The Nepal Digest - Dec 10, 1994 (24 Manghir 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Saturday 10 Dec 94: Mangshir 24 2051 BkSm Volume 34 Issue 8

               To the Students: Good luck in the finals!
               To everybody: Happy Holidays!

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********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 8 Dec 1994 17:12:56 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Gorkhas as UN peacekeepers? From: sshakya@lynx.dac.neu.edu (Sunil Shakya)

Kathmand Post (Oct. 20. '94) By Pratyoush Onta The following article is being posted with permission from the writer.
        
        Recently an article entitled "Gorkhas Could Do The Job" written by Brian Farrell and Christopher Lingle, earlier published in an international newspaper, was reprinted in more than one Kathmandu weekly. Farrell and Lingle observe that since the end of the Cold War,
"military berets of the United Nations have increasingly been called upon to intervene in trouble spots around teh world." But in the absence of a "standing military force under the UN command" such interventions have been "too often too little or too late." A solution they suggest is
"to put a contingent of Gorkha professional soldiers from Nepal together" since they are "particularly well-suited for such missions."
        
        They write that with "the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997, the Gorkhas will no longer be required in the British Army." Furthermore they suggest that the "legal and diplomatic arrangements under which individual Nepalis serve the British and Indian governments could easily be replicated for the United Nations." A minimum troop strength of 5,000, they suggest "would be needed for the force to be crredible and give it the flexibility to answer more than one call at a time."
"Garrisoning costs and logistics would," they add, "probably limit the number of troops to a maximum of 15,000."
        
        In further support of their argument, they write that based "on previous experience, it is unlikely that Nepal would try to interfere in the UN chain of command for Gorkha troops or demand the evacuation of the force in the face of mounting casualties. The presense of Nepali soldiers would also be unlikely to provoke antagonistic reaction based on nationality. Indeed the formidable reputation of Gorkhas as impartial fighters might well help defuse tense situations."
        
        This is not the first time that such a proposition has been put forth. Flora Lewis had written much the same in her "Gurkhas can solve the U>N.'s Problem" in The New York Times of 8 February 1992. She had then argued that the Gurkhas could "form the heart of the world's first real police force" that is loyal just to the U.N. flag and to no state because, among other reasons, "nobody hates them and they don't hate any ethnic group, country or religion." She had further written that the Gurkhas have a reputation for being well disciplined and doggedly loyal to their superior officers.
        
        Although the proposition to make the Gurkhas the kernel of a permanent UN peacekeeping force looks 'logical' it isn't as easy as Farrell & Christopher and Lewis would have us believe. Lewis points out that the idea of such a force is actually included in the 1945 Charter but never materialized because of the Cold War. Now that the Cold War is over, proponents of the idea seem to be suggesting that the marshalling of political will for it should not be a problem.
        
        I am not so sure. To begin with, it is not at all clear if the UN has the economic and political will for such a thing to come about. Despite the end of the so-called Cold War, the UN continues to exist as a far-from-democratic organization. The structure of the Security Council and recent calls to modify it are ample testimony of this fact. Some member countries of the UN are, in the words of Orwell, more equal than others. These "more equal than other countries" are the ones that have as yet been unable to modify to any great extent their military-industrial nexus that flourished during the Cold War years. This nexus now seeks sustenance through events like Operation Desert Storm which was not only a profitable exercise for the ones who collected rent for "liberating Kuwait" from the "evil hands of Sadaam Husain" (forget the fact that basic democratic rights are still not in existence in Kuwait), but also an opportunity to test state-of-the-art weaponry. Those expecting proper changes toward the democratization of the UN as an independent world-body underestimate the reach of this military-industrial complex and its own strategies for survival in the new world disorder. The political resistance toward the democratization of UN and the economic imperatives of post-Cold War military-industrial complex suggest to me that the development of a truly independent permanent military force under the UN command is unlikely to happen in the near future.
        But even if a permanent peacekeeping force under the UN were to come into existence, the linking of the so-called Gurkhas to it without proper thought might prove to be naive in the long-run.. It is no secret that no ethnic group or community called "Gurkhas" exists inside Nepal even as we have to accept the fact that men from primarily four different communities - Magars, Gurungs, Rais and Limbus - have been recruited to fill the ranks of the British and Indian Gurkha regiments. With the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997, the Gurkhas in the British Army will be retained (contrary to what Farrell and Lingle say) at the strength of 2500 soldiers. The reduction process from the 1992 strength of 7000 plus men has already started. Many of those who have been relieved have either already returned to Nepal and are engaged here in different walks of life or have found employment elsewhere.
        
        If recruitment for a permanent UN peacekeeping force were to open immediately, those relieved recently from the British Gurkhas would perhaps qualify as some of the most eligible men. However recruitment under any democratic circumstances could not be limited to them. In a freshly deisgned scheme that would have to be negotiated between the UN and Nepal, opportunities for service would have to be open for anybody with a minimum level of military-related qualification. This would mean accepting applications from those Nepalis who have served in the British, Indian and Nepali armies. Those with Nepali army experience cannot be left out for as their record in UN operations like UNIFIL and others have shown, they too are capable of handling peacekeeping duties provided they are properly armed.

        It would therefore be inappropriate for those Nepalis serving in any UN peacekeeping force to be referred to as Gurkhas. As mentioned above, Gurkha is not an ethnic appellation inside Nepal. It is a military-labour related identity that is specifically connected with the history of British Indian and later British and Indian armies.

        The recruitment mechanisms and terms under which individual Nepalis would serve in the UN would have to be negotiated to make sure that their lives and jobs are valued the same way as the lives and jobs of soldiers from countries which are more equal than others. Lewis writes that "Gurkhas are not expensive to hire." If obtaining soldiers on the cheap for the UN is what propels the proponets of this idea, then Nepal should reject it as being counter-productive to the democratization of UN as a global body. Furthermore, Nepal should insist that individually capable Nepali soldiers should also be given place in the top ranks of the chain of command of UN permanent troops. Farrell & Lingle and Lewis make assumptions to the contrary as evident in the extracts I have provided above. The view that the British Gurkhas are
"doggedly loyal" to their superior officers but incapable of handling commanding positions themselves has been one of the founding beliefs related to the Gurkhas. It would be unfortunate if practices based on such a belief were to find their way into a new peacekeeping force under the UN. If Nepal could negotiate a fair deal with the UN on behalf of her men, the question of Nepal demanding the evacuation of the force for whatever reason would not even arise.

        These and other important issues need to be discussed in detail by the proponents of the idea before it can materialize. Otherwise, linking the Gurkha name with a UN peacekeeping force whose coming into being looks unlikely for the moment is yet another way to carpet-bag the Gurkha connection.

************************************************************************ Date: Thu, 8 Dec 1994 23:54:01 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Visa requirements and tou

Ajay,

 You have my utter sympathy about Immigration in Charlotte. My re-entry into the U.S. from Nepal could be called "ridiculous" as well. I was dressed in Kurta Suruwal, tika, churri, chaapaal, etc., as I had dressed while in Nepal. I was immediately pulled from the line of airline passengers by the airport immigration officials, and had to wait until all other passengers had been processed. I had nothing to declare except some gifts I was bringing back with me. An hour later, the officials had pulled every item from each bag, strewn them none-too-gently across tables, x-rayed any "suspicious" items, subjected me and my belongings to a thorough "sniff" test by dogs, when two women indicated I should leave my belongings, including my passport, and follow them into a room for a strip search. I asked why I was being subjected to such treatment and was told I was from a "high risk" area: high risk for what, I don't know, but surmise that they suspected drugs or jewels. They asked me myriad questions about how I afforded my trip, why I was traveling alone, why my husband was comfortable with the length of my stay, my personal habits, if I had had any sexual relations in Nepal, etc. Two hours later I was told to repack my bags and leave--no explanations, no apologies for the
"inconveniences" to which I had been subjected. There my husband was waiting with now-wilted roses for me. After traveling 3 "normal" days to reach the U.S., my patience evaporated and I shouted at the unsmiling officials that I hated them.

I didn't intend my first post as a criticism of Nepal; just thought the information might be helpful to those planning a quick entree and departure from the immigration office.

****************************************************************** Date: Thu, 8 Dec 1994 16:40:42 -0800 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: bhushan@Tanner.COM (Bhushan Mudbhary) Subject: HOGWASH!!

This in reference to Cheap Talk by Nirmal G.

Hogwash Mr.G!

Much like you, I too grew up in Nepal. I can't understand what your problem is. And please none of the "3000 year old culture stuff". As I see it, sexual discussion, jokes and the like do indeed exist in our "culture". So sorry to break your bubble, sex isn't the "personal" gulag you claim it to be! Unfortunately, the forum is usually amongst an all male cast. Come on, how many Hindi movie moments did you LUST over when you grew up much like the rest of us. The only thing my Nepali culture contributed to my sexual maturity was a hopeless insulation from the other sex in every way imaginable. You desire to "CENSOR" sexual discussion amongst ADULTS is one small example of the sick opression of anything sexual in my home country of NEPAL.

Nirmal ji, GROW UP! Sexual discussions can be HEALTHY without being cheap. Your claim of "Cheap" articles only attests to your sadly and sexually introverted view.

Salam. Bhushan.

**************************************************************** From: Rakesh Karmacharya <karmacha@aecom.yu.edu> Subject: Editing To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

I am an occasional browser of TND and happened to read the research report on Nepali women by Elaine Schroeder that was submitted by Amulya Tuladhar.

I am dismayed by calls for censorship of such material. Mr. Nirmal Ghimirez refers to the material as cheap talk but it was part of a Master's thesis that appeared in the Himalayan Research Bulletin.

In our society, we are loathe to talk about issues pertaining to sex. Consequently, there is little communication between men and women regarding their feelings/expectations regarding such issues. I found the article very informative as I got a peek into the women's perceptions regarding sex in our society. This has even been fruitful in promoting discussions with some of my women friends as well.

I also disagree with Mr. Ghimirez's assessment that the article was about someone's personal life, similar to tabloid talk regarding Princess Diana's sexual activities. The article dealt with women's perceptions and expections as a group and was not about anyone's personal life. If one feels that the article does not give an accurate portrayal of women's perceptions, I think such disagreements should be voiced, but outright censorship of such articles is not warranted.

Editing certainly is not a very easy task, but I would urge TND to resist censoring or modifying people's contributions in the name of clarity. It would also help to have less of thinly-veiled personal attacks and innuendos.

Rakesh

******************************************************************** Date: Thu, 08 Dec 1994 23:40:46 -0600 (CST) From: RKP6723@UTARLG.UTA.EDU Subject: Eye of Buddha To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu

Hello everybody!

I am sure that some of you are Buddhists, and others have some respect for Buddha. Today, eighth day of December, Prince Siddhartha Gautama was enlightened or became Buddha twenty-five hundred (approximate) years ago. Today his teachings aimed solely to liberate human beings from suffering have touched the heart, mind and soul of people all over the world. To honor Lord Buddha I am going to present his Four Noble Truths, or Eye of Buddha to you.

                         FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS OF BUDDHA
                        *****************************

          (Excerpted from Teachings of Buddha, The Buddhist Bible)

1. There is suffering (DUKKHA) 2. There is cause of suffering (SAMUDAYA) 3. There is an end to suffering (NIRODHA) 4. There is Path to end of suffering (MAGGA)

                          Suffering (DUKKHA)
                          ------------------ Ordinary suffering (Dukkha-dukkha): Birth, old age, sickness, death, association with unpleasant persons and conditions, separated from loved ones and pleasant condition, not getting what one desires, grief, lamentation, distress, all forms of mental and physical suffering.

Suffering produced by change (Virapinama-Dukkha): Pleasant and happy feelings or conditions in life are not permanent. Sooner or later they change. When they change they may produce pain, suffering, unhappiness, disappointment.

Suffering as Conditioned states (Samkara-Dukkha): An individual, an 'I' or a 'self' is a combination of ever-changing mental and physical forces which can be divided into five groups of aggregates (Panchakhanda). Suffering as conditioned states is produced by these five aggregates:

1. Matter (Rupakhanda) 2. Sensations (Vedanakhanda) 3. Perceptions (Sannakhanda) 4. Mental formation (Sankharakhanda) 5. Consciousness (Vimanakhanda)

                 The Cause of Suffering (SAMUDAYA)
                 --------------------------------- The principle cause of suffering is our attatchment to "desire" or "craving",
(Tanha). Both desire to have (wanting) and desire not to have (aversion).

1. Desire for sense pleasure (Kama-tanha): The desire for sense pleasure
    manifests itself as wanting to have pleasant experiences, such as
    pleasant sexual experiences, taste of good food, delightful music.

2. Desire to become (Bhava-tanha): Desire to become is the ambition that
    comes with wanting attainments or recognition or fame. It is the
    craving to be somebody.

3. Desire to get rid of (Vibhava-tanha): Desire to get rid of unpleasant
    experiences in life, unpleasant sensations, anger, fear, jealousy.

The clinging to desire comes from following desir. We ignore the fact that satisfying our desire does not bring an end to them.

                   The End of Suffering (NIRODHA)
                   -------------------------------

The end of suffering in non-attatchment, or letting go of desire or craving. This is the state of NIBBANA, where greed, hatred and delusion are extinct.

Freedom from attatchment is the end of suffering. This freedom is not conditioned by causes, as are the conditioned ststes. NIBBANA is the non-attatchment to conditioned experience.

To understand the unconditiones, we need to see for ouselves that everything that has a nature to be born has a nature to die; that every phenomena that has a cause is impermanent. By letting go of attatchment to desire for conditioned phenomena, desire can come to an end and we can be liberated from suffering.

                 End of Suffering (MAGGA)
            ------------------------------------------

The end to suffeirng will result by following the Noble Eightfold Path (Ariya- Athangika-Magga). There are three qualities that must be developed to endi suffering and attain supreme happiness (Nirvana):
                              1. Wisdom (Panna)
                                 Right Understanding (Samma Ditthi)
                                 Right Thoughts (Samma Sankappa) Wisdom comes from understanding the three characteristics of existence.
   i. All conditioned phenomena are impermanent. Everything that had a cause
      has a beginning and an end; conditioned phenomena are transitory.
      Conditioned phenomena are also what the self attatches to and where
      there is attatchment to impermanent objects there will be suffering.
   ii. All conditioned phenomena are not personal, not self (Anatta).
   iii. Attatchment to desire for impermanent phenomena leads to suffering.
"Right Understanding" of the impermanent, not-self nature of phenomena and attatchment to them leads to suffering brings about "Right Thought", i.e. the aspiration or intention to be liberated from suffering and to understand the truth.

The deepening The deepening of widom is enhanced when the lifestyle and mind are calmed through the practices of Morality (Sila) and concentration (Samadhi).

                    To be continued....sorry they are asking me to logoff.

Robin Pandey Arlington, TX

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 9 Dec 1994 14:21:43 -0700 From: wr2025@rccvax.ait.ac.th To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Content-Length: 0

I am writing in response to the comments of Rachana Pathak 'Top ten reasons on why to be communist:'.

Having Stayed in P. R. China for five years I would like to clarify some of her ignorance to china and blame made to them. Pathak Writes:

----------------------------------------------------------------------
"The first point he ignores is that Chinese goods are produced largely by the People's Liberation Army(PLA) which is notorious for its unfair unemployment practices such as long hours, beatings, low pay, and child labor. Perhaps the reason that the PRC is able to produce such low price goods is the abominable work conditions men, women and children must endure."
--------------------------------------------------------------------

I don't deny the fact industrialists in developing countries are exploiting poor people and using child labor. However, the extent of child labor in china is much more less than in Nepal's Carpet Industry and in India. The situation of Nepal and may be similar in many developing countries. Because of one child policy (The policy has been an issue of human right abuse and thus of hot discussion around world, I don't want comment on it only want tell on situation of child labor) most of parents are able take care and look after their child. In china we cannot see so many street children like in Nepal and india. It also shows that children are not widely available for labor. Of course, in villages children helps their parents in house and farming works also according to their age. This is not the issue I am pointing. I am pointing issue of child labor in industry.

Again most of the state owned industries and recently rising collective and private industries which produce most of the industrial output doesn't belong to ARMY. Army also have their own industries and their output and business volume is not easily available. However, according to media
(Chinese as well as foreign) they only produce tiny fraction of Gross National Output of PRC. To support this point I want give the example of heavy reduction in number of army in 1985. I am also aware of the recent built up of chinese army, which involves purchasing & production of military hardware and sophisticated training. But it not related to the blame pointed out by Pathak that army takes sticks on hand and tells the workers to work according to his will torturing, beating and compelling to work long hours. Because of chronic shortages of power (energy) most of the factories are running under capacity and on the policy of employment to all peoples industries are over staffed running with low efficiency.
         Again she writes:

--------------------------------------------------------------------
"He is clearly mistaken in his next point - that he never hears about
'riots, killings and separatism' in the PRC?? The PRC has one of the worst human rights records in the world. Amnesty International, UN divisions, Human Rights Watch and any other number of other reputable organizations can provide statistics of torture, violence, murder, sex crimes that unfortunately continue. Non-Communists, and minority groups (such as Tibetans or Hags) are suppressed politically, culturally and religiously as well."
------------------------------------------------------------------------

First of all the writing is influenced by western media's double standard of human right and ignorance to chinese society. Han (generally called Hanzu in Chinese and Han chinese in english) is majority of Chinese race composing of almost 93% of Chinese population and is not a minority as stated by the writer. Except in 1989 (in which foreign inference specially american one was much more than involvement of public), most of the cases of strikes, demonstration (of few cases happened during my stay) were solved without loss of life and severe injury. At least there did not happened case killing of innocent people staying on window or Bardely (varanda) like during the reign of Nepal Congress (so called democratic party) in Nepal.

I don't want defend that human right situation is good in china, however, I want point out the fact that western media are biased to communist and non communist world. If the get small point in communist world, they magnify and present in horrific way. But they try to avoid to report the real cases of abuse of human right in non communist dictatorial countries. They report and comment on such cases only when the situation of keeping quiet becomes vulnerable to of their reputation in the feeling of general public. That's why we hear more about the abuse of human right in china even though there are places with higher degree of human right abuse.

Tirtha Raj Gautam AIT, Bangkok.

********************************************************* Date: Fri, 09 Dec 1994 06:15:04 -0600 (CST) From: RKP6723@UTARLG.UTA.EDU Subject: Eye of Buddha Continue... To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu

The deepening of wisdom is enhanced whwn the lifestyle and mind are calmed through the practices of Morality (Sila) and concentration (Samadhi).
                           2. Morality (Sila)
                              Right Speech (Samma Vaca)
                              Right Action (Samma Kamantha)
                              Right Livelihood (Samma Ajiva) Adherence to moral guidelines percepts are essential protection from causing to suffer to oneself and to others. While these guidelines define a code of discipline, the virtues that bring about moral behavior can also be cultivated with the practice of a culture of the heart: The four sublime states (Bramha Vihara). There are four sublimes "abidings" for the mind and heart:
   i. Kindness towards all being (Metta).
   ii. Compassion towards those who are suffering (Karuna).
   iii. Sylpathetic joy towards others (Mudita).
   iv. Equanimity toward friend and foe (Upekha).

There are five basic precepts that Buddhists practitioners undertake. (Monks and nuns undertake many more). A modern analysis of these precepts are offered by the Vietnamese monk Thich Nhat Hanh:
   i. Reverence for life (Refrain from killing).
   ii. Sexual responsibility (Refrain from sexual misconduct).
   iii. Generosity (Refrain from stealing).
   iv. Deep listening and loving speech (Refrain from lying).
   v. Mindful consumption (Refrain from ingesting intoxicants).

In the context of Eightfold Path, these five precepts imply:
"Right Speech" means to tell the truth and speak appropriately in accordance with the fourth precepts, deep listening and loving speech. Specifically it implies abstaining from
                       a. Lying
                       b. Divisive gossip
                       c. Rude and abusive language
                       d. Idle and useless chatter
"Right Actions" are the action that are consist with all precepts.
"Right Livelihood" means that one should earn a living that allows the five precepts to flourish. Dealing in arms, drugs or violence, exploitation of others and profiteering cannot be conducive to the moral life.
                      
                       3. Concentration (Samadhi)
                          RIght effort (Samma Vayama)
                          Right mindfulness (Samma Sati)
                          Right concentration (Samma Samadhi)

The development of wisdom and morality demand a certain training of mind. Which are listed under Concentration (Samadhi)

                                The end.

Om Santhi...

Brought to you by Robin Pandey.

********************************************************************** From: Shailesh R. Bhandari <sbhandar@garnet.acns.fsu.edu> Subject: Sana Kabita To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Fri, 9 Dec 1994 10:02:21 -0500 (EST)

                           YOJANAA

                Yas yojanaa maa sampurna janataa laai
                            Gaans, baas ra kapaas puraine chha
                Hamro des ko chaalaa ta yastai ho,
                Yo lachchhya aagaami yojanaa maa pani
                                               Doharaaine chha.

****************************************************************** Date: Fri, 9 Dec 1994 11:20:05 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Bhool Soo.dhaar To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

        My thanks to Anup Pandey who FIRST (there have been quite a few since!) pointed out my silly mistake:

        In a recent piece on GBNC momo party, I wrote that 60 people came and they ate 4000 momos!

        Well, I was stupid to not do the simple arithmetic before posting such a huge number of momos. The closest-to-the-truth count, made after exhaustive consultations and detailed calculations with Raju Pradhan and Mrs. Subarna Shakya, is as follows: 80 people came and they munched down close to 2500 momos. [In fact, Raju remembers seeing one guy having as many as 55 decent-sized momos, and other guests were not THAT far behind, it seems!]

        Anup: Thanks for catching the mistake, and, as a small token of appreciation, and on behalf of Boston Nepalis, I would like to invite you to the next mega-momo-party to be held sometime in March [or April or May] in Boston :-) :-).

namaste ashu
                                                        
********************************************************************* Date: Fri, 9 Dec 1994 14:10 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - Dec 8, 1994 (22 Manghir 2051 BkSm) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

Sex Articles: Information or Titillation
==========================================

This is in response to a number of article objecting my posting of the research on Sexual Behaviour of Nepali women.

Such objections are understandable, given the conservative nature of patriarchical males from high castes, the core readership of TND. The article surely explodes a much coveted myth of modern,urban, Hindu Male manhood and who would not want this to be shoved under the carpet. A female PCV friend once characterized a Hindu male of Kathmandu with stereotypical anecdote. According to her, this Hindu male boasted to her friend, " I can make love with my wife without waking her up!" Big deal indeed!

But when the TND editor volunteers to keep out such "offensive" postings, I think we are venturing into a zone of the politics of exclusion. The first step power is exercised, thanks to Foucault, is when certain topics are rendered out of the norm in every day discourse. It is these rendition of the
"abnormal" status to groups, discourses, political values, ideas, that legitimates the politics of violent suppression. And when ideas, topics, identities, politics, knowledge are suppressed, the society enter the zone of darkness and hopelessness. I urge TND readers and editors to consider if they want to enter this land.

Aside from this politico-philosophical banter, I ask all those oh-so-genteel readers just what passage they find prurient, titillating, or "tabloid_ish" that it lowers the standard of TND, (hey since when TNd became conscious of it mission to hold a standard?). Scientific information of a thesis you find dirty and not worth publication? Perhaps, you find Times cover page article of Aug 1994 on Sex, another study of sexual behaviour of American male equally offensive. Personally, I found the author was pretty clinical in her use of vocabulary and sentences to talk about sexual behaviour of nepali women. Of course, I have my reservations about the scientific merit of her methods and theory but not of her decision to do the such a research.

In fact, if as one reader, I think it was Nirmal Ghimire_z (with a Z) who said of what use is the statistics of how many times a woman indulges in sex? This was pretty much what Jesse helms, our colorful conservative from NC (remember one who said Clinton should come to NC with a body guard), said of a study of sexual behaviour which a team of social scientists from the University of Chicago was going to make to find out if they had any significance to the spread of HIV and AIDS into the heterosexual population (They said no, and the percent of homosexuals in US is not 1 in 10 but more like 2 in 100 and pretty limited to small social groups, unlike what the GAY politics portray, and yes this finding is controversial). Fearful of govt funding being vetoed by Helms, the researchers tapped private sector funding for the research. At a minimum public health epidimiological interest, sexual practices of Hindu females are fo public health interest because it tells us of the risks these people face of AIDS spread.

In fact, not long ago, I hearde on the NPR some Harvard School of Public Health professional (some chinese sounding name, Ashu, perhaps you can help me here) specifically mentioning the new pathway of AIDS virus through heterosexual population of GHARANA couples, those that can go to Bangkok and contract the germ from the prostitutes there and even those who go to Bombay and contract it from Nepali prostitutes there, The HIMAL and UNDP infact made a educational moview Hari Bansha and Madan Krishna contracting aids and I assume TND and NIrmal would find that too offensive to air?

Last of all, aside from the public health relevance, I submit that this article serves a feminist project of emancipation of Hindu women which Promod Mishra launched so valiantly. Women of Nepal have a right to enjoy sex and not to be treated as dead logs by discourse of exclusion (no word for clitoris or female orgasm) or suppression of discussion of the inequity in the Hindu beds. If these arguments sound prurient or obscene in the minds of certain readers of TND, all I can say is "Sex, like beauty, is in the minds of the beholder"

Thank you for your consideration,

Amulya

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********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 09 Dec 94 16:57:48 EST From: Shailendra Shukla <SHUKLA@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu> Subject: Butterfly To: NEPAL DIGEST <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

There is no need to invoke vulgarity to speculate on the etymology of the Nepali word Putali for butterfly. Puttali (or Puttal) is indeed a Sanskrit word meaning idol, effigy, etc. My dictionary does not mention butterfly, but since in Sanskrit a single word can define so many things, I won't be surprised if it means butterfly as well. The other possible connection could be through one of the Hindi word for butterfly: Titli. As for the vulgar word mentioned, it too is a Sanskrit word meaning putrid, foul smelling etc.

My own knowledge of Sanskrit is dismal but one need not be a Sanskrit scholar to check these things. All it requires is to look up in a Sanskrit dictionary. Access to a Sanskrit dictionary may not be that easy, but if I was going to write about etymology of a Nepali word I would have at least checked a Sanskrit dictionary first. I am sure even Clarke University has a copy in its library.

But then again, may be the motivation for writing such an article was something else!

********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 9 Dec 1994 14:49 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - Dec 8, 1994 (22 Manghir 2051 BkSm) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

AMULYA'S COMMENTS ON THE FOLLOWING POSTING
============================================= Date: Tue, 6 Dec 94 22:44:54 CST From: sbshah@gumbo.bae.lsu.edu (Sanjay B. Shah) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: Land Reforms in Nepal

     I wish to add something regarding the issue of land reforms in Nepal. First of all, a small correction of what Amulya had to say about land
 owners colluding with King Mahendra to oust BP's govt.to prevent promulgation of land ceiling laws. BP's govt. was dissolved in 2017 BS whereas the first land ceiling act was introduced in 2023 BS. BP had more than his share of
 landlords supporting him not only from the Terai but also among the `upper caste', which makes the landlord-king nexus not very likely. Besides, why would the ex-king pull a fast one on his `collaborators' few years later?
============ Because, the King was as was many "Third World" countries
 were under tremedous pressure to make dilute communist reforms of giving the underclass more access to means of production, which in agricultural countries was land (named "Third" because the WEst was the "First", the communist nations the "Second" and kind of irretrieably lost to the West, but the rest of the poor countries were the markets for the take for Western capitalism and they had to be protected from the seductive serpentine suasion of the Communists who presented an alternate model to Capitalism, were the world to be "Developed", the "Third World" Ta, da !") . Historical evidence of this exertion of influence in the sixties is available for many third world countries.

There was also an internal source of pressure the up and coming landed aristorcracy who perceived that they did have as much access to power as the closed combined of the Palace courtiers. In this social group included everyone from the C class Ranas such as Subarna Shumshere and the super rich landlords of Eastern Terai, some of whome were beheaded the precursers of UML, the Nepali Naxalites, and the Hill migrants and courtiers who owned tremendous tracts of land in the Naya Muluk, the land bestowed to Jung Bahadur for suppressing democratic anti-British mutiny in Lucknow from Nepal gunj west, to new educated humanists such as the Koirala brothers who wanted to have something between communists and the capitalists: socialism for Nepal. But congress did come to power, many of the richer constituency of the Nepali congress saw threath to their economic powers and so did other land lords who saw Congress as greater threat than the closed system of the Rana aristocracy, and so began the birth of a new political class, the Panches, the rural elite of Nepal.
=====================

*Allow agricultural companies (private or joint) to operate farms for cash, vegetable, fruit crops, etc. Develop rules and regulations so that big
 landowners do not circumvent the ceilings laws using this as a pretext.
*Let the landowners have the choice of keeping or removing a tenant (mohi) from his/her land - but increase the tenant's share from 25 to maybe 50%. The tenant can atleast call himself a landowner and pledge his land for loans. The landowner may like to run a professionally managed farm, which will definitely yield better returns.
====================

Sanjay: I urge you to read some political ecological and political economic literature which is replete with examples and examples of "professional run large agricultural company farms " destroying the landscape, the ecology, the people, the country in latin America, Africa and some parts of Asia, Philippines notably. The gist of these arguments is that we developed an effeicient agricultural surplus extraction institution which reduces the people to wage labour. these institutions maximize their profits by minimizing the cost of wage and land, the primary inputs to this capitalist system. When the world price of the commodities fall, the capital just moves to cheaper place and leaves the people and the environment in ruins.

Surely, you are not recommending that to our country. Remember how jute prices have fallen world wide and how people depended on cotton farming in Nepal gunj are reduced penury due to inefficient agricultural entreprise? Several decades of high grade Tea cultivatio in eastern hills have made some wealthy landlords, some of whome are influential members of both congress and UML, but the forests have been denuded and the country have not got much return for the subsidized land, agricualtural credit and state help in marketing and traansport, and the local people are not much richer or more comfortable.
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