The Nepal Digest - August 8, 1995 (24 Shrawan 2052 BkSm)

From: The Editor (nepal-request@cs.niu.edu)
Date: Tue Aug 08 1995 - 11:21:34 CDT


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The Nepal Digest Tuesday 8 August 95: Shrawan 24 2052 BkSm Volume 41 Issue 2

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha rshresth@black.clarku.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************
********************************************************************** From: Prakash Man Sakya <pmsakya@acslink.net.au> Subject: In the Begining Date: Mon, 17 Jul 1995 23:25 AEST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

** Laughter is the best medicine **

Will be posting more in the near future Again.
>From Sydney, Prakash
> IN THE BEGINNING
> (To justify God's ways to the 21st century)
> #In the beginning was the computer. And God said
> :Let there be light!
> #You have not signed on yet.
> :God.
> #Enter user password.
> :Omniscient.
> #Password Incorrect. Try again!
> :Omnipotent.
> #Password Incorrect. Try again!
> :Technocrat.
> #And God signed on 12:01 a.m., Sunday, March 1.
> :Let there be light!
> #Unrecognizable command. Try again!
> :Create light.
> #Done.
> :Run heaven and earth.
> #And God created Day and Night. And God saw there were 0 errors.
> #And God signed off at 12:02 a.m., Sunday, March 1.
> #Approx. funds remaining: $92.50.
> #And God signed on at 12:00 a.m., Monday, March 2.
> :Let there be firmament in the midst of the water and
> #Unrecognizable command! Try again!
> :Create firmament.
> #Done.
> :Run firmament.
> #And God divided the waters. And God saw there were 0 errors.
> #And God signed off at 12:01 a.m., Monday, March 2.
> #Approx. funds remaining: $84.60.
> #And God signed on at 12:00 a.m., Tuesday, March 3.
> :Let the waters under heaven be gathered together unto one place
> and let the dry land appear and
> #Too many characters in string specification! Try again.
> :Create dryland.
> #Done!
> :Run dryland.
> #And God created Earth and Seas. And God saw there were 0 errors.
> #And God signed off at 12:01 a.m., Tuesday, March 3.
> #Approx. funds remaining: $65.00.
> #And God signed on at 12:00 a.m., Wednesday, March 4.
> :Create lights in the firmament to divide the day from the night.
> #Unspecified type. Try again!
> :Create sunmoonstars.
> #And God created Sun, Moon, Stars. And God saw there were 0 errors.
> #And God signed off at 12:01 a.m., Wednesday, March 4.
> #Approx. funds remaining: $54:00.
> #And God signed on at 12:00 a.m., Thursday, March 5.
> :Create fish.
> #Done.
> :Create fowl.
> #Done.
> :Run fish'nfowl.
> #And God created the great seamonsters and every living creature
> that creepeth wherewith the waters swarmed after its kind and
> every winged fowl after its kind. 0 errors.
> #And God signed off at 12:01 a.m., Thursday, March 5.
> #Approx. funds remaining: $45.00.
> #And God signed on at 12:00 a.m., Friday, March 6.
> :Create cattle.
> #Done.
> :Create creepy things.
> #Done.
> :Now let us make man in our image.
> #Unspecified type! Try again.
> :Create man.
> #Done.
> :Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth and subdue it
> and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over of the fowl
> of the air and over every living thing that creepeth upon the
> earth.
> #Too many command operands! Try again.
> :Run multiplication.
> #Execution terminated. 6 errors.
> :Insert breath.
> #O.K.
> :Run multiplication.
> #Execution terminated. 5 errors.
> :Move man to Garden of Eden.
> #File Garden of Eden does not exist.
> :Create Gard.En.
> #Done.
> :Move man to Gard.En.
> #O.K.
> :Run multiplication.
> #Execution terminated. 4 errors.
> :Copy woman from man.
> #O.K.
> :Run multiplication.
> #Execution terminated. 3 errors.
> :Insert woman into man.
> #Illegal parameters. Try again!
> :Insert man into woman.
> #O.K.
> :Run multiplication.
> #Execution terminated. 2 errors.
> :Create desire.
> #Done.
> :Run multiplication.
> #And God saw man'nwoman being fruitful and multiplying in the Gard.En.
> #Warning: No time limit on this run. 1 errors.
> :Create freewill.
> #Done.
> :Run freewill.
> #And God saw man'nwoman being fruitful and multiplying in the Gard.En.
> #Warning: No time limit on this run. 1 errors.
> :Undo desire.
> #Desire cannot be undone once freewill is created.
> :Destroy freewill.
> #Freewill is an inaccessible file and cannot be destroyed.
> #Enter replacement, cancel, or ask for help.
> :Help!
> #Desire cannot be undone once freewill is created.
> #Freewill is an inaccessible file and cannot be destroyed.
> #Enter replacement, cancel, or ask for help.
> :Create Treeofknowledge.
> #And God saw man'nwoman being fruitful and multiplying in the Gard.En.
> #Warning: No time limit on this run. 1 errors.
> :Create good'nevil.
> #Done.
> :Activate evil.
> #And God saw he had created shame.
> #Warning: System error in sector E95. Man'nwoman not in Gard.En.
> #1 errors.
> :Scan Gard.En. for man'nwoman.
> #Man'nwoman cannot be located. Try again!
> :Search Gard.En. for man'nwoman.
> #Search failed.
> :Delete shame.
> #Shame cannot be deleted once evil has been activated.
> :Destroy freewill.
> #Freewill an inaccessible file and cannot be destroyed.
> :Stop!
> #Unrecognizable command. Try again.
> :Break
> :Break
> :Break
> #ATTENTION ALL USERS ATTENTION ALL USERS: COMPUTER GOING DOWN FOR
> REGULAR DAY OF MAINTENANCE AND REST IN FIVE MINUTES. PLEASE
> SIGN OFF.
> :Create new world.
> #You have exceeded your allotted file space. You must destroy
> old files before new ones can be created.
> :Destroy earth.
> #Destroy earth. Please confirm.
> :Destroy earth confirmed.
> #COMPUTER DOWN. COMPUTER DOWN. SERVICES WILL RESUME ON SUNDAY
> MARCH 8 AT 6:00 A.M. YOU MUST SIGN OFF NOW!
> #And God signed off at 11:59 p.m., Friday, March 6.
> #And God saw he had zero funds remaining.

************************************************************** Date: Fri, 28 Jul 1995 10:37 EST Subject: tibet nepal discussion To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: apradhan@nickel.ucs.indiana.edu (Ajay Pradhan) Description: Re: Nepal hands over Tibetans to China (fwd)

Is the World's Only Superpower Threatening a Tiny Himalayan Country?
--------------------------------------------------------------------
  It is certainly a sad situation when asylum seekers are repatriated or turned back to their country where they face a possibility of political persecution, whether they are Tibetans .... or Cubans. It is not clear whether Nepal's government can chart its own bilateral foreign policy vis a vis China and make its own decision concerning Tibetan refugees, or must follow some "international procedures" as noted in the following story. It is also not clear whether these international procedures can have multiple interpretations. Whatever it is, it is Nepal which has to live with the decision its government makes. The U.S., Australia and other countries who have protested deportation of Tibetan refugees from Nepal must acknowledge that Nepal has been sympathetic to Tibetan refugees in the past; the Tibetan refugee camps at various places in Nepal, including Kathmandu and Pokhara are just one example. Nepal has witnessed problems associated with Tibetan refugees as well - the Khampa uprising in the Himalayas is an example of this.
  Whether Nepal government's decision or covert action in deporting the refugees from Tibet is a right or wrong is not my contention to make. I do not necessarily agree with my government's decision; the repatriation of Tibetan refugees from Nepal may be a hint of Kathmandu's political capitulation to Beijing - which is indeed sad case. But, as a Nepali living in the U.S., I thought I must at least try to introduce a U.S. foreign policy dimension that was not dealt with in the following article - and it is an important dimension: What is the U.S. government's policy towards Tibet? In simple black and white, does the U.S. recognize Tibet as an inalienable part of China as claimed by China, or does it recognize Tibet as a separate nation whose sovereignty has been unduly annexed by China? This question is important, because the Tibetan refugee problem is invariably associated with freedom struggle against Chinese annexation
- something that is not similar to, for example, Bhutanese refugee problem which is a result of internal cultural and political disagreemtnt of the Bhutanese government with the nation's minority ethnic population of Nepali origin.
  Furthermore, since at least the Nixon administration, the U.S. government has been in a honeymoon with China - albeit, only luke warm at times. Even after Tiennanmen square massacre, China is still a most favored nation to the U.S. government. I do not think it is merely a coincidence and a magic sales trick of Chinese entrepreneurs that you find more "Made in China" garments, toys, and other consumer goods at WalMarts, K-Marts, Sears, JCPennys, and others, than from any other country on earth, apart from the U.S. itself. This trade favor continues amidst reports and claims that the significant part of the goods exported from China to the U.S. are made by prisoners. Now my question is, Does Tibet matter to the U.S. The answer is a big NO.
  Any statement against repatriation of Tibetan refugees from Nepal that reeks of threat of a U.S. aid cut down can simply be seen as a bloated one. What can U.S. gain by cutting down aid to Nepal because Nepal sent back Tibetan refugees from its soil? It is Nepal that has to live with the problems of Tibetan refugees (because there can be no stopping), and it is again Nepal that has to live with the repercussions of a bad relations with China if Tibetan refugees are not returned to them, not the United State of America, or Australia, or France, or Germany, or England or even India. Not even UNHCR. And Tibet Information Network (TIN) will not even report it. Has TIN, for example, reported how well, or badly, for that matter, Tibetan refugees have done in the Tibetan Refugee Camps in Nepal?
  The ultimate goal of Tibetan refugees, and probably most of the Tibetans, is to reestablish a Tibetan sovereignty over their land which China calls Tibet Autonomous Region. I am not saying that Tibetan refugees must be returned to Tibet, but simply allowing them to come into Nepal will (1) not help in any significant way in the struggle to free Tibet, (2) will very likely create a refugee problem in a resource-scarce country like Nepal (witness Bhutanese refugees in east Nepal, for example), and (3) antagonize the relations with much more powerful China. The key lies in international pressure against China to simply let go of Tibet. Does the international community have enough guts to tell China that Tibet doesn't belong to them? Can the U.S. do it? Once again, No. Because the U.S. has a trade and strategic interest in China. Also, the U.S. cannot possibly get into a war against China, the way it did with Iraq which took Kuwait for some time. Not only can China be a too powerful foe than Iraq, but also that Tibet is "peanuts" to the U.S. and Kuwait is a 24 karat gold.
  If the U.S. and the rest of the international community are so intent on putting pressure on Nepal by threatening to cut down aid, they must first understand Nepal's dilemma concerning bilateral relations with China. If they want Nepal to accept Tibetan refugees they must also guarantee that (1) they set aside a separate fund to feed the Tibetan refugees, and finance security operations to keep them from making Nepal a political launch pad for Tibetans, and that (2) they tell China not to give trouble to Nepal if Tibetan refugees are given asylum in Nepal. If the U.S. and other countries are really supportive of "Free Tibet" movement, they must put pressure on China (not Nepal) and live with consequences of isolating China. A rather difficult proposition for the United States of America, isn't it?
  Ajay Pradhan
 
*************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 28 Jul 1995 12:37:25 -0400 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Parliament and the king.

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

In article <3usctf$1kv$1@mhadg.production.compuserve.com>, Mark E.Dunn <75244.3106@CompuServe.COM> wrote:
>Can anyone please tell me why the king called new elections
>instead of giving the NCP and the RPP the chance to form a
>government. Dont they make up a majority in the House of
>Representatives? In england the Queen cant call new elections
>if a group of parties has a majority in the parliament and want
                                      #################
>to form the government.
>
>Mark E. Dunn

****

There's more to it than meets the eye. However, for the sake of simplicity and convenience, we can say that two factors might have been considered by the King in making the decision to dissolve the parliament and call for a new election:

1. Precedence:

The previous Nepali Congress government (a majority government) had all the mandate of the people they required to stay in power for the full five year term, until 1997. Due to intra-party disagreements and divisions, Girija Koirala, the then prime minister and the leader of the Congress parliamentarians, instead of relinquishing the leadership and the post of prime minister to another Congress parliamentarian, decided to dissolve the parliament (where the party had a clear majority) and call for a new election (which it later narrowly lost to the UML). If that had happened, the Congress party could still be in power. We must realize that, when a party is elected to power, it does not matter who in the party becomes the prime minister. It is not the prime minister who gets the mandate of the people on a national level, but the party.

When Girija Koirala called for elections, UML was not in favor of it and indicated that they be given an opportunity to form a minority government. If UML had been given such an opportunity, they would eventually have to get support from the 36 Congress MPs who had challenged Koirala's leadership within a specific period of time to remain in power. The King decided to accept Koirala's recommendation and dissolved the parliament.

If the King can dissolve the parliament on Prime Minister Koirala's recommendation, it makes sense for him to stick to the precedence to accept the UML Prime Minister Adhikary's recommendation of dissolving the parliament.

2. Technicality:

Critics of this decision might say that Congress was a majority government at that time, but UML was a minority government this time, and so the King should not have accepted the minority government's recommendation. The fact is, technically, whether it is minority or majority, constitutionally as long as a minority party has parliamentary support (i.e., support of at least 51% of the members of parliament), it has all the constitutional powers. The UML government preempted the Congress Party's intention to table a vote of no confidence in the parliament - and technically, the UML government never faced any lack of support in the parliament.
                                           ################# If the UML government had not preempted and a vote of no confidence was tabled by the Congress Party and the RPP, and it the UML government had lost the vote, then, I'd think, the UML government would have been immediately out of power.

I do not know if Girija Koirala still had constitutional powers of a prime minister when technically his government had lost support of 36 of its own parliament members. My question is, if 36 members of parliament from his own party had voted against him (I don't remember what it was that they voted against, a budget or a motion to extend a formal gratitude to the King for his parliamentary address), does it amount to a vote of no confidence against him? If it is, then Girija Koirala should have been immediately ousted as prime minister and another Congress MP should have been made prime minister. This way, people's mandate to the Congress Party for a full 5 year term would still be intact.

Ajay Pradhan

******************************************************************************* Date: Fri, 28 Jul 1995 12:39:46 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Looking for Bobby Chitrakar From: mccaa@u.washington.edu (J. Mccaa)

I am trying to find a friend, Bobby Chitrakar, who until last year was studying at University of Maine. If anyone knows his whereabouts and/or address, please email me at mccaa@atmos.washington.edu

Many thanks, Jim McCaa

**************************************************************** Date: Fri, 28 Jul 1995 12:41:12 -0400 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepalese being sold to brothels

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

In article <G44329A.95Jul22132600@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp>,
   g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp (GP) wrote:
>In article <abi.806297466@sfu.ca> abi@newsserver.sfu.ca (Abi Kumar Sharma)
writes:
> |
> | NEPALESE BEING SOLD TO BROTHELS
> |
> | Slavery - Age of girls being lured into prostitution down, rights group
says
> | (stuff deleted)
> |
> | Estimates put the number of Nepali girls and women now working
> |in Indiaa brothels at about 200,000 with between 5,000 and 7,000 new
> ========================================
> |Nepalis ending up in Indian brothels every year.
> ================================================
>
> Either on of these data is wrong. If we assumed all girls
>dragged to these "DHOTI BHAI's" heaven and hell(cf. haven) for Nepali
>girls, are between age 14 to 16 then they work till the age of 50 years
>only then the above data approaches to be correct. If we assume the
>first data to be more reliable , which can be real ,we also assume
>these girls work decades (lets assume 20 years), then the average
>influx of Nepali girls in these red light areas becomes 10, 000 years.
>Every day, 30 girls.
>

(stuff deleted)

>Gyaneswor
>

I don't see any reason to doubt the stats, primarily because I don't have anything to counter them. There are nearly 50,000 Nepalis prostitutes in Bombay alone, as other reports suggested, and India is a huge country. Nepalis girls/women working in Indian brothels, by force or by their own volition, is nothing new. It has been going on for decades. However, the volume and seriousness have certainly escalated.

Just to counter Gyaneswore's math :-), look at the following MUCH simplified population growth example:

  (Time (Yr.) Average Annual Change
     elapsed Population From Previous Year
        0 25,000 ---
       10 45,000 2,000
       20 70,000 2,500
       30 102,000 3,200
       40 142,000 4,000
       50 192,000 5,000

The average annual increase, entry minus exit, is NET of attrition due to exit from the pool for whatever reason (e.g. death, retirement due to age/AIDS, or escape). At the average annual increase of 2,000 to 5,000 population
(prostitutes), an initial population of 25,000 grows to 192,000 in just 50 years. This means, if there were 25,000 prostitutes in 1945, the number would have increased to nearly 200,000 by 1995! Please note: these numbers are hypothetical used for illustration, not really the number of prostitues ;-)

It doesn't matter whether the total number of Nepali prostitutes and the number of new arrivals in Indian bazaars are accurate or not. Over or under estimation is entirely possible. Afterall, they are estimates made under very difficult circumstances.

Forget the trivial, and focus on the BIG picture. The problem is huge, deadly serious, and growing. Poverty, unemployment, ignorance, greed, and I don't know what else are the root causes. The stories of Nepali prostitutes in Indian brothels and Bhanu's account of Nepali boys/girls driven to prostitution even in Nepal have been heart_wrenching and shameful to many Nepalis and friends. We used to sell our blood and loyalty to Indian and British (gora) sahibs. Now this. Last several years/decades have been all down_hill. From Lahure-to-Darban-to-Kulli (in Japan, S. Korea, Middle East etc.) and prostitutes. (Well, you can put all of us selling our "knowledge" in this 'foren' land, if you like.)

There is no quick-fix to our problems. But, shall we start by hanging the body traffickers? We can only hope that our economy will be better one day and people will have decent jobs (you know, prostitution will never cease to exist. Have you been following Heidi Fleiss story?) We should have closed our borders with India a long time ago. Somebody out there do something to change the course or to stop or slow down the downward spiral. Have we hit the rock bottom yet? If yes, good. Then, we cannot sink any deeper. The only way is up. A chinese saying seems to be relevent here: a journey of thousand miles begins with the first step.

Just felt like saying a lot of things in a very short time, and I ran out of time.

KLV

***************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 28 Jul 1995 12:42:00 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Is there someone out there from western part of Nepal? From: David Bhatta <davidb>

Namaste, Ke chhan ba hal samachar? If there is someone out there (in Cyberspace) from Seti or Mahakali Anchal area please let me know. I know of only one person in the States who is from that area (and to think he lives in Idaho!). I am from Dandeldhura and Dhangadhi area, currently living in Chicago. Quite settled in the States or as settled as one can be, but still desirous of Nepali (Pahadi to be more specific) chit chat. My e-mail: davidb@isp.csg.mot.com

Hunchha ta, Bida Paun.

********************************************** Date: Fri, 28 Jul 1995 12:43:30 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: The Nepal Home Page has moved From: rajendra@coos.dartmouth.edu (Rajendra P. Shrestha)

I have moved the Nepal home page to a new location. It's new address is now http://www.cen.uiuc.edu/~rshresth/Nepal.html (or nepal.html for text-only version)

I've tried to make this transition as smooth as possible. But there's bound to be some problems. If you find any links that do not work, please notify me. My new e-mail address is rshresth@uiuc.edu (ignore the signature file in this posting)

Thanks.

*************************************************************** Date: Fri, 28 Jul 95 20:01:01 -0400 From: "Sher Karki" <karki_s@a1.mscf.upenn.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Chootkila
                        A Lawer Joke
        
        These two guys, George and Harry, set out in a Hot Air balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean. After 37 hours in the air, George says "Harry, we better lose some altitude so we can see where we are". Harry lets out some of the hot air in the balloon, and the balloon descends to below the cloud cover. George says, "I still can't tell where we are, lets ask that guy on the ground". So Harry yells down to the man "Hey, could you tell us where we are?". And the man on the ground yells back "You're in a balloon, 100 feet up in the air". George turns to Harry and says "That man must be a lawyer". And Harry says "How can you tell?". George says "Because the advice he gave us is 100% accurate, and totally useless".

*********************************************************** Date: Sat, 29 Jul 1995 15:42:39 -0400 (EDT) From: Pradeep Bista <pbista@scisun.sci.ccny.cuny.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Society of Nepalese Students in New York formed!

Dear Netters,

This is to inform you that in an informal gathering of Nepalese students and other members of the Nepalese community in New York in Kissena Park on July 9, Society of Nepalese Students in New York (SNSNY) was formed.

SNSNY will attempt to help Nepalese students and others in New York and elsewhere by:
--fostering interaction
--cooperating with each other, and
--enhancing cultural and literary awareness

SNSNY will will try to channelize the tremendous potential of Nepalese students towards helping each other and making a positive difference in our lives.

We have just done the groundwork. How successful SNSNY will be depends on how much effort we all put into it. The real task has just begun. As we go along, we need your active involvement. Among the activities that we have planned for the present are:
--a monthly newsletter (P.S. see the posting on "CHAUTARI")
--frequent gatherings
--cultural awareness programs (eg; the one planned for Dashain, with
  music and dances)

We hope you will be able to actively support us in our endeavors, and if you would like more information and a copy of our newsletter (and about how you can contribute to "Chautari"), please write or e-mail to:

Chautari 45-13 79th St. Elmhurst, NY 11373

Pradeep Bista--pbista@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu Naresh Kattel--naresh@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu Rabindra Tripathi--rabi@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu

We are planning on publishing a monthly newsletter, "Chautari" on behalf of the Society of Nepalese Students in New York (SNSNY).

"Chautari" will be a bilingual (English/Nepali) newsletter containing news from Nepal, personal as well as professional literary creations, cartoons, and other pieces of interest.

Our main goal is to make the paper accessible to as many people as possible WITHOUT setting up a subscription price. Of course, our funds are limited, so we are presently thinking of ways by which we will be able to generate just enough funds to cover the cost of paper, printing, and mailing.

We are sincerely looking for all the help and suggesstions that any of you can provide us. As we know that the more frequent, the better, we are proposing a monthly publication despite the requirement of heightened efforts, and cost. The paper will be printed on 81/2"x14" paper, and leaves will be added as necessary.

Many of you, like Rajendra, Mr. Rajpal Singh, Mr. Amulya Tuladhar, Ashutosh, Sunil, Prayutosh are experienced and well-versed in your efforts to post news, opinions and other information both here (on SCN) and on TND. Any help and suggesstions that any of you (this by no means exclude all the other SCNers and TNDers) can provide us.

Our premier issue, the one for August 1995/Shrawan-Bhadra 2052 is scheduled for publication around the first month of August. So far we have news extracts from Gorkhapatra and Rising Nepal, opinions and profiles by our editors, a cartoon, poems, and prose in both Nepali and English.

If you would like to get a copy of our newsletter, please send us your address. If you would like to contribute (space is very limited on this AUGUST issue; but, SEPTEMBER is coming up pretty soon!!!) please write or e-mail to, or call any of our editors.

We hope "Chautari" will be a fun, entertaining, enlightening, and exciting experience for all of us!

Our Address: Pradeep Bista 718-397-0571 Chautari pbista@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu 45-13 79th St. Naresh Kattel 718-729-6836 Elmhurst, NY 11373 naresh@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu
                                        Rabindra Tripathi 718-898-6556
                                        rabi@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu
                                        Aparajita Giri 718-699-7062
%%%%%Editor's Note: I was fortunate to get a copy of publication %%%%%
%%%%% Chautari during Sur-Sudha presentation on %%%%%
%%%%% August 6th at Columbia University. It is an %%%%%
%%%%% excellent publication. Kudos to all the %%%%%
%%%%% people involved. Congratulations! %%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

***************************************************************** Date: Sun, 30 Jul 1995 14:14:34 -0400 (EDT) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Basic general question

I had to answer some basic cultural question and I did not have total confidence. Why do Nepalese or Indian women really wear the (tika) on the forehead? I thouhght it was a sign of married female but unmarried females do too. Is it just part of the make up? If anyone knows the real reason you can send e-mail to me or in TND. Secondly what are our Nepali slangs. I mean good regular slangs. I would appreciate if anyone could let me know. Thanks.Nirmal

******************************************************************* Date: Sun, 30 Jul 1995 15:00 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu Subject: editor, this himnet has several articles of interest to tnd readers To: nepal@cs.niu.edu
 
#10 The Indian Plate is cracking in two
        From: Press Release from the US NSF
 
        Scientists at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory have reported direct evidence that one of the Earth's crustal plates is cracking in two. Their research was funded by the National Science Foundation
(NSF).
        In a report published this week in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (vol. 133), the scientists say they have confirmed that the Indo-Australian Plate -- long identified as a single plate on which both India and Australia lie -- appears to have broken apart just south of the Equator beneath the Indian Ocean. The break has been underway for the past several million years, and now the two continents are moving independently of one another in slightly different directions.
 
        A fundamental tenet of plate tectonics theory is that the Earth's surface is divided into rigid plates that move together and apart like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Scientists have long recognized 12 major plates. Now there are 13.
 
        Scientists have known that for some 50 million years, the Indian subcontinent has been pushing northward into Eurasia, forcefully raising the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayan Mountains. This new research suggests that starting about eight million years ago, the accumulated mass became so great that the Indo-Australian Plate buckled and broke under the stress.
 
         "The result of this critical stage in the collision between India and Asia is the breakup of the Indo-Australia Plate into separate Indian and Australian plates," says Jeffrey Weissel, a scientist at Lamont-Doherty, Columbia's earth sciences research institute in Palisades, New York.
 
        "This is a newly observed way of creating a new boundary between plates," says Lamont-Doherty scientist James Cochran, who co-authored the report with Weissel, and James Van Orman, now a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Van Orman, the report's lead author, was an undergraduate at Florida State University in 1993 when he began the research with Weissel and Cochran at Lamont-Doherty, as part of a summer internship program sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
 
        "In the Central Indian Ocean, nature is conducting a large scale laboratory experiment for us, showing us what happens to the oceanic lithosphere [Earth's outer layer] when force is applied," says Weissel. Essentially pushed into an immovable object, "it can buckle like a piece of tin."
 
        In the 1970s, scientists first discovered a broad zone, stretching more than 600 miles from east to west where the equatorial Indian Ocean floor was compressed and deformed. Drilled samples had shown that the zone had begun to buckle and crack about eight million years ago at the same time the Tibetan Plateau had reached its greatest height. Cochran was chief scientist on the ocean drilling cruise that collected this data.
 
        More recently, researchers at Northwestern University used data on how newly created seafloor had spread outward from mid ocean ridges to the west and south of the deformed region in the Indian Ocean. They theorized that the movements of the newly created seafloor could be accommodated only if a distinct plate boundary existed between separate Indian and Australian plates across the equatorial Indian Ocean.
 
        In relation to the Indian plate, the Australian Plate is moving counterclockwise, the Northwestern University scientists calculated. In the western part of the new plate boundary, the plates are moving away from each other. To the east, the Australian Plate is converging on the Indian Plate, they believed.
 
        If the theory were correct, the ocean floor in the eastern part of the new plate boundary should be compressed, buckled, cracked, and eventually thrust upward along the cracks. More critically, if a separate Australian Plate were rotating counterclockwise in relation to a separate Indian Plate, the amount of compression should increase rapidly and systematically from west to east across the central Indian Ocean.
 
        To test the theory, the Lamont-Doherty team took actual measurements of how compressed the Indian Ocean floor has become in the region believed to be the new plate boundary. Using sound waves to probe sub-seafloor rock layers, they created images of sub-seafloor structures.
 
        The images were collected during two separate research voyages that each spanned the entire deformed zone from north to south. Weissel was aboard a 1991 cruise of the
=46rench research vessel Marion Dufresne. In 1986, aboard LamontDoherty's former research vessel, the Robert D. Conrad, he obtained images along a north-to-south line 185 miles to the west.
 
        The images showed scores of systematically aligned cracks, or faults, in the oceanic lithosphere -- created as the once whole plate buckled and cracked. As the now- distinct plates continued to converge, slabs of ocean floor slid upward along the faults to alleviate the strain. The more the two plates converged, the farther the slabs slid upward. "Van Orman's summer job," says Weissel, was to very carefully measure how far vertically the blocks of crust were thrust upward along more than 200 faults."
 
        The measurements clearly showed that two separate plates were converging. More importantly, the thrusting observed on the French research cruise was about twice that found on the U.S. cruise. That proved that compression was more intense to the east -- confirming the Northwestern group's prediction on spreading rate and direction at the mid-ocean ridges .
 
         "Our result therefore provides direct evidence from the deformation itself that the compression of oceanic lithosphere in the central Indian Ocean, originally regarded as 'intraplate,' is better described as constituting part of a broad boundary zone between distinct Indian and Australian plates," the Lamont-Doherty scientists wrote in Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Cochran says the research "gives insight into how strong and rigid plates are, how they respond to stress, and what their limits are before they break." Weissel adds that, "This is an important piece of work that came out of the NSF's Research Experiences for Undergraduates program. It was basically an undergraduate's summer intern project."
                     ** FOR YOUR REFERENCE **
 
        Press releases and other information are now available electronically on NSFnews, a free service available via the Internet. To subscribe to NSFnews send an e-mail message to listmanager@nsf.gov. In the body of the message (not the subject line) type the words =ECsubscribe nsfnews and then type your name (not an e-mail address). For example: Subscribe nsfnews James Smith. The system will reply with a confirmation via e-mail. For additional information about NSFnews send another e-mail message to listmanager@nsf.gov and in the body of the message type the word help.
  This message was mailed to the STIS mailing list "STSFUL-L".
 
#11 New list for Environmental Issues in South Asia
                From: nk18@columbia.edu (Niraj Kumar)
 
        A new list <s-asia-environ> has been established to discuss environmental concerns in South Asia. Please feel free to forward this announcement to all who may be potentially interested.
 
        To subscribe to the list, send the following command in email to
 
"s-asia-environ-request@columbia.edu":
 
    subscribe
 
        Or you can send mail to "majordomo@columbia.edu" with the following command in the body of your email message:
 
    subscribe s-asia-environ <your email address>
 
        On subscribing, you will receive the following welcome message:
 
"s-asia-environ" is UN-MODERATED. To post to the list, send an email to
  s-asia-environ@columbia.edu
 
        The subject line in your email should be used to briefly describe the focus of your email so as to enable other users to determine if it interests them.
 
        The purpose of <s-asia-environ> is to serve as a forum for=
 discussion of the multiple dimensions (including physical, chemical, ecological, political, socio-economic and cultural) of environmental issues facing South Asia, which is defined here to include Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Maldives.
 
        Examples of topics germane to this list are
 
- Impacts of global warming on South Asia (or a region within it)
- Air/water pollution and land degradation problems in South Asia
- Ecological research and conservation of biological diversity
- Socio-economic research pertinent to environmental issues
- Gender and environment
- Environmental history / historical ecology
- Political events that have a bearing on the status of environment
        in South Asia
- Reports on progress of environmental protection initiatives,
        legislative or otherwise
- Effectiveness and implementation of environmental laws and regulatio= ns
- Activities of environmental NGOs (non-governmental organizations)
- Sustainable development initiatives in South Asia
- Inquiries and reports of environmental research in, and on South Asi= a
- Notices of workshops and conferences with relevant themes
- Job / research opportunities in these countries
 
        Why another environment list?
 
        While there are many existing environmental lists, none focus on South Asia in particular. Similarly, lists devoted to scientific aspects of the environment do not address specific socio-economic and political dimensions of environmental degradation in South Asia. This list is aimed at filling this gap.
 
        The gathering pace of industrialization, together with rising populations poses increasing threats to the environment of South Asia. These threats affect not only the natural environment (e.g. loss of biodiversity) but also large numbers of people who depend on natural resources for their subsistence. Additionally, urban areas in S. Asia are increasingly plagued by air and water pollution. In response to these increasing threats, recent years have seen a large number of grassroots initiatives and campaigns to counter these trends. Governments have also responded in the form of laws, regulations and protected areas, designed for environmental protection. The field of environmental activity in South Asia is vast and rapidly growing. No single individual can keep track of all this activity.
 This list is intended both as a forum for discussion and to facilitate exchange of information among the participants.
 
        Proper netiquette should be maintained at all times. While it is entirely appropriate to disagree with and criticize ideas and opinions, personal attacks or flames will not be tolerated.
 
        This list is hosted by Dr. Niraj Kumar (nk18@columbia.edu) of the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University.
 
 
#12 E-mail in Nepal
                From: Ron Walker (RWALKER@central.georcoll.on.ca)
 
        I am making tentative arrangements for a visit to Nepal in early 199= 6 to present some training, and I would like to find out what facilities exist in Kathmandu to send and receive email by internet.
 
        If any readers can suggest a way to set up an email address, preferably accessible by modem in Kathmandu, I would be grateful for the information.
 
        Please send any reply to me, Ron Walker, at the following email address:
  rwalker@gc1.georcoll.on.ca
 
        Thank you for your assistance.
  Ron Walker Engineering Technology Georgian College One Georgian Drive Barrie, Ontario Canada L4M 3X9
  Phone 705-728-1968 ext 5246
=46ax 705-722-5180 internet and email RWALKER@GC1.GEORCOLL.ON.CA
 
 
#13 On your return from the field.........
                From: Michael A. Edwards (ME7685@CSC.ALBANY.EDU)
 
        I encourage everyone to write to HimNet with tall stories or anecdotes upon return from the field this year. HimNet in October could be a "bumper recovery from the mountains/the plateau edition" with the usual jokes about smelly socks, stupid things lost, stupid things done on final night etc, etc.
  Michael A. Edwards ME7685@CSC.ALBANY.EDU Dept. Geological Sciences, State University of New York at Albany Albany, New York, 12222, USA Tel 518-442-4470/4466 Fax 518-442-4468
 
 
#14 Himalayan Research Bulletin
                From: David A. Spencer (DASpencer@erdw.ethz.ch)
                Scanned from the Himalayan Research Bulletin
 
        The Himalayan Research Bulletin (ISSN 0891-4834) is published twice a year by the Nepal Studies Association, Department of Geography, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97207-0751
 
        Editor:
  Barbara Brower, Department of Geography, Portland State University
 
        Membership and Subscription Information:
 
        The Himalayan Research Bulletin replaces the Nepal Studies Association Newsletter which began publication in 1972. The Himalayan Research Bulletin is sent to all current members of the Nepal Studies Association. Non members may subscribe to the journal.
 
        Annual subscription fees for 1995-1996:
  Individuals (including students) US $20.00 Institutions and Libraries US $50.00
 
        Subscribers and members outside the U.S.A., please add postage US
$5 surface mail or US $15 airmail. Payment is for the calendar year and must be in US. dollars by check drawn on a Prime US. Bank (such as Chase Manhattan or the Bank of America). Back issues are available from the editors. Subscriptions and all correspondence should be addressed to:
  Himalayan Research Bulletin Asian Studies Portland State University Box 751 Portland, OR 97207-0751
 
=46AX (503) 725-3166 Phone (503) 725-8044 or 725-8312
 e-mail hrb@ch2.ch.pdx.edu
 
  Himalayan Research Bulletin - Volume XV, Number 1, 1995
  CONTENTS
 
        Editor's Introduction
        President's Letter
        Roundtable: Perspectives on the Development of Himalayan Studies
  RECENT PUBLICATIONS
  Briefly Noted
  Book Reviews:
 
        Marie Lecomte-Tilouine, Les dieux du pouvoir: Les Magar et l'hindoui= sme
        au Nepal central . Reviewed by Laura Ahearn
 
        Susi Dunsmore, Nepalese Textiles. Reviewed by Kathryn Hartzell
 
        Vyvuan Cayley, Children of Tibet: An Oral History of the First Tibet= ans
        to Grow Up in Exile. Reviewed by Kiela Diehl
  DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS
  NEWS and NOTES
  CONFERENCE DIGEST
  Himalayan Research Bulletin: Cumulative Contents 1981 to 1994
 
.................................................
 
#15 European Bulletin of Himalayan Research
                From: David A. Spencer (DASpencer@erdw.ethz.ch)
                Scanned from the Himalayan Research Bulletin and letters received
 
 
        The European Bulletin of Himalayan Research is published by the Editors twice annually from the South Asia Institute, Heidelberg.
 
        Prepayment may be made by Eurocheque or by bank transfer, in either case, in favour of South Asia Institute (European Bulletin of Himalayan Research). Us= ing bank transfer please send money to: Bezirkssparkasse Heidelberg, Account No.=
: 21911, Sorting Code [Bankleitzahl] 672 500 20, Reference: SAI, Titel 11378, = BA 1154.
 
        British subscribers may send personal cheques in Pounds Sterling to:
  Dr. Michael Hutt SOAS Department of Indology Thornhaugh Street Russell Square London WClH OXG
 
        in favour of European Bulletin of Himalayan Research.
  Two year subscription rate for Numbers 8-11 are as follows:
  Institutions: DM 40,- (Eurocheque) DM 50,- (Bank transfer), =A315.- (Brit. =
=A3) Individual Subscribers: DM 40,- (Eurocheque), DM 50,- (Bank transfer),
=A315.- (Brit. =A3) Concessionary student rate: DM 30,- (Eurocheque), DM 40,- (Bank transfer),
=A311.- (Brit. =A3)
 
        Send to the Editors, European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, South Asia Institute, Im Neuenheimer Feld 330, 69120 Heidelberg
 
  European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, No. 8:
  REVIEW ARTICLE: Recent Anthropological Research on Garhwal and Kumaon: Antje Linkenbach and Monica Krengel
  TOPICAL REPORT Nepallese Political Parties: Developments since the 1991 Elections: John Whelpton.
  INTERVIEW Ethnicity and National Integration in Nepal: A Conservation with Parhuram Tamang: Karl-Heinz Kralmer.
  NEWS
  ANNOUNCEMENTS
 
.................................................
 
#16 Reinhold Messner off to find the Yeti!
                From: David A. Spencer (DASpencer@erdw.ethz.ch)
                Scanned from The European Magazine No. 271
 
        FROM this week, the mystery of the Abominable Snowman is in danger of being solved once and for all. Reinhold Messner, the first man to climb Mount Everest alone and without oxygen, and to conquer the 14 Himalayan peaks higher than 8,000 metres, has just set off to the Altai Mountains in southern Russia to study and photograph a yeti, as the enigmatic beast is known. Messner, 51, claims to have sighted it twice, and is convinced that it is a huge, shy bear which has been officially considered extinct since the beginning of this century.
 
        (Actually, I don't think this expedition will now happen. I just read in the newspaper this morning that Messner broke his heel while climbing the wall of his castle at midnight (apparently, he does this for practice!). He was taken to hospital and operated on for several hours. He seems to be recovering well.)
 
 
#17 Expedition News
                From: blumassoc@aol.com (BlumAssoc)
 
        EXPEDITION NEWS is a monthly review of significant expeditions, rese= arch projects and newsworthy adventures. It is distributed online and by mail to media representatives, corporate sponsors, educators, research libraries, environmentalists and outdoor enthusiasts. This new forum on the outdoors covers projects that stimulate, motivate and educate.
 
        EXPEDITION NEWS is published by Blumenfeld and Associates, Inc., 397 Post Rd., Suite 202, Darien, Conn. 06820 USA. Tel. 203-656-3300. Editor/publisher: Jeff Blumenfeld. Assistant editor: Jon Lesser. Copyright
(c) 1995 Blumenfeld and Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Subscription rate:
 
        $36/year.
  E-mail: BlumAssoc@aol.com or CompuServe 76226,773. # # #
 
*************************************************************** Date: Mon, 31 Jul 1995 11:03 EST From: sshakya@lynx.dac.neu.edu (Sunil Shakya) Description: About Ramesh Mali
  Courtesy: Boston Globe (AP) Date : July 27, '95.
  Headline: Dead boy's family to receive policy
  Madison, Conn.- The mother of the Special Olympian who drowned during the World Games will receive $10,000 from a life insurance policy. The policy is held by Special Olympics International, which is based in Washington D.C. The money should reach the family in the next few days. Ramesh Mali, of Nepal, drowned July 6 at a beach outing with teammates and hosts at Hammonassett Beach State Park in Madison. Mali, who was mentally retarded, represented his country in soccer at the Special Olympics World Games.

***************************************************************** Date: Mon, 31 Jul 1995 16:55 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: jai@mantra.com (Dr. Jai Maharaj) Description: 11 Prisoners of Conscience Detained in Nepal

[ From Amnesty International <Amnesty_International@io.org> ]
[ Friday, July 28, 1995 ]
  NEPAL: ELEVEN PRISONERS OF CONSCIENCE DETAINED IN NEPAL FOR OVER TEN MONTHS
  The Government of Nepal should release immediately and unconditionally 11 Christians arrested in September 1994 on suspicion of proselytizing, Amnesty International said today.
 
      "We believe that these people are prisoners of conscience and their arrest and detention is in contravention of their right to freedom of religion," the human rights organization said.
 
      The 11 detainees -- a Nepali national, an Indian national and nine Nepali-speaking Bhutanese refugees -- were arrested at Danabari, Ilam District, and charged with proselytizing, an offence under Nepali law.
 
      At a hearing on 1 May, more than seven months after the trial began, the judge is reported to have stated that the case should be dismissed. However, the final hearing of the trial has since been postponed on three occasions: 20 May, 2 July and 26 July. The next date of the hearing will be in one week's time.
 
       Lawyers say that this continual postponement of the final hearing is contrary to usual legal practice in Nepal. Furthermore, their arrest and detention contravenes Article Rights, to which Nepal is a party.
 
      The 11 defendants tried unsuccessfully to obtain their release, either unconditionally or on bail, by filing a writ of habeas corpus and lodging an appeal in both the District and Appellate Courts. They remain in detention at Ilam District Jail awaiting their final hearing..
 
************************************************************* Date: Mon, 31 Jul 95 16:54 EST From: Anand Pathak <0002035330@mcimail.com> To: The Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Subscription

Hi, Hope your summer is going well. Would you please send TND to my home e-mail address. It is 2035330@mcimail.com. Thank you!

Anand Pathak, Honolulu
(Also, continue to send it to my school address pathak@fas.harvard.edu)

**************************************************************** From: bpandey@metro.mccneb.edu (Bhuban Pandey) Subject: Looking for somebody in Texas To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Date: Tue, 1 Aug 95 9:00:35 CDT

Hi Netters! I hope everybody is having a wonderful summer.

I'm wondering whether any of you currently live in southern part of Texas e.g. Corpus Christi, San Antonio, or Austin. If you don't, do you know any Nepali living in that area. Please let me know name, address, and phone number of that person(s).

Thanks in advance.

Bhuban Pandey 5730 N. 30th., Bldg. 14S Omaha, NE 68111 bpandey@metro.mccneb.edu

**************************************************************** Date: Tue, 1 Aug 1995 13:13:56 -0400 From: Frenchbrd@aol.com To: Nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: bad form...

dear editor: I receive your publication regularly via e-mail, which is greatly appreciated. I noted a "joke" in The Nepal Digest on July 27 or 28, which the joke-teller, a person by the name of "Karki" ( I do not have the complete e-mail address), refers to Mr. Clinton as an "asshole". Personally I do not care that much for Mr. Clinton myself, but in all the time I spent in Nepal, I would never think of publicly insulting HM King Birendra, regardless of my personal opinion. Noe do I feel that too many other Americans would exhibit the same audacity and tasteless behavior. It is my suggestion that "editing" include the omission of such insults to Americans, and that perhaps "Karki" would be better suited to being back in Kathmandu, selling thankas on Asan Tole. As an aside, why is it that such a large percentage of whiners and complainers who are Nepalese expatriots are at Clark University?

thank you

Robert J. Matthews
<frenchbrd@aol.com>

************************************************************************ Date: Tue, 1 Aug 1995 18:40 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: apradhan@nickel.ucs.indiana.edu (Ajay Pradhan) Description: Re: Parliament and the king.

In article <3usctf$1kv$1@mhadg.production.compuserve.com>, Mark E.Dunn <75244.3106@CompuServe.COM> wrote:
>Can anyone please tell me why the king called new elections
>instead of giving the NCP and the RPP the chance to form a
>government. Dont they make up a majority in the House of
>Representatives? In england the Queen cant call new elections
>if a group of parties has a majority in the parliament and want
                                      #################
>to form the government.
>Mark E. Dunn
  There's more to it than meets the eye. However, for the sake of simplicity and convenience, we can say that two factors might have been considered by the King in making the decision to dissolve the parliament and call for a new election:
  1. Precedence:
  The previous Nepali Congress government (a majority government) had all the mandate of the people they required to stay in power for the full five year term, until 1997. Due to intra-party disagreements and divisions, Girija Koirala, the then prime minister and the leader of the Congress parliamentarians, instead of relinquishing the leadership and the post of prime minister to another Congress parliamentarian, decided to dissolve the parliament (where the party had a clear majority) and call for a new election (which it later narrowly lost to the UML). If that had happened, the Congress party could still be in power. We must realize that, when a party is elected to power, it does not matter who in the party becomes the prime minister. It is not the prime minister who gets the mandate of the people on a national level, but the party.
  When Girija Koirala called for elections, UML was not in favor of it and indicated that they be given an opportunity to form a minority government. If UML had been given such an opportunity, they would eventually have to get support from the 36 Congress MPs who had challenged Koirala's leadership within a specific period of time to remain in power. The King decided to accept Koirala's recommendation and dissolved the parliament.
  If the King can dissolve the parliament on Prime Minister Koirala's recommendation, it makes sense for him to stick to the precedence to accept the UML Prime Minister Adhikary's recommendation of dissolving the parliament.
  2. Technicality:
  Critics of this decision might say that Congress was a majority government at that time, but UML was a minority government this time, and so the King should not have accepted the minority government's recommendation. The fact is, technically, whether it is minority or majority, constitutionally as long as a minority party has parliamentary support (i.e., support of at least 51% of the members of parliament), it has all the constitutional powers. The UML government preempted the Congress Party's intention to table a vote of no confidence in the parliament - and technically, the UML government never faced any lack of support in the parliament.
                                           ################# If the UML government had not preempted and a vote of no confidence was tabled by the Congress Party and the RPP, and it the UML government had lost the vote, then, I'd think, the UML government would have been immediately out of power.
  I do not know if Girija Koirala still had constitutional powers of a prime minister when technically his government had lost support of 36 of its own parliament members. My question is, if 36 members of parliament from his own party had voted against him (I don't remember what it was that they voted against, a budget or a motion to extend a formal gratitude to the King for his parliamentary address), does it amount to a vote of no confidence against him? If it is, then Girija Koirala should have been immediately ousted as prime minister and another Congress MP should have been made prime minister. This way, people's mandate to the Congress Party for a full 5 year term would still be intact.
  Ajay Pradhan

******************************************************************************* Date: Wed, 02 Aug 1995 16:30:19 +0000 From: deschene@JHUVMS.HCF.JHU.EDU (Mary Des Chene) Subject: Nepali Himal Subscriptions To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

The Nepali language edition of Himal magazine can now be ordered through Himal's U.S. distributer. Below is the information they gave me:

Subscriptions for the quarterly Nepali-Himal are US$20. You can send the check and subscription info. to our office and we will inform KTM: Himal Magazine, POBox 470758, San Francisco, 94147.
*In your letter please make clear that the subscription is for the Nepali-Himal and not Himal*.

************************************************************ Date: Wed, 2 Aug 1995 17:34 EST Subject: tiwar's political analysis To: nepal@cs.niu.edu, anil.sakya@brunel.ac.uk, david.gellner@brunel.ac.uk, From: "C. Tiwari" <74641.3624@compuserve.com>

Amulya, I throughly enjoyed reading your compressed analysis of news and views from Nepal. Your analysis points out apparent low profile of former PM Girija Koirala and the ascendency of ethno politics. I am a bit intrigued by your question whether I think Ganesh Man is a "have been."

I think Girija's low profile can be interpreted in two ways as you have pointed out. I think it is primarily a strategic retreat but I can not rule out the possibilty of Girija pushed into oblivion. As you know, the rank and file of Nepali Congress have felt a big slap on their face due to Koirala et.al.'s recacitrant behavior. It does not mean, however, that KP and GM were as clean as crystal. But Koirala's actions were definitely a catalyst in the fall of Nepali Congress.

In this context the NC rank and file is struggling hard to estabilsh their earlier image of a party committed to democracy and socialism. They are deeply hurt by the infantile disorder of their septuagenerian leaders. As a result younger generation leaders are attempting to sideline them with due regard to their past (maan ka khatir sammaan!). If it happens it sure will lead to Koirala into oblivion. Koirala faction knows it very well. In order to avoid this situation a proposal was recently floated to allow KP to contest upcoming election while transferring the position of party President to Koirala. Thus, Koirala's low-profile is a strategic retreat to take over the party leadership.

But, Amulya, you know very well that NC is in doldrum. I see the entire party going into oblivion gradually. I do not see any social indicators that will glue the party together. In the next couple years NC party will be reduced to the status of British Liberal Party with a dozen or so seats in the parliament while UML and NDP will emerge as Labor and Conservative parties. I wish my observation is wrong.

Let me turn to your another question: is Ganesh Man a
"have been." I believe so, frankly. That Sarbamanya has now become amanya. Why? Because of his own stupidity. He would have a Nepali Gandhi had he taken sanyas from politics immediately rejecting the position of Prime Minister on April 10, 1990. However, he stayed on politics, sorrounded himself with the petty interests of his wife and son and allowed them in the competition with Koirala groups for a share of political and economic goodies. Amulya, remember what Nelson Madela had done to his wife to keep himself clean.

"Dhaante ko kura ra taleko luga chhopera chhoppinna," so goes a saying. The NC unity is like patched clothes which can not be hidden. Ganesh Man may come out to campaign for NC but it will have marginal effect. He now has become an old hag whose opinions are listened for fun and pleasure.

With reference to your question on ethno politics I can only say that this has been a legacy of our history. It is not a new phenomena. Prithvi Narayan Shah had recognized this fact when he had described Nepal as
"garden of four castes and thirty-six races." Nepali society has survived inter and intra ethnic conflicts. These conflicts, however, have manifested in the urban areas more frequently than in rural areas. Communalism is not the creation of hard working people like Jyapus in KAthmandu, Gurungs and Magars in the West, Rais and Limboos in the East, and Madheses in the South. It is manufactured by a vested interest that exists in each ethnic communities and they are well educated. A few individuals in each ethnic communities foment ethnic hatred not because they are truly exploited but because they are on the highway to achieve national elite status without professional competition. I personally know many of these so-called Jana Jati leaders who exploit their own community, keep them in dark, perpetuate medieval feudalism. And when their leadership is challenged by their own ethnic people they start promoting communalism by attacking Brahmins, Chhetris, and Newars. What we have to remember is the fact that there economically destitutes among B-C-N's too.

The UML govt faced this communal poison couple months ago with Padma Ratna's Sanskrit and "cow slaughter" controversey. The govt, however, managed to sideline this issue from other urgent issues. The UML rank and file is composed of overwhelmingly socalled Janajati people even though its Central Committee and Standing Committee is manned by B-C. But it very hard for UML to mask ethnic issues behind class issues. Moreover, class issues have been cared less now than ever in the literatures of UML.

With regard to your question on republicanism I can only say at this moment that it existsrmancy. It is a futuristic vision. I had previously argued that political doldrums due to multi-party rivlries will lead to monarchy's revival. Moreover, Nepali Constitution suffers from a contradiction. The contradiction is that a Hindu king is relegated to the status of constitutional monarch. A Hindu state and Constitutional Monarchy is in itself a contradictory term. If you read Manu, Chanakya, and other Hindu political consultants of monarchy you will realize this contradiction. A Hindu king is always a sovereign; he can not remain as a constitutional monarch for long. This contadiction is sure to explode some day. I don't know when. But once the King asserts his Hindu authority it is a sure sign towards republicanism. No leaders of NC, NDP, or UML will be able to save it.

I hope I have provided answers to your questions. You may submit it in SCN/TND.

Yours, C. Tiwari

***************************************************************** Date: Wed, 2 Aug 1995 21:51:00 -0500 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu From: sharma@plains.nodak.edu (Padam Sharma) Subject: Some facets of Indian democracy....

#7 Indian prostitutes demand legal status

   NEW DELHI, Aug. 2 (UPI) -- A group of sex workers in the eastern Indian city of Calcutta has demanded the legalization and licensing of their trade, the Press Trust of India reported Wednesday.
   The Mahila Samanyaya or "Equality for Women" Committee, which represents many of the city's prostitutes, is calling for legal sanction of the profession as a protection against harassment by police, the local mafia and landlords.
   "If the profession could be legalized in Switzerland and most Scandinavian countries, there is no question why it should not be accorded legal sanction here," Committee spokeswoman Sadhana Mukherjee said.
   Making prostitution legal would assist the government in controlling child prostitution.
   Granting legal status for prostitution would also help check the spread of AIDS by allowing regular health examinations and blood tests for Calcutta's growing number of prostitutes, Mukherjee said.
   The Equality for Women Committee is preparing a draft proposal for legalizing prostitution, which will be presented to India's Social Welfare Ministry, she said.
   A recent World Health Organization report said two to three million people in India were infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
   The report said conservative social values make it difficult to carry out AIDS awareness and education campaigns in India, resulting in the country having one of the fastest growing AIDS infected populations in the world.

#13 Report lays bare seamy side of Indian politics

    By Nelson Graves
     NEW DELHI, Aug 1 (Reuter) - Mafia-style thugs and assassins have penetrated India's public life, corrupting politicians and bureaucrats, overwhelming the government and crippling the economy, according to an official report released on Tuesday.
     In chilling terms, the long-awaited report by a special government committee laid bare links between politicians, civil servants and the underworld.
     While corruption is no secret in India, the document was stark confirmation of the depth of trouble in politics, police departments and courts across the sprawling country.
     "All over India, crime syndicates have become a law unto themselves," the report said.
     "The network of the Mafia is virtually running a parallel government, pushing the state apparatus into irrelevance."
     The report was written by an interministerial committee, headed by former senior Home (Interior) Ministry official N.N. Vohra, created following Hindu-Moslem riots in Bombay in 1993 in which hundreds of people were killed.
     Investigators probing the violence described a powerful underground protected by government agencies, especially in customs, income tax and police departments, the report said.
     The opposition had long pressed Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao's government to release the two-year-old Vohra report, hoping to embarrass his ruling Congress party, which it accuses of corruption. But Rao had balked at releasing it.
     The murder of the wife of a rising Congress cadre last month -- her body was discovered in a flaming tandoori, or clay, oven -- stiffened the opposition's determination to pin corruption charges on the party which has ruled India for all but three years since independence in 1947.
     But the opposition, which had hoped the Vohra report would finger Congress politicians, was outraged when it found the document cited no names. The main opposition Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) called the report
"meaningless."
     BJP leaders, speaking to Reuters, accused Rao's government, of trying to deflect attention from the Tandoori murder case.
     The sobering 12-page Vohra report describes what it calls a "virus" -- the rise of small-time smugglers into real estate barons and drug traffickers who manipulate politicians.
     "Muscle-men have become the order of the day. Hired assassins have become a part of these organisations," it said. "The nexus between the criminal gangs, police, bureaucracy and politicians has come out clearly."
     The document cited "a rapid spread and growth of criminal gangs, armed senas (militias), drug Mafias, smuggling gangs, drug peddlers and economic lobbies," cutting across party lines and often tied to foreign intelligence agencies.
     Smuggling syndicates have created a "vicious parallel economy causing serious damage to the economic fibre of the country," according to the report, which called the criminal justice system utterly inadequate.
     The document recommended more phone taps and fingerprinting, simpler trial procedures and creation of a top secret group within the Home Ministry to coordinate a nationwide crackdown.
     Aware of the dangers of fighting crime, the committee recommended that members of the proposed group communicate only in writing.
     Reflecting the sensitive nature of its conclusions, the Vohra committee made only three copies of the report when it had finished its work.

***************************************************************** Date: Thu, 3 Aug 1995 07:53 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp (GP) Description: Re: Nepalese child labor
  In article <3v4bqo$hme@nntp.ucs.ubc.ca> tuladhar@unixg.ubc.ca (Anil Tuladhar) writes:
 |References: <3urmu6$g7p@romulus.ucs.uoknor.edu> <DC6xF7.6MA@info.uucp> <michael.nord-2507952253090001@biolmnd.student.lu.se>
 |NNTP-Posting-Host: sequoia.ppc.ubc.ca
 |In article <michael.nord-2507952253090001@biolmnd.student.lu.se> michael.nord@biol.lu.se (Michael Nord) writes:
 |>
 |>I don't get this. Why do a lot of you Nepalis get so bloody uptight as
 |
 |Only because they know the difference between "Child_labour issues" and
 |"child_labour propaganda". They also know for sure that "child-labour"
 |itself is not bad but the mistreatment of working children and cheating
 |of their rights are the real problems. If a child works as an adult, its
 |a good thing. But let us ensure that the child will get a handsom pay.
 |S/he will get health insurance and other benefits. So the world should
 |raise questions on these issues rather that saying that child labour
 |is evil.
 |
 |Every Nepali is not supposed to become a scientist or an engineer. We
 |have our own problems to be solved. So the world should come up with
 |a solution to those problems rather than putting a ban on importing the
 |Nepali carpets. Why could not world ban Chinese goods despite of so
 |much violation of human rights there?
 |
 |We Nepalis feel bad to see these anomalies so get mad when somebody
 |pretends to be a true human right's advocate by talking about
 |"child_labour" and many similar things.
 |
 |Japanese are working 18 hours a day, 7 days a week. Go and teach them
 |the lessons of "Adult_labour". But strangely enough the market of
 |the world is filled by Chinese and Japanese products only %-).
 |
 |Mike, please do not take these things as flames. These are just some thoughts
 |fleeting in my mind. My humble apologies if you feel offended.
 |

 I have different opinion regarding child labor in nepal. Whether they get handsome money including bonus or not. Use of child labor should be dismantled. Every child deserve to go to school at least up to the age of 14 years i.e. grade seven/ middle school. If we can spend US$ 20 million every year just for election in the name of democracry, we should be able to provide education for every kids, at least tehy should be able to read and write their name and address. Suman Sharma 's logic is much worst, who defends that use of child labor was objected by peoples because there are scarce of "KANCHA". I am not sure how many other readers will support his logic? Those who are doing business on Carper may support him atleast to show ego and prove their wrong doing. I don't find the difference between the logic, "Phoolan Devi" gave to people, she became Docait "Bandit" to revenge her enemies who raped her? It was surely not a solution. Then smuggling of Nepali girls in prostitution will also be justified on those smugglers view. They will claim they are making "FOREIGN CURRENCY" to make alive our democracry? To import paint and use it in election campaign, we need some paint which comes from India. Is not it justifiable from these smugglers view.
  Because you do , I also do it, is what i found with defendants of child abuse. I remember, some one Nepali lady (in TND), defended that peoples in Pahad also mis-use
"Abuse" child when I raised the abuse of child in Resturants in Kathmandu. From this what I understand is our peoples have still lack of enough knowledge. They say giving a job is prime important. If they were so concerned on job, why don't they employ adult? At-least adult will get job, and crimes in the city will reduce to some extent.
  Child in any case don't deserve to work in carpet industry, in any case. For those whose parents don't have income or unable to work, the government should make some ways to solve problem by providing "Rehabilitation program". If the govt. talk about those "Sukumbashi", the problem of
"disabled people" should get priority. IS it because sukumbashis have "swinging power" in election, are given so much importatn? The place like BKS should be given priority to kids from such class of peoples whose parents are not able to work, but, BKS is also hanging among elite class families. "Chair man" Savapati of a district sends hist son to BKS or any-kind of facility when we start? We need good education to teach them that education on children are also our investment, thats what I saw after coming to JApan. In japan, I have never seen any kids in any working places. A kid when he commit some crime, can not be abstained from education till the grade 9. We should invest large money in education eradicating child labor, employing adult labour in their current position. Then only we will develop, otherwise we are just proving ourself as "in-human" in Nepali "PASHU". Till we don't develop this, internaitonal pressure should be there and should include the abuse of child in household work.
  Unfortunately, almost all house of elite nepalis "should have Kancho" is our concept . I am not sure whether PM Adhikari has had Kancho in his original house. I have seen a Kancho in other COMMUNIST leader's (top level who was sometime back Secretary General of the party faction). He also brought KANCHO in the name of education from somewhere in the PAHAD> We should first remove this concept of having KANCHO as status symbol. Should we? Of course, I did, am doing, will do in my own house, but I don't take your gurantee in other's house, public places. If I do, I have to die, I cann't move my leg a single pace ahead, because it exist in every step of our life in Nepal
   =================.
  If government couldn't do, then we need international pressure to teach us the manner to behave as human.
 
  This is not written in response to Anil, I appologise putting his posting at the begining of this comment.
  Bye. Gyaneswor Pokharel Nagoya University Japan E-mail: g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp

********************************************************************* Date: Thu, 3 Aug 1995 12:27 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: Watchman@get.a.life Description: Re: Nepal Digest - July 27, 1995

In The Nepal Digest - July 27, 1995 issue, Dahal Durga
<daha9014@uidaho.edu> writes:
 
>Xinhua Reports: Election in Nepal
 
>A total of 97 political parties have registered with the Election
>Commission (EC) before the dead line to apply for registration on
>Thursday afternoon.
>
(snip)
>
>Several returnees from abroad may miss their name in the voter list.
>
(snip)
>
>The real election day comes in November. Get up from the bed, get fresh,
>and think to vote. If some one goes to vote, in Urban area in the Valley
>of Kathmandu, and may be Birat Nagar, Dharan, Pokhara, or other Cities
>the AMALE voters will be on queue a mile. First vote there, and run for
>proxi votes in other constituencies, it will be interesting if really
>checked the queues in each 20 minutes by Video Cameras.
>(snip)
>Just right after the announcement of the elction, lots of AMALE's will be
>seen on the street singing and chanting the rhymes they are asigned.
>Several temos do this job 24 hours, non stop, carrying two AMALE workers
>and a tape recorder with a loud speaker. Everybody are paid. Good
>employment.
>
(snip)
>
  Here is yet another no-brainer from our resident pinhead. (For a moment, I mistakenly thought the report was from Xinhua.) He blatantly accuses AMALE of election fraud and silly election ritual. First, he has no proof to offer (no surprise here, he likes to do so) regarding any election wrong_doing by AMALE. Second, other parties are equally, if not more, responsible for any fraud. He seems to have forgotten the reports by international observers of vote fraud by then ruling party, i.e. his idol's party, in the previous election.
  This person just makes comments (stupid at times) and just moves on. Doesn't care to respond to any accusations (regulars know what I'm talking about).
 
>Comments of lots of expenses is useless. This expense is unavoidable,
>for the survival of Nepali gin for tomorrow. It is not acceptable to me
>to neglect the voting rights of the people and make somebody selectively
>on power.
 
??????????????????????????????????
 
>Last year, the same time the same thing happened in Nepal. I had to
>share my part as I am. I did not think some body come and
>secure our country, we have to secure our country, at least by
>slogans. So, went and queued to vote. Some checkers found my
>namelegible to vote, some found already voted.
 
??????????????????????????????????
  Go get a life.
 
(Just want to remain anonymous to avoid harrassing mails from you know who.)

**************************************************************** Date: Thu, 3 AUG 95 19:18:55 BST From: WAGLE@VAX.LSE.AC.UK To: nepal <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Nepal: The Waiting Game.

What follows is a "wrap up" article on the recently concluded court hearings that debated the constitutional legality of the Prime Minister's advice to the King to dissolve Parliament and call fresh elections. The article was written by the BBC's Kathmandu Correspondent MANI RANA and was broadcast by the BBC Nepali Service in it's 1500 GMT transmission today.

The Waiting Game.

In Nepal, the hearings in the Supreme Court challenging the constitutional legality o fthe Prime Minister's recommendation to the King to dissolve Parliament and call snap elections has ended. The Chief Justice, Biswa Nath Upadhyaya, has said he will give his ruling on the twenty-eighth of August. Mani Rana reports on the Court hearings that have aroused immense public interest:

The Communist Party Unified Marxists and Leninists, led by Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikari, assumed office as a minority government under the terms
(Clause 2 of article 42) o fthe Nepalese constitution. To stay in office the government had to rely on the support of the opposition, but after six months in office, the opposition threatened to withdraw its support to the minority government. The Opposition also announced that it would table a motion of no-confidence against the government because they said the government's communist policies were leading the country to economic ruin. At the insistence o fthe combined opposition, King Birendra called a special session of the lower house of parliament. The day before the King had already called a normal session of the lower house. Many say that Mr Adhikari advised the king to dissolve parliament simply to avoid losing the vote. At a hurriedly organized press conference after his audience with the king, the Prime Minister said he had recommended that Parliament be dissolved and mid-term elections called. But after several writ petitions were filed in the Supreme Court challenging the Prime Minister's advice, and after the court asked him to justify his actions, Mr Adhikari promptly said in his written reply that he had never disclosed to the press or anyone else his
"privileged communication" with the king. The press were furious and accused him of lying. This has been one of the issues that has dominated the court proceedings. Lawyers representing the plaintiffs lost no time trying to make capital out of it and had come prepared with plenty of evidence on tape.
  However, the issue in court was not whether Mr Adhikari had lied but whether his recommendation to the king to dissolve parliament had violated the constitution. Lawyer after lawyer representing the plaintiffs tried to convince the full bench of eleven justices that the Prime Minister had acted unconstitutionally. For many it was an opportunity to show off their oratorial skills. Having heard the plaintiffs' lawyers, all were waiting to hear the opinion of Mr Krishna Pant, who was representing Mr Adhikari. But on the crucial day, Mr Pant was mysteriously taken ill and was replaced by another senior advocate, Ganesh Raj Sharma. His arguments did not seem to impress the bench. Then it was the turn of the members of the Amicus Curae to give their opinion. One of the members, a senior advocate and the former speaker of the lower house of parliament, Daman Nath Dhungana, proved that he has not lost his debating skills. He argued against the dissolution of the house saying that the gap between two parliamentary sessions should not exceed six months as stipulated by the constitution. Both sides have put their views to the bench and the arguments are now over, The Chief Justice, Biswa Nath Upadhyaya has announced that the verdict will be made public on the 28th of August. But opinion in Kathmandu seems to be unanimous: whichever way the verdict goes, Nepal will still be heading for mid term elections. Observers say that even if the verdict goes in favour of the opposition and parliament is reinstated, a Nepali Congress/National Democratic Party (RPP) coalition cannot last a full parliamentary term.

The End.

S Wagle, BBC.

************************************************************************* Date: Thu, 3 Aug 1995 17:28:34 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Customs/Culture/Travel Knowledge Needed From: eric@solar.sky.net ()

Do you have special knowledge of the Customs and Culture of a particular region of the world? Would you like to share it with other travelers?
  OR...

Do you have interesting or amusing travel related stories that you would like to share with the world?

TravNet! International <http://www.sky.net/~eric> is now opening interest areas for every state/province/region of the world in the Categories of:

Customs and Culture and, User Travel Experiences

Please check out TravNet! and if you feel it is a forum to which you would like to contribute, submit your articles via E-Mail to eric@sky.net at your convenience.

TravNet! does retain the right to accept or reject entries based soley on its discretion as to suitability.

We're looking forward to hearing about your travel experiences! Also, before you travel to an area, check out TravNet! to find hints or what others have found/experienced.

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 3 Aug 1995 17:30:26 -0400 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (Rajesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: sponsoring visitor

Cross-posted from SCN:
---------------------

The piece by Mari Sherpa is quite interesting and also informative for those who wish to sponser their some-one for travelling to dream-land USA. The summary may be applied to the cases for applying VISA for JAPAN, too.

I am not sure why our authorities are so kind towards Japanese and Americans, when their (JAP'S / Ame's) consulates are not rational and put a lot of hurdles. Should our embassies also make similar hurdles ? for our dignity? Or let it be continued. I know chinese did "TIT FOR TAT", by making strict regulations for Americans and Japanese to go to China when Jap. and Ame. made strict regulations for travelling to Japan or USA. Its true that no american or Japanese will like to be refugee in China, but, why chinese did so? Then why not we do as chinese did? "TIT FOR TAT". Are we afraid of loosing tourist from these countries? What about our dignity? Why the consulate should be allowed to do his/her monopoly? Should not s/he fix some standard guidlines? Should a Nepali
"looks nice " be denied a VISA? What about his human right? Our government should prove that we are also human and show that this sort of humiliation/monopoly should not be allowed in Nepali land. There should be strong protest in diplomatic level.

Unfortunately, "similar tussle" with India(1989) had proved that being a small country, you can do nothing. We are forced to accept these BIG BOSSES' willS AND monopoly.

We can do nothing more than "Murmuring " and satisfy oursleves
"K GARNE THULA le SANA LAI MICHHAN nai!" as a natural rule.

Just frustrated.

Gyaneswor Pokharel Nagoya University Japan E-mail: g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Thu, 3 Aug 1995 17:30:45 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Email Send/Receive Service in Nepal From: g44329a@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp (GP)

Many peoples overwhembled by the internet connection provided by mos.np , but, soon their interest has been resulted "Kunthit" because of expensive price list for the personal use. It is because everyone using internet in foreign land know that the internet is the most cheaper means of communication. I have ever seen the guys having news.group connection in their private apartment saying that their bill has reached US$80. permonth when they do mass mailing for thousands. But, if you do this using mos.np services from Nepal you will be bank-rupted within a month because you have to pay for incoming and outgoing both mails. Like a company, (most of peoples here might have seen the message which had been posted to as much as 3(?) thousand newsgropup and repeatedly for many times ) Saigel and ....associates, for filling the US citizenship lottery application form, and received 55,000 mails within few hours and jammed the whole system. (if Mr. Dawadi floods his mail in nepal like he posted 8 times x 1 kilo = Rs. 640) If you post such message and are getting such huge replies you have no way other than to suicide to save your property. Next point is how many nepalis know how to use lotus 1-2-3 which can be called the basic package in our computer life. Which is much easier than the dos's basic 36+ commands. Going from Lotus-dos- to Unix is too much difficult. How many people know the real meaning of deleting or erasing a file. Then mv or rm in unix. Then comes the vi editor or line editor. So, your relatives need some consultants to use the e-mail FACILITY. In that sense, the normal mail by air is quite better and most probably most of the SCNers/TNDers mother hardly can read the english, I believe. When you write a letter in computer and print using laser printer or line printer the total time required is quite long, because you need to print it to read by your family members.

For me a hand written letter has different impression than printed letter. I felt the computer printed letter is like a formal letter which does not have any colors. I don't feel it a need to keep the letter for future backup, while I am keeping my letters I received in last 11 years, i.e. written with hand. the other important point, is you can't write it in you most preferred language, Nepali, Gurung , Sherpa, Maithali or Nepal bhasha. You have to confine your self on this one level english , monotonus language. Your father is also "you", your close friend is also you, not e.g. "TA/Tapai". I feel more impressed wih the correct use of such words rather than every time "YOU" for every one. "Talla ghara ko mailo" can not be expressed using second language. So, for personal letter writing thrugh such expensive mailing services is not justified and does not provide that impression as you get from the real airmail letter. E-mail means you have to sacrifice both.

The most important thing, is, I think, feeling in the letter in your own language. You can express exactly on paper. But, when you translate there is some "TRANSLATION LOSS".

Un-necessary, pain in printing, typing and correcting the spelling and content is just a wastage of time for both side peoples. Because, when you have this e-mail system you will send un-necessary mails for a person in Nepal who may have to go to mos's central office to see and get the hard copy. It will be annoying if he has to do it reguraly with his own cost. But, sending air mail, he does not cost, what he has to do is just to read. So, s/he enjoys several times than the paining for opening the system, then
................ He may loose his patience and sometimes if the content is repeating in every mail (if it is regular), the person may "GIVE UP".

For emergency purposes, use of email is still a useless. Because, you need to inform him by telephone, where you will explain all the things in telephone. You are spending two times the expense. As receiver has to spend for receiving mails and you have to spend for the telephone. But, how many times you will have emergency
/urgent messages? Is it appropriate to spend Rs. 5,000 connection charge for few urgent messages. Lets see the cost analysis. The FAX for one page hand written/type cost about 170. The 2Kilobyte means 2,000 characters. Usually , half of this is (1 K) contains many messages on the header part of the mail. So, you type your very urgent message using Times font which has 100 character in one line x 56 lines , including headers suppose 16 lines (max). Thus, 100x40 characters. 4Kilo byte letters can be sent by fax in Rs. 200. while if you use e-mail and send the same content you need to spend only Rs. 50 for that letter. How many times you send such FAX, urgent messages 7days once. Then 24 times a half year. 24 x 200 = Rs. 4,800. For the person sending from Nepal. While by email, 5,000+ 50x24=6,000. So, FAXING a letter every week is still cheaper than going mos office and sending it my email. How nice feeling you will have a bold, underlined italic fax compared to the dull courier type font with lot of line on header part. When you get FAX, you will respond much faster than the message you get by e-mail.

Because of these reason I still don't prefer to ask some one obtain e-mail account just to send few mails a year, rather I prefer FAX and airmail . I am some time enjoying while reading the age old letters written by my friend, relatives , by parents
.....who not.....my hearts................................. If there is e-mail , then there will be only one language? Prototype letter,..................

So, mos.nepal should change the e-mail rate for personal use and if possible may provide a public e-mail address for one way purpose, then people may use it as a substitute of FAX and may save 100 rupees if the cost is Rs. 50 for the mail content and Rs. 50. for overhead charge as I had shown by numerical illustrations. What you may do is , you can add another overhead charge for some one if s/he uses your computer for typing, i.e. based on total time shared. If your rate is somewhat similar as I proposed, then I will certainly appreciate your system. Those who want to use foR everyday mail or for mass mailing they will certainly use the fixed+per mail type address. Such mass mailers also intend to get large number of mails , so for them fixed system (current) is benefecial. Looking at the present economy of the peoples, the method of payment I proposed will certainly be a benefecial to mos.nepal and will attract a lot of people. First job, you should do is attract people, peoples will be attracted only when the initial cost is cheaper and the system is friendly for them. If peoples can type their mail somewhere and can just mail it by paying Rs. 50----100. surely the number of users will incerease.

Good luck. I wish all the success and also wish to be your system's user in near future.

Bye.

GP

P.S. I wrote this piece sometime back and sent to TND, unfortunately TND looks dead /or TNDian are on summer leave?

Looking at the Dawadi's 8 postings, if you make similar mails to mos.nepal 's service they will charge how many rupees. After all they are doing business, and its not "SARKARI" money to excuse you or your relatives. So, you must be sure that he
/she will not annoyed with content/per unit of money.

In article <3v13lg$fln@news.isc.rit.edu> Jagadish Dawadi <jxd8795@rit.edu> writes:
    total is 1.x kilobyte.

 |From: Jagadish Dawadi <jxd8795@rit.edu>
 |Date: 24 Jul 1995 21:34:40 GMT
 |
 |Hi,
 |
 |It was good reading ur news about Emial send/receive service in Nepal
 |on the social.culture.nepal. I tried it several times, not no success.
 |The Email gave an earror message saying that the address is bad. I dunno
 |why!!
 |
 |Jagadish
 |
 | if you send this 3 line message, you have to pay Rs. 80+.x number of times you send. So, don't annoy your receiver. If you feel offended with my posting please accept my appologies.

We should learn from mistake. Gyaneswor Pokharel

*********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 3 Aug 1995 17:33:14 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: 11 Prisoners of Conscience Detained in Nepal From: jai@mantra.com (Dr. Jai Maharaj)

[ From Amnesty International <Amnesty_International@io.org> ]
[ Friday, July 28, 1995 ]
  This News Service is posted by the International Secretariat of Amnesty International 1 Easton Street, London WC1X 8DJ Tel +44-71-413-5500, Fax +44-71-956-1157

NEPAL: ELEVEN PRISONERS OF CONSCIENCE DETAINED IN NEPAL FOR OVER TEN MONTHS

The Government of Nepal should release immediately and unconditionally 11 Christians arrested in September 1994 on suspicion of proselytizing, Amnesty International said today.

      "We believe that these people are prisoners of conscience and their arrest and detention is in contravention of their right to freedom of religion," the human rights organization said.

      The 11 detainees -- a Nepali national, an Indian national and nine Nepali-speaking Bhutanese refugees -- were arrested at Danabari, Ilam District, and charged with proselytizing, an offence under Nepali law.

      At a hearing on 1 May, more than seven months after the trial began, the judge is reported to have stated that the case should be dismissed. However, the final hearing of the trial has since been postponed on three occasions: 20 May, 2 July and 26 July. The next date of the hearing will be in one week's time.

       Lawyers say that this continual postponement of the final hearing is contrary to usual legal practice in Nepal. Furthermore, their arrest and detention contravenes Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, to which Nepal is a party.

      The 11 defendants tried unsuccessfully to obtain their release, either unconditionally or on bail, by filing a writ of habeas corpus and lodging an appeal in both the District and Appellate Courts. They remain in detention at Ilam District Jail awaiting their final hearing..

[ Friday, July 28, 1995 ]
[ Amnesty International <Amnesty_International@io.org> ]

******************************************************************** Date: Thu, 3 Aug 1995 17:34:03 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Society of Nepalese Students in New York formed! From: Pradeep Bista <pbista@scisun.sci.ccny.cuny.edu>

Dear Netters,

This is to inform you that in an informal gathering of Nepalese students and other members of the Nepalese community in New York in Kissena Park on July 9, Society of Nepalese Students in New York (SNSNY) was formed.

SNSNY will attempt to help Nepalese students and others in New York and elsewhere by:
--fostering interaction
--cooperating with each other, and
--enhancing cultural and literary awareness

SNSNY will will try to channelize the tremendous potential of Nepalese students towards helping each other and making a positive difference in our lives.

We have just done the groundwork. How successful SNSNY will be depends on how much effort we all put into it. The real task has just begun. As we go along, we need your active involvement. Among the activities that we have planned for the present are:
--a monthly newsletter (P.S. see the posting on "CHAUTARI")
--frequent gatherings
--cultural awareness programs (eg; the one planned for Dashain, with
  music and dances)

We hope you will be able to actively support us in our endeavors, and if you would like more information and a copy of our newsletter (and about how you can contribute to "Chautari"), please write or e-mail to:

Chautari 45-13 79th St. Elmhurst, NY 11373

Pradeep Bista--pbista@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu Naresh Kattel--naresh@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu Rabindra Tripathi--rabi@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu

******************************************************************** Date: Thu, 3 Aug 1995 17:34:22 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: "Chautari," a monthly newsletter of SNSNY! From: Pradeep Bista <pbista@scisun.sci.ccny.cuny.edu>

We are planning on publishing a monthly newsletter, "Chautari" on behalf of the Society of Nepalese Students in New York (SNSNY).

"Chautari" will be a bilingual (English/Nepali) newsletter containing news from Nepal, personal as well as professional literary creations, cartoons, and other pieces of interest.

Our main goal is to make the paper accessible to as many people as possible WITHOUT setting up a subscription price. Of course, our funds are limited, so we are presently thinking of ways by which we will be able to generate just enough funds to cover the cost of paper, printing, and mailing.

We are sincerely looking for all the help and suggesstions that any of you can provide us. As we know that the more frequent, the better, we are proposing a monthly publication despite the requirement of heightened efforts, and cost. The paper will be printed on 81/2"x14" paper, and leaves will be added as necessary.

Many of you, like Rajendra, Mr. Rajpal Singh, Mr. Amulya Tuladhar, Ashutosh, Sunil, Prayutosh are experienced and well-versed in your efforts to post news, opinions and other information both here (on SCN) and on TND. Any help and suggesstions that any of you (this by no means exclude all the other SCNers and TNDers) can provide us.

Our premier issue, the one for August 1995/Shrawan-Bhadra 2052 is scheduled for publication around the first month of August. So far we have news extracts from Gorkhapatra and Rising Nepal, opinions and profiles by our editors, a cartoon, poems, and prose in both Nepali and English.

If you would like to get a copy of our newsletter, please send us your address. If you would like to contribute (space is very limited on this AUGUST issue; but, SEPTEMBER is coming up pretty soon!!!) please write or e-mail to, or call any of our editors.

We hope "Chautari" will be a fun, entertaining, enlightening, and exciting experience for all of us!

Our Address: Pradeep Bista 718-397-0571 Chautari pbista@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu 45-13 79th St. Naresh Kattel 718-729-6836 Elmhurst, NY 11373 naresh@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu
                                        Rabindra Tripathi 718-898-6556
                                        rabi@xser.sci.ccny.cuny.edu
                                        Aparajita Giri 718-699-7062

*************************************************************** Date: Thu, 3 Aug 1995 17:35:03 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: About Ramesh Mali

Courtesy: Boston Globe (AP) Date : July 27, '95.

Headline: Dead boy's family to receive policy

Madison, Conn.- The mother of the Special Olympian who drowned during the World Games will receive $10,000 from a life insurance policy. The policy is held by Special Olympics International, which is based in Washington D.C. The money should reach the family in the next few days. Ramesh Mali, of Nepal, drowned July 6 at a beach outing with teammates and hosts at Hammonassett Beach State Park in Madison. Mali, who was mentally retarded, represented his country in soccer at the Special Olympics World Games.

**************************************************************** Date: Fri, 4 Aug 1995 09:59 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu To: nepal@cs.niu.edu, anil.sakya@brunel.ac.uk, david.gellner@brunel.ac.uk,

HOT nEWS: WORLD BANK KILLS ARUN iii, BBC REPORTS
==================================================

August 4, 930 am est USA:

I was listening to the BBC World SErvice this morning.

The World Bank is withdrawing its $175 million committment to Arun III according to its spokesman in London, Jeff Landon.

Talking with the BBC World Service representative, the World Bank spokesman gave two reasons for withdrawal:

1. There was a increasing series of demands on requirements of the projects, from social to environmental safeguards that increased the total cost of the project which in their judgement WB, other co-financiers, and the Nepal Govt was not capable of making.

2. The project was being financed by a series of partners (WB, Japan govt, Nepal Govt, and the Europeans and the Arabs?) some of whome have indicated that after all the study they cannot meed the level of committment to push this project throught.

Asked what will the Nepal govt do, the WB said, "Well, I imagine the Nepal govt will sit with us and see what alternate sources are there to meet the power requrement there and certain Nepal is a very poor country with a need for power" This was his answer to the question of whether he thought Arun III was effectively dead.

Amulya's Cooments:

It might be recalled that japan govt had indicated that they might withdraw from arun iii as early as last year.

This is a victory for the germinal environmental moverment headed by Bikash Pandey in cooperation with some international environmental NGOs like Rivers. They were questioning why Nepal had to pay the highest per unit electricity generated in the region with the WB loan, that the project would cause irriversible damange to the unique biodiversity of Arun valley, that it was ecologically unsound with possibilities of glaciar lake outbursts, GLOFS, damaging or reducing the life of the dam, that too many indiegenous people would have to displaced and their cultures destroyed by 50,000 Indian skilled labours that would be working there for 14 years, that the Nepal financial investment was too high an investment and debt burden to bear.

This is a victory for the Congress party, especailly Ram Sharan mahat and Girija's henchmen, who were accusing the govt of not pushing fast enought in getting ARun III approved. They can now reap political benefit by claiming that the UML govt has lot the "tika" of legitimacy from the Western world aht that they will never get any funds because they are communists so Nepal will never have development delivered to them.

UML was an unwilling, if ambivalent, supporter of ARUN III and even when it came to power it tried to negotiate with WB to reduce the csot to make Nepalese liabilities low but complained privately that the institutional dyanamics of big time contractors salivating for big money effectively killed this effort, but as a govt in power, UML will have to take some political loss to fight the perception congress will try to sell that UML is a dinosaur party not good for the modern Western dominated era.

Compiled and summanrized by Amulya Tuladhar Clark University

******************************************************************* Date: Fri, 4 Aug 1995 10:24 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: Kunga <ws071@aix1.ucok.edu> Description: * child labor *

Lately, some postings regarding child labor in Nepal, has stirred up unnecessary and unhealthy emotional outlook towards this issue. How the West sees it is a far cry from how we should view on our own context. We all very well know that, at times when children here play around with teddy bears & barbie dolls, many children in Nepal will still be pounding on rocks and times when they should be running around school corridors and starting to learn to spell A..to..Z, they spend working long hours weaving rugs. Why are our children slapped so hard with such an unbearable burden at so early age? Such question hits us hard. If Durbar Marg and Nirula's vicinity is all you see, then my friend, you ain't seen nothing. If carpet children is all you sympathize for, my friend you ain't got a heart. The battle over man_layed curse bestowed upon children in the far western Nepal is yet to even reach your backyard. So my friend, save your thoughtful views and aching facts for some rainy days. The King might one day say 'let the drums roll for for our concerned citizens'
 
:: kunga
 
**************************************************************** From: Mark E.Dunn <75244.3106@CompuServe.COM> Subject: News-Nation wide strike Date: 1 Aug 1995 17:45:00 GMT

Katmandu Aug 1 (Reuter) A nation wide strike protesting against early elections shut down transport and shops in Nepal on Tuesday and there were fears of clashes between student protesters and Security Forces, Government and Union leaders said.

Taxis, buses, rickshaes and private cars were off the roads and shops were shuttered in response to a strike call by the Nepal Students Union, a wing of the oppisition NCP party.

About 350 demonstrators were detained in Katmandu, NSU officials said.The strike is " an expression of the peoples anger against the government " said NSU president Narayan Prakash Saud.

The Home Ministry said that it would not Hisitate to take " Strong Action " if the demonstrators spread teror and Vandalised property.

                     Mark E. Dunn
                     Email 75244.3106@compuserve.com

******************************************************************* Date: Fri, 4 Aug 1995 16:45:29 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Full Internet access in Nepal!!! From: Bibhuti Shrestha <bibhuti@rodeo.uwyo.edu>

Hello friends, here is the info mercantile e-mailed to me today regarding FULL INTERNET ACCESS to nepal. I hope this info helps all who are curious etc.
-- Bibhuti Shrestha. PS. I am NOT a mercantile agent or anything of that sort. I am just a student here in the US.

MERCANTILE COMMUNICATIONS - INTERNET ACCESS SERVICE

SERVICE INFORMATION

Mercantile Communications opens up a whole new world of information and commu- nication in Nepal by providing access to full Internet services. Full Internet provides not only the delivery of your message from desktop to desktop but also wealth of information available in databases across the world. With access to full Internet services, you can receive on line news, chat with a friend, partner, stranger, etc. anywhere in the world where Internet is available, gather material for research paper, presentation, etc. by scanning the databasesavailable in the Internet, download shareware programs and last but not least send e-mail.

Asynchronous Dial-up Account
----------------------------

This type of account is for users who want on-line access to the Internet. This includes e-mail services to send and receive messages within Nepal and worldwide. Users get access to Usenet, the Bulletin Board of the Internet, wherethey can participate as a reader or as a contributor. The Usenet is not only a valuable source of information but also a great way to meet and interact with other users all over the world. Users will be able to remote login with Telnet. The remote login lets users access an ever growing universe of information systems like the On-line library systems, Weather, geographic, and other infor- mation, and on-line databases or near-real time information from live instru- ments. Users will be able to transfer files from local computer to other computers on the Internet via the FTP (file transfer protocol) and vice versa.

        Internet has a lot of information, hence there are a lot of tools and services which help the user to navigate around the available information. Some of the Internet navigator servers and data which will be available to end users in Nepal are Gopher, archie, WAIS, WorldWideWeb. Other utilities available include a text editor, uuencode, uudecode, split, gzip, zunzip, sz, rz.

Who Needs an Asynchonous Dial-up Account?
------------------------------------------

     1. An end user who wants to look for information for his or her research
        will require an Asynchonous Dial-up account.
     2. An end user who wants to reserve an airline ticket or gather informa-
        tion about flights of different airlines will require an Asynchonous
        Dial-up account.
     3. End users who want to participate in social discussions on various
        topics in Internet will require an Asynchonous account.
     4. End users who want to surf the Internet or scan through what is
        available in the Internet will require an Asynchonous Dial-up account.

Requirements:
-------------

     1. Personal Computer
     2. Modem
     3. A serial cable
     4. Phone line
     5. Communication software like xtalk, procomm etc.
        Note: Windows Terminal(winterm) will not work.

Support Services
----------------

Mercantile will provide support service to end user by phone during working hours. The end user can also send e-mail to the support personnel for any support. Alternatively, classes can be arranged for people who would like to learn about different aspects of the Internet for a fee.

*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*--*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*--*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*

                               CHARGES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS DIALUP
                        -------------------------------

**************************************************************************
* Subscription rate For every 6 months *
* Rs. 5,000 *
**************************************************************************

**************************************************************************
* Plan * Monthly Charge * Free Traffic upto *
**************************************************************************
* 1 * Rs. 2,400 * Rs. 3,000 *
* 2 * Rs. 4,500 * Rs. 5,625 *
* 3 * Rs. 6,000 * Rs. 7,500 *
* 4 * Rs. 9,000 * Rs.11,250 *
**************************************************************************

**************************************************************************
* Time Period * Charge Rate per Minutes *
**************************************************************************
* * *
* Peak Hours (9:30 - 18:30) * Rs. 15.00 *
* Off Peak Hours (5:30-9:30, 18:30-23:30) * Rs. 9.00 *
* Wee Hours (23:30-5:30) * Rs. 5.00 *
* * *
**************************************************************************

**************************************************************************
* Security Deposit Rs. 3,000 *
**************************************************************************

With 4 subcription Plans less frequent users can choose Plan 1 and have their monthly subscription fee reduced to Rs.2,400 with Rs.3,000 worth of free traffic. For the heavy users, Plan 4 provides free usage worth Rs.11,250 for a subscription of only Rs. 9,000 per month. With 4 subscription plans to choose from, a user can choose the best plan to suit his/her usage pattern.

Example on selecting a plan :
 If you wish to use the service
 2hrs on peak hours/month -----------> 2 x 60 x Rs.15 = Rs. 1,800
 4hrs on off peak hours/month and ---> + 4 x 60 x Rs. 9 = Rs. 2,160
 5hrs on wee hours/month ------------> + 5 x 60 x Rs. 5 = Rs. 900
                                      -----------------------------------
                                     the total charge will be Rs. 5,460
                                         

Hence, you can subscribe to plan 2 for Rs.4,500 and get the service worth Rs.5,625.

*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*

MERCANTILE COMMUNICATIONS PVT. LTD.

INTERNET ACCESS SERVICES

UUCP Account

Mercantile Communications opens up a whole new world of information and communication in Nepal by providing access to full Internet services. Full Internet provides not only the delivery of your message from desktop to desktop but also wealth of informati

UUCP Account
        This type of account suits users who require only the e-mail facility ofInternet. Users are given an unique address with which they can send and receivee-mail within Nepal and worldwide. This account allows the user to do FTP and archie by mail.

Who Needs an UUCP Account ? 1. A company/individual trying to reduce communication costs through e-mail will require an UUCP account . 2. Companies/individuals which want to support their client by e-mail will
   require an UUCP account only.

Requirements: 1. Personal Computer 4. Phone Line 2. Modem 5. UUCP software 3. A serial cable ( to connect an external modem to the computer )

Support Services: Mercantile will provide support service to end user by phone during working hours. The end user can also send e-mail to the support personnel for any support. Alternatively classes can be arranged for people who would like to learn about different aspects.

Charges for UUCP Account Revision 3.0 07/15/95 (Effective from August 1, 1995)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                Type A
                                         Subscription rate for For every 6 months single user Rs. 5,000.00
                                                
                                                Type B

Subscription rate for For every 6 months multiusers Rs. 10,000.00
===============================================================================

Transaction Charge volume/month Amount(Rs.)
(Applicable to Type A upto 240KB 2400.00 and Type B) 800KB 6500.00
                                                 1.6MB 12000.00
                                                      3.2MB 20000.00
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Users signing up for the 240K and 800K slots will be charged Rs. 20/Kbyte if the volume of transaction per month exceeds the signed-up limit. Users signing up for the 1.6MB and 3.2 MB slots will be charged Rs. 10/Kbyte if the volume of transaction per month exceeds the signed-up limit. A Security Deposit of Nrs. 3000 is applicable to all types of rates.

Each user can subscribe upto 7 mailing lists free of cost **.

Mercantile Communications Pvt. Ltd. P.O. Box 876 Durbar Marg, Kathmandu, NEPAL Ph: 220773 Fax: 225407 E-mail: postmaster@mos.com.np

******************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 4 Aug 1995 16:53:49 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Strikes called to protest dissolution of parliament From: karki_s@a1.mscf.upenn.edu (Sher B. Karki)

SOURCE: Source: All-India Radio external service, New Delhi, in English 1000 gmt 1 Aug 95

 BODY:
   Text of report by All-India Radio

   In Nepal, normal life in Kathmandu and some other places was affected by a bandh [strike] called in protest against the dissolution of parliament. Public transport, taxis and auto-rickshaws are off the road. Markets and business establishments are closed. Adequate security arrangements have been made toprevent any untoward incident during the bandh, which has been called by the
 Nepal Students'Union, the youth wing of the main opposition Nepali Congress.

   In minor incidents of stone-throwing, the police had to resort to a lathi
[baton] charge at some places. Nine vehicles, including five light buses, are reported to have been damaged by the agitators in various parts of the country. Three persons, including a bus driver, sustained injuries in Kapilvastu in western Nepal.

************************************************************ Date: Fri, 4 Aug 1995 16:56:23 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: US Hand in Arun III cancellation? From: atuladhar@gramps.clarku.edu

US Hand in Arun III Cancellation?
==================================

This is a classic case of "paribandha" or circumstantial evidence.

On Aug2 news of Nepal deporting Tibetan dissidents to china, the US representative was quoted as saying, "A reduction in aid to nepal is not ruled out."

On Aug3 news quoted in Yomuiro Shimbun, the World Bank decides to withdraw its
$ 180 million dollar committment to Arun III formally.

Given that US controls most of WB monies, policies, and actually contributes its Presidents, could WB be carrying out US State Dept's policies under the guise of "plausible deniability?"

I wonder what readers think? tld

**************************************************************

Sorry for the format:

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts

                           August 2, 1995, Wednesday

SECTION: Part 3 Asia - Pacific; SOUTH ASIA; BANGLADESH; FE/2371/A

LENGTH: 362 words

HEADLINE: FOREIGN RELATIONS; Joint Economic Commission meeting with Nepal concludes

SOURCE: Source: Radio Bangladesh, Dhaka, in Bengali 1500 gmt 31 Jul 95

 BODY:
   Excerpt from report by Bangladesh radio

   The ninth meeting of the Bangladesh- Nepal Joint Economic Commission ended with the signing of agreed minutes in Dhaka today [31st July]. Finance Minister M. Saifur Rahman and Bharat Mohan Adhikari, Nepalese finance and supplies minister, signed the agreed minutes.

Addressing a news briefing later, the two ministers said the meeting reviewed the whole gamut of Bangladesh- Nepal bilateral relations, including economic cooperation, trade, industry, management of water resources, agriculture, education and culture, banking, tourism, civil aviation and telecommunications. The two sides discussed new proposals and made decisions to expand their bilateral ties further. They agreed to conduct a feasibility study on setting up a cement clinker factory in the private sector as early as possible, utilizing
 Nepal's limestone reserves. They also discussed the setting up of joint ventures in the garment and pharmaceutical sectors.

   The two sides also discussed the improvement of existing transportation routes and the possibility of opening new ones. This will enable Nepal to utilize the facilities of Mangla and Chittagong ports and help significantly increase the volume of trade between the two countries. Bangladesh especially stressed the need for the countries to have a common basin to utilize their vast water resources through cooperative efforts.

   Bharat Mohan Adhikari reaffirmed his country's sincere support for Bangladesh in developing the water resources system and mitigating suffering caused by recurring floods. Replying to a question on constructing reservoirs in upstream regions for multiple and optimal use of water resources in the region, the Nepalese minister said his country's position in this regard is very clear. He said Kathmandu wants to see regional countries like Bangladesh, India and
 Nepal benefit from such reservoirs.

   Finance Minister Saifur Rahman spoke of the immense potential of Nepal's vast water resources and proposed that high-level political decisions be made by the countries of the region on the use of these resources in the common interests of their people...

 Agence France Presse

                       August 01, 1995 07:54 Eastern Time

SECTION: International news

LENGTH: 614 words

HEADLINE: More than 1,000 strikers detained, vehicles stoned

DATELINE: (updates with numbers, adds quotes)

 BODY:
   KATHMANDU, Aug 1 (AFP) - Riot police rounded up 1,000 pro-democracy demonstrators here Tuesday after rioters stoned vehicles during a nationwide dawn-to-dusk strike called to protest the dissolution of parliament, a police source said.

   Officials have confirmed 90 arrests and damage to 12 vehicles. Students belonging to the Nepal Vidharthi Sangh ( Nepal Students' Union) held demonstrations in Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur urging people to close shops and keep vehicles off the streets, witnesses said.

   Most shops in Kathmandu and elsewhere were closed and roads deserted, police said.

   In Kathmandu, only a few ambulances and official vehicles displaying signboards reading "special bus service for international tourists" moved to and from Kathmandu airport, witnesses said.

   The student union called the general strike to denounce the dissolution of the house of representatives on June 13, four and a half years before its term was to end, a student union spokesman said.

   Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikari of the Nepal Communist Party-United Marxist and Leninist had advised King Birendra to dissolve the house alleging the normal functioning of the government was being hampered by the opposition parties. Mid-term elections are due in November.

   The students described the move as "undemocratic."

"Altogether five night passenger buses -- in Morang, Rupandehi and Kapilbastu
-- were stoned to deter other vehicles from moving," a Home Ministry spokesman said.

   "At least two passengers and a bus driver received head injuries in the stoning attack in Kapilbastu," he said.

   The students' union was to hold a public meeting at an open-air theatre here later in the day to denounce the communist government for "undemocratic moves and state terrorism", the student source said.

   Meanwhile, pro-democracy and pro-communist students clashed during rival demonstrations at Dolakha, east of the Nepalese capital, leaving eight wounded, sources said.

   Tuesday's strike was supported by the main opposition Nepali Congress, the rightist Rastriya Prajatantra Party and its student wings.

   The Supreme Court has been hearing the debate on the issue for the last two weeks and is to decide whether the dissolution of parliament and calling of mid-term polls are constitutionally acceptable.

Opposition parties had filed a writ petition against the dissolution of the house and demanded its reinstatement.

Deutsche Presse-Agentur

                       August 1, 1995, Tuesday, BC Cycle
                          08:14 Central European Time

SECTION: Entertainment, Television and Culture

LENGTH: 240 words

HEADLINE: Stray dogs kill 14 threatened black bucks in west Nepal

DATELINE: Kathmandu

 BODY:
    Roaming packs of dogs have killed 14 rare black bucks in a far western Nepalese wildlife sanctuary in the past four months, a newspaper report here said Tuesday.

    According to the Nepali language daily Kantipur, the dogs enjoy the protection of local people.

The newspaper, quoting the warden of Bardiya National Park, said local people had opposed the government's campaign to cull strays. The warden, Shivaraj Bhatta, said police had to be used in some places to carry out the operation to kill stray dogs last year.

     Nepal is said have only about 100 black bucks, a nearly extinct species which has been the object of a breeding programme for the past two decades. dpa

LENGTH: 158 words

HEADLINE: nepalese fm on 40 years of nepal -china relations

DATELINE: kathmandu, august 1; ITEM NO: 0801044

 BODY:
   nepali deputy prime minister and foreign minister madhav kumar nepal today expressed his congratulations on the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between nepal and china. in a message delivered to qian qichen, chinese vice premier and foreign minister, nepal said that the
 nepal -china relations had grown to the mutual satisfaction of both sides and the friendship between the two countries had been further strengthened over the last 40 years. the bilateral relations between nepal and china go beyond 40 years and could date back to historical times, he said, the two countries would witness a new dimension of cooperation in the years to come. the people and the government of nepal are thankful and appreciative of china's sympathies to the developmental needs of nepal in the last 40 years, he said in the message. the two neighboring countries established formal diplomatic relations on august 1, 1955.

HEADLINE: illegal uranium seized in eastern nepal

DATELINE: kathmandu, august 1; ITEM NO: 0801163

 BODY:
   nepali policemen have confiscated a total of 700 grams of uranium in a recent raid at the house of two local residents in bhadrapur municipality, eastern
 nepal. according to a local police office, the two residents were arrested for possessing such a dangerous substance illegally and the case is now under investigation, official nepali national news agency rss reported here today.

HEADLINE: nepal to eliminate discriminatory laws

DATELINE: kathmandu, august 1; ITEM NO: 0801054

 BODY:
   the nepalese government will present to the next session of parliament a bill designed to eliminate the gender discriminatory laws, a high-ranking official said here monday. speaking at a south asian regional workshop on "defining women's collective regional interests and creating a platform of actions," minister for law, justice and parliamentary affairs subas chandra nemwang said the question of equality and advancement of women is directly related to the development of a country as a whole, and should be a common concern for all.

despite the constitutional provisions which guarantee equal rights to men and women, there are a few discriminatory clauses against women in nepal, according to the minister. with a view to enhance women's empowerment and development, the government has set up a national council on women and child development under the chairmanship of prime minister man mohan adhikari, nemwang said. the four-day workshop, which began on monday, was attended by 30 women representatives from nepal, india, bangladesh, sri lanka and pakistan.

******************************************************** Date: Fri, 4 Aug 1995 16:53:14 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Hindu Festivals From: Padam Sharma <psharma@emh1.tic.bismarck.nd.us>

Please thank Rajendra Shrestha for posting this Nepali patro in "The Nepal Home Page".

And.. thank you and welcome to Rajendra for coming back to the cyberspace.

---------------------------------31442523919174 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Type: text/plain

Bikram Sambat 2052

Nepal follows a different calendar system than in the West. According to this system, 1995-96 is Bikram Sambat 2052. The New Year begins in mid-April. Like the Julian system, there are 12 months, each month beginning around the middle of a Western month. Festival dates are, however, determined by lunar calendar.

Here's the full Nepali calendar for B.S.2052. English dates are in brackets. You can move to a specific month by either scrolling down or by choosing the month below:

Baisakh | | Jestha | | Ashadh | | Shrawan

Bhadra | | Ashwin | | Kartik | | Mangshir

Paush | | Magh | | Falgun | | Chaitra

Baisakh

---------------------------------------------------------------------
                Baisakh 2052 (April/May 1995)
--------------------------------------------------------------------- Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat
---------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                   1 (14) 2 (15) 3 (16) 4 (17) 5 (18) 6 (19) 7 (20) 8 (21) 9 (22) 10 (23) 11 (24) 12 (25) 13 (26) 14 (27) 15 (28) 16 (29) 17 (30) 18 (1) 19 (2) 20 (3) 21 (4) 22 (5) 23 (6) 24 (7) 25 (8) 26 (9) 27 (10) 28 (11) 29 (12) 30 (13) 31 (14)
---------------------------------------------------------------------
- New Year's Day (14th April)

- Nepalese Mother's Day - 16 (29th April)

- Buddha Jayanti - 31 (14th May)
====================================================================

Jestha

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                   Jestha 2052 (May/June 1995)
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Ashadh

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                   Ashadh 2052 (June/July 1995)
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- Bhanu Jayanti - 29 (13th July)
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Shrawan

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                   Shrawan 2052 (July/August 1995)
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- Ghanta Karna (Gathe Mangal) - 9 (25th July)

- Nag Panchami - 16 (1 August)

- Rakshya Bandan - 25 (10th August)

- Gai Jatra - 26 (11th August)
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Bhadra

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                   Bhadra 2052 (August/September 1995)
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- Sri Krishnastami - 1 (17th August)

- Children's Day - 4 (20th August)

- Kushe Aunshi (Father's Day) - 10 (26th August)
  also Moti Jayanti on the same day.

- Teej - 13 (29th August)

- Rishi Panchami - 14 (30th August)

- Indra Jatra - 23 (8th September)

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Ashwin

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- Dasain Festival begins on 9th (25th September), ends 7th Oct.

  Ghatasthaapana - 9 (25th September)

  Fulpaati - 15 (1st October)

  Mahaastami/Mahanavami - 16 (2nd October)

  Vijaya Dashami (TEEKA) - 17 (3rd October)

  Kojaagrat Purnima - 22 (8th October)
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Kartik

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Deepawali (TIHAR) begins on 5th Kartik (22nd Oct.), ends 25th Oct.

- Crows' Day (Kaag Tihar) - 5 (22nd October)

- Dogs' Day (Kukur Tihar) & Laxmi Puja - 6 (23rd October)

- Cows' Day - 7 (24th October)

- Gobardan Pooja - 8 (25th October)

- MHA PUJA - (Self Worship Day) - also on 8 ( 25th October)

- NEPAL SAMBAT 1116 - begins the same day (8th Kartik 2052)

- BHAAI TEEKA (Brothers' Day) - also on 8th (25th October)

- Chhath Parva - 12 (29th October)

- Haribodhini Ekadashi - 17 (3rd November)

- Baikuntha Chaturdashi - 20 ( 6th November)

- Queen's Birth Day - 22 (8th November)

- NEPAL CONSTITUTION DAY - 23rd Kartik (9th November)

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Mangshir

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- Bala Chaturdshi (Satbiz chharne) - 5 (21st November)

- Bibah Panchami (Ram Sita Marriage Anniversary) - 11 (27th Nov.)

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Paush

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                   Paush 2052 (December 1995/January 1996)
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- Christmas - 10 (25th December)

- H.M. King Birendra's Birth Day - 14th Paush (29th December)

- Late King Prithvi Jayanti and National Unification Day
                       - 27th Paush (11th January 1995)

- Swasthani Brat begins on 21st Paush (5th January)
                      ends 21st Magh (4th February)
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Magh

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                Magh 2052 (January/February 1996)
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          1 (15) 2 (16) 3 (17) 4 (18) 5 (19) 6 (20) 7 (21) 8 (22) 9 (23) 10 (24) 11 (25) 12 (26) 13 (27) 14 (28) 15 (29) 16 (30) 17 (31) 18 (1) 19 (2) 20 (3) 21 (4) 22 (5) 23 (6) 24 (7) 25 (8) 26 (9) 27 (10) 28 (11) 29 (12)
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- Makar Sankrati - 1 (15th January)

- Sri Panchami - Saraswati Jayanti ( Basant Panchami)
                 Coming of Spring Festival - 11 (25th January)

- Shahid Divas ( Martyrs' Day) - 16 (30th January)

- Swasthani Purnima - 21 (4th February)
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Falgun

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                  Falgun 2052 (February/March 1996)
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                    1 (13) 2 (14) 3 (15) 4 (16) 5 (17) 6 (18) 7 (19) 8 (20) 9 (21) 10 (22) 11 (23) 12 (24) 13 (25) 14 (26) 15 (27) 16 (28) 17 (29) 18 (1) 19 (2) 20 (3) 21 (4) 22 (5) 23 (6) 24 (7) 25 (8) 26 (9) 27 (10) 28 (11) 29 (12) 30 (13)
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- Maha Siva Ratri - 5 (17th February)

- NATIONAL DEMOCRACY DAY - Fagun 7 (19th February)

- Chir Daha - 21(4th March)

- Fagu Purnima - 22 (5th March)

_ Nepalese Women's Day - 24 (7th March)

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Chaitra

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                   Chaitra 2052 (March/April 1996)
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                                          1 (14) 2 (15) 3 (16) 4 (17) 5 (18) 6 (19) 7 (20) 8 (21) 9 (22) 10 (23) 11 (24) 12 (25) 13 (26) 14 (27) 15 (28) 16 (29) 17 (30) 18 (31) 19 (1) 20 (2) 21 (3) 22 (4) 23 (5) 24 (6) 25 (7) 26 (8) 27 (9) 28 (10) 29 (11) 30 (12)
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- Ghode Jatra - 6 (19th March)

- Chaitra Dashain - 14 (27th March)

- Ram Navami - 15 (28th March)
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        NEW YEAR B.S. 2053 BEGINS ON 13th April 1996.

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****************************************************** Date: Fri, 4 Aug 1995 16:42:47 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Sanatan Dharma From: <tilak@UFCC.UFL.EDU>

     The koan - 'The battle of the left & the right hand'.
     Tilak B. Shrestha, University of Florida, Summer 1995.

     Please allow me to express my humble opinion on this interesting question 'Is Buddhism a part of Hinduism ?'. This writing also deals obliquely with the general sentiment of Hinduism and relations between different sects within Hinduism. I am not a theologian or a philosopher, so please bear with me for possible inconsistencies. I would like to keep the subject as an open discussion and would like to invite questions, comments or criticisms. Perhaps these kinds of discussions would help us understand our religious and cultural roots which are fundamental to the inner strength. I strongly believe that the inner strength is the prerequisite for the progress, in any sense of the word.

     Hinduism:
     Hinduism consists of many ways of life, wisdom collected over the ages, and inquiries into the universal truths. Hinduism is not a teachings of a particular individual, nor was it started at a given historical time. It consists of teachings and observations collected over time immemorial, by countless and faceless seers and spiritual masters from diverse regions.

     Hinduism is not a religion as commonly understood in the west. The problem has come about because of the meaning of
'religion' as understood in socio-political terminology of Judeo- christianity. That is why, questions like whether an individual is a Buddhist or Hindu, or did Hindus oppressed Buddhist or not, have been raised. Such questions have underlying assumptions that people can be neatly separated into well defined groups, and that these groups would invariably struggle for dominance and that stronger group would oppress the weaker. That paradigm is not valid to deal with Hinduism. From Hindus' perspective Judaism and Christianity are not religions but subjective history and politics. Hinduism has its own problems, but not the above. Hinduism may be looked into in three different ways.

     A. Geography : Hinduism is, by definition, the spiritual development occurred in the Indian sub-continent. It is a geographical term, first used by Persians to denote the religiosity/philosophy of the people living in the banks of river Sindhu, and by extension the Indian subcontinent. Thus, by definition, Sikhs, Buddhist, Vaishnavs, Jains, Shaivs etc. are Hindus. Whereas Muslims, Christians are not. As far as syncretic religions like Sikhism, and Bahais are concerned; Sikhs are Hindus, but Bahais are not. Simply because of the geography of their origin. Within the broad Hindu mainstream, Tibet is also included. For example, Kailash and Man Sarober, where Lord Shiva supposed to dwell, are in Tibet.

     The Tibetan language and script, along with Tibeto-Burmese
(Mongoloid) languages which comprise most of the Nepali jana bhashas, are quite close to the Sanskrit and related languages. In terms of people, Hindus are not a racially homogeneous people. Hindus consists of all the races, African, Caucasian (?), Mongoloid. Hinduism consists of the beliefs and the philosophies coming out of these diverse groups of people. For example, Lord Pashupati is identified with mongoloid Kiranti people. 'Jhankris' and temples of 'Banakali Mai' etc. are still staple of the Nepalese religious map.

     The notion that the Vedas are war hymns of barbarians lacking any spirituality, brought to India by foreign invaders, is not true. Neither, the myth of Aryan invasion of India from abroad against cultured Dravidian (original Indians ?) is true. These are simply misconceptions generated by European scholars
(?) like Max Muller, who see world through the Eurocentric and biblical perspective. The term 'Arya' simply means cultured or noble person. Thus, every ancient Indian claims himself or herself to be an Arya and his or her enemies as Anarya or non Arya. It is not a racial terms. The different languages and cultures in different parts of the Indian sub-continents arose simply due to thousands of years of evolution. The derogatory terms like Rakshyas or Pishach are the expression of internecine warfare and politics, not race or religion. Acharya Chatursen gives the origin of the term 'Rakshyas' as the 'Raksya Sanskriti' or the 'defence league' formed by ancient south Indian Kings to protect themselves from north Indian Kings. The term 'Pishach' originates from 'Nisha char' or 'night invaders'. Apparently people from North Indian plains were mortally afraid of the night raids by then Himalayan people. Otherwise both south India and Himalayas are regular features of ancient Indian literature where normal commerce occurred and where Rishis would live among the people.

     That is, Hindus as people consist of proto Nepalese or mongoloid people also, and Hinduism as religion consists of the beliefs and philosophies of the ancient Himalayan people also.

     B. Democratic forum : Another way to look at the Hinduism is to consider it as the democratic forum for spiritual teachings. As democracy, Hinduism does not propose any particular set of doctrine, but consists of many competing beliefs and philosophies. They are called sects. A particular sect might claim to have a certain advantage over other sects or may emphasize certain teachings more than others. However, no sect will claim to be only true way, let alone to claim that other sects are wrong.

     The corner stones of Hinduism are concepts of 'Samyaktva - Avoidance of dogmatic, intolerant, harmful attitude', and 'Sarva dharma sambhava - Many paths to the same summit'. The revelation in Isavashya Upanishad states 'Yo yo yam yan tanum bhaktah sraddhyaarchitumicchati, tasya tashyaachalaam sraddhaam tameva vidadhamyaham - Whatever form any devotee with faith, wishes to worship, I make that faith of his or her steady'. Krishna states in Gita 'Ishwara sarvabhootaanaaam, hruddese Arjuna tishthati - The lord dwells in the heart of all beings'. Buddha never claimed his way to be exclusive, though he cautioned against spiritual snake oil salesman. That way, Bahais and religions of native American may be also considered Hinduism, but not Islam and Christianity. Simply because, later two religions claim to be exclusive. For example the fundamental Islamic doctrine is 'There is no other God except Allah'; and the fundamental Christian doctrine is 'Jesus is the only way to the heaven'. Different sects among Hindus may debate over a certain religious ideas or metaphysical points, but would not condemn others. Even those disagreements are limited within only the Acharyas of these sects, and do not percolates down to the lay Hindus.

     A typical Hindu will go to all the temples, listens to all the discourses, celebrates all the festivals, and participates in all the religious functions. He or she may go more often to a particular temple than others, or participate in a particular function more than in others, depending upon his or her taste, interests, or simply due to proximity. When a Hindu declares himself or herself to be a Buddhist or Vaishnav, he or she is simply stating about the higher influence of that particular philosophy or way of life on himself or herself. It does not mean that he or she would not go to Shiva temple, or condemn Adwaita philosophy. It is only the case of degree, not about separation.

     According to Hinduism, an individual in the process of growing up, may be affected more by different ideas at different times of his or her life. That is, each individual goes through a spiritual evolution not religious conversion. In the same theme Alan Watts writes - "A convert to Buddhism is as unimaginable as a convert to cookery, unless the conversion means simply that one has become a cook instead of a cobbler, or that one has become interested in cooking well. For Buddhism, whether Hinayana or Mahayana, is not a system of doctrines and commandments requiring our belief and obedience. It is a method (one of the exact meanings of dharma) for the correction of our perceptions and for the transformation of consciousness. It is so thoroughly experimental and empirical that the actual subject-matter of Buddhism must be said to be an immediate, non-verbal experience rather than a set of beliefs or ideas or rules of behavior." A Hindu may say some thing like 'These days I am interested in Buddhism and in comparing the Mahayan Buddhism with Dwaita philosophy and Theravada Buddhism with Adwaita philosophy'. However, a Hindu will not say 'I am converting to Buddhism. So, I am no longer a Vaishnav but a Buddhist. Now on Buddha is only God, and Shiva and Vishnu are no God'. Or a Hindu may say 'These days I am impressed with the life style of the Hare Krishnas and trying to be a vegetarian'. But, a Hindu will not insist upon making every body vegetarian. A Hindu might wonder about the influence of Dwaita philosophy on Jesus, when he addresses God as
'father', or of Adwaita philosophy when he talked about 'kingdom within'. However, a Hindu will not say that all the Hindus are saved and will automatically go to heaven, no matter how evil they are; and none of the others are saved and will automatically go to hell, no matter how virtuous they are. A Hindu has no problem recognizing Jesus or any other religious leader as a spiritual master, though would not agree that he or she is the only one.

     A Hindu is essentially free to choose to lead his or her own spiritual life. However, Hindus will not condemn others and violently attack or destroy any temple, as a part of their religious belief. If there are such cases, then they are aberrations not a general rule. The reasons for such isolated cases may be found in politics or economics than in religion. For example, when Shankaracharya went around challenging any religious leaders for metaphysical debate, he was not leading an army, nor losers lost their head. Most often, the losers chose to be disciples of Shankaracharya on their own. Some debate losers even committed suicide, because they could not bear the trauma of loosing. However, the point is, though the doctrinal debate did occur in the old days, physical violence did not. Even Buddha, while preaching 'middle way', criticized the strictness of his contemporary Mahabir or Jainism. However, the criticism is limited to a certain issues, not against Jainism at large. Buddha declared that caste should determined by deed, not by birth. It is exactly what it is. Such criticism is appropriate, limited and positive.

     Hinduism may be considered as a supra system, within which many spiritual ideas coexist and compete, and relations foster within the acceptable norm. However, Hinduism itself does not preach a particular doctrine. A parallel may be drawn with democracy in the political field. Democracy does not preach a particular political ideas, rather it provides platform for any idea, where these political ideas would compete and cooperate. Any political party, including Fascism or Communism, may be considered a part of the democracy as long as it plays by the rule. Within democracy many parties coexist, even develop relations, and would not stop other parties from functioning. A citizen is free to associate with any or all parties as much as he or she wants. A political party would cease to be a part of democracy only when it claims to be exclusive or totalitarian. In Hinduism every body is free to preach or believe whatever he or she deem right. Though there may be debates to distinguish wheat from chaff. Hinduism, like a market place, simply presents smorgasbord of spiritual ideas. An individual is free to chose any, or as much of any, depending upon his or her own conscience and need. That is, Hinduism consists of many ideas and teachings including Carvakism, Jainism, Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Buddhism, Sikhism and so on.

     C. Science of spirituality : Hinduism may also be defined as an inquiry into the spirituality or universal/eternal truths, not a given set of doctrines or beliefs. The Hindu term for inquiry into the eternal truth is 'Sanatana'. It may be compared with science and loosely defined as science of spirituality. The division among hindu sects are like that of division among scientists. There are chemists, botanist, geologist and so on. However, each of the scientists will tell that he or she is dealing with only a narrow field within the general body of science and each scientist works in cooperation with other scientists.

     A religion, defined as a set of doctrines, forces people to chose a camp. Thus, it divides people and do not allow individual freedom. For example, an individual cannot be a Muslim and a Christian same time. However, inquiry into universal truths requires to learn from as many sources as possible. For example, a geologist has to learn mathematics, physics, chemistry etc. Likewise, a Hindu may go to any temple, learn any philosophy or metaphysics, or practice any spiritual system. Thus, Hinduism stresses individuality, without creating religious boundary and dividing people.

     A Hindu, never claims to know all the truth, or expresses that his or her religion is the only correct religion. A Hindu, like a scientist, rather admits the limitation of his or her background or upbringing and present living environment, and does as best as he or she can do to improve his or her spirituality, with the help of countless spiritual masters who has left their teachings behind. That is why, if you ask ten Hindus to define Hinduism, you will get twenty different answers.

     To consider Hinduism only as rituals and casteism is, as Buddha might have put, ignorance. They are some of the negative aspects of Brahmanism, not Hinduism at large. Brahmanism has its own relevancy, imperative and usefulness. However, unfortunately it also has developed a few strands of objectionable practices through the ages. If told, the saga of exploitation of poor and ignorant by learned and powerful, the evolution of casteism, degeneration into ritualism, Brahmanic adulteration of scriptures, will never end. Those kind of corruptions, like bad apples, need to be discarded. However, we cannot condemn all the apples. Like in any society, there are many problems in the Hindu society. However, they are social problems, not religious. I can imagine a mad scientist, but not a mad science. The answer lies in the moral and intellectual discipline, not in politics.

     Sanatana :
     The notion that Buddhism is different from Hinduism has come due to the misunderstanding of the nature of 'Sanatana' or inquiry into the universal truth. The difference is the approaches taken by different sects, not the truth per se. After all truth remains the same, though it may be approached or understood from different perspectives.

     The eternal truth cannot be understood by us, not because it is mysterious, but because our human faculties like the physical body and the intelligence are limited. Thus, like the fable of an elephant and blind men, we may be able to perceive only partial truth. This is expressed in Sanskrit as 'Ekam sat vipra bahuda vadanti - Truth is one, sages call it by different names'. Sanatana or inquiry of the eternal truth can be done with the available human tools only.

     The classical Hindu spiritual masters point out those tools, in order of preference, as - a. Physical observation, b. Logic, c. Simile, and d. Revelations. The truth as understood due to the direct physical observations gets the first preference. Next, in order of preference, is the truths which, though cannot be directly observed, can be logically deductible. Next, would be the use of simile. For example, if we like to know the number of teeth of a live lion, we may count that of a cat instead and make inference. The last source of truth is the so called
'revelations', which needs to be taken with a grain of faith or a grain of salt, as you prefer.

     The order of preference pertains to the validity of the truth. We might argue that the validity becomes less credible and more difference in opinion precipitates as we base our inquiry in the later tools. However, if we base our inquiry only within the observable phenomena, then the scope of inquiry will be limited, though arguments will have stronger credibility. This is how a spectrum of sects or metaphysical views have developed in the Hinduism. Materialist like Carvak bases their world view strictly according to the observable phenomena only. Strictly speaking, they cannot be called atheist, because they do not say that God does not exist. Rather they will argue that there is no physical proof of existence of God. Empiricists like Buddhists and Jains base their world view strictly according to the observable phenomena and logically deductible concepts, but not on revelation or faith.

     Typically, Carvak would argue that there is not enough physical evidence to prove the theory of Karma. Where as Buddhist would argue that the law of Karma is empirically provable, however it needs higher perspective than that of Carvak's. Vaishnav or Shaiva would consider the law of Karma as a revealed truth. Similarly, Carvak would consider Newton's law 'every action has equal and opposite reaction' as an observable truth, but not the Karmic law. Whereas, others would consider the Newton's law as the physical subset of the universal Karmic law. The dwaita philosophers like Vaishnavs would add on the article of faith that God exists. They may also talk about their faith that God reincarnates into the human history frequently in different forms and personality according to the human need or divine will. Thus, they will emphasize on relation with God in personal way, through love and prayer. Where as Adwaita philosophers like Shaivs will add on their faith that there exist eternal truth which they call, at the lack of better word, the big one (Brahma). They would argue that all the cosmos, including human being, is simply a transient manifestation of the Brahma. A dwaita-adwaita philosopher may argue that the Brahma does manifest as personified God. Thus, the arguments and metaphysical views continues, till the cows come home.

     The Gnan yoga observes that each of these views contains partial truth but not the whole truth. Thus, a student is advised not to attach himself or herself to a particular view but to learn all of them and later to go forward on his or her own strength. The point here is that Hinduism consists of a spectrum of many interconnected world views including that of Buddhism.

     Buddhism :
     Buddhism need to be understood, not as a faith, but as the rational approach to the truth and according to the priority it assigns. Buddhist approach of truth is strictly empirical, or based on the knowledge, symbolized by Gnan Chachhu or Eye of knowledge. Buddhism's priority is the practical way of lessening the suffering. Other issues, like Buddhahood or metaphysical views are only secondary. Majjhima Nikaya Sutta states - "If a man is struck by an arrow, then as the first order of business the arrow should be pulled out and the wound should be treated. It would not help to insist to know what caste the person belongs to, or what kind of arrow it is, or how tall the man is etc., before pulling the arrow out. Similarly, it is not on the view that the world is eternal, that it is finite, that body and soul are distinct, or that the Buddha exists after death a religious life depends. Whether these or their opposites are held, there is still rebirth, there is old age, there is death, and grief, lamentation, suffering, sorrow, and despair. I have not spoken about these views because they do not conduce to absence of passion, tranquillity, and Nirvana. And what have I explained ? I have explained suffering, the causes of suffering, the destruction of suffering, and the path that leads to the destruction of suffering. For they are useful in life. Therefore, my disciples, consider as unexplained what I have not explained, and consider as explained what I have explained."

     The concepts like Karma, Incarnation, Raj yoga's techniques of meditation, Gnan yoga's technic of inquiry into universal truth etc., which are also the staples of Buddhism existed long before Buddha was born. However, the difference is that Buddha recognized them through empirical means, not as revelation out of Veda. Buddha insists 'Ye be lamp onto your self'. That is why he is correctly called 'Nastik', that his teachings do not depend upon 'Veda' or other scriptures. 'Nastik' does not mean atheist. It simply means teachings independent of Vedic scriptures, as opposed to 'Aastik', which means teachings dependent upon 'Vedic scriptures'. For example, Krishna considers 'Gita' as milk out of scriptural cow. Otherwise, the truth is the same. Buddha himself had many teachers, who were trained in then prevalent schools of Hinduism.

     The greatness of Buddha is that he is able to bring many of the truths, which were considered purely a matter of faith and revelation, within the realm of rational deduction. That is why initially many Brahmans opposed him, and once they understood the importance of the Buddhist approach they recognized him as an incarnation. His way of knowledge was indeed the ignorance shattering. Such height of spiritual innovation is not achieved easily. However, there are other instances also. For example, Krishna's Karma Yoga brings the possibility of Nirvana within the grasp of ordinary people or Grihastha, instead of being only for professional ascetics.

     If Hinduism is considered strictly Vedic teachings only then Buddhism, south Indian Shaivism (whose Agamas are independent of Veda) etc. are not Hinduism. Exclusive Vedic teachings and attendant culture may be termed 'Brahmanism'. If, Hinduism is considered as truth in general, then not only Buddhism, but Confucianism, Taoism, physics, mathematics etc. are also different approaches to the same eternal truth. As I said before both 'Hindu' and 'Hinduism' are adopted alien terms. On one hand, Sanatana is not limited within any book, geography or history; though certain book might illuminate certain aspect of it. On the other hand, if every so called concept of Hinduism is purged out of Buddhism, then left over will truly be the heaven of Sunyabad
(pardon my pun). Einstein would not have incarnated without the background of Galileo, Newton, Planck, Fitzgerald, Lorentz and countless other physicist.

     Any Buddhist doctrine needs to be understood in terms of the Buddhist approach and the context, not taken as an article of faith. Unfortunately, some of the Buddhist doctrines like that of
'Anahata - no soul' some times has been mistakenly considered as a Buddhist faith. As I mentioned before, Buddha neither cares about metaphysical views, nor builds his thesis on faith. Just for the argument sake, consider the fact that Buddhism recognizes the karma and reincarnation. Then question may be asked what connects the one life from the next and keeps the karmic action intact. In Buddha's time the vulgar concept of 'Atma - soul' was the 'Suchsma shareer - microbody', which in English may be termed
'Ego-substance'. As if there is a small etherial or astral body within the larger physical body, kind of trapped inside. This suchsma shareer is supposed to carry the memory and physical attributes of the given life like a seed of a plant. At the death this suchsma sareer escapes out of the physical body and jumps into a new body or goes to heaven, carrying the karmic bundle and the subdued form of memory and attributes from the past life. This is similar to the christian concept of soul, which after death retains all the attributes and memory of the life. According to christianity, when resurrection occurs all the souls will come back alive in their previous forms, even the families would come back and live as before, though in happier state. This egocentric concept of Atma is denied (Anahata) by Buddha. However, the classical Hindu concept of Atma also is not egocentric. Yogavashista states (52.44) - "In reality, there is no such thing as the ego-soul, nor is there any mine and thine, nor imagination. All this is nothing but the manifestation of the universal soul which is the light of pure intelligence." According to classical Hinduism Atma is divine, attributeless, eternal, and is not subject to karmic law.

     Buddhism and Vedanta :
     The distinction between Buddhism and Vedanta is the approach they take, not the truth they seek. Buddhism takes the bottom up approach and relies on the available human faculties, whereas Vedanta takes the top down approach and relies on revelations in Veda. Vedantist would predicate their argument upon the primary reality. Whereas Buddhist would point out that by definition it cannot be conceptualized and therefore there is no basis of any argument. In the language of statistics, Vedantist would argue that there is a eternal population mean and a sample mean is only a transient imperfect measure. Whereas Buddhist would argue that only fact we have is the sample mean and any inference should be based upon it.

     Vedas reveal Brahma as permanent, eternal, impersonal, and attributeless. However, Brahma creates the transitory and conditional attributes out of itself, for itself, by itself. Brahma is one which manifest itself as eye and makes eye see, manifest as mind and makes mind think, manifests as ego and creates personality. Thus, an individual human cannot observe or understand 'Brahma', because human ego itself is the transitory creation or manifestation of Brahma. However, human mind may comprehend Brahma in its two aspects, as a. observable physical entity (energy) and b. consciousness. The way to know Brahma is by transcending our ego or individuality. This may be accomplished by shedding ego using the techniques of meditation. Shankaracharya interprets the ancient texts that this truth can be directly experienced (Aparokshanubhuti - self realization) by the way of 'Bairagya - dispassion or renunciation'.

     Brahma is the primary reality and is the cause of other secondary transient realities - 'samsar - world', egos, minds, bodies, thoughts, logic, perceptions, natural laws etc. Nirvana or liberation is the transcending from secondary reality to primary reality. Atma or soul is a primary reality, not secondary. There is no difference between Atma and Brahma or Paramatma. A question was put to Shankaracharya - "Is Atma like a drop of water in the ocean of Brahma ?" He replied - "No, it is like water in the drop." Now compare that with the Buddhist concept of Dharmakaya. Dr. D.T. Suzuki writes - "Dharmakaya is the ultimate reality that underlies all particular phenomena; it is that which makes the existence of individual possible; it is the raison d'etre of the universe; it is the norm of being, which regulates the course of events and thoughts. We do not have any transcendental entity called ego-substance. We all are one in the
'System of Being' and only as such are immortal. The one shows us the folly of clinging to individual existence and of coveting the immortality of the ego-soul; the other convinces us of the truth that we are saved by living into the unity of Dharmakaya. When the clouds of ignorance and egoism are totally dispersed, the light of universal love and intelligence will shine in all its glory." Is this Buddhist concept of 'Dharmakaya' different from that of 'Brahma' ? Both of them are identical, so much so that Dr. Suzuki writes - "Here, a very interesting question suggests itself : Which is the original and which is the copy, Mahayanism or Vedantism ? Most of the European Sanskrit scholars would declare that Buddhism must be the borrower. But I am strongly inclined to the opposite view, for there is reliable evidence in favor of it. (Because) writing of Aswaghosh (Mahayanist) dates much earlier than Shankara or Badarayana (Vedantist)." Though Shankara and Badarayana point to Upanishads for their source. However, chronology is not the issue. Point is both views are the same.

     The egoistic secondary reality, though based on the primary reality, cannot grasp the primary reality. In other words, since human ego and the human tools of empirical knowledge, i.e. mind and body are only secondary reality, therefore we cannot perceive the primary reality. Thus primary reality is variously described in the language of secondary reality as - 'which cannot be understood', 'which cannot be explained', 'where subject and object is one', 'where there is no me and you', 'where cause and effect is one', 'where there is no spatial & temporal difference', 'kingdom within', 'where actors, audience and the play is one' and so on. Obviously unexplainable thing cannot be explained and only thing can be done is to approach or point out. Transcending from secondary reality to primary reality also cannot be explained, and it is variously put as - 'realizing',
'falling into place', 'giving up what we do not have', 'getting more real', 'nirvana', 'enlightenment', 'awakening', 'mokshya',
'release', 'freedom', 'back to basic' and so on. It may be pointed out that transcending or Nirvana is not a journey from one destination to the another. That is only a metaphor. It is simply realization of the true self.

     Most of the Buddhist statements would become clearer if we keep in mind that Buddhism uses methods of inquiry within our reach, that is tools within secondary reality only. Let me repeat one more time that each of the following statements are made and valid within secondary reality only. "I am enlightened. Enlightenment cannot be explained. I can show you the way, but can not make you enlightened." Every existing phenomena is transient and has cause. They would cease to exist if the cause is removed. The Law of karma operates even upon Gods. Any given concept of soul or Dharmakaya is not correct. Anahata or there is no soul. If you take any individual then his or her each and every characteristic, physical or mental, is transient and has cause. If each and every characteristic is taken off one by one, by recognizing and removing the cause, then there absolutely nothing will be left. The reality of each and every egoistic attribute being extinguished cannot be explained nor even be conceptualized. For the lack of better word, we may call it enlightenment or Nirvana. Nirvana is bliss.

     Many paths to the same summit :
     An example of the different approaches taken by the different sects towards the same truth may be illustrated. Suppose an individual notices a desirable object, say a good looking bicycle. Then this external stimuli would have a certain effect on the individual according to his or her background. In general these external stimuli creates desires. It is the intrinsic nature of the human mind. This would motivate the individual to pursue a course of action to fulfill the desire. This very nature of mind always leads to suffering regardless of the fulfillment of the desire or not. Even if a particular object is obtained, in due time the pleasure ends and many more new desires would arise. Every egoistic actions again generates karmic reactions and the ego 'Jiva' has to face the consequences of each of his or her actions, good or bad. Thus the person is always trapped into this never ending cycle. Gita (5.22) states
"Sense pleasure are due to the contact with the material senses, which have a beginning and an end, and is the cause of distress. A liberated soul is not interested in anything which is temporary." Buddha puts the same subject in more rigorous terms as four noble truths. "Life consists of many suffering. The cause of the suffering is the selfish craving or desire. The suffering can be cured by overcoming the craving. The craving can be overcomed by following the ethical way - the eightfold path."

     The human self-centered actions has the effect of making the individual forget his or her true nature and identify the self with the desires, the actions, and related mental attitude of happiness and suffering. In the due course of time the mind is full of the records of the recurrent stimuli, responses, actions taken, and short term pleasures and wants. This gives the external personality and ego. And the ego finds itself bound to the karmic law. To identify the true divine nature of the self this created personality or ego need to be cleared. In other words, the accumulated karmic reactions need to be dissolved.

     The ascetics try to burn off this ego by meditation 'Tapa'. To keep it simple, they also may try to lessen the external stimuli, for example by living alone in forest.

     The karma yogis would concentrate on the action they take. Though they may be pushed around by the external stimuli, they would try not to have egoistic response to it. They will try that their action remains selfless and is in accordance with divinely ordained duty.

     A Buddhist will rationally analyze their own actions and feelings and identify their causes or the external stimuli. Thus a Buddhist tries first to understand the causes and its effects, then tries to remove the causes to clean or extinguish the external ego.

     An individual practicing 'Bairagya or renunciation' would try to control the response, so that the external stimuli does not automatically trigger egoistic response.

     A devotee under the dwaita philosophy would try to fill his or her heart with the unconditional love for the personal God. The love for God would not only clean the person's mind, it also would lessen the effect of the external stimuli.

     We might also add that materialist like Charvak would argue that you get what you see. Thus, as epicurist, they might argue for maximization of happiness and minimization of suffering both in terms of individual or group.

     In other words, there are many paths to the same summit.

     Buddhism survives in India :
     Shakya Muni Gautam Buddha's teachings brought tremendous spiritual vitality in the Indian subcontinent. Buddhist universities like Takshyashila and Nalanda came to being, where students from all over the then known world came. Emperors like Ashok supported and helped to spread the gospel of compassion, cessation of suffering and Nirvana. The gospel spread throughout Asia and bordering regions. However, after millennia of expansion, slowly moral and intellectual decay occurred in the birthplace itself. Which paved way for the rise of intellectual stalwart like Shankaracharya who went around throughout India revitalizing the spirituality by drawing strength from ancient scriptures once more. Thus Shankaracharya was not only able to bring vitality but also balance the creeping exclusiveness of latter Buddhism. We may also point out that Buddhism itself was opening to the possibility of revealed truth, as opposite to the strictly empirical truth, by the way of Mahayanism and Boddhisatwas.

     However, the physical onslaught came with the Muslim conquest of India. Following the Koranic injunction against so called 'Idolaters' and 'Infidels', muslim hordes destroyed Zoroastrian, Hindu temples and Buddhist monasteries. Libraries were destroyed, priests, monks and nuns were put to death by thousands. Present Indian state of Bihar, which is named so because of the many 'Bihar' or monasteries, suffered so much muslim carnage that presently very little of the original monasteries are left. Historian Hyman Kublin writes - "The final blow to Buddhism in India was delivered by the Muslims. Pushing into northwest India from the eight century on, they destroyed the great Buddhist monasteries, burned the libraries, and killed monks. Most of the monks who survived this onslaught fled India." Christians also participated in such destruction. Franciscan missionaries arrived in Goa-India in 1517. In 1540, by the order of King of Portugal all the Hindu temples were destroyed. Jesuits came in 1542, and inquisition was introduced in 1560.

     However, Buddhism still survives in India.

     Nepal - the melting pot.
     The perception of so called difference between Buddhism and Hinduism has come simply because of Geography. Since only Buddhism went out of India in evangelical spirit, most of the people living outside India proper are not exposed to the different sects or philosophies of Hinduism. Thus, a Chinese would consider himself or herself as a Buddhist not as a Hindu. Which is partly true in the sense that they do not live in India proper or they do not know about other aspect of Hinduism, say for example karma yoga. However, it is not correct to say that Hinduism and Buddhism are two different religions.

     These kind of differing ideas do come because of history also. For example, Indonesian call themselves Muslim by religion, but they also have Ramayana and Mahabharata, which they call as their culture.

     In Nepal, we assimilate all the incoming ideas and evolve, but do not convert. We add the new teachings but do not discard the old. We do evaluate the values or the teachings, we also do debate. At the same time, we also value the diversity of ideas. Diversity of ideas gives freedom, growth and life. Without diversity every body, whether a monk or a layman, will be a simple carbon copy. The religion would become an exercise in polemic and apology. Whether Krishna or Buddha in ancient times and Vivekananda or Dalai Lama in modern times, different masters speak out from different perspectives, however the spiritual ethos remains the same.

     In Nepal, many groups of people came bringing their ideas and religiosity both from north and south. Aacharyas and monks of many sects and their festivals came. Festivals like Indra jattra, Dasain, Tihar, Shiva ratri, Basant panchami, Buddha jayanti, Krishnastami were introduced. In modern times, we add Shahid divas and Democracy day. We celebrate them all. Just because we celebrate Tihar, we did not discard Dasain. King Ashok, Shankaracharya came from India, Manjushree came from Tibet. We welcome them all. Siddhartha Gautam was born in Nepal. As Buddha, he enlightened the whole world. Sita went to India, Vrikuti went to Tibet. They worship them. The ethics of Ramayana, Karma yoga of Gita, Enlightenment of Buddhism, Philosophy of Vedanta and any other are welcome. We appreciate them all, learn and evolve. That is spiritual progress. Presently we may be occupied more with democracy, socialism, education, technology and economic development. We will assimilate them also and continue evolving. Evolution or change (Rita) is life. Getting attached to one idealogy, as Buddha might have put, is an end.

     Nepalese religiosity being a blend of different sects of Hinduism may be illustrated by the fact that the role of the guardian Goddess of Nepal 'Kumari' is always assumed by a girl from the Buddhist sect, though the king follows the Brahmanic tradition. A perfect harmony between the three principal sects of Nepal, namely Buddhism (Buddha), Shaivism (Nilkantha) and Vaishnavism (Narayan) can be seen in the temple situated in the northern corner of Kathmandu, which is popularly known as 'Budha Nilkantha Narayan'.

     Satyam ewa jayate. Vashundhaiva kutumbakam.
     Sarve api sukhino santu. Yeto dharma stato jaya.
     Om mani padme hum. Om shantih, shantih, shantihi.

************************************************************ Date: SAT, 05 AUG 95 11:24:42 JST From: Ashok Sayenju <194038@JPNIUJ00.BITNET> Subject: Looking for Kunga, Dhiren and Ujjal!! To: The Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

Can some body please tell these guys to contact me soon:

1. Dhirendra Gurung and Kunga Rotta at Univ. of Central Oklahoma, 2. Ujjal Singh in Texas or BYU, Utah.

Thanks in advance.

Ashok Sayenju Email: 194038%jpniuj00.bitnet@pucc.princeton.edu

****************************************************************** Date: Sun, 6 Aug 1995 21:18:18 +0100 (BST) From: B J Lawson-mcdowall <hspbjlm@bath.ac.uk> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Arun III is dead, long live . . . ?

Starts as bank president on the 1 June and a mere 9 weeks later "pulls the plug on Nepali dam" (Guardian 5 August).

Any views on whether the IPA report submitted, I believe, a day or two after the new president's first day on the job was influential.

Well Mr Wolfhensohn had the courage that so many others lacked. It's amazing what a president can do if he hasn't made a personal and ill considered commitment to a project. If so many within the Bank knew it was it was a questionable project why did successive governments continue the process?

There will be many in the world bank with lighter hearts and just as many in the NEA with heavy ones. All that potential rent seeking now but a memory. Or is it? Will the bilaterial donors still spend the money they committed to Arun III in the Nepali energy sector? Certainly Nepal needs the energy. Another Khimti or two? Not given the NEA's attitude toward Nepal's `private' sector.

It remains to be seen if the loss of Arun will yet be Nepal's gain.

Lawson-McDowall

************************************************************************ Date: Sun, 6 Aug 1995 12:27:43 -1000 From: Ratna Shrestha <ratna@hawaii.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: seeking comments on kathmandu's Water Pollution problem

        The following note concerns the water pollution problem caused by carpet washing in Kathmandu. It contains terms (and also theories) from advance microeconomics which may not be comprehensible for readers from the other fields. At the moment, I have only a general overview of the complexities involved with the problem and am working towards developing a full model for a possible publication. I would appreciate any comments from the standpoint of economics, politics or engineering, paticularly from those who have the first hand exposure of the problem.
        .....
        The water pollution problem caused by carpet washing in Kathmandu is complex due to the involved moral hazard, adverse selection and free riding. A central washing plant downstream the river system (around Chovar) can solve a substantial proportion of the problem. The government can design an incentive scheme that gives export-subsidy to the factories using this plant and tax the rest (who do not use the plant). The government does not need to know the pollution abatement costs of the factories. They will voluntarily reveal their true abatement costs by deciding whether to wash carpets at the plant or in-site. For the factories with higher abatement costs, central washing (washing fee plus transportation costs) cum export-subsidy scheme will be efficient. On the contrary, for those who can abate pollution cheaply at the site, export tax scheme will be efficient.
              ......
        I would appreciate if you direct your comments to my e-mail address.

Ratna k. Shrestha Hawaii

******************************************************************** An Eventful Musical Night At Berkeley

The Nepal Association of Northern California has organized a NEPALI DINNER, DANCE AND MUSICAL SHOW TO BE PERFORMED BY AN INTERNATIONALLY KNOWN NEPALI MUSICAL GROUP, SUR SUDHA at THE ALUMNI HOUSE at the UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA at BERKELEY. The group combines the enchanting and soothing tones of hand - crafted bamboo flutes with sweet melodies of 20-stringed sitar, and the complex rhythmic beats of tabla to create harmonic and tantalizing music. The group is composed of three musicians and a dancer. They will be playing classical, Semi-Classical and Folk tunes of Nepal.. The dancer will be performing classical and folk dances of Nepal. The Musical Program will last about two hours. So, for those of you interested in enjoying live Nepali Music as well as palatable and delectable Nepali food, the Alumni House at Berkeley is certainly the place to be on Friday August 18th at 7pm.

TIME: 7:00 PM DATE: FRIDAY, AUGUST 18 1995 VENUE: TOLL ROOM at the Alumni House at the University of California at Berkeley EVENT: NEPALI MUSIC AND DINNER TICKET/COST: $20 for Non -Members , $15 for Members

For more information or for ticket, Contact:

Mr. Govind Shahi @510-222-5307 Mr. Gopal Khadki @ 415-387-9269 Mr. Shekar Sharma @510-651-4855 Mr. Surendra Pradhan @510-828-2111 Mr. Rattu Lama @510-527-4276 Mr. Iswor Maskey @510-237-2429 Ms. Sumira Thapa @510-524-3745

I look forward to seeing you on the 18th of August at the Alumni House.

Sumira Thapa Bhaskar B. Thapa Earth Sciences Division 50E Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Berkeley CA 94720

Tel. (510) 486-4161 Fax. (510) 486-5686

************************************************************************ From: "VOGEL, Sibylle" <svogel@unido.org> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Hello

     Hi,
     Can you please add this email address to your mailing list. This is
     Uday Manandhar and obviously this is not my email address but I am
     working here at UNIDO in Vienna for a few months and I have been told
     I can use this account.
     
     I would also like to know if there are more people in your list who
     are from Austria or Nepalis living in Austria. If so I would
     appreciate it if they could get in touch with me. I have lived in the
     U.S. for the eight of the past nine years and coming to Austria is
     quite a transition.
     
     Well take care. Please respond at this email address or
     umanandhar@vax.clarku.edu
     
     Uday Manandhar

********************************************************************* To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepal Dam Project Loan Pulled /
         Nepal shocked over Bank's refusal to back dam Date: Mon, 07 Aug 1995 13:41:40 EDT From: Amrit R Pant <arp@MIT.EDU>

 WASHINGTON (AP), 4 AUG 95 -- The World Bank pulled out of Nepal's biggest hydroelectric project Friday, saying it posed too many risks for the impoverished Himalayan kingdom's government.
        The bank canceled an offer of $175 million to go toward the $770 million Arun III project. It said the dam project, which it had hoped would meet Nepal's long-term energy needs, faced escalating costs and delays because of ``increasingly rigorous'' standards imposed by the bank.
        In recent years, the bank has imposed new conditions on its loans in response to criticism that it fosters development at the expense of local residents and the environment.
        Environmentalists contend the Nepal project would destroy forests on the Tibetan border, displace villages and disrupt the lives of thousands of people. They argue the huge dam on the Arun River could be replaced by a series of many smaller structures that would cause less environmental damage.
        The World Bank's decision to quit the 201-megawatt project came after an inspection panel's reassessment earlier this year resulted in several measures to address environmental and social concerns.
        A statement released in Katmandu and at the World Bank's Washington headquarters reaffirmed that the bank still feels the large hydroelectric project would be environmentally and socially sound. But the bank considers its increasing cost and complexity would lay too heavy a burden on Nepal's government, the statement said.
----------
 KATHMANDU, Nepal (Reuter), 4 Aug 95 - The Himalayan kingdom of Nepal on Friday expressed shock over a World Bank decision to withdraw financial support for a $1 billion hydropower project as the opposition slammed the government for faulty policies.
         ``His Majesty's government expresses surprise and dismay at the cancellation of the proeject at a time when a lot of investment and exercise had been put and the project was at the implementation stage,'' Nepal's water resources ministry said in a statement.
         The bank said in a statement released in the Indian capital New Delhi the decision to withdraw support from the Arun III project followed discussions between World Bank President James Wolfensohn and Nepal's Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary.
         ``The World Bank decision can be attributed to the faulty economic policies and contradictory posture on this project and the lack of sheer political committment of the communist rulers,'' opposition Nepali Congress's Ram Sharan Mahat said.
         Environmental groups have slammed the project, saying it could damage one of the few pristine forests in the Himalayan mountains that contains a number of endangered species, including the Asiatic black bear and the clouded leopard.
         ``The World Bank and the government of Nepal have agreed to work expeditiously to develop alternative approaches to meeting Nepal's energy needs following a decision by the bank not to proceed with plans to support the Arun III hydropower project,'' the bank statement said.
         ``The cancellation is not due to Nepal's mistake. It is the World Bank bureaucracy, its decision-making process that is to be blamed,'' said a Nepali water resources expert, who asked not to be named.
         Last February, an independent inspection panel criticized the bank for its handling of the project.
         The World Bank earlier planned to support the controversial project by providing loans of $175 million. The remaining funds were to come from donor nations and the Asian Development Bank.
         The bank said the project's financial management, social and environmental needs would place demands on Nepal which the tiny Himalayan nation, one of the world's 10 poorest, could not realistically meet at present.
         ``Some co-financing partners did not feel they were in a position to commit the necessary funds within the next 12 to 18 months,'' the bank said, adding that the project's estimated cost had already increased by about $40 million due to delays.
         Designed to deliver 402 megawatts of hydroelectric power in two phases to a country in desperate need of electricity, the project would take eight years to complete and require the relocation of some 155 families.
         ``The risks to Nepal were too great to justify proceeding with the project,'' Wolfensohn said.
         Nepal's industrialists said a lack of political consensus had led to the bank's withdrawal from the project.

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