The Nepal Digest - Dec 4, 1994 (18 Manghir 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Sunday 4 Dec 94: Mangshir 18 2051 BkSm Volume 34 Issue 3

                 Election FLASH !

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************************************************************* Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 09:11:29 -0600 (CST) From: Padam Sharma <sharma@plains.NoDak.edu> Subject: (Copy) WTN News 94/11/26 02:00 GMT (fwd) To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Please discard this item if Gurungji has sent a copy to TND. Padam

From:DGURUNG@clemson.edu To: SHARMA@PLAINS.NODAK.EDU Subject: (Copy) WTN News 94/11/26 02:00 GMT

                            Deutsche Presse-Agentur

                    November 23, 1994, Wednesday, BC Cycle
                          14:05 Central European Time

SECTION: International News

DATELINE: Kathmandu, Nov 23

 BODY:
    Mohan Adhikari, septuagenarian president of Nepal's communist party, the United Marxist-Leninists (UML) was elected party leader Wednesday, paving the way for King Birendra to call on him to form the country's next government.

    The UML has emerged as the largest party in parliament after winning 88 seats in the 205 member house but is has been unable to secure the 103 seats needed to form the government on its own.

    In a statement issued after Wednesday's meeting, the UML urged all political parties and political "forces" in the country to cooperate with a future UML government.

    The UML is to form a government with the support of the National Democratic Party or else with the backing of dissident members of the outgoing Nepal Congress Party which has won 82 seats.

    The parliamentary UML comprising 69 of the newly elected members and members of the upper house elected Adhikari as its leader at a meeting held in the Nepalese capital.

    With only one outstanding constituency result in Tuesday's polls still to be declared, the National Democratic Party has 20 seats, the Nepal Workers and Peasants Party four seats, the Pro-India Nepal Sadbhabana party three seats and independents seven seats.

    Mohan Adhikari, who has been largely a UML figurehead for the past three and half years, became president of the UML when the Nepal Communist Party, of which he was the chief, merged with the powerful Marxist-Leninists to form the United Marxist-Leninists just prior to the elections in 1991.

    Adhikari began his politics at the age of 16, taking part along with the old Nepali Congress leaders in the "quit India" movement in India. During this time he was imprisoned by the British for 18 months in Varanasi. He joined the Communist Party of India in 1942 and was associated with the party for four years.

    On his return to Nepal from India in 1947, he agitated against the Rana regime of the day and was imprisoned for three years. He was jailed for a further three years under the partyless Panchayat dispensation from 1960 to 1967.

    Adhikari's health is reported to be frail and he is said to suffer periodically from asthma.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3. Nepal may turn into the world's first communist monarchy
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

                            Deutsche Presse-Agentur

                    November 23, 1994, Wednesday, BC Cycle
                          14:17 Central European Time

SECTION: International News

BYLINE: By Heinz-Rudolf Othmerding

DATELINE: New Delhi, Nov 23

 BODY:
    The recent success of the communists in parliamentary elections in Nepal may well result in a political constellation previously unknown the world over - a communist monarchy.

    King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev of Nepal is expected to formally hand over the task of forming a government to the communists, the strongest faction in Kathmandu's parliament, during the course of the week.

    Mohan Adhikari, the 73-year-old President of the Nepal's communist party, the United Marxist Leninists (UML), was elected Wednesday to head the UML party in parliament and is being tipped for the post of prime minister.

    The fact that communists are to play a decisive role in shaping the fate of one of the poorest countries in the world has several reasons and is set to have repercussions on political structures even beyond Nepal's borders.

    The key to understanding the victory of the communists in Nepal lies mainly in India. Since independence, the powerful neighbour has meddled in Nepalese internal affairs and was perceived by many Nepalese as unbelievably arrogant.

    The election results may also be seen as the direct consequence of what many saw as violations of Nepal's sovereignty by Indian authorities.

    More than once, Indian policemen followed suspects well into Nepal without official permission and even arrested them there. Nepalese goods in transit were inordinately delayed in Calcutta several times.

    Nepal has complained that the Indian Air Force illegally overflew Nepalese territory.

    Furthermore, Nepal is also contractually obliged to consult India in matters realting to foreign policy and of military significance.

    Most Nepalese say their hair stands on end whenever New Delhi speaks of the "special relations" between the Hindu kingdom and Hindu-majority India.

    Playing on such sentiments, the communist election campaign labelled India's attitude "Big Brother behaviour" and the party announced that it would protect against it more consequentially in future so as to preserve the honour of Nepal.

    Adhikari also promised that all contracts with India would be re-examined and work permits made compulsory for all Indians in Nepal. Up to now, borders between the two countries have been open and not even a passport was required for Indians visiting Nepal.

    Nepal's communists are essentially nationalist-oriented - their radicalism manifests itself largely in launching verbal attacks on the Indian neighbour - but in western terms they could be classified as upright social democratic.

    They promise land reforms but understand them as part of an overall privatization package. They also accept the constitutional monarchy and all democratic parliamentarian rules of the political game.

    "Though ideals and idealism can be based on classical communism, life is not classical," Adhikari once remarked to his supporters.

    And aware that the poor Asian state will not be able to survive for long without financial aid, the communists have also been reassuring international funding agencies and project partners at every available opportunity.

    So the ascent of the "red star over the Himalayas" may not be as dramatic as it sounds even though it may have repercussions on the field of foreign policy. But the cooling-off of relations with India is expected to be balanced by an improvement in links with China.

    Kathmandu's "equidistance" from both Beijing and New Delhi, as announced by the Nepalese communist party, may lead to a stronger presence in Nepal of
- for instance - Chinese development experts.

************************************************************************* To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: a41590a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp (GP)

Why I selected the above title in this posting is clear from following statements made by someone but the somewhere is not elsewhere, were addressed to graduating students who are now my fellow almuni-members of AIT Almuni association. here are the excerpts from his speech.

        "The Nepal [I changed it from the word "World"]
          looks upon you, my young friends,
           to provide leadership and
            a pool of telents and
             dedicated
                scientists and engineers ...........

                  You will have to be
                    a little bold and
                      daring because
                        a challenge of this
                          magnitude demands
                            courage,
                              foresight
                                 and vision." ----Mr. HA,
                                                        ref. AIT REVIEW
                                                        pp.17, Vol. 33(3).

My comments:

Mr. HA , unfortunately , forgot the professionals who are so called directly responsible peoples to make our world or nepali society, i.e. social sciences ? Why he is so biased towards scientists and engineers... My investigation is that he might have tired with the promises made by our social science peopels with the public. They always blame their failure to someone else . They can say that every problem in a society are problem specific and large numbers of paramets , thus the blames goes to one or several ficticious parameters . Such example is Girija babu, who dumps his unsuccess on his intra-party or inter-party rivals. After he is going to be elected by dumping likewise.

On the other hand, Mr. HA knew that the scientists and engineers don't make promise beforehand, they do it and if fails s/he will be damned forever. Thus, time has come for the scientist and engineers to go beyond the computer screen and laser printer or laboratory . They (Sc. and Er.) should reach to the people, puSH the peoples like Girija babu away and hold the power to get the things done. I think that is what he wanted to indicate.

So, you have to be a little bold and daring because a challenge of this magnitude demands courage , foresight and vision. Shall we, or we are going to be "latter-type Gurkha lahure" As Ashu mentioned sometime back.

I courage flames to improve my imunity power.

Jai Nepal. Jai Machapuchre and phewa tal.

GP

******************************************************************* From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: rturner@rainbow.rmii.com (Randall Turner)

The study on Sex and women in Nepal was fascinating. From what I saw while I was there (and living with two families) your right on. My only question is how Elaine actually got the women to talk about it? I found fear of pregnancy to be one of the top concerns of the women I know and the conversation I had led to a woman describing how much she was willing to avoid marriage because of this.

As to the fatigue-right on. The women I saw were constatntly working! I'm glad that this area is being explored and researched.I only wish more women in Nepal could see it.

Carin

*********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 11:50:22 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepali word for 'butterfly' From: atuladhar@vax.clarku.edu

In a previous article, nextug@ac.dal.ca (Christopher Majka) wrote:
>Hi folks!
>
>Could some kind soul out there tell me what the Nepali word
>for 'butterfly' is and what its possible etymology is?
>
>With thanks!
>
>Christopher Majka
>nextug@ac.dal.ca
==================

The Nepali word for "butterfly" is "putali". Lately I have read "putali" being used to refer discreetly, a little coyly to the vulva, or the outer vaginal area of women. I guess the etymological connection is the common source word'
"puti" or vagina in \Nepali word. For readers who would doubt this, I refer them to pen name Vatsayana who writes a sex column in the popular Nepali weekly, "punarjagaran".

I do not know the etymological pedigreee of "puti" and "puti_ali". I refer you to Turner's definitive work of Nepali-English dictionary which I understand is the best work on the Nepali linguistics available to English readers. I do not know even if both words have "Sanskritic" origin because the "propa" sanskrit word for vagina is "yoni". Both words, "puti" and "putali"are very popular colloquial lexicons. "Putali" is also in popular vernacular to describe an effigy, "putali jalaune" is burning an effigy, and, that, communists have done to the effigy of girija ad nauseum. Perhaps, the sanskrit and nepali linguists among us would care to enligthen us? amulya

************************************************************************** Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 11:52:38 -0500 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepalese king calls for house majority to elect premier

KATHMANDU, Nov. 25 Kyodo

     King Birendra on Friday called on members elected to the Nepalese House of Representatives to establish a majority in the house so that a new prime minister could be appointed.
     An announcement from the royal palace said a submission claiming such a majority should be made to the king by any member.
     Birendra, who is a constitutional monarch, made the call after official results of Nepal's general elections last Tuesday showing no party won a clear majority were submitted to him by the national elections commission on Thursday.
     The king the same day also held consultation on the matter with six leaders of Nepal's mainline political parties.
     According to the Nepalese constitution, the king appoints the leader of the political party with the majority of the seats in the 205-member parliament as the prime minister.

*************************************************************** Date: Mon, 28 Nov 94 11:33:12 EST From: PSHRESTH@MIAMIU.ACS.MUOHIO.EDU Subject: Budhanilkantha School To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

This is in response to a recent article by Mr. A. Tiwari concerning education i n Nepal, particularly in Budhanilkantha School. Although,I found his over all point of view reasonable, there were a few things he wrote that bother me. He writes "...rather than create a educational heiarchy that schools like BKS promote with taxpayers' money..... other and more important issues that the govt. must be worried about than funding one school." Saying this would be implying that the money provided to BKS by the govt. is somehow being "mis used". Perhaps, you are not aware of where that money goes or how it is used up. Being a BKS grad, I can tell you that the "taxpayers' money" goes into providing funding for high ly qualified students from very remote parts of Nepal who would otherwise be certainly unable to afford a quality education. One of the many ways to see that this money is not misused is simply to consider the igh academic stantards achieved and maintained by BKS. To me, that sounds like

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Subject: no subject (file transmission) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 12:15:41 -0500 (EST)

Nepali king calls for end to political uncertainty

KATHMANDU, Nov. 28 Kyodo

     Nepal's King Birendra repeated his call Monday for parliamentarians to achieve majority support and end the uncertainty over formation of a new government.
     None of the 205 legislators elected to the house in the Nov. 15 polls has so far submitted to the king a list of the 103 members needed to form a majority government despite a call by the monarch last Friday, a royal palace announcement said.
     The uncertainty should not be allowed to continue for much longer and legislators should make a submission to the king by Tuesday evening, the announcement added.
     According to the Nepalese Constitution, the king appoints as prime minister the leader of the political party which has the majority of seats in the parliament.
     If no one party has a clear majority in the House of Representatives, the king can appoint as prime minister any member who is able to command a majority with the support of two or more parties.
     Should that not happen, the leader of the party that holds the largest number of seats in parliament is appointed premier.
     The premier thus appointed should, however, obtain a vote of confidence from the parliament within 30 days.
 
********************************************************** Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 11:19:20 -0600 (CST) From: SUDEEP ACHARYA <sa01@engr15.engr.uark.edu> Subject: To: The Editor <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Sameer Khati is looking for Ashish Sherchan (ex St. Xaviers, was doing Bachelors in Kathmandu, heard to be in Texas). If anybody knows him please e-maill to Sameer Khati sk9999@NebrWesleyan.edu

Thank you Sudeep Acharya sa01@engr.uark.edu

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 13:09:09 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepali congress making last ditch effort to form gov't From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha)

                     KYODO NEWS INTERNATIONAL
           Copyright (c), 1994 KYODO News International

  1 Nov 27 12:56 Ruling NCP making last ditch effort to form gov't
  

12:56 Ruling NCP making last ditch effort to form gov't

KATHMANDU, Nov. 27 Kyodo

     The ruling Nepali Congress Party (NCP) is making a last-ditch effort to form the kingdom's next government in coalition with opposition parties, NCP spokesman Taranath Ranabhat said Sunday.
     NCP leaders, who held consultations with the opposition parties on a possible coalition, apprised elected party members of progress made in the talks at a meeting.
     Ranabhat told reporters afterward that NCP leader Ramchandra Poudel had held talks with the Nepal Communist Party Unified Marxist-Leninist (NCP-UML), while lawmaker Sher Bahadur Deuba held negotiations with the National Democratic Party (NDP) on the matter.
     The NCP-UML won 88 seats, the largest number, and the NDP got 20 seats in Nepal's 205-member House of Representatives in last week's general elections. The NCP won 83 seats.
     The NCP-UML has rejected an invitation made by the NCP to join it in a coalition government, the spokesman said.
     The NCP-UML has remained steadfast in its position of forming Nepal's next minority government on its own.
     Ranabhat said talks were underway with the center-right NDP for a coalition government with some progress reported.
     For its part, the NDP has publicly stated the party will opt to be in the opposition though it may not loose sight of the need of maintaining stability.
     Ranamhat said the NCP might still take three to four days before it gives up trying to form the next government.
     Should the NCP fail, King Birendra will invoke Clause 2, Article 42 of the Nepalese Constitution and call on the leader of parliament's largest party to form the next government.
     The NCP-UML has already elected Man Mohan Adhikari as its leader in the house.
     Ranabhat said the NCP is not in a hurry to choose its new leader to replace Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala.

********************************************************************** From: Darshan Rauniyar <darshan@smtpmail.orcad.com> To: Nepal Digest-Contributions <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Nepal may turn into the world's first communist monarchy Date: Mon, 28 Nov 94 10:58:00 PST

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Nepal may turn into the world's first communist monarchy
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

                            Deutsche Presse-Agentur

                    November 23, 1994, Wednesday, BC Cycle
                          14:17 Central European Time

SECTION: International News

BYLINE: By Heinz-Rudolf Othmerding

DATELINE: New Delhi, Nov 23

 BODY:
    The recent success of the communists in parliamentary elections in Nepal may well result in a political constellation previously unknown the world over - a communist monarchy.

    King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev of Nepal is expected to formally hand over the task of forming a government to the communists, the strongest faction in Kathmandu's parliament, during the course of the week.

    Mohan Adhikari, the 73-year-old President of the Nepal's communist party, the United Marxist Leninists (UML), was elected Wednesday to head the UML party in parliament and is being tipped for the post of prime minister.

    The fact that communists are to play a decisive role in shaping the fate of one of the poorest countries in the world has several reasons and is set to have repercussions on political structures even beyond Nepal's borders.

    The key to understanding the victory of the communists in Nepal lies mainly in India. Since independence, the powerful neighbour has meddled in Nepalese internal affairs and was perceived by many Nepalese as unbelievably arrogant.

    The election results may also be seen as the direct consequence of what many saw as violations of Nepal's sovereignty by Indian authorities.

    More than once, Indian policemen followed suspects well into Nepal without official permission and even arrested them there. Nepalese goods in transit were inordinately delayed in Calcutta several times.

    Nepal has complained that the Indian Air Force illegally overflew Nepalese territory.

    Furthermore, Nepal is also contractually obliged to consult India in matters realting to foreign policy and of military significance.

    Most Nepalese say their hair stands on end whenever New Delhi speaks of the "special relations" between the Hindu kingdom and Hindu-majority India.

    Playing on such sentiments, the communist election campaign labelled India's attitude "Big Brother behaviour" and the party announced that it would protect against it more consequentially in future so as to preserve the honour of Nepal.

    Adhikari also promised that all contracts with India would be re-examined and work permits made compulsory for all Indians in Nepal. Up to now, borders between the two countries have been open and not even a passport was required for Indians visiting Nepal.

    Nepal's communists are essentially nationalist-oriented - their radicalism manifests itself largely in launching verbal attacks on the Indian neighbour - but in western terms they could be classified as upright social democratic.

    They promise land reforms but understand them as part of an overall privatization package. They also accept the constitutional monarchy and all democratic parliamentarian rules of the political game.

    "Though ideals and idealism can be based on classical communism, life is not classical," Adhikari once remarked to his supporters.

    And aware that the poor Asian state will not be able to survive for long without financial aid, the communists have also been reassuring international funding agencies and project partners at every available opportunity.

    So the ascent of the "red star over the Himalayas" may not be as dramatic as it sounds even though it may have repercussions on the field of foreign policy. But the cooling-off of relations with India is expected to be balanced by an improvement in links with China.

    Kathmandu's "equidistance" from both Beijing and New Delhi, as announced by the Nepalese communist party, may lead to a stronger presence in Nepal of
 - for instance - Chinese development experts.

    Up to now, the government of the now-defeated Congress always went to great lengths to alleviate India's fears of too strong a Chinese influence on the strategically-important Himalayan kingdom. The communists will be spared the trouble of having to do so.

***************************************************************************** From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) Subject: no subject (file transmission) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 16:56:29 -0500 (EST)

Ruling NCP fails in its bid to form gov't

KATHMANDU, Nov. 28 Kyodo

     The ruling Nepali Congress Party (NCP), which was behind the opposition communist party in the midterm polls of Nov. 15, said Monday it failed in its bid to form the kingdom's next government.
     The NCP made the announcement after it failed in its efforts to win support of the right-wing National Democratic Party (NDP) to form a coalition government.
     The NDP had emerged as the third largest party with 20 seats in the midterm polls called by Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala.
     The NCP won 83 seats while the opposition Nepal Communist Party Unified Marxist-Leninist (NCP-UML) won 88 seats.
     NCP spokesman Taranath Ranabhat said after day-long hectic consultations with the opposition parties that the ruling party has now decided to sit in the opposition.
     ''NCP's talks with other mainline parties in forming the next government has failed,'' he said.
     The NCP's failure to form Nepal's next government has cleared the deck for the NCP-UML which is set to form a minority government on the strength of its being the single largest party of the Nepalese parliament.
     The NCP-UML government will be headed by its president Manmonhan Adhikari who was elected the party's leader last week.
     According to the Nepalese constitution, Adhikari will be required to obtain a vote of confidence of the 205-member parliament within 30 days.
     Meanwhile, King Birendra Monday repeated his call for the new legislators to come forward with majority support so that they can be asked to form the next government.
     The king set a deadline of Tuesday afternoon for submission of a request to be called on by the king to form a new government.
     If no such submission is made within the stipulated time, the king will ask the leader of the largest party in parliament to form the next government.
     Adhikari, 74, said after his election as leader of the NCP-UML that he will seek support of other political parties in parliament t o maintain political stability in the 20-million strong kingdom.

****************************************************************** Date: 28 Nov 94 18:23:52 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: Corrections to list of winners To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

Here's some more corections in the list of final winners I posted some days back. Thanks to Keshab dai for pointing out these errors.

1. In Tanahu, there are only three constituencies. Surya Thapa did not win from there.

2. In Dhanusha the winner was Ram Lakhan Mahat,not Shail Lakhan Mahat.

3. In Dolpa (missing), a NC dissident won but I'm not sure of the name. If anyone knows, please let me know.

4. In Salyan, the winner was Chhabiprasad, not Rabiprasad.

5. Lokendra B. Chand (Baitadi) is from RPP.

************************************************************************ Date: Tue, 29 Nov 1994 09:05:47 +0700 (GMT+0700) From: Karma Rana <karma@emailhost.ait.ac.th> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: JAN_KARI : Classifieds

Subject: FACULTY POSITION IN ECOLOGY, TROPICAL FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY

Please kindly share this information with anyone interested. For additional information contact Karma Rana <karma@emailhost.ait.ac.th>. Information regarding the Asian Institute of Technology is available via gopher or web at emailhost.ait.ac.th

FACULTY POSITION IN ECOLOGY, TROPICAL FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY

The Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), founded in 1959, is an autonomous, international institution of postgraduate studies located in Bangkok, Thailand. The Institute offers degree and non-degree certificate programs in engineering, related sciences, planning and management through its four School, three Academic and two Outreach Centers.

The Institute is recruiting a faculty member for a position in Natural Resources Planning & Management, one of the 15 units of its School of Environment, Resources and Development. The faculty will be teaching and developing courses, including ecology, tropical forestry and agroforestry, and help to put in place and operate a collaborative & interdisciplinary overlay in eco- restructuring, jointly with faculty colleagues in regional planning, agricultural systems and environmental remote sensing & geoinformation. The appointee will also be expected to venture into research as well as outreach activities, and guide Master's and doctoral degree students in their multidisciplinary team planning projects known as practica, individual thesis or dissertation research, or Master's degree research study.

Requirements include a doctorate with specializations in ecology, forestry and agroforestry, at least two years experience in teaching and curriculum design, experience in ecologically sound silviculture, forest restoration or multiple- use resource management. Training in tropical forestry and working experience in the Asia-Pacific region are desirable. Experience/interest in social implications of forest development and agroforestry will be an asset.

An appointment will be made at the rank of Assistant or Associate Professor, depending upon qualification and professional experience. The initial appointment will be for two years, with a possibility of renewal. The salary is commensurate with qualifications. Income tax on salary drawn from the Institute is paid by the Institute to the Royal Thai Government.

Applications with a resume, names of three referees and the approximate date by which the applicant would be available should be sent to: The Vice President for Academic Affairs, Asian Institute of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok 10501, Thailand. Or via email to Karma Rana
<karma@emailhost.ait.ac.th>

The closing date is 1 April 1995.

28-11-94

******************************************************************* Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 23:06:13 -0500 (EST) From: Anna V Paskal <avpF93@hamp.hampshire.edu> Subject: current news/Arun Hydro project To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

Appeal for Information Regarding the Proposed Arun River Hydro-Electric project

I am looking for any news relating to the Arun River Hydro Project. If anyone knows anything ( implications, concerns, timeline of project, possibilities, Bank approval, options, etc...), please write to me at: apaskal@newhamp. hampshire. edu I just found out about The Nepal Digest, so I missed the related discussions which must have taken place. I would appreciate any information or comments, no matter how trivial or seemingly obvious.
                                                Thank You All,
                                                Anna Paskal P.S.: Is anyone out there actually involved in the project (pro or con)?

***************************************************************************8 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: pavitra@euler.maths.monash.edu.au (S Pavithran)

                            Deutsche Presse-Agentur

                    November 23, 1994, Wednesday, BC Cycle
                          14:05 Central European Time

SECTION: International News

LENGTH: 640 words

HEADLINE: Septuagenarian elected leader of communists in Nepal parliament

DATELINE: Kathmandu, Nov 23

 BODY:
    Mohan Adhikari, septuagenarian president of Nepal's communist party, the United Marxist-Leninists (UML) was elected party leader Wednesday, paving the way for King Birendra to call on him to form the country's next government.

    The UML has emerged as the largest party in parliament after winning 88 seats in the 205 member house but is has been unable to secure the 103 seats needed to form the government on its own.

    In a statement issued after Wednesday's meeting, the UML urged all politicalparties and political "forces" in the country to cooperate with a future UML government.

    The UML is to form a government with the support of the National Democratic Party or else with the backing of dissident members of the outgoing Nepal Congress Party which has won 82 seats.

    The parliamentary UML comprising 69 of the newly elected members and membersof the upper house elected Adhikari as its leader at a meeting held in the Nepalese capital.

    With only one outstanding constituency result in Tuesday's polls still to bedeclared, the National Democratic Party has 20 seats, the the Nepal Workers and Peasants Party four seats, the Pro- India Nepal Sadbhabana party three seats and independents seven seats.

    Mohan Adhikari, who has been largely a UML figurehead for the past three andhalf years, became president of the UML when the Nepal Communist Party, of whichhe was the chief, merged with the powerful Marxist-Leninists to form the United Marxist-Leninists just prior to the elections in 1991.

    Adhikari began his politics at the age of 16, taking part along with the oldNepali Congress leaders in the "quit India" movement in India. During this time he was imprisoned by the British for 18 months in Varanasi. He joined the Communist Party of India in 1942 and was associated with the party for four years.

    On his return to Nepal from India in 1947, he agitated against the the Rana regime of the day and was imprisoned for three years. He was jailed for a further three years under the partyless Panchayat dispensation from 1960 to 1967.

    Adhikari's health is reported to be frail and he is said to suffer periodically from asthma. dpa mb

                            Deutsche Presse-Agentur

                    November 23, 1994, Wednesday, BC Cycle
                          14:17 Central European Time

SECTION: International News

LENGTH: 1160 words

HEADLINE: Nepal may turn into the world's first communist monarchy

BYLINE: By Heinz-Rudolf Othmerding

DATELINE: New Delhi, Nov 23

 BODY:
    The recent success of the communists in parliamentary elections in Nepal maywell result in a political constellation previously unknown the world over - a communist monarchy.

    King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev of Nepal is expected to formally hand overthe task of forming a government to the communists, the strongest faction in Kathmandu's parliament, during the course of the week.

    Mohan Adhikari, the 73-year-old President of the Nepal's communist party, the United Marxist Leninists (UML), was elected Wednesday to head the UML party in parliament and is being tipped for the post of prime minister.

    The fact that communists are to play a decisive role in shaping the fate of one of the poorest countries in the world has several reasons and is set to haverepercussions on political structures even beyond Nepal's borders.

    The key to understanding the victory of the communists in Nepal lies mainly in India. Since independence, the powerful neighbour has meddled in Nepalese internal affairs and was perceived by many Nepalese as unbelievably arrogant.

    The election results may also be seen as the direct consequence of what manysaw as violations of Nepal's sovereignty by Indian authorities.

    More than once, Indian policemen followed suspects well into Nepal without official permission and even arrested them there. Nepalese goods in transit wereinordinately delayed in Calcutta several times.
    Nepal has complained that the Indian Air Force illegally overflew Nepalese territory.

    Furthermore, Nepal is also contractually obliged to consult India in matters realting to foreign policy and of military significance.

    Most Nepalese say their hair stands on end whenever New Delhi speaks of the "special relations" between the Hindu kingdom and Hindu-majority India.

    Playing on such sentiments, the communist election campaign labelled
 India's attitude "Big Brother behaviour" and the party announced that it wouldprotect against it more consequentially in future so as to preserve the honour of Nepal.

    Adhikari also promised that all contracts with India would be re-examined and work permits made compulsory for all Indians in Nepal. Up to now, borders between the two countries have been open and not even a passport was required for Indians visiting Nepal.

    Nepal's communists are essentially nationalist-oriented - their radicalism manifests itself largely in launching verbal attacks on the Indian neighbour - but in western terms they could be classified as upright social democratic.
    They promise land reforms but understand them as part of an overall privatization package. They also accept the constitutional monarchy and all democratic parliamentarian rules of the political game.

    "Though ideals and idealism can be based on classical communism, life is notclassical," Adhikari once remarked to his supporters.

    And aware that the poor Asian state will not be able to survive for long without financial aid, the communists have also been reassuring international funding agencies and project partners at every available opportunity.

    So the ascent of the "red star over the Himalayas" may not be as dramatic asit sounds even though it may have repercussions on the field of foreign policy. But the cooling-off of relations with India is expected to be balanced by an improvement in links with China.

    Kathmandu's "equidistance" from both Beijing and New Delhi, as announced by the Nepalese communist party, may lead to a stronger presence in Nepal of - for instance - Chinese development experts.

    Up to now, the government of the now-defeated Congress always went to great lengths to alleviate India's fears of too strong a Chinese influence on the strategically-important Himalayan kingdom. The communists will be spared the trouble of having to do so. dpa mb

LANGUAGE: ENGLISH

LOAD-DATE-MDC: November 23, 1994

************************************************************************* Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 23:45:25 -0500 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepalese king calls for house majority to elect premier

Frankly, I do not know what the Nepal Constitution says, but the King's action is decidedly biased against the UML who claim that according to the Constitution Article 42 something, if there is no clear cut majority, he should invite leader of the party with the most members. Indeed this is the parliamentary norm practiced in many parliamentary democracies including India and Israel. He is being disproportionately partial to Nepal i congress which has not even elected a leader of the Parliamentary committee while the UML did even before the 205 elction results was in. There is all this politically modtivated halla that coalition minority govt is unstable, just as the congress tried to scare the Nepali public that voting against Nc was voting for instability, well it is the NC that is a paragon of instability and the Nepali people can see that. We have to condemn the king's action and his penchant to rule over the soveriegn rights of the people and his wish to tally with the conservative forces instead of being a constitutional king of ALL n epalese.

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