not be cranky over whether the cabinet is balanced or imbalanced regionally, ethnically, and in gender terms at this moment. The cabinet personalities are young, energetic, vibrant and committed to country's stability and development. Let us give it a chance to enjoy its honey-moon before we make any comments, objective or otherwise.

***********************************************************************************************

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     THE FUTURE

In the last couple days UML leaders have made too many compromising statements in order to assure (appease? neutralize?) the traditional vested interests. They have struggled to convince India as well as the monarch that they will respect their sensitivities. Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary has wished to visit India first to sort out misunderstandings between UML and New Delhi's South Block. Western donors are told to "test" UML government for 2-3 months.

The minority government of UML will have a very tight-rope walk. It will be cajoled, humiliated, insulted by domestic and foreign skeptics. Western donors are likely to take
"go-slow" attitude in approving development projects. The lack of development projects means unemployment to thousands of literate as well as illiterate people. The opposition will be quick to capitalize on this and demand for another election. A resource poor government will be left with no alternative but to suppress the dissidence gainst the regime. In this scenario if UML government injures just ten persons during street demonstrations it will be enough to raise the specter of the violation of human rights in international forums. International community will forget NC government's slaughtering of more than 35 persons in Kathmandu and elsewhere in demonstrations organized by United People's Front in 1992 and 1993, and in Dang and Dhanusha just before the November 15 elections.

 Nonetheless, Nepali people's desire for a change has been realized. The UML has succeeded in projecting its image of an alternative to Panchayati absolutism and Koirala faction of NC's neo-fascism. It has to fight battle in two fronts: protection of nationalism and promotion of economic development. To do this, UML leaders ought to be creative in maintaining balance between the interests of India, the west, and domestic opposition.

*********************************************************** Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 14:34:10 EST To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: Prema Oza <ar490@freenet.carleton.ca> Subject: Re: nepal digest (fwd)

 
 could you please send me part I of 'female authors contributing to newari
 literature?'
 
 thanks

********************************************************************* Date: Thu, 10 Nov 1994 11:36:07 PST To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: raineyr@ccmail.orst.edu Subject: TND archives

          Hi there! I am a devoted reader of TND, and read with
          interest the postings by Nepali women on their experiences
          with Hinduism and patriarchy. Now I wish I had saved
          those... is there an ftp site or something where I can look
          through past editions and re-retrieve the ones I want?

          I think the discussion was early this year - sometime before
          summer...

          let me know, and thanks for your help

          Rochelle Rainey
          Office of International Research and Development
          Oregon State University
          503-737-6429p
          503-737-3447f
          raineyr@ccmail.orst.edu

********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 7 Dec 1994 10:17:29 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Post-Doctoral Research Position From: sharad@cern04.ce.uiuc.edu (Sharad Shrestha)

Hope this information will be useful to some of the SCN netters.

  Sharad M. Shrestha
  Dept. of Civil Engr.
  Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  sharad@cern.ce.uiuc.edu

                   *******************************
                   Post Doctoral Research Position
                   *******************************

                   Computational Fracture Mechanics

                   Department of Civil Engineering
              University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A Post-Doctoral research position is anticipated to become available early in 1995 for a 12 month, full-time appointment. The research activities focus on the ductile fracture response of ferritic steels subjected to explosive loading rates. Large-scale, 3-D finite element analyses of thick section plates containing surface cracks will be conducted to investigate the interaction of viscoplastic and inertia effects on near tip deformation. Computational results will be characterized in terms of conventional fracture mechanics parameters
(J and CTOD) and in terms of recently developed micromechanics models for cleavage fracture and stable ductile crack extension.

Qualifications include: 1) a Ph.D. in structural mechanics, applied mechanics or a closely related field, 2) significant experience in nonlinear finite element analysis, 3) working knowledge of F-77 (F-90 desirable), 4) experience on Unix workstations (experience on Cray desirable), 5) experience and/or formal coursework in fracture mechanics and 6) excellent oral and written communication skills.

To apply for this position and/or to obtain additional information, please contact:

                    Professor Robert H. Dodds, Jr.
                           2129 Newmark Lab
                   Department of Civil Engineering
                         205 N. Mathews Ave.
                        Urbana, Illinois 61801

                            (217)333-3276
                         (217)333-9464 (FAX)
                       rdodds@cern.ce.uiuc.edu

*************************************************************** Date: Wed, 7 Dec 1994 10:21:29 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Deupa Elected NC Parliamentary leader From: irc_rj@vax.clarku.edu

The unanimous election of Sher Bdr Deupa to the post of NC parliamentary leader (In essence, a Prime Minister in waiting) signals a promising beginning for a party that's been weakened. The willingness of the dissidents to drive their party to the polls amidst a rife speculation of a disastrous loss clearly indicated the strength of their refusal of Girija Prasad's leadership. Although, Congress did not fare too badlyin the elections and came out once again as the most popular party in the country ( It amassed 33% of the electoral votes while UML had 30%), people It was though sheer prudence on GPK's part to acknowlwdge his unpopularity
(finally!) with the dissident faction (which has a sizable clout in the party grassroots) and step aside, avoiding a potentially ridiculous political deadlock. I think, Sher Bahadur Deupa's election marks an official beginning of the so called "handover" of power to the second generation and has effectively reunited the party. Deupa is one of the founding members and one of the earliset presidents of the Congress's student wing NSA in the 60's and most of his shadow cabinet members are expected to be his contemporaries from the student days, most of whom already serve in the CWC. He has been active in the democracy movement throughout the 30 years being incarcerated and tortured numerously -It was an 'electrocution' of his tongue cells in Dadeldhura District Jail that has minutely impaired his articulation. He was though, out of the country, busy attending International Relations lectures at the London School of Economics when multi party democracy was reinstated in Nepal. But this opportunity he had of studying and seeing the West first hand has helped him have an international outlook and befriend Ktm based diplomats speaking fluent English in an amusing Dadeldhura accent. (Julia Chang Bloch was said to have attended his wedding this summer, to Arju Rana, a PhD and a member of the royal coterie) This has also given him a slight edge over hisclosest rivals,RamChandra Poudel and Shailaja acharya. RamChandra is though to be better than Deupa on ideological stances, intellect and popularity but the bloke from Tanhun lacks that statesmanlike panache, the Dadeldhuran Thakuri possesses so naturally. Shailaja is said to be a smart woman with a sharp tongue and the right connections but her dodgy private life has always been a drawback when it comes to commanding respect and establishing credibility among her party colleagues. Many view Deupa negatively because, Under his tenure of the Home Ministry, many innocent people were killed, often caught in crossfires between the police and the protestors. Had different strategies been pursued, many of these unpleasant incidents could have been averted and Deupa must take responsibilty for his ministry's folly but at the same time, one should not underestimate the dangerously provocative attitude of the UML and the satellite communists from Day 1 Girija Prasad took office ( No doubt, It'll go down in history as one of the worst oppositions seen in any post war democracy)

Anyway, If the comrades blow their chance, I wouldn't particularly mind recommending the top notch Sher Bahadur Deupa Esq., to become the top dog back home : Under him, His party deserves a second chance.

S Wagle London School of Economics.

****************************************************** Date: 06 Dec 94 22:12:55 EST From: Dudley Henderson <73750.241@compuserve.com> To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: homosexuality in Nepal

Title: Prema Oza Needs to Give Facts Not Make Statements

Prema Oza in a rebuttal to atuladhar's article on homosexuality in Nepal wrote:

>> The stats in India and the West show that
>> the majority of people with AIDS related
>> illnesses are straight people.

I am a practicing member of the health profession who lived and worked in Nepal for over 15 years. I have very strong opinions about homosexuality and AIDS that could not be changed by any argument of man. I have attended many seminars on AIDS from a health providers standpoint.I have looked over many stats on AIDS.

But, the main point of this reply is to say that as a professional I am used to seeing statistics accompanied by their source and then I make a judgement based on how reliable I feel that source is. For someone to make a statement as Prema Oza did above is absolutely ridiculous. Where did these stats come from, and if they in fact do exist, publish them and/or their source PLEASE. Let us make up our own minds from the original source in black and white. I frankly doubt that any such stats exist!

********************************************************************** Date: 05 Dec 94 12:46:35 EST From: "Chitra K. Tiwari" <74641.3624@compuserve.com> Subject: RE: political news and views To: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu

The dust appears to be settling. The UML cabinet is being criticised for ethnic, regional, and minority underrepresentation. It is also criticised for
"violation of parliamentary principles" of putting those in charge who were members of shadow cabinet. More than half of the new ministers were not in the shadow cabinet including Madhav Nepal. It is also criticised on grounds of professionalism. Here again people make comment on Madhav Nepal's training and experience to run foreign affairs.

About Sher Bahadur's election as opposition leader: I do not think India was behind it. Rana-Thakuri aristocracy and Anglo-Americans, I believe, were behind him. NC is fragile. By Falgun we might see new equation inside NC.

Two Ambassadors, Jaya Raj Acharya and Gopal Sharma (Germany) have resigned and their resignation has been accepted. They will return back to Nepal perhaps on second week of Jan. Others like Bharat Dhital(Tokyo), B.C. Malla (Beijing), Thakkan Malik (Burma) have been recalled. Others like Surya Prasad (London), Durgesh Man Singh (Brussels) and Lok Bd. Shrestha (Dhaka) have not been recalled nor they have tendered resignation. People say that they are hanging onto their posts on the strength of Ganesh Man Singh! But some UML guys are trying to recall them. Let see what happens.

All members of Planning Commission, except Dr. Binayak Bhadra, have resigned. I do not know why Bhadra is staying. No new appointments have beem made as of today. Similarly, GM's of corporations are tendering their resignation one by one or they are being told to do so. Gorkhapatra's GM is already gonegone. There may be a rat race for these plum jobs. Rest, my guess is as good as yours.

C. Tiwari

******************************************************* Date: Wed, 7 Dec 1994 19:37:38 -0600 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: rp18@cornell.edu (Rachana Pathak) Subject: Letter to Editor

In response to: 'Top ten reasons on why to be communist:'
(a41590a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp)

I do not question the author's stance. However, I would like to clarify and perhaps correct one mistaken point.(#2)

He has said:"See chinese goods are so good compared to indian with same price. Is not communism good compared to multiparty system. I hear riots , killing and separatism in India, but , I hardly hear such things from china. Tinan- man was because of American influence, it has nothing to do with chinese public."

The first point he ignores is that Chinese goods are produced largely by the People's Liberation Army(PLA) which is notorious for its unfair unemployment practices such as long hours, beatings, low pay, and child labor. Perhaps the reason that the PRC is able to produce such low price goods is the abominable work conditions men, women and children must endure.

He is clearly mistaken in his next point - that he never hears about
'riots, killings and separatism' in the PRC?? The PRC has one of the worst human rights records in the world. Amnesty International, UN divisions, Human Rights Watch and any other number of other reputable organizations can provide statistics of torture, violence, murder, sex crimes that unfortunately continue. Non-Communists, and minority groups (such as Tibetans or Hans) are suppressed politically, culturally and religiously as well.

The news printed by the PRC government is highly censored, filtered, and catered to appease scrutinizing Western eyes. It is propoganda. To use the PRC's government as the example - is to show ignorance of their situation, and to negate Nepal's own communist potential.
-Rachana Pathak

***************************************************************** Date: 7 Dec 1994 21:53:27 U From: "Hridaya Bajracharya" <hridaya_bajracharya@sec.educ.ualberta.ca> Subject: KURA_KANI To: "Nepal Digest" <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

REGARDING KURA_KANI

A CHILDHOOD STORY AND SCHOOL SANSKRIT I was about ten years old. One day, as usual after the day's activity of reading, writing, classroom mischieves, jumping, laughing, shouting etc. , I returned home from my school with a big apetite. My mom gave me plain rice touched with a "jhwain" of jimbu, turmeric powder and sarsyun oil all heated in a 'dadu' (spoon ?), some salt and cumin powder sprinkled on it after. It was really good, I even looked for the traces of oil burnt jimbu to nibble while scooping the light yellowish grains in between the fingers. The experience stimulated an unsatiated hunger for that rice until this event: Friday afternoon, I was home a little earlier to our "khaja" time. I tiptoed to the "bhanchha" (kitchen) at "buigal" (topmost floor), not to bring my mom up. I spied for leftover rice, and looked for jimbu and cumin powder, turmeric and oil were not difficult to identify. Silently, I lit the chulo
(wood burning stove), put up a tawa (pan) poured genrous amount of oil, spread jimbu and turmeric generously and did "jhwain" on top of the rice that I had in a thhal to my heart's content(big plate?). The "jhwain" did not however make much sound like when my mom did. The rice turned dull deep yellow as I moved and mixed, oil dripping out between my figers. Anyway, I added salt and cumin powder and settled to eat. I saw my tiny brother spying on me from the stairs. Who cares now? I was really in a hurry to calm my hunger -- I put a "gans" in my mouth. Yakk! How come it so bad? Last time my mom gave the spcial rice, I thought her little "kanchoos"
(thrifty). I had also wished for real golden rice shining with cooked sarsyun oil abundantly sprinkled with jimbu. Anyway, I had made it! I pretended it good and thrust more into my mouth as my mom alighted on the bhanchha floor. Her face brightened and then dimmed and then she came straight to my half finished dish and put to the sink, a cleaning "bata"
(tub). I was stunned. But she gave me some "dahi and chyura" and started to give a lesson while spying on the oil and spice bottles. She gave a persistent look at the oil bottle and almost sweated. Following evening, I seem to get the meaning of that sweating: I had to run up and down between our room and charpi (toilet?). By the evening I was sweating and I had a feeling that the sweat was coming from my bones. My father sat besides me giving some medicine to nibble with special water (chaulani?) and a lesson to learn: "That was really dangerous thing to do!" It would have been certainly more dangrous had I given that to my tiny younger brother who ever inquisitively followed me while I would be eating, specially if he was not eating something he loved. Well, this story was buzzing in my head since I got a response to my comment on Helen Abadzi's proposition regarding sanskrit and school curriculum, long time ago. I think the story resonated with the issue because of the similarity of hunger (desire) stimulated by the really nice experiences of the "jhwain" on the rice and of a moment of gratifying use of sanskrit. In both cases there were desires to make generous abundance of the "good things." What seemed lacking was the practical wisdom of a mother to make it just good; not only palatable but also suitable for the absorption capacity. What would have happened had I, possessed by thinking goodness of the rice, forced my tiny brother to eat. Just now I laughed at myself imagining the situation with a tiny boy from this city of Edmonton in place of my younger brother at that time. Certainly, good of taste cannot be universal. One really needs to have the practical wisdom of a successful, ever alert, and caring mother to nurture a child -- a young school student, to make the childhood enjoyable and livable, and let grow to a mentally and physically healthy adult. Hasty specialists ideas -- specialization based on a momentary touch of experiences and rational thinking -- might not always work, or even be dangerous as the case of our school sanskrit is in Nepal. Hridaya

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