The Nepal Digest - Dec 3, 1994 (17 Manghir 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Saturday 3 Dec 94: Mangshir 17 2051 BkSm Volume 34 Issue 2

                 Election FLASH !

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        id AA00281; Fri, 25 Nov 1994 19:18:24 -0500 Date: Fri, 25 Nov 1994 19:18:24 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Election News From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha)

Communist alliance wins Nepal polls, but no majority

KATHMANDU, Nov. 24 Kyodo

     An opposition communist alliance won a narrow victory over the ruling Nepali Congress Party (NC) but stopped short of securing a majority in the Himalayan kingdom's Nov. 15 parliamentary elections, final results from the National Election Commission showed early Thursday.
     The Nepal Communist Party-Unified Marxist-Leninist (NCP-UML), which had contested 196 seats of the 205-member House of Representatives, won 88 seats. It had 68 seats in the last parliament.
     The NC, which had contested all 205 lower house seats, placed second with 83 seats and a senior party leader said it may seek to form a new government with minority backing.
     The last result from the Mugu district in northwest Nepal announced early Thursday went in favor of the ruling party.
     The NC had 114 seats in the last parliament dissolved by King Birendra on July 11 on the recommendation of Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala.
     The National Democratic Party (NDP), comprising rightist politicians who wielded power under the king's direct rule in the past, emerged as the third largest party, winning 20 seats in the midterm polls. The party had a mere four seats in the last parliament.
     Twenty-four political parties had contested the polls, held 22 months ahead of the expiration of the term of the last house, elected in 1991 for a five-year period. Some 1,442 candidates, including independents, ran in the elections.
     Nepal saw the first multiparty polls in 32 years in May 1991 after the kingdom's absolute ruler agreed in 1990 to transfer all powers to an elected government.

------------------------------------------------------- Ruling party may stake claims for Nepal's next gov't

KATHMANDU, Nov. 24 Kyodo

     The governing Nepali Congress Party (NCP), which became the second largest party in the kingdom's Nov. 15 parliamentary polls, may stake claims for the next government, a senior party leader said Wednesday.
     The party's Central Working Committee, which began an emergency meeting Wednesday, is exploring all possibilities of providing a stable government for the Himayalan country of 20 million people, Ramchandra Poudel said.
     ''The possibility does not exclude the NCP's own initiatives to form a minority government,'' he said.
     Poudel, 48, a long-time contender for NCP leadership after Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala, was returned to parliament from his Tanahun district in the second elections in three and a half years.
     Further consultations will be held on the matter and a decision made in the next few days, Poudel said.
     In the face of his party's losses in the snap polls, Koirala said Monday he would stay in the opposition this time.
     Koirala called for the midterm polls in July despite stiff opposition from other leaders of his party.
     No party won a majority of seats in the polls though the communist alliance, the Nepal Communist Party-Unified Marxist-Leninist (NCP-UML), emerged as the single largest with 88 seats in the 205-member parliament.
     The party elected Man Mohan Adhikari as leader of its parliamentary board Wednesday and has already staked its claims for forming the next government.

Date: Fri, 25 Nov 1994 19:19:35 -0500 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) From: abi@fraser.sfu.ca (Abi Kumar Sharma)

Following the collapse of the soviet union, pundits of all kinds, consevatives and liberals alike, have been harping vehemently that
"socialism is the thing of the past". Currents of our time and the realities tell us quite different. The "unexpected" Zapatista movement in Mexico, the emergence of the Workers' Party (P.T.) of Brazil and its role in the presidential and national elections held there last month, are a few examples. Surely a lot has changed since 1860s. New positive phenomena such as the ethnic, feminist, sexual and environmental movements have emerged. These phenomena have challenged the classic forms of analysis and calculations, struggles and objectives. As the expression goes - the old house which was new once needs to be demolished, and a new the better (in ref. to the old house) needs to be built on it. And Marxims, as dynamic and vibrant as it is, provides the basis for it. A party or even a state may come and go but the social classes and their conflicts, tentions and contradictions remain. The unequal distribution of wealth, and exploitation of natural resources such as the land benefiting the privileged few still remain. And Marxism continues to provide the basis for social analysis and viable alternatives to address these causes of problems in our societies.

UML of Nepal is the product of such discourses and processes, acording to our own realities. The party formation is based on grass root organisations such as of peasants' and women. Thanks to the collective goal and determination, years of sacrifices and hardwork of its workers with the support of Nepali people, it has started to pay-off. Now, the UML stands tall and distinct, and stronger than ever in the Nepali political landscape. Ready to lead the country into the 21st century.

To ensure the empowerment of the marginalized majority of the people who work the land, UML calls for a bottom up approach to address the problems. Moving right from the specific to the general, from the local to the national. Not the reverse. In the socialist model of development, UML aims, not only to ensure the development of productive forces and equitable imcome distribution in the society but also to accentuate the growth in output and productivity in the national economy. While the private sector will be encouraged to play an important role in the economy, UML plans to target the removal of the existing feudal obstacles such as the Kamaiyaa Prathaa. UML's main thrust is to follow a self-relaint approach of development through a egalitarian social structure.

To meet it's goal, UML first have to win the next week's election. The election characterized the choice between the continuity and change. NC with the opposition voices within the party either booted out or silenced represents the continuity of the status quo. RPP is not better either - we've been there and seen it. What Nepal needs as most of us agree is change - a thorough change in our attitudes and the socio-political structures. We've had enough of the control, decisions and "solutions" from above. UML, as I understand it, represents the change, and the change from below. But wining the next week's election and forming the government will only be the begining of a long and complex road for UML.

Among many hostile institutions, the question is what will be the role of the king/consevatives during the UML's rule? How will the Indian hegemony respond to the UML's govt.? Will Nepal be the south asian Chile of 1973? or Grenada of 1983? or Nicaragua of 1980s? or Haiti of 1991-94? or will the UML's govt. be left alone, to what extent? difficult questions, difficult answers. Difficult road ahead both for Nepal and UML.But change we must, win we must. Because there is no point going back to the past.

Thank you and Namaste - abi sharma.

******************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 25 Nov 1994 19:23:32 -0500 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Visa requirements and tourists numbers

In article <CzAHt1.IA7@news.otago.ac.nz>, oreng@farli.otago.ac.nz (Oren Golan) wrote:

A. Does anyone have a reliable information about what are the current requirements (and prices) for getting a visa to Nepal ? Can anyone get a visa upon arrival or does it have to be issued in advance ?
...
--------

Hi Oren,

I was in Nepal in 1993. If you want to get a Visa for Nepal, you will need 2 passport photos and you must fill out an application form. The cost of the visa is US$25.00. You can get a visa at the Katmandu Airport, but the lines are long and personally, not worth the aggrivation. The best bet is to write to the Napalese Empassy. If there is one close by, it will only take overnight. If you have to mail in, it will take at least 2 weeks. Prices for a moderate, but clean hotel ranged from US$11.00 - US$175.00/night. I found that the hotels in the shopping district of Kathmandu were modest, but very clean, some even had private baths and a lot of ambiance!!! Food ranged from US$1.00 - US$15.00/ meal. Again some of the restaurants in the shopping district were great and a bargain. You just have to know where to go. I usually asked a few of the locals or visitors where they ate and then I went to check the place out. You have to bargain for a some of the things such taxi and rickshaw, food is pay as marked. Guides are cheap, but you get what you pay for. If you want to trek, then go to a reputable trekking company that has certified Sherpa guides. If you want a guide for the city, be carefull, you may get more than you payed for. I was there in early spring and there were lots of trekkers as well as other sightseeres in the city. If you go, I would suggest late fall or early spring. If you go now, and want to trek, the weather is getting bad and I don't think the trekking companies will send any of their guides up into the mountains. If you go, have a great time, I did and would go back in a heartbeat.

Mary e-mail racho@phri.nyu.edu

******************************************************************** Date: Fri, 25 Nov 1994 19:24:43 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Election generally fair, say monitors From: rajendra@coos.dartmouth.edu (Rajendra P. Shrestha)

SOURCE: Xinhua

HEADLINE: re-polling starts in nepal

DATELINE: kathmandu, november 17; ITEM NO: 1117213

 BODY:
   re-polling to the lower house started this morning in some polling centers at central nepal, said the election commission here today. a total of 64 polling centers were forced to close due to violence caused by rival parties' supporters on november 15, the election day of the mid-term polls. according to the national election commission, re-polling would be arranged one after another within a couple of days. some other centers' re-polling are scheduled to be held tomorrow or later on. all re-pollings organized in sarlahi constituency no. 3 and 4, central nepal, were accomplished in a peaceful atmosphere, with more than 46 percent of voters casting their votes.
----------------------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: Reuter

HEADLINE: Nepal polls fair but with minor irregularities

BYLINE: By Prakash Khanal

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 17

 BODY:
    Nepal's general elections were largely free and fair but suffered minor irregularities, mostly committed by the ruling Nepali Congress party, a group of international observers said on Thursday.

   The 127 observers from 29 countries released a report saying the polls on Tuesday ''were in most constituencies fair and free with minor irregularities.''

   ''There were, however, some constituencies where irregularities were of such an extent that elections there cannot be regarded as fair and free,'' it concluded.

   Nepali election authorities rescheduled polling in 79 voting stations involving 39 of the 205 parliamentary constituencies, in many cases because of violence.

   The international observers, including several members of parliament, said: ''Most cases of irregularities seemed to have been committed by the present ruling party, although other major parties were also reported.''

   Congress controlled 114 of 205 seats in the outgoing parliament but was trailing the Communist Party Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML) front on Thursday with more than one third of the race decided.

   The observers said major irregularities included proxy voting, underage voting, multiple voting, sale of votes and entry of unauthorised people into polling stations.

   They said some voters were physically intimidated. ''In some cases, people were slapped and called names,'' the report said.

   Two people were killed in clashes between supporters of rival political parties on Tuesday.

   U.S. observer Mark Lyman Houghton told Reuters soldiers beat up nine women who were heading to vote in the central village of Phaparbari.

   Indian observer D. Prempati told a news conference that in Palpa town, youths told him they had been offered money to vote for a particular party.
-------------------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE: DPA

HEADLINE: Premier Koirala re-elected in Nepal elections but party fares badly

DATELINE: Kathmandu, Nov 17

 BODY:
    Nepalese Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala, 72, has been re-elected from two constituencies in which he contested parliamentary polls Tuesday, it was officially announced in Kathmandu Thursday.

    The Nepalese Election Commission said Koirala was re-elected to the House of Representatives from a constituency in Morang district and from another constituency in Sunsari district, both located in eastern Nepal.

    In his home constituency of Morang district, Koirala won with 21,013 votes against his nearest rival, Tuluram Rajbansi of the United Marxist-Leninists (UML). In Sunsari district, Koirala secured 19,047 votes to win against his UML rival.

    Despite the prime minister's win, his party, the ruling Nepali Congress (NC) continues to fare poorly in the results declared so far.

    Until 0800 hours local time (0215 hours GMT), results had been declared for 57 of the 205 seats for which voting took place on Tuesday.

    The UML has won 32 seats, the NC 14 seats, the National Democratic Party (NDP) 7 seats, the Nepal Peasants and Workers Party, a leftist party, 2 seats and independents two seats.

    According to the election commission, vote counting is still in progress in 80 constituencies.

    In the counting, the UML is leading in 33 constituencies, the NC in 29 constituencies, the NDP in 9 constituencies and other small parties and independents in the remaining constituencies.

    The NC, which was unable to open its count till 1700 hours yesterday (1115 hours GMT), has increased its tally dramatically overnight to 14.

    Indications are that the UML and the NC would be running neck and neck but that no party would get enough seats to form a government on its own. A minimum of 103 seats are needed to form a single party government.

    The UML has publicly stated that it would not form a government in coalition with the "Koirala type" Congress or the NDP or the pro-India Sadbhabana Party which is yet to win a seat but is leading in two

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Subject: Communists Maintain Winning Streak in Nepal Date: 17 Nov 1994 06:48:42 -0700 Sender: surekha@nyx10.cs.du.edu

Sent By: S.Ramani, NCST, Bombay

* Communist Maintain Comfortable Lead
* Prominent Loosers and Winners:
* Hung Parliament Predicted

                                 * * * * * *

      Kathmandu, Nov 17 (PTI) The Communist Party of Nepal today coninued to maintain its winning streak bagging 40 of the 75 seats whose results were declared so far in the parliamentary elections as the ruling Nepali Congress suffered major setbacks, getting only 22 seats. .
      The poor showing of the Nepali Congress is seen here as a total rejection of the prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala who was however declared elected from Morang and Sunsari constituencies.
      The Rashtriya Prajatantra Party won eight seats, the Nepali Masdoor Kisan Party three, while the Nepali Congress which had 113 seats in the 205-strong house managed to notch up only 22 seats.
      In Kathmandu, where the communists lead in every constituency, supporters were already parading the streets waving red flags and ncp banners.
      Among other confirmed results, the Royalist Rastriya Prajatantra party (RPP) has so far won seven seats.
      Analysts said that the NC may be forced into a reluctant right-wing coalition with the rpp if it fails to secure a clear majority.
      Former Panchayat prime minister and RPP president, Surya Bahadur Thapa, won his seat back, having lost in the last general elections, held in may 1991.
      An EC official also confirmed that the Nepal Peasants' And Workers' Party (NPWP) had won two seats.
      The militant leftist United People Front-Nepal (UPFN) and the Pro-Republican People's Front-nepal (PF-N), both veher factional fighting on tuesday forced a rescheduling of polls.
      So far, two people have been killed and 15 wounded in election-related violence, but massive security measures have kept unrest to a minimum.
      Some 100,000 security personnel axpected late tomorrow.

* Prominent Loosers and Winners:

      Prominent Nepali Congress leaders who were defeate include state minister for industry and labour Ram Krishna Tamrakar from Rupandehi, party spokesman taranath Rana Bhat
>From Kaski and chief whip Tarini Dutta Chataut from
Kanchanpur.
      NC central committee member Sushil Koirala lost from Banke, former speaker of house of representaives Daman Nath Dhungana from Kathmandu (2), son of Ganesh Man Singh and youth leader Prakash Man Singh from Kathmandu (3) and president of the students' wing of the ruling party N P Saud from Kanchanpur.
      Former Kathmandu mayor Haribol Bhattarai lost to CPN-UML president president Manmohan Bhattarai from Kathmandu (3).
      Meanwhile, Reuter quoting analysts said that Nepal appeared to be heading towards a hung parliament with opposition Communists poised to become a possible coalition leader of the country.
      Final results were not expected for several days but enough seats could be decided by tonight to indicate if a coalition government would be needed to guide the country, it s
****aid.

>From g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp Fri Nov 25 19:35:43 1994
Received: from nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp by mp.cs.niu.edu with SMTP id AA10611
  (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>); Fri, 25 Nov 1994 19:35:39 -0600 Received: (from g44329a@localhost) by nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp (8.6.9+2.4Wb3/3.3Wb) id KAA29571; Sat, 26 Nov 1994 10:35:30 +0900 Date: Sat, 26 Nov 1994 10:35:30 +0900 From: Gyaneswor Pokharel <g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp> Message-Id: <199411260135.KAA29571@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Cc: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: Opening temple for whom and not for whom ?

Dear Editor,

        I am not sure whether peoples like my comment. It is about the opening of Hindu + other temples to foreign tourists, specially, peoples from other religion. Whatever may be our final conclusions, the final implementation will be on the hand of so called Hindu Maha Parisadha. Its good that peoples in abroad are willing to open those temples to outsiders, specially, I liked the proposal by Subas Shakya, Nov. 23, TND. As far as, the present situation is concerned, our own fellow nepalis from lower caste
(though nepali law prohibits: use of "Achhut jat" publickly) are not allowed enter into these temples. Yes, it is true that our brahmins or chhetry or baishya don't care to have spouse from other religion because they may be good looking race and, but the same family minds or don't allow to enter another "so called achhut" nepali to enter into our house. Why do we have such double standard ? So, my concern is we should allow to enter into any temple irrespective of caste or religion. But, will my fellow upper caste hindus allow such "achhut nepalis". Of course, we allowed such peoples as long as s/he don't release her/his caste, but once someone in the temple come to know this fact, then he will be barred from worshipping?

Here, you readers might get disappointed with my note. I want to give you an example. In Gorkha, the first palace of Prithivi Naraya Shah where Gorakhanath gave him "ahish", you could see a clear notice "Achhut jaat lai prabesh nishedha chha". There (in Gorkha hill top) is famous gorakha kali mandir. Where King used to visit once in a year if not in 4 years during his regional visit. Once, his visit minister (Bhramad Mantri)
 was Mr. Hira Lal Bishwakarma , that time our His Majesty and his Queen didn't visit the Gorakha Kali. Gorakha kali (public cann't see her?) is kept in a dark room inside the second floor, so that only king is allowed to see. But, public (UC) can go inside the temple worship in dark room. That year when king skipped by having just one round on the sky
(Helicopter bat ek chakkar lagayer) he returned to pokhara. Peopels were surprised why king didn't visit Gorakha kali ? The answer was very simple , kings religious advisor simply told him that your visit minister who is "achhut" bishwakarma , there fore, its not good to take him into the temple. So, he skipped eventhough he introduced 2032 naya kanun, he could not disappoint his great advisors after all these advisors used to announce every day in the morning program as "Bishnu Avatar". Then, peoples in Gorkha started forecasting results of his skip to Gorakha kali.
(Anist bhayo,...etc.etc....) . Then it was the same year 2035 when king suffered severe opposition march and announced referendum. So, peoples got the right answer as what expected "anista". Then "PAnch Boka" were sacrificed to ask to forgive because of the mistake he commited due to having "Achhut" bhramad mantry. Then, Panchayat restored because she (kali) forgived him(?). Oh Great Kali ma, he had dilemma at the time of his visit whether to visit or not with HKB. Lets think about it also.

Meanwile, best regards.

Gyaneswor

>From g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp Sat Nov 26 09:10:27 1994
Received: from nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp by mp.cs.niu.edu with SMTP id AA23629
  (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>); Sat, 26 Nov 1994 09:10:24 -0600 Received: (from g44329a@localhost) by nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp (8.6.9+2.4Wb3/3.3Wb) id AAA20405; Sun, 27 Nov 1994 00:10:19 +0900 Date: Sun, 27 Nov 1994 00:10:19 +0900 From: Gyaneswor Pokharel <g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp> Message-Id: <199411261510.AAA20405@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp> To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Cc: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu, g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp Subject: re: please do not publish my comment related to "visit to temples"

Dear Rajpal ji,

I am sorry that I am requesting you not to post my last letter which had comment on allowing temples to "lower caste and outsiders". I think I sent you today in the morning. I found it not having good expression and does not qualify for publication in TND because i felt it negative against most TND readers will. Since TND is going well, my article may disappoint some readers. So, I humbly request you to drop the comment out of TNd.

Thanks for your cooperation. and also for putting my name in subscription list since last monday.

Meanwhile, best regards.

Gyaneswor

>From x94erh@juliet.stfx.ca Sat Nov 26 10:38:28 1994
Received: from juliet.stfx.ca by mp.cs.niu.edu with SMTP id AA24649
  (5.67b/IDA-1.5 for <nepal@mp.cs.niu.edu>); Sat, 26 Nov 1994 10:38:26 -0600 Received: by juliet.stfx.ca (AIX 3.2/UCB 5.64/4.07)
          id AA49262; Sat, 26 Nov 1994 12:38:35 -0400 Date: Sat, 26 Nov 1994 12:38:34 -0400 (AST) From: Baral <x94erh@juliet.stfx.ca> To: "Rajendra P. Shrestha" <Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU> Cc: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: Final list of winners In-Reply-To: <13924215@prancer.Dartmouth.EDU> Message-Id: <Pine.A32.3.91.941126123513.93582B-100000@juliet.stfx.ca> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Rajendra ji Namaskar Regarding about the final list of winners I think Lokendra Bahadur Chand is not a candidate of NC.He may be candidate of RPP? Janak Baral St.F.X.canada

******************************************************************** Date: Sat, 26 Nov 1994 12:43:36 -0500 To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu From: so15@cornell.edu (Shambhu Oja) Subject: enrollment in the Nepali Network

Dear friend(s)
          namaskaar
  Could you kindly add my name in your mailing list(Network).

 All the best.
 Shambhu Oja

*********************************************************************** Date: 27 Nov 94 11:50:06 EST From: Rajendra.P.Shrestha@Dartmouth.EDU (Rajendra P. Shrestha) Subject: News11/25 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

SOURCE: Xinhua

HEADLINE: nepali congress still undecided on new government

DATELINE: kathmandu, november 25; ITEM NO: 1125128

 BODY:
   the parliamentary board meeting of the nepali congress (nc) ended here this afternoon without result. the post of the nc parliamentary leader is still pending and no decision was made on whether or not to form a nc-led coalition. the nc parliamentary board meeting will continue sunday. the nc bagged 83 seats in the mid-november general election, trailing behind the communist party of nepal with 88. neither party commands a single majority in the 205-seat house of representatives. it is learnt that nc general secretary mahendra narayan nidhi held the same stand as nc parliamentary leader and caretaker prime minister girija prasad koirala opposing a nc-led coalition. after the parliamentary board meeting, nc leaders decided to hold a central working committee meeting saturday.
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SOURCE: Reuters

HEADLINE: Nepali leaders in hard bargaining for power

BYLINE: By Gopal Sharma

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 25

 BODY:
   King Birendra, once Nepal's all-powerful ruler, unleashed intense jockeying for power on Friday by asking all newly-elected legislators who should be the next prime minister.

   With November 15 general elections producing a hung parliament, Birendra's move was designed to commit the 205 deputies to backing a government that could win a majority in a vote of confidence, political analysts said.

   The only serious contenders were the Communist Unified Marxist-Leninist party (UML), which came out on top with 88 seats, and the outgoing ruling Nepali Congress which recovered from dismal early results to end with 83.

   Constitutional lawyer Kusum Srestha said Birendra, who is in a politically delicate position, had done the right thing.

   ''What he is doing is saying to the parties, 'It is up to you to organise this and show that you can command the requisite majority','' Srestha said.

   The analysts said it appeared a party would have to hand a list of at least 103 supporting deputies to the king if it were to be given a chance to form the government. Whoever is chosen must win a vote of confidence within 30 days.

   The analysts said UML, generally regarded as liberal despite its hardline name, remained the favourite after Congress leader Krishna Prasad Bhattarai admitted the third-biggest party was refusing to back his bid for power.

   The monarchist Rastriya Prajantra Party (RPP) gained dramatically from four seats in 1991 elections -- Nepal's first multi-party polls in three decades -- to 20 this time, giving it the balance of power.

   Its leaders frequently ruled Nepal under the old partyless system and have shown little fondness for either the UML or the Nepali Congress, which joined in a 1990 campaign to overturn that system.

   ''We are negotiating with all parties worth their salt, but I can't say for sure what is going to be the outcome at this moment,'' Congress's Bhattarai told reporters.

   But, he added: ''The RPP is not prepared to support us.''

   The RPP, which favours a national government of all parties, an idea that has not gained support from other parties, has not said whom it would support or under what conditions.

   UML leaders were not immediately available for comment, but Bhattarai said the communists remained determined to form a minority government with support from outside.

   That, he said, Congress ''is very much hesitant to do.''

   Caretaker Congress Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala, who earlier assured the communists of cooperation in forming a minority UML government, was non-committal.

   ''Just as we are ready to give critical support to others, if others are ready to give us critical support, then we are ready to form the government,'' he said.

   Congress deputies said there was a significant group within the party that believed it should go graciously into opposition.

   The group tended to believe that the party leaders did not think much of their chances of forming a government but were reluctant to be seen to be yielding tamely to the UML claim to power.
-------------------------------------------------------------------- HEADLINE: Nepali monarchists rule out coalition

BYLINE: By Gopal Sharma

DATELINE: KATHMANDU, Nov 25

 BODY:
    Nepal's pro-monarchist potential political kingmakers ruled out the possibility of a coalition government on Friday as a solution to general elections that left a hung parliament.

   ''We are not going to join any coalition with anybody,'' declared Rastriya Prajantra Party (RPP) spokesman Kamal Thapa.

   He told reporters his party, which gained dramatically from four seats in 1991 elections -- Nepal's first multi-party polls in three decades -- to 20 this time, had not decided who should form the government.

   The only contenders were the Communist Unified Marxist-Leninist party (UML), which came out on top with 88 seats, and the outgoing ruling Nepali Congress which recovered from dismal early results to end with 83.

   Whoever King Birendra calls on to form what the RPP decision guaranteed would be a minority government, has to win a majority in the 205-seat assembly in a vote of confidence to be held within 30 days.

   Who that will be could depend on the RPP, and Thapa said its support would go to whoever offered the best deal.

   ''Who to support and on what conditions would depend on receiving their proposals,'' Thapa said.

   The only alternative to allowing the RPP to dictate the formation of a government in the Himalayan nation that ranks among the world's 10 poorest would be for the two main parties to come to some arrangement between themselves.

   The leaders of the UML and Congress joined hands in 1990 to drive a bloodstained campaign for multi-party democracy that succeeded in forcing Birendra to yield many of his absolute powers and become a constitutional monarch.

   They cooperated again in an interim government that led to general elections in the following year, the first since a palace coup ended a brief experiment with multi-party democracy 30 years earlier.

   Congress President Krishna Prasad Bhattarai told reporters the UML wanted his party to support it from the opposition benches, but Congress was ''very much hesitant to do that.''

   The UML, reversing its earlier insistence it would not consider a coalition, said it was now prepared to contemplate such a government.

   ''We have not closed our doors to a coalition, but it would be better to have a minority government of the UML supported by other parties in opposition,'' UML spokesman Pradeep Nepal told reporters.

   But he said Congress had no right to stake a claim to power, as Bhattarai did in a meeting with King Birendra on Thursday night.

   ''It is not the parliamentary norm for Congress morally to stake a claim to form a government since it has been reduced from the majority,'' he said.

    Birendra, once Nepal's all-powerful ruler, unleashed the intense jockeying for power earlier on Friday by asking all newly-elected legislators who should be the next prime minister.

   Political analysts said he did so to commit deputies to backing a government that could win a vote of confidence.

   ''What he is doing is saying to the parties, 'It is up to you to organise this and show that you can command the requisite majority','' constitutional lawyer Kusum Srestha said.

*************************************************************************** Subject: Letter to the Editor To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Sun, 27 Nov 1994 17:47:23 -0500 (EST) From: "Anil Shrestha" <shresth1@student.msu.edu>

To: The Editor, The Nepal Digest From: Anil Shrestha, Michigan State University Subject: Offensive Posting

Recently I was reading a posting in SCN which I found quite offensive. The person who had sent in the article might have tried to be humorous or whatever but I found the article offensive. A reader from Germany wanted some information on the pest situation in Nepal (she meant the plague). A person by the name of Peter G. mentioned that "children were pests in Nepal as they ran along trekking trails shouting pen! Pen! to local corrupt government officials". This person also mentions Europeans hanging around Thamel as pests. I found these allegations a bit difficult to digest. I did not quite understand the writers motive. Was he trying to get back at some of the bitter situations he had to face in Nepal? Or was it just plain humiliation?
    Whatever it was, it was certainly not humorous or hard to just ignore.
 Anil

******************************************************************* Date: Sun, 27 Nov 1994 18:02:30 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Beantown News; subtitled: Blowing The Boston Trumpet To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

        The Greater Boston Nepali Community (GBNC) threw a free mega-momo party at the Talbot Lounge (East Campus) at MIT last Saturday. Close to 60 Nepalis and friends came (some as far as from Minnesota and Vermont). And they all seemed to have had a great time munching close to 4000 hot, steamy, meaty, aromatic . . . ummm! delicious momos.

        The occasion was nothing special except to get together to kill the boredom of the four-day Thanksgiving break, to guff-suff with new and old friends, talk about Nepal ko elections, practise one's "rusting Nepali" and basically hang out together on a cold, windy Saturday night.

        Among the highlights of the evening was the opening of a big champagne bottle (thanks to Mahendra "Honda" Shakya) to celebrate the recent wedding of Sudesh with Sherry. GBNC joins all Boston Nepalis in wishing the couple a blissful conjugal life together.

        GBNC also takes off its hats to Bob and Sue Giramma for sponsoring the party. Without their good-will, the party could not have taken place. Special thanks also to many generous Nepalis who showed up with drinks in arms and willingly lent hands to roll the spicy ground meat into a momo-shape in dough-wrappers.

        All in Boston are also appreciative of ALL the hard behind-the-scenes work of Raju Pradhan, Sunil Shakya and Mrs. Subarna Shakya who formed a formidably motivated trio to pull off the party without a hitch. Special thanks also to Amrit Pant, our man at MIT, for reserving the party-space.

        GBNC's executive line-up for the year '94-'95 is as follows:
                
        Raju Pradhan General Secretary (A professional in Boston)
        Sunil Shakya Treasurer (Student, Northeastern University)

        Mrs. Subarna Shakya Executive Member (Full-time biochemist)
        Nuru Lama Executive Member (Student at Harvard)
        Ramona Chitrakar Executive Member (Student at Quincy College)
        Rabi Karmacharya Executive Member (Student at MIT)
        Prabhat Adhikari Executive Member (Student at Northeastern)
        Sri Krishna Pandey Executive Member (Student at MIT)

        GBNC also welcomes Anish Baniya, former general secretary and also former acting president, and one man you have to meet in Boston when you come here next, as the editor of its bimonthly newsletter. In addition, it also welcomes Bhupesh Karki, a graduate student at Northeastern, as the editor of SAMACHAR-BICHAR.

        SAMACHAR-BICHAR, founded by Sanjay Manandhar, an MIT graduate presently working in Nepal, is now in its sixth year. It is a quarterly in English on Nepal -- written, edited and distributed all over the world by Nepali students in the Greater Boston Area. The most recent issue features, among others, a lead essay by Ashutosh Tiwari on Nepal's higher education and a thought-provoking accompanying essay by Uday Manandhar on Nepal's forestry programs. To get your copy or for subcriptions info, please send e-mail to: sshakya@lynx.dac.neu.edu

        To all others in Boston: Stay tuned for the newsletter that will have info on the Winter Party that will take place sometime late December.

namaste ashu president, gbnc

***************************************************************************** Date: Sun, 27 Nov 1994 21:26:58 -0500 (EST) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re.Visa
  
  I am writing this in response to Sameer Khati's response.Thanks a lot
  for your ideas.I analyzed a lot and only then wrote about this visa
  problem.I knoe it is hard for the immigration office to analyze and do
   perfect justice.But they should try to do their best,so they are there.
  But the general trend is that if it is big universities they do not
  that.Most of the Nepali people who want to come here are students.And it is
  for their studies.The fact is U.S. is supposed to have very good education
  system and applied system,so they want to come here to learn.Secondly
  it is open policy of U.S. to accept students with no barrier to caste
  culture and things like that.It is really hard and disapointing when you
  are denied the visa at the end.The college has accepted you but the visa
     Don't they look at you and evaluate you? So, once the college has accepted
  you then why are you stopped.Or is it that there is no communication between
  the college and INS office?And what was his angle when he said qualified
  people?There are many good candidates who have been stopped.Try to understand
  the feeling of the person who is trying to come for something which means
  a lot to him.Then when he is stopped how does he feel?Don't you think
  that can cause a pesonal problem with him?Don't you think
  he is affected by this.For many take this opportunity as a big
  step for the betterment of their future.Mr.Khati also sugested that
  it is better not to remind them of their responsibility?I am not trying to
  remind them nor am I trying to do so. But a system improves when you
  put objections and know the facts.And sometimes somthingsare neglected and
  these small reminder can be very helpful.There is freedom of speech,but
  I am not trying to misuse it but am trying to utilize it.I know one very
  extreme case.One married lady was denied a visa because her husband is here.
  What was her fault?The visa councellor stopped her assuming that if she
  came they would not return back.But why assume and stop in such
  circumstances.The college accepted her and is surprised that the counsellor
  stopped her.How must she be feeling?How must her parents be feeling?
  And how must her husband be feeling here expecting her but she is denied.
  And since the law and the system of America is open we expect more fairness
  from this country,and when such things happen due to some responsible
  americans do you think you could keep quiet.Feeling sorry between the
  saying and its implication in this system I finaaly wrote this.That
  however does not mean that I am against them.I believe that if you like
  something you come out and criticize it for the good of that.Ofcourse it is
  a hard task that the counsellor office is doing,but could there be a better
  improve ment? I am not saying that because of one case I thought so.
  Because there are many people from different parts of the world who come
  but some of my people from my country are stopped ,although they are
  qualified.America is a country with equal opportunity for all regardless
  of what they are.And it is the country which helps a lot of country.It infact
  taught me more about human rights.So, it is partly due to the education that
  I had here,I am writing this down.I owe much to this land.I am just trying to
  clarify myself and make sure that I am not misunderstood.This is nothing
  personal.If there is any misunderstanding please let me know.But we only
  learn many things by sharing them.Once again Sameer thank you for your
  suggestion.
 
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