The Nepal Digest - Dec 7, 1994 (21 Manghir 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Wednesday 7 Dec 94: Mangshir 21 2051 BkSm Volume 34 Issue 6

                 Election FLASH !

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********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 2 Dec 1994 15:47:47 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Need info about Annapurna region From: a41590a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp (GP)

Dear readers,

        Last year I have presented you a list of calibration chart who should join or wait for oppertunities to enter into Nepali political arena. I will present you another calibration chart with scoring system for each facts so that you can measure yourself, which political party fits for you. This time I am only writing 10 reasons why should you or myself be communist supporters. breakdown of score will be later, right now only these 10 reasons. In Next issue you will 10reasons get on " why should I be congress (NC) supporter. Lets see, but, you don't have to agree with me, any recommendations will be welcomed.

==============================(:_:)
        Why I am communist / communist supporter, my 10 reasons ! Reasons start from least important(#10) to the most important (#1)

10. I really know theories behind capitalism and communism, and I prefer communism because it may bring peoples condition better.

9. I hate congress partys' internal fights. I fully hate the previous Mandale and now RPP. So, there is only one alternative left out.

8. My rival is congress supporter. I can get ticket if I am communist.

7. I am land lord in my district but it worths less than few ana land in Kathmandu. or I can also save my land and property by vouching them. 6. I am from lower caste, hope communist will dismantle the caste sytem.

5. My phataha relative is Congressi why should I support him. I want to kill him. I want to slaughter them in the name of cultural revolution like in china.

4. I am zealous to Kathmanduties why these peoples have 3 wheeler
"tempo" and i can go home only in winter because I cann't cross river in rainy season since it does not have any bridge.

        Peoples in Kathmandu eat everyday rashabari and lalmohan , and I can't have a spoon of sugar to make "shell roti" even in tihar. They eat bashmati, we (remote district) have hardly enough food for 9 months. I am poor and Kathmanduties are rich, my house is "fusko", "kathmanduties live in house made of Telia eta)", communism may dismantle such differences.

3. My family members are communist follower, or the whole region that I live has communist hold, I cann't survive if I am against them. Or, there are enough congressies or RPP in my family, we can have benefit being one communist member, so that, fellow communist will not attack any of my family member

2 See chinese goods are so good compared to indian with same price. Is not communism good compared to multiparty system. I hear riots , killing and separatism in India, but , I hardly hear such things from china. Tinan- man was because of American influence, it has nothing to do with chinese public.
        Or, I hate India based on the propaganda by fellow communists, selling of Koshi and Gandaki.....blah...blah.... Indian cheap labour and vegetables in Kathmandu + other cities, afraid of "illusive" Indian
"Birtarbad-niti" during Gandhi family and suffering of the transit treaty, 2045-46. Only communist pary speaks such inconsistencies and congress party is silient in this regard.

1. I am below 25 years, also college student. My parents support my expenses I don't know what is parishram. I can spend a lot of time on marches, rallies and painting street walls and can say loudly "Murdabad..." because I was always forced to say "jindabad" in my school life. These activities are quite enjoyable in this young age.

GP-----------------

****************************************************************** Date: Fri, 2 Dec 1994 21:40:14 -0500 (EST) From: William Pusateri <pusateri@oberon.pps.pgh.pa.us> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - Dec 3, 1994 (17 Manghir 2051 BkSm) To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>

Todays issue is full of old news which is no news at all.

There are reports here stating that no PM has yet been chosen yet we know form soc.culture.nepal that Man Mohan Adhikari is he.

I enjoy reading TND but old new is like warm ice cream, no flavor.

***************************************************************** Date: 04 Dec 94 16:33:26 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News12/3-4 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

SOURCE: AFP

HEADLINE: Nepali Congress elects parliamentary leader

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Dec 2

 BODY:
   The Nepali Congress party on Friday unanimously elected Sher Bahadur Deuba as its parliamentary leader only two weeks after polls said he would never win, state-run radio announced.

   Seven other NC members of parliament initially contested the position, including former prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala and NC president Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, but all withdrew, paving the way for Deuba to take the post.

   Koirala and Bhattarai had both said they would act as the party's leader in parliament only if they were chosen unanimously.

   Deuba, 48, an MP for Dadeldhura district in the far west, said that his election to the post "had helped to preserve unity."

   He was home minister under Koirala's government, which was defeated in mid-term elections on November 15 by the Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist (NCP-UML).

   The NCP-UML, under Prime Minister Mana Mohan Adhikari, heads a minority government but has formed a loose coalition with the pro-Indian Nepal Sadhvabana Party and other left-leaning MPs.

   The new government must secure the tacit support of either the royalist Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP) or the NC to survive a constitutional vote of confidence on December 15.
---------------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: AFP

HEADLINE: Gurkhas could take over all UN peacekeeping roles

BYLINE: Justin Dear

DATELINE: HONG KONG, Dec 4

 BODY:
   UN peacekeeping operations, currently dogged by confused command structures and a lack of flexibility, could take on a whole new look if an unofficial proposal to use Gurkhas is approved, defence experts say.

   The proposal, which has found favour among some senior military leaders in a number of countries, aims to give the United Nations a military command structure it does not have at the moment so as to avoid much of the confusion and lack of decision which has plagued many operations.

   Under the present system, when the UN Security Council passes a resolution member countries pledge troops on an ad hoc basis with usually one country appointed to overall command, such as the United States in the Gulf War.

   But defence experts say this lack of command structure can create confusion on the ground, delays in deploying troops and makes decision-making difficult with so many different national military headquarters involved.

   Establishing a single unit would cut through many of the problems, they believe, and the British Army's Brigade of Gurkhas, with their hallmark toughness and high standards of discipline could be the ideal choice.

   The Gurkhas also have the experience, having already been deployed in places like the Gulf, Cyprus, Rwanda and Bosnia, explained Brigadier-General Mervin Lee, the officer in charge of the Brigade of Gurkhas, based in Hong Kong but undergoing a phased withdrawal to Britain.

   Lee stressed that the proposal was still very much just an idea.

   "Gurkhas are very good natured and tolerant ... (which would make them) the ideal type for coming between two warring factions, by setting a good example of tough soldiers who will act only when necessary," he said.

   Their reputation as some of the finest soldiers in the world, carved out of nearly 200 years service with the British Army, would also make clear to these factions that the Gurkhas were not troops to trifle with, he added.

   If the proposal were to go ahead, the Brigade would need to expand to around 15,000 men, requiring additional recruitment from Nepal, which has said that in principle it has no objection to the idea.

   The Brigade would be "funded by the UN and be on call to the UN, but based and trained in the UK," the brigadier said.

   "I cannot envisage, given the right equipment and training, any job which couldn't be undertaken by the Gurkhas."

   If the unit needed other facilities, like heavy armour, this could come from other British units who often will have worked and trained with the Gurkhas as part of their regular duties, he said.

   "Britain is good at providing military forces," particularly highly professional, small combined arms task forces, he said, "so why don't we market our ability?"

   It would also be cheaper for the United Nations by providing a
"package deal."

   At the moment because of financial constraints the army has had to cut units to enhance others. Providing these units for the United Nations alongside the Gurkhas could change that, Lee explained. "If you can enhance without cutting someone else ... surely this is to our benefit."

   The Brigade is currently being cut back in size to 2,500 men from about 6,500, partly because of cutbacks in defence by Britain but also because their base of more than 40 years, Hong Kong, is due to revert to China in 1997.

   But the brigadier admitted there could be problems as other countries might not like the idea.

   As troops on UN missions are paid for by the world body "many countries get hard currency from seconding troops to the UN," he said, and in the case of poorer countries they might well not want to lose an important source of revenue.

   Other countries might also feel that their troops could miss out on the experience provided by a peacekeeping mission, Lee added.

   "While in principle it's a good idea, in practice there are difficulties," he said.
---------------------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: DPA

HEADLINE: Share prices fall after installation of Nepal's leftist government

BYLINE: By Shyam Bahadur

DATELINE: Kathmandu, Dec 3

 BODY:
    Prices of shares on the fledging Nepalese share market have registered substantial falls since the installation of the communist government in the Himalayan kingdom last Wednesday.

    The stock exchange in the Nepalese capital came into being less than five years ago and even now less than four dozen companies and financial insitutions are listed.

    The prices of shares of the listed companies began declining from the time when the then Nepalese Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala, ordered mid-term polls in July of this year.

    On election day, November 15, the highest priced share at the stock exchange was that of the Nepal Indo-Suez Bank, each of which was selling at 2,450 Nepalese rupees (49 dollars). The share fell in value by 250 rupees to stand at 2,200 rupees on December 2.

    Almost all the other shares including bank stocks have suffered a similar loss in value and according to stock brokers, share prices have been on the way down ever since sharp differences erupted in the then ruling Nepali Congress Party in late June.

    The prices of shares handled by the Nepal Industrial Development Corporation (NIDC) capital market and the Nepal Stock Exchange had in the past risen without any justification and some observers say the present decline in prices was bound to come since the shares were overvalued many times over.

    Many other stockbrokers take the view that the real reason for the fall in prices of shares is political uncertainty.

    Sharebroker Parmeswore Bhakta Shrestha said people were worried whether the government of the Nepal communists, the United Marxist-Leninists (UML) will allow the stock markets to function in the country but he thought the UML government would not take any drastic measures against the stock market.

    UML leaders have been saying for some time that they would encourage market type economy and invite foreign investment into the country. dpa mb
--------------------------------------------------------------------

SOURCE: Reuters

HEADLINE: COMMUNIST NEPAL UNFOLDS MODERATE ECONOMIC POLICY

BYLINE: By Gopal Sharma

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Dec 3

 BODY:
    Nepal's new communist government will eschew rigid Marxist dogma while welcoming foreign investment and aid and promoting its private sector, the Himalayan kingdom's new finance minister said on Saturday.

   In an interview with Reuters, Bharat Mohan Adhikary -- brother of new Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary -- sketched an economic programme that was more social democratic than hardline communist.

   "We know the failures of the former Soviet Union," he said, adding that the ex-Soviet empire and China were not the only models of Marxism and Leninism. "We will translate our ideology to match the reality of our country."

   Adhikary, a lawyer and member of the commission which wrote the kingdom's constitution in 1990, acknowledged the minority communist government had little room for manoeuvre.

   His Communist Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) party won 88 of 205 parliamentary seats in last month's elections, five more than the outgoing ruling Congress Party and 15 short of a majority.

   "Since we are a minority government, we want to proceed on the basis of a national consensus taking up those areas where there is no dispute," he said.

   "Building up a consensus may take some time," said Parthibeswor Prasad Timilsina, an economics professor at Tribhuvan University. "The government may not be able to enforce any meaningful changes in the political economy."

   Adhikary, who comes from the moderate wing of the UML, said the government did not aim for radical change but instead wanted to be more efficient that Congress in distributing foreign aid -- Nepal's lifeblood.

   "Instead of bringing major change in the policy, I want to emphasise the use of the funds already allocated," he said.

    Nepal is one of the world's poorest nations with annual income of about $ 180 a head for a population of more than 20 million.

   Most of its development budget comes from foreign donors, particularly Japan, as well as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

   Adhikary said of 21 billion rupees ($ 419 million) earmarked for development expenses for the fiscal year that began in mid-July, only two billion rupees ($ 40 million) had been spent.

   "We are open for foreign investment," the new finance minister said. "I invite foreign investors to come to Nepal. We will give them legal guarantees to repatriate their earnings and security for their capital."

   Adhikary said he himself would hold talks with interested investors. "We want to open dialogue on what sort of atmosphere they want in Nepal for investment," he said.

   He urged donors to observe the government before lending support. "We are telling them to watch our performance, evaluate our programmes and deal with us from issues to issues.

   "If they are still doubtful, let them wait for two or three months and see our work."

   Adhikary said the government would focus on providing basic services like water, health care and electricity.

   The UML, he said, would protect private firms. "The state can never be a substitute for private enterprise," he said.

   But he said the state needed to protect infant industries, especially those competing with neighbouring India, and any liberalisation moves should serve Nepal's interests.

   Adhikary vowed to combat inflation. "We want to curb the corruption which in reality is obstructing the free play of market forces in determining prices," he said.

   The government will set a ceiling on landholdings, giving property to peasants, and pay "individuals whose excess land will be seized" with shares in state firms, he said.

*************************************************************** Date: 04 Dec 94 19:57:48 EST From: "Mark E Dunn." <75244.3106@compuserve.com> To: <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: nepalese Monarchy

My name is Mark E.Dunn and i am interested in the nepalese Monarchy, iwas wondering if anyone can send me the name of any books or papers on it,along with the authors name.All books and papers must be in english. I also collect pictures of the king,but it is very hard to get them in the United States.I was wandering if anyone could send me a few. I am mostly interested in pictures of him performing Royal duties, if anyone has one of him in military uniform that would be a great help. If you can help write me; My E mail address is 75244.3106@compuserve.com Snail mail 1615 Sterchi,st
           Knoxville TN 37921
           U.S.A

*************************************************************** Date: Sun, 4 Dec 1994 21:37 EST To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu From: asapkota@vax.clarku.edu Description: year of change

        There is a first massive change undergoing in the Neplese poltical horizon, since the revolution of 90, which brought a multiparty system in the himalayan kingdom; thereby ending the absolute monarchy. It was felt that the change would bring about a better life style among the poor Neplese people, better education, equal oppertunity, so called "human right" and most important the people felt that they would have a better government without (lets' say with little) CORRUPTION.
        All these hopes were like a castle of cards. Those people who lost their beloved ones during the revolution, in turn received NRs 25,000
(US$ 500) and the Neplese people got- state of anarchy, sky rocketin price, corrupted government, high inflation, more pollution, their leaders fighting for the chair, and on top of that the Neplese land and pride were sold to the hands of India (i am refering to tanakpur agreement and the common river issue). While this was going on, the opposition UML enjoyed the street poltics, throwing stones, setting fire to public proberties, destroying telephone booths etc. In other words instead of opposing the government action in cabinet, they turned everytinng into riots which helped in creating the state of anarchy in the country. Thus general public were starting to feel that absolute monarchy better, at least they were secured at that time, lets' forget about corruption. This is proven by the fact that the ex-panchas managed to bagg 20 seats in the election.
        Now that the UML has formed a government, the responsiblity of maintaining rules and regulations goes into their hand, so it can be hoped that the state of anarchy would be reduced, unless congress starts burning down the public properties. This change has taught an important lesson to the congress- they are not the only solution to democracy and that neplese people are not as dumb as they think. The communist PM will have a very tough time trying to fulfil their promises, specially concerning the land reform system when he has two mininisters (Radha Krishna Mainali and Chandra Prakash Mainali both from Jhapa), who are big landlord themselvs. Besides if all the people in nepal were to be provided land, then Nepal will have to start conquering Tibet and India as there is on other way. So communist will learn that it is not as easy to run a government as making fake promises.
        And other important change is the handover of power in congress party to the second generation. This is a step that is worth appreciation because now people will feel that congress is no more Girija's private property. Congress before was a very conservative party in the sense that the three supremos- ganeshman, krishna prasad and giriga tried to operate the party according to their will. If they agreed in some point then the party would have to follow that otherwise not. The views of younger generations were always supressed by these three. So the change in leadership has opened a new gate, lets hope that Deupa will not be like Girija.
        Finally it seems that the change that is undergoing in Nepal will have a positive impact, if communist government, as the aging communist PM has promised, will operate in democratic way rather then dreaming the so called 'communist dream' of stalin and lenin. If not, neplese people will be there to throw them into trash as they did to Giriga's government.
  Amir Sapkota Clark University.

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Sun, 4 Dec 1994 21:37 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Description: RE: year of change

In a previous article, asapkota@vax.clarku.edu wrote:
>issue). While this was going on, the opposition UML enjoyed the street poltics,
>throwing stones, setting fire to public proberties, destroying telephone
>booths etc. In other words instead of opposing the government action in
>cabinet, they turned everytinng into riots which helped in creating the
>state of anarchy in the country. Thus general public were starting to feel
>that absolute monarchy better, at least they were secured at that time, lets'
>forget about corruption. This is proven by the fact that the ex-panchas
>managed to bagg 20 seats in the election.
================ Amulya's comments: The above argument is problematic
  1. If all the "anarchy" wrought by communist street politics was unjustified, why did Kathmandu Valley return the communists with such overwhelming majority. It was arguably Kathmandu valley Nepalese that suffered all the
"anarchy" of communist street violence and State terror and violence. The congress party said this street politics was unjustified, the people of kathmandu did not buy this political opinion of the Congress.
  The Panche party did gain impressively, but instead of reading a national message in this, perhaps, it is more productive to look into local politics of particular constituencies: in Dhankuta when Surya Bahadur Thapa was allowed to campaign openly instead of being physically intimidated by the pro-democratic parties, he won based on his long years of investment there. In the west, Lok Chand won again due to long familial Thakuri links in feudal setups and basicaly collecting all the stamps of political favours they did to influential persons in their area, the same can be said of Pashupati and P.C. Lohani's visit, and one of the reasons for the rehab of Panches is really Girijs who interpreted this as national reconcialiation of B.P.
  The issue of political violence is very problematic, hhhow legitimate was it. The panches routinely suppressed political violence of pro-democratic violence of streets as anarchy and break down of what the King said "Aman Chayan". The congress has indulged in armed incursions as the communists have involved in cutting heads just as the panches have killed several street protestors. The question is not how bad the street violence is but how legitimate the protest. Ideally, in a working mature democracy, street protest has no place and all protest is channeled through the elected reps but that does not work always . Even in America, which can claim to a mature democracy, we had massive civil rights civil violence as we had anti vietnam violent protests, is this anarchy , Aamir. For Nepal, the first parliament was not working party. Ideally all the members are the soverign voice of the people which means the ruling party had the obligation to build a consensus on most matters of governing the country not shut out the opposition as if they had no legitimacy, the majority only gives them the privilege of executing their view in situations of irreconciable conflicts, and an accomlished politician is one who can achieve that. That Girija fell far short of this democratic ideal is born by not only the opposition protest on the street but protests by his own party and his own parliamentary colleagues, A fascist leadership was developming with the failure of democratic institutions such as the elected opposition and the congress party to check him. All this does not endorse street violence and I condemn perpetrators, both the State and opposition.
=====================
 
>to fulfil their promises, specially concerning the land reform system when
>he has two mininisters (Radha Krishna Mainali and Chandra Prakash Mainali
>both from Jhapa), who are big landlord themselvs. Besides if all the people
>in nepal were to be provided land, then Nepal will have to start conquering
>Tibet and India as there is on other way. So communist will learn that it
>is not as easy to run a government as making fake promises.
===========================================================
  Amulya's second comment: I find the argument of land reform also problematic. Land reform in Nepal is very difficult but a promise to try that cannot fairly characterized as "fake" just because they fail to do so. In fact the most radical land reformers in Nepali history was the elected Nepali congress govt of B.P. Political historians (see for instance Rishikesh Shah's "Nepal in Retrospect and Prospect" and Leo Rose and Joshi's "Nepal a Strategy of Survival") are all in agreement that it was the political combine of landed rural elite that got behind King Mahendra to oust him. Can the communists be blamed for trying to redo what B.P tried?
  Just because Girija fired Jagannath ACharya, his original Minister of Land Reforms for putting on notice his own Forest Minister Dhakal for land ownership over the legal limits ostensibly for tea plantation, does not mean the communists should not try. Yes it will be damn difficult, and very nigh impossible, but it is an issue close to the heart of the large section of the population that are farming small plots and not not generating enought to eat.
  About two-thirds of the Nepali people are surviving on 10% of the arable land on the country while the top 10% of the rural elite own and cultivate 60% of the country's arable land in plots over 5 ha in size. It is this rural elite that make the power elite of the country as Amir insightly pointed out, it is from these rural elite that the leadership of political parties, bureacracy, art and letters, professional cadre, the military is drawn up, so a change is really striking at the very roots of nepali inequitous social structure.
  Historical evidence shows that it is in countries like japan that the forcible land reforms introduced by General McNamara created the agricultural surplus that eventually fueled their industrial revolutions. Where this has not happened the rural elite continue to sap all the development dollars that come to the country as Devendra Raj Pandey in his article on The Political Economy of Nepal, in the Rana days loyalty to the STate was rewarded with land entitlements, after Nepal opened itself to foreign aid, loyalty to the State is rewarded with development dollars, in terms of access to project chiefs, development subsidies, NGO suppport and tha
====================
  In the end, I am very happy to read Amir entry into scn discussions. I commend his deep passion for the country and deeper insights and as a fellow Clarkie, I am very proud that he is so articulate. Amulya
===============
>Amir Sapkota
>Clark University.

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 5 Dec 1994 10:22:23 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: land reform From: sshakya@lynx.dac.neu.edu (Sunil Shakya)

1. In general the property holders especially the big agriculltural land in the Terai was gotten by government action. This was done during the Rana regime as well as by the Monarchy in order to keep the close relatives and courtiers happy. Meaning not all land acquistion was the fruit of entreprenural ventures.

2. The main reason for land reform should be faster economic growth and not to create an egalitarian society. Private property and ownership should encourage individuals to increase agricultural productivity.

3.The present land reform laws are counterproductive. Many rich land owners would rather see their land produce nothing, fearing that the person tilling his land may claim ownership.

Being a red blooded capitalist land reform meaning,
 redistribution of land for the sake of social equity is something I would not accept. But because of the our history and the present existing laws I would support the initaiative . Of course the ideal situation would be if the government used market forces to determine prices and utilized the banks and other private institutions to implement the programs.

I grew up in Kathmandu and have not spent much time in the Terai. So I am open to criticism. My experience of twenty years ago is worth noting. I was in Dang with my friend from school, and I was a little appalled to see how the landlords treated their workers. The kids, who also worked in the field were treated like slaves not a very happy sight. So if land reform initiatives bring in a little social equity it would be a desirable effect.

Mahendra Cambridge

********************************************************************* Date: Mon, 5 Dec 1994 12:31:51 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: land reform From: atuladhar@vax.clarku.edu

In a previous article, sshakya@lynx.dac.neu.edu (Sunil Shakya) wrote:
>1. In general the property holders especially the big agriculltural land
>in the Terai was gotten by government action. This was done during the
>Rana regime as well as by the Monarchy in order to keep the close
>relatives and courtiers happy. Meaning not all land acquistion was the
>fruit of entreprenural ventures.
=========== Mahendra, I think you are accurate here.
============
>
>2. The main reason for land reform should be faster economic growth and
>not to create an egalitarian society. Private property and ownership
>should encourage individuals to increase agricultural productivity.
=============== Mahendra, I like your brutal frankness. Fast economic growth need not be the counter of an egalitarian society: Japan, Taiwan, all had fast economic growth with land reforms imposed by the Americans, directly in Japan, and under threat of communist china and US indirectly in Taiwan, and egalitarian society, i.e. relative to earlier society was produced in which agricultural surplus was invested to fuel industrial revolution and economic takeoff. Sweden also has an egalitarian society so do many Scandinavian countries and fast economic growth.

I am wonderding if you are advocating the Brazil models and the Banana republics where fast economic growth has increased social polarization and environmental degradation or the US model where fast economic growth is accompanies with ghettoization of large sections of society and being number one nation to jail most number of people in jail, 1 million by latest estimates?
================= !oecos ha aosdpg>

>3.The present land reform laws are counterproductive. Many rich land
>owners would rather see their land produce nothing, fearing that the
>person tilling his land may claim ownership.
>
================= True. I know for example, supreme court justices designing nepal's constitution transforming their huge land holdings to agroforestry with state environmental project subsidies so their share croppers would not be able to claim a legitimate their share in the "jusko jot, usko pot" (He who ploughs the land shall reap the benefits of ownership) in the anticipated future when communist or even a left leaning government (which the NC was relative to the RAnas in 1960s) came to power.

The same was said of Planning commision honchos who turned their sharecroppers of generations to contract labour to deny them any ancetral rights to land ownership, Many of the congress supporters are big land lords who own huge chunks in Bardia for instance, and it is thises landless and near landless that have returned the communists to power.

Yet in the 30 years of development and opening up th coutnry to foreign aid, these rural elite have used their agricultural surplus to drive an industrial revolution. They have reinvested their income to consumer items of show and pomp and power. Many have used their income to send their kids to schools away from their villages to the nearest town, to the capital, the nearest city in Indian and now to US, so there is a net flow of surlus wealth from the villages to the urban cores, of the region, country, and thw world.

 Few have invested in industries and now complain that the Marwaris are taking over, Even fewer have invested in even agricultural technologies of improved seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, or irrigation despite massive state subsidies in irrigation, research and extension support, and orther donor support.

 Instead this sector of Nepali society has been the most regressive element investing in political power structure to maintain their power by controlling bureaucracy, the punditry of useless pontifications, the army and security services, the idelogy of development and nationalism in order to stem the tide of progress that has swept the rest of the world.

Oh yeah, they will continue to give more trouble, and we will see how things change, Amulya Clark
============
>Mahendra Cambridge

**************************************************** Date: Mon, 5 Dec 1994 13:54:13 -0600 (CST) Subject: NEIGHBOR WATCH (fwd) From:DGURUNG@clemson.edu Subject: NEIGHBOR WATCH

DEAR NETTERS: I THOUGHT THE THE FOLLOWING NEWS ABOUT OUT NEIGHBORS IS TIMELY BECAUSE OF THE RECENT POLITICAL CHANGES IN NEPAL. LET'S HELP OURSELVES MOVE FORWARD BECAUSE THE WORLD AROUND US IS SETTING A STAGE TO MOVE FORWARD AT A VERY HIGH RATE. OH, NO ! IT ALREADY SOUNDS LIKE A TOPIC FOR DISCUSSION IN TND. THANKS.

1. Survey: India to be largest market

   NEW DELHI, Dec. 1 (UPI) -- India will emerge as the world's largest consumer market early in the next century, a global business research group said Thursday.

   "Once fully open, India will turn out to be the largest consumer market and will also transform into a major global player," the Center for Global Trade and Development said.

   After more than four decades of a socialist-styled economic planning, New Delhi has ushered in a range of sweeping economic reforms aimed at attracting foreign investment.

   As a result, a vast middle class with significant purchasing power has been emerging in India over the past few years.

   And according to the survey, the United States and Europe will grow increasingly dependent on Indian consumers.

   "In such a situation, Asians can live without the United States or Europe, but the latter cannot afford to live without the booming Asian markets," the research group said.

   The group predicted Asian markets would grow to a size larger than that of the North American markets of the United States, Canada and Mexico or the European Union.

   India in recent years has become an increasingly important player in Asian business relations and will continue to grow stronger if New Delhi maintains its economic reform program, the research report said.

   The Center for Global Trade and Development, an independent global research group monitors the economic performance of more than 220 countries.

2. China is not Ready to Join GATT

     [This appeared in today's Montreal Gazette, Dec 2, 1994]
          Other Views - Editorials from Outside Canada

     Nov. 30, (Kansas City Star) -- China believes it is now ready to be admitted to the organization that oversees world commerce, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. This is a fantasy. China has made progress, but it has much more to do before it complies with GATT's requirement that members be "market economies."

     Business people in China face a web of conflicting and aggravating rules. Different port cities impose different import regulations. Laws of commerce frequently differ among provinces - sometimes even among municipalities....

     One of the biggest problems remains a lack of trading rights. A business wishing to buy a foreign-made machine cannot merely order it. It must submit its request to a government trading company, which may deny the request on the grounds that the country already has "enough" of that product.

     In a more recent example of China's fickleness, McDonald's Corp. has been told by the government that the 20-year lease it thought it had on its Beijing restaurant site is now effectively worthless...

     The real stumbling blocks are much more fundamental. China remains hostile to the idea of private property. It lacks an independent court system capable of overturning arbitrary decisions. It does not yet operate by the rule of law.

     China seeks GATT admission before Dec 31, because that would make it a founding member of GATT;s proposed successor, the World Trade Organization. Admitting China under current conditions, however, would make a mockery of the rules other countries are required to live by.

******************************************************************************* Date: Sat, 26 Nov 1994 00:06:50 To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: himalaya@ronast.ernet.in Subject: News

7:52PM 11/25/94

GENTLE(WO)MEN:

Attached herein are FOUR news items. Maybe of the interest of those who cares about Nepal. With best regards,

Sichendra Bista Journalist and Interdisciplinary ecologist himalaya@ronast.ernet.in Snail mail address: Post Box 6734 Kathmandu, Nepal

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

ACCIDENT-DEATHS

KATHMANDU, NOVEMBER 25: FOUR PERSONS AND TEN CATTLEHEADS WERE KILLED WHEN A NIGHT
 BUS RAN OVER THEM AT LAHAN IN SIRAHA DISTRICT,
 EASTERN TERAI NEPAL ON THURSDAY.

REPORTS REACHING HERE SAID THAT ONE DIED ON THE SPOT AND THE REST PASSED AWAY WHILE UNDERGOING TREATEMENT AT
 THE LAHAN HOSPITAL.

THE ILL-FATED BUS WAS PLYING FOR THE BORDER TOWN OF KAKADVITTA IN FAR
 EASTERN NEPAL FROM THIS CAPITAL CITY, IT IS LEARNT. END ITEM+

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

RULING PARTY STILL PLAGUED WITH UNCERTAINTY

KATHMANDDU, NOVEMBER 25: THE GOVERNING NEPALI
 CONGRESS PARTY IS STILL PLAGUED WITH
 UNCERTAINTY TO FORM A COALITION GOVERNMENT WITH THE ROYALIST NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY AS THE LATTER HAS NOT RESPONDED AFFIRMATIVELY.

IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE CONCLUSION OF THE
 RULING PARTYS PARLIAMENTARY BOARD MEETING IN PRIME MINISTERS OFFICIAL RESIDENCE AT
 BALUWATAR THIS AFTERNOON, PARTY PRESIDENT MR. KRISHNA PRASAD BHATTARAI MADE THE REMARK IN REPLY TO A QUERY WHETHER HIS PARTY WAS SHAKING HANDS WITH THE PRO-PALACE GROUP
 TO COME TO POWER.

IN ADDITION TO THE PARTY IN POWER, OTHER NATIONAL PARTIES ARE ALSO UNCERTAIN
 ABOUT THE DESIGN OF NEPALS NEXT GOVERNMENT, REMARKED MR. BHATTARAI, INFORMING HE HAS BEEN CONDUCTING DIALOGUES WITH THE LEADERS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF NEPAL UNITED MARXIST LENINIST (CPN-UML)
 AND NDP IN THIS CONNECTION.

LIKEWISE, PRIME MINISTER MR. GIRIJA PRASAD
 KOIRALA WHO ALSO ATTENDED THE TWO HOUR PLUS MEETING, TOLD REPORTERS THAT THE NEPALI
 CONGRESS PARTY WAS POISED FOR FORMING A COALITION GOVERNMENT UNDER ITS UMBRELLA OR PROVIDING CONSTRUCTIVE SUPPORT TO OTHER POLITICAL PARTIES TO END THE CURRENT
 DEADLOCK.

IN THE RECENT PARLIAMENTARY POLLS IN THIS HIMALAYAN KINGDOM, NOT SINGLE PARTY COULD MUSTER A SIMPLE MAJORITY OF 103 SEATS IN THE 205-MEMBER HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (LOWER HOUSE).

WITH THE RESULTS IN ALL CONSTITUENCIES DECLARED, CPN-UML BAGGED 88 SEATS, NC 83, NDP 20, LEFT WING NEPAL PEASANTS AND LABOURERS PARTY 4, ETHNIC NEPAL SADBHAVANA PARTY (NSP) THREE AND INDEPENDENTS SEVEN INCLUDING
 TWO REBEL CONGRESSITES WHO WERE NOT
 ISSUED OFFICIAL TICKETS.

IN THE DISBANDED PARLIAMENT, THE NEPALI CONGRESS CONTROLLED 114 SEATS, CPN-UML 68, ULTRA NATIONAL UNITED PEOPLES FRONT
 NINE, NSP SIX, NDP FOUR, NPLP TWO AND CPN
 (DEMOCRATIC) TWO.

IT IS MENTIONABLE THAT THE NC PARLIAMENTARY
 BOARD COULD NOT ELECT ITS LEADER EVEN
 TODAY AFTER THREE SITTINGS DUE TO THE RIFT AMONG THE ELECTED PARLIAMENTARIANS AS THEY ARE DIVIDED AMONG THE TROIKA LEADERS OF THE PARTY.

<TO SETTLE THE INTERNAL CONFLICT OF THE RULING PARTY, THE CENTRAL COMMITTEES MEETING IS SCHEDULED TO BE HELD IN SATURDAY AFTERNOON ALTHOUGH SATURDAY
 IS AN OFFICIAL OFF-DAY IN NEPAL. THE PARLIAMENTARY
 BOARD MEETING, TO BE HELD ON SUNDAY, IS LIKELY
 TO ELECT ITS LEADER AS WELL AS DECIDE WHETHER
 IT SHOULD GO TO POWER OR REMAIN IN OPPOSITION.>

AMONG 83 NC LEGISLATORS ELECTED RECENTLY, FIVE ARE THE FOLLOWERS OF SUPREMO MR. GANESH
 MAN SINGH WHO ATTENDED NC CENTRAL COMMITTE
 MEETING ON THURSDAY ALTHOUGH HE PUBLICLY
 TERMINATED HIS 48-YEAR OLD ALIGNMENT WITH THE PARTY IN SEPTEMBER. LIKEWISE, 28 BELONGS
 TO MR. BHATTARAI AND THE REST TO PREMIER MR. KOIRALA.

HOWEVER, THE CPN-UML PARLIAMENTARY
 BOARD HAS ANONYMOUSLY ELECTED PARTY PRESIDENT MR. MANMOHAN ADHIKARI AS ITS LEADER ON WEDNESDAY. GRIZZELED BEARDED MR. ADHIKARI, 72, IS THE ELDEST MP IN NEPALS NEW PARLIAMENT AND HERALDED AS THE FIRST
 COMMUNIST PRIME MINISTER AFTER THE POST COLD WAR ERA.

FOLLOWING TODAYS CALL OF NEPAL KING BIRENDRA TO LEADING POLITICAL PARTIES, BOTH THE CPN-UML AND NC SEEM TO HAVE ENTERED INTO A CUT-THROAT COMPETITION TO FRAME A COALITION GOVERNMENT, POSSIBLY
 WITH AN ALIGNMENT WITH NDP WHICH CAPTURED 20 SEATS.

ACCORDING TO POLITICAL SOURCES, THE SHAPE OF THE NEW GOVERNMENT WILL BE
 MADE PUBLIC BY TOMORROW AS THE DIALOGUES
 BETWEEN VARIOUS POLITICAL FORCES, HAVING CONTROL OVER THE LEGISLATURE, ARE STILL
 UNDERWAY TILL NOW. END ITEM+

ATTN.: MR. M.K. RAZDAN, PTI, NEW DELHI, INDIA FROM: SICHENDRA BISTA, KATHMANDU, NEPAL

NDP CENTRAL COMMITTEE DECISION

KATHMANDU, NOVEMBER 25: THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE
 MEETING OF THE PRO-PANCHAYAT NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY (NDP) ON FRIDAY DECIDED TO REMAIN IN OPPOSITION IN THE PARLIAMENT,
 ACCORDING TO NDP SPOKESMAN AND PARLIAMENTARIAN MR. KAMAL THAPA.

NEVERTHELESS, THE RULING NEPALI
 CONGRESS PARTY AS WELL AS THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF NEPAL UNITED MARXIST LENINIST HAVE BEEN TRYING TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE ROYALIST POLITICAL
 GROUP WHICH WON 20 SEATS IN THE RECENT
 PARLIAMENTARY POLLS, TO FORM A COALITION
 GOVERNMENT AS NOT A SINGLE PARTY COULD ACQUIRE ENOUGH SEATS IN THE LEGISLATOR
 TO FORM A ONE-PARTY GOVERNMENT.

ASKED WHICH SIDE HIS PARTY DECIDED
 TO ALIGN FOR FORMING A COALITION GOVERNMENT, PARTY CHAIRMAN AND FORMER PRIME MINISTER MR. SURYA
 BAHADUR THAPA ANSWERED THAT THE
 MATTER HAD NOT BEEN FINALISED, SO FAR.

MR. THAPA IS AN ELECTORATE FROM
 ONE OF THE CONSTITUENCIES IN
 THE MOUNTAINOUS DISTRICT OF DHANKUTA
 IN EASTERN NEPAL. END ITEM+

ACCIDENTS-DEATHS

KATHMANDU, NOVMEBER 25: TWO PERSONS DIED AND SEVEN OTHERS SUSTAINED INJURIES WHEN A TRUCK, FULL OF LOAD, FELL DOWN
 ABOUT 125 FEET BELOW THE ROAD IN PHIDIM, EASTERN NEPAL THIS AFTERNOON, POLICE SOURCES SAID.

LIKEWISE, A PASSENGER WAS KILLED AND 27 OTHERS WERE INJURED IN A BUS ACCIDENT IN CHITWAN DISTRICT, CENTRAL
 NEPAL ON FRIDAY.

NINE AMONG THE INJURED ARE REPORTED TO BE IN CRITICAL CONDITION AND UNDERGOING TREATMENT AT THE LOCAL GAIGHAT HOSPITAL.
 END ITEM+

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 5 Dec 1994 21:33 EST From: UDAY <UMANANDHAR@vax.clarku.edu> Subject: visas To: ST9846A@american.edu, nepal@cs.niu.edu

Dear editor/s:
        (The opinions expressed here are my own and the reader is encouraged to conduct further research on the matter to form her/his own opinion.)
        {Someone from the State Department responded to Nirmal Ghimire's posting regarding visas and I have quoted him however, I deleted the posting so I do not know this person's name so he appers as Mr.------. I know I am not giving proper credit but I hope I have explained myself. I would also appreciate it if Mr. ------ would identify himself}

        I would like to clear up some confusion regarding visas in Nepal. First of all I think it is important to distinguish between the branches of the U.S. Consulate and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) :

__________________________________________________________________________ Department of Justice | Dept. of State Immigration & Naturalization Service | U.S. Consulate (INS)
__________________________________________________________________________

        It is crucial to remember that the U.S. Consulate Office has nothing to do with the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) except at the general policy level regarding immigration. The INS comes under the Department of Justice and the US Consulate office comes under the Department of State. This distinction is very important to remember. In other words it is just like the distinction between the CIA and the FBI. Why is this distinction important?
        The reason is that there have been plenty of evidence to show that the INS is more liberal in granting a proper status
(especially to students) than the Consulate Office is in giving out a visa. I will not give specific examples. If you need specific examples send me an email. It is also true as Mr. ----
-- pointed out that "the consular officials are trying to carry out the law from outside the US rather than here." This is why in a US Consulate office an "alien" has no right and the Consul has every right. The only right an "alien" has is to re- apply for a visa. In fact the Consul is so powerful that he/she can deny an "alien" a visa and does not have to explain why. In visa matters the Consul is more powerful than the U.S. Ambassador in that country so just because your father/mother knows the Ambassador don't expect to get a visa. (Although once you can rub nose with the Ambassador you know you're there!!).
        Mr. ------ is also right in pointing out that,
"Unfortunately, the return rate for people from developing countries is very low..." therefore it is not uncommon that you will find the US Consul being openly racist and humiliating just because you are from a developing country. (Again, if you want specific examples send me an email). If you know of a way to be white it really helps! (Again, send me email for examples).
        It is also necessary to get anunderstanding of the so called
"jurisdiction" when it comes to visas. If the U.S. Consulate denies you a visa it is quite inappropriate to blame the INS for it because of the reasons I have pointed out earlier. When you go to apply for a visa at a U.S. Consulate office you are at the "Jurisdiction" of the Department of State and will have to play by its rules. For example, you as an "alien" cannot hire an American lawyer to sue the U.S. Consul. The Consul can stretch the law as he or she wants. For example you have to show evidence to the Consul that you are going to come back (Isn't this absurd, I wonder what U.S. lawmakers think of this phrase - it would be a good survey question) and it is up to the Consul to decide whether the evidence is convincing enough. The Consul will also assume that you are guilty and it your job to prove that you are innocent (unlike in the U.S.). By that I mean the Consul will assume that you plan to immigrate to the U.S. and you have to prove that you are not going to do that. By the way just because a US Consul denies you a visa there is no reason to feel guilty or feel like you have done something wrong.
        When a Consulate gives you a visa it is merely a pass for you to go past the port of entry here in the U.S. Once you enter the U.S. the visa essentially means nothing. The rules of the game change immediately. The "pass" that rules is the I-94 that you get from the INS which is usually marked D/S which means that you can stay in the U.S. as long as it takes you to complete your education provided that you do not fall out of status. For F-1 students one requirement of being on status is remaining a full time student. (This is one reason the U.S. Consulate in Kathmandu wants to see your transcript when you come back in the middle of your education to visit before renewing your visa. By the way the fact that you do not have good grades can be grounds for denial of a visa. ( My personal suggestion here is that maybe there should be a provision that students should apply to the U.S. Consulate before they apply for admission to any colleges in order to get "cleared" because if you spend so much time and money applying to a U.S. school and you cannot go because you did not get a visa! That would be quite a bummer wouldn't it??)
        But once you have your I-94 then you have the right to hire an American lawyer to prove your case. Then you are governed by the "jurisdiction" of the INS which is required to listen to your case before "booting you out." We all know that lawyers are the rulers in the U. S. so get a good one. So please don't blame the INS because you are denied a visa in Kathmandu!
        Finally, it is important to remember that since all employees of the U.S. Consulate are employees of the Department of State, their paycheck is paid by the American people. They are not a private company so they do not have the right to do whatever they want. If you have a case that is really worth pressing for go to the American people. I mean get your American friends to write to their Senators, their newspapers (The Washington Post, The Christian Science Monitor, The New York Times), their TV people (like you know, 60 Minutes,, Opera Winfrey (this might be misspelled, I do not watch her, I have only heard her name). If you keep begging to the Consul I can guarantee that you are playing a dead end game. Even the President of the U.S. has had to "tame" himself a little because he does not have a majority in the House or the Senate. If the American people can "tame" the President what do you think they can do to an American Consul?????
        In the end remember this fact especially if you are paying full tuition. "The US Department of Commerce ranks college education as the nation's fifth-largest export. Last year, foreign students spent more than $6 billion for tuition, room and board." (The Christian Science Monitor, Nov. 29, 1994). If all foreign students stopped coming to the U.S. it would be a
"threat to U.S. national security (!!?!!??)" and you know what the U.S. is willing to do to "protect it's national security."

Again, do your own research. This is my personal opinion and of course is not even an attempt to interpret U. S. foreign policy

Uday Manandhar Clark University umanandhar@vax.clarku.edu

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