The Nepal Digest - August 7, 1995 (23 Shrawan 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Monday 7 August 95: Shrawan 23 2052 BkSm Volume 41 Issue 1

 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *

********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 18 Jul 1995 16:47:32 -0600 To: From: (R. Scott Morgan)

subscribe put me on the list for scn!!!

From: Puspa M Joshi <> Subject: Re: A Poem To: Date: Tue, 18 Jul 1995 19:30:24 -0400 (EDT)

Shree Rajpalji

     As per your suggestion, I am mailing my poem which I recited at the ANMA convention in Columbus. I wrote in Nepali but when I tried to convert the text to Roman letters I found it very lengthy. So I am posting the English version. I hope the netters will enjoy it. Thank you.

Puspa Man Joshi PhD Candidate The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio

A Ph.D. Offense, then a Defense: By: Puspa Joshi God! I do not want a Ph.D. degree. May 26, 1995

One has to finish so much tough course work, Then defend the dissertation painfully, But if having the degree means lowering other people To raise one's own prestige, Then I do not want that degree.

Immediately after receiving the certificate, If I would forget my parents who blessed me for succeess Or my brothers and sisters who inspired me, Or my friends who consoled me Or for no reason, other than this degree I would be tempted To divorce my beloved wife who has no PhD, I do not want that certificate.

God! I have always been against the caste system, But because of this paper chase, A chance to get a green card makes me believe that Nepalese with American citizenship and Those with green cards Are like brahmins and chhetris (higher castes) And others including students are similar to Baishya or Chhudra (lower castes), I do not want the degree.

God! I do not mean to say that All educated people are worthless. If this were true We would not have an organization like ANMA Nor an annual convention like this one which needs the efforts of many to succeed If this were true I would never have a chance To recite a poem in front of so many scholars

God! My complaint is not only against the people Who grasp for more credits than they deserve. It is also against our academic society that Unfairly hurts as often as it unfairly helps.

A good example of overcredit: Usually a person is honored by a community Only after many months or years of social service But once someone gets a doctoral degree, Regardless that the person may detest community service He or she is automatically offered a place on Steering committees of social organizations

Examples of inequity: A PhD candidate who had to quit Or who is spending a long time on his or her dissertation, Inspite of all the other degrees he or she has, The person is offered no sympathy from the community To the contrary he or she is despised. Someone might suggest: "Go hang yourself on a chili plant!"

God! Because I am complaining in Nepali in the U.S.A., Please do not pretend that you can not understand. To be honest, I do not mean I do not want a PhD degree. I am unable to say so too. You know a person with such a degree is just like a lady With a dopatta sari (a lady's bright dress). Thus, I am not going to have other thoughts Rather, I will spend my time on writing my dissertation Because I would like to shine too.

Let me tell you my request If with sweat and luck, I attain my PhD degree Please! Provide me the honor of a pager from you Like the one Dr. Baidya has clipped to his side. Then, like the animals lured by green grasses, When I am lured by green dollars And forget my duty to others The compassion that is life's purpose, Please! Warn me through that pager that I stray So that I would never become lost.

****************************************************** Date: Tue, 18 Jul 1995 23:34:10 EST From: tilak@UFCC.UFL.EDU To: Subject: The Koan

     The koan - 'The battle of the left & the right hand'.
     (Part I of the IV parts series.)
     Tilak B. Shrestha, University of Florida, Summer 1995.

     Please allow me to express my humble opinion on this interesting question 'Is Buddhism a part of Hinduism ?'. This writing also deals obliquely with the general sentiment of Hinduism and relations between different sects within Hinduism. I am not a theologian or a philosopher, so please bear with me for possible inconsistencies. I would like to keep the subject as an open discussion and would like to invite questions, comments or criticisms. Perhaps these kinds of discussions would help us understand our religious and cultural roots which are often fundamental to the inner strengths of the human beings. I strongly believe that the inner strength is the prerequisite for the progress.

     Hinduism consists of many ways of life, wisdom collected over the ages, and inquiries into the universal truths. Hinduism is not a teachings of a particular individual, nor was it started at a given historical time. It consists of teachings and observations collected over time immemorial, by countless and faceless seers and spiritual masters from diverse regions.

     Hinduism is not a religion as commonly understood in the west. The problem has come about because of the meaning of
'religion' as understood in socio-political terminology of Judeo- christianity. That is why, questions like whether an individual is a Buddhist or Hindu, or did Hindus oppressed Buddhist or not, have been raised. Such questions have underlying assumptions that people can be neatly separated into well defined groups, and that these groups would invariably struggle for dominance and that stronger group would oppress the weaker. That paradigm is not valid to deal with Hinduism. From Hindus' perspective Judaism and Christianity are not religions but subjective history and politics. Hinduism has its own problems, but not the above. Hinduism may be looked into in three different ways.

     A. Geography : Hinduism is, by definition, the spiritual development occurred in the Indian sub-continent. It is a geographical term, first used by Persians to denote the religiosity/philosophy of the people living in the banks of river Sindhu, and by extension the Indian subcontinent. Thus, by definition, Sikhs, Buddhist, Vaishnavs, Jains, Shaivs etc. are Hindus. Whereas Muslims, Christians are not. As far as syncretic religions like Sikhism, and Bahais are concerned; Sikhs are Hindus, but Bahais are not. Simply because of the geography of their origin. Within the broad Hindu mainstream, Tibet is also included. For example, Kailash and Man Sarober, where Lord Shiva supposed to dwell, are in Tibet.

     The Tibetan language and script, along with Tibeto-Burmese
(Mongoloid) languages which comprise most of the Nepali jana bhashas, are quite close to the Sanskrit and related languages. In terms of people, Hindus are not a racially homogeneous people. Hindus consists of all the races, African, Caucasian (?), Mongoloid. Hinduism consists of the beliefs and the philosophies coming out of these diverse groups of people. For example, Lord Pashupati is identified with mongoloid Kiranti people. 'Jhankris' and temples of 'Banakali Mai' etc. are still staple of the Nepalese religious map.

     The notion that the Vedas are war hymns of barbarians lacking any spirituality, brought to India by foreign invaders, is not true. Neither, the myth of Aryan invasion of India from abroad against cultured Dravidian (original Indians ?) is true. These are simply misconceptions generated by European scholars
(?) like Max Muller, who see world through the Eurocentric and biblical perspective. The term 'Arya' simply means cultured or noble person. Thus, every ancient Indian claims himself or herself to be an Arya and his or her enemies as Anarya or non Arya. It is not a racial terms. The different languages and cultures in different parts of the Indian sub-continents arose simply due to thousands of years of evolution. The derogatory terms like Rakshyas or Pishach are the expression of internecine warfare and politics, not race or religion. Acharya Chatursen gives the origin of the term 'Rakshyas' as the 'Raksya Sanskriti' or the 'defence league' formed by ancient south Indian Kings to protect themselves from north Indian Kings. The term 'Pishach' originates from 'Nisha char' or 'night invaders'. Apparently people from North Indian plains were mortally afraid of the night raids by then Himalayan people. Otherwise both south India and Himalayas are regular features of ancient Indian literature where normal commerce occurred and where Rishis would live among the people. That is, Hindus as people consist of proto Nepalese or mongoloid people also, and Hinduism as religion consists of the beliefs and philosophies of the ancient Himalayan people also.

     B. Democratic forum : Another way to look at the Hinduism is to consider it as the democratic forum for spiritual teachings. As democracy, Hinduism does not propose any particular set of doctrine, but consists of many competing beliefs and philosophies. They are called sects. A particular sect might claim to have a certain advantage over other sects or may emphasize certain teachings more than others. However, no sect will claim to be only true way, let alone to claim that other sects are wrong.

     The corner stones of Hinduism are concepts of 'Samyaktva - Avoidance of dogmatic, intolerant, harmful attitude', and 'Sarva dharma sambhava - Many paths to the same summit'. The revelation in Isavashya Upanishad states 'Yo yo yam yan tanum bhaktah sraddhyaarchitumicchati, tasya tashyaachalaam sraddhaam tameva vidadhamyaham - Whatever form any devotee with faith, wishes to worship, I make that faith of his or her steady'. Krishna states in Gita 'Ishwara sarvabhootaanaaam, hruddese Arjuna tishthati - The lord dwells in the heart of all beings'. Buddha never claimed his way to be exclusive, though he cautioned against spiritual snake oil salesman. That way, Bahais and religions of native American may be also considered Hinduism, but not Islam and Christianity. Simply because, later two religions claim to be exclusive. For example the fundamental Islamic doctrine is 'There is no other God except Allah'; and the fundamental Christian doctrine is 'Jesus is the only way to the heaven'. Different sects among Hindus may debate over a certain religious ideas or metaphysical points, but would not condemn others. Even those disagreements are limited within only the Acharyas of these sects, and do not percolates down to the lay Hindus.

     A typical Hindu will go to all the temples, listens to all the discourses, celebrates all the festivals, and participates in all the religious functions. He or she may go more often to a particular temple than others, or participate in a particular function more than in others, depending upon his or her taste, interests, or simply due to proximity. When a Hindu declares himself or herself to be a Buddhist or Vaishnav, he or she is simply stating about the higher influence of that particular philosophy or way of life on himself or herself. It does not mean that he or she would not go to Shiva temple, or condemn Adwaita philosophy. It is only the case of degree, not about separation.

     According to Hinduism, an individual in the process of growing up, may be affected more by different ideas at different times of his or her life. That is, each individual goes through a spiritual evolution not religious conversion. In the same theme Alan Watts writes - "A convert to Buddhism is as unimaginable as a convert to cookery, unless the conversion means simply that one has become a cook instead of a cobbler, or that one has become interested in cooking well. For Buddhism, whether Hinayana or Mahayana, is not a system of doctrines and commandments requiring our belief and obedience. It is a method (one of the exact meanings of dharma) for the correction of our perceptions and for the transformation of consciousness. It is so thoroughly experimental and empirical that the actual subject-matter of Buddhism must be said to be an immediate, non-verbal experience rather than a set of beliefs or ideas or rules of behavior." A Hindu may say some thing like 'These days I am interested in Buddhism and in comparing the Mahayan Buddhism with Dwaita philosophy and Theravada Buddhism with Adwaita philosophy'. However, a Hindu will not say 'I am converting to Buddhism. So, I am no longer a Vaishnav but a Buddhist. Now on Buddha is only God, and Shiva and Vishnu are no God'. Or a Hindu may say 'These days I am impressed with the life style of the Hare Krishnas and trying to be a vegetarian'. But, a Hindu will not insist upon making every body vegetarian. A Hindu might wonder about the influence of Dwaita philosophy on Jesus, when he addresses God as
'father', or of Adwaita philosophy when he talked about 'kingdom within'. However, a Hindu will not say that all the Hindus are saved and will automatically go to heaven, no matter how evil they are; and none of the others are saved and will automatically go to hell, no matter how virtuous they are. A Hindu has no problem recognizing Jesus or any other religious leader as a spiritual master, though would not agree that he or she is the only one.

     A Hindu is essentially free to choose to lead his or her own spiritual life. However, Hindus will not condemn others and violently attack or destroy any temple, as a part of their religious belief. If there are such cases, then they are aberrations not a general rule. The reasons for such isolated cases may be found in politics or economics than in religion. For example, when Shankaracharya went around challenging any religious leaders for metaphysical debate, he was not leading an army, nor losers lost their head. Most often, the losers chose to be disciples of Shankaracharya on their own. Some debate losers even committed suicide, because they could not bear the trauma of loosing. However, the point is, though the doctrinal debate did occur in the old days, physical violence did not. Even Buddha, while preaching 'middle way', criticized the strictness of his contemporary Mahabir or Jainism. However, the criticism is limited to a certain issues, not against Jainism at large. Buddha declared that caste should determined by deed, not by birth. It is exactly what it is. Such criticism is appropriate, limited and positive.

     Hinduism may be considered as a supra system, within which many spiritual ideas coexist and compete, and relations foster within the acceptable norm. However, Hinduism itself does not preach a particular doctrine. A parallel may be drawn with democracy in the political field. Democracy does not preach a particular political ideas, rather it provides platform for any idea, where these political ideas would compete and cooperate. Any political party, including Fascism or Communism, may be considered a part of the democracy as long as it plays by the rule. Within democracy many parties coexist, even develop relations, and would not stop other parties from functioning. A citizen is free to associate with any or all parties as much as he or she wants. A political party would cease to be a part of democracy only when it claims to be exclusive or totalitarian. In Hinduism every body is free to preach or believe whatever he or she deem right. Though there may be debates to distinguish wheat from chaff. Hinduism, like a market place, simply presents smorgasbord of spiritual ideas. An individual is free to chose any, or as much of any, depending upon his or her own conscience and need. That is, Hinduism consists of many ideas and teachings including Carvakism, Jainism, Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Buddhism, Sikhism and so on.
     C. Science of spirituality : Hinduism may also be defined as an inquiry into the spirituality or universal/eternal truths, not a given set of doctrines or beliefs. The Hindu term for inquiry into the eternal truth is 'Sanatana'. It may be compared with science and loosely defined as science of spirituality. The division among hindu sects are like that of division among scientists. There are chemists, botanist, geologist and so on. However, each of the scientists will tell that he or she is dealing with only a narrow field within the general body of science and each scientist works in cooperation with other scientists.

     A religion, defined as a set of doctrines, forces people to chose a camp. Thus, it divides people and do not allow individual freedom. For example, an individual cannot be a Muslim and a Christian same time. However, inquiry into universal truths requires to learn from as many sources as possible. For example, a geologist has to learn mathematics, physics, chemistry etc. Likewise, a Hindu may go to any temple, learn any philosophy or metaphysics, or practice any spiritual system. Thus, Hinduism stresses individuality, without creating religious boundary and dividing people.

     A Hindu, never claims to know all the truth, or expresses that his or her religion is the only correct religion. A Hindu, like a scientist, rather admits the limitation of his or her background or upbringing and present living environment, and does as best as he or she can do to improve his or her spirituality, with the help of countless spiritual masters who has left their teachings behind.

************************************************** Date: Thu, 20 Jul 1995 17:39:24 -0400 From: (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: Subject: Sur Sudha

Cross-posted from SCN:

In article <3u24kr$>, greenspan@UMDSP.UMD.EDU wrote:
> Does anyone know if the Nepali musical group Sur Sudha
>will be performing in or near Washington, DC or Baltimore,
>and if so, when? I've been in Boulder
>for a meeting and saw a notice at Narayan's Nepal Restaurant
>saying that they will perform in Boulder on July 15, but now
>I'm back home in Maryland. I had a tape of their music that
>I enjoyed very much, and I would like to hear them live if possible.
>I apologize if the information has been posted here recently.
>Since I've been out of town, I haven't been reading SCN.
> Also, does anyone know of a restaraunt that serves Nepali
>food in Washington or Baltimore?
> Thanks very much.
> Marian G.
         Sounds like the Sur Sudha group has no intention of visiting the Pacific North-West. I too have a tape of Sur Sudha, taped from a CD. Does any one know if Sur Sudha on CD can be purchased in the US? I haven't been able to get one from Nepal either.

Another good Nepali music CD is titled "Deepa" played by Gurung (? forgot his name) in flute accompanied by Nepali and Japanese drums and other instruments. The collection of music on CD is really good. However, I haven't seen any in the US, and haven't been able to get one from Nepal. A friend of mine got it from Japan, and again I taped it ;-). The CD was made in Japan, consequently quite expensive (about $25.00).

Does any one know about other Nepali music CD titles [other than Fetival (sic) Music of Newars] and where they can be purchased? I'd appreciate the info.


***************************************************************** Date: Thu, 20 Jul 1995 17:40:19 -0400 From: (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: Subject: Nepal's incentives to foreign investors may fail

KATHMANDU, July 14 (Reuter) - The Nepali communist government's fresh incentives to lure foreign investors to the Himalayan kingdom could fail as political uncertainty checks the flow of foreign capital, analysts said.
         ``Investors will study the impact of policies, their continuity, stability of the government and labour laws before they put their money in,'' said Banwari Lal Mittal, a businessman and industry analyst, on Thursday.
         Nepal's King Birendra in June ordered mid-term general elections -- the nation's third vote in five years -- to be held in November after dissolving its parliament.
         Mittal said investors will seek a guarantee for the security of their capital. ``Investors may wait until the elections are over before they actually bring in their money,'' he told Reuters.
         Finance Minister Bharat Mohan Adhikary on Tuesday presented a fresh set of incentives for foreign investment while announcing Nepal's annual budget.
         He said the governement was working towards easing current restrictions on foreign investment, welcoming small investors and cutting the rates of corporate and personal income tax.
         ``The personal income tax rate is the lowest in the entire SAARC region,'' Adhikary said, referring to the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation, a regional body that comprises India, Bangladesh, Srilanka, Nepal, Bhutan, the Maldives and Pakistan.
         The finance minister said the communists would guarantee foreign investors 100 percent repatriation of income and capital.
         Foreign aid currently accounts for 36 percent of Nepal's 52.89 billion rupee ($1.06 billion) budget, but Adhikary stressed: ``This is not an age of aid but of trade.''
         ``The phase of soft loans is now over -- Nepal now needs investments,'' he said.
         A Finance Minstry official said the Asian Development Bank did not approve of the kingdom's arbitration laws, saying they run counter to foreign investors' interests.
         ``I think these laws have to be changed,'' Adhikary said.
         Nepal adopted a market economy in 1992, soon after its populous neighbour India began a radical economic reforms programme.
         Liberalisation in the kingdom, one of the world's 10 poorest nations, followed its first democratic multi-party elections in 1991, in which the Nepali Congress party swept to power.

***************************************************************** Date: Thu, 20 Jul 1995 17:40:53 -0400 To: Subject: news
                                                                                 HEADLINE: 97 parties registered to compete mid-poll in nepal DATELINE: kathmandu, july 14; ITEM NO: 0714049

   a total of 97 political parties, many of them newly born, have registered with the election commission (ec) before the deadline to apply for registration on thursday afternoon. the number this year increased 28 from 69 parties applying for registration with the commission to contest the elections to the 205-seat house of representatives last year. some 30 parties thursday and 13 wednesday had submitted their party statutes and applications to the ec, whose recognition is a must for any party to be eligible to contest the parliamentary elections, slated to be held on november 23. chief election commissioner bishnu pretap shah said the ec would soon scrutinize the parties and announce which parties are nationally recognized. "it will take us a few days before the commission awards status to the parties," he added. five out of 69 parties seeking the commission's recognition were identified as national parties last year. these parties are the nepali congress (nc), the communist party of nepal (uml), the rastriya prajatantra party (rpp), the united people's front of
 nepal and the nepal sadhbhavana (goodwill) party.

******************************************** To: Subject: news From: (Pratyoush R. Onta)

HEADLINE: bus collision in eastern nepal

DATELINE: kathmandu, july 16; ITEM NO: 0716046

   a bus full of passengers collided with a truck coming from the opposite on friday, killing the truck driver and his assistant on the spot, report reaching here today said. the accident occurred on a highway bridge in the eastern district of saptari, according to the home ministry. the driver and his assistant of the bus, which headed from kathmandu to the eastern city of kakarvitta, were seriously injured during the collision, the ministry said. eight passengers in the bus have sustained minor injuries.

HEADLINE: more people die of gastroenteritis in nepal

DATELINE: kathmandu, july 16; ITEM NO: 0716048

   more than 100 people have died of gastroenteritis in western nepal since the epidemic began to spread in various parts of the country last week, according to the health ministry. the disease has killed 25 lives in villages of the far-western district of doti in the last three weeks, the ministry said. in neighboring district of achham, earlier report said that 75 people had died of gastroenteritis. teams of health workers from district health offices and local health posts have already reached the affected areas with necessary medicines for containing the epidemic, the ministry said. gastroenteritis was attributed to the use of unclean water and lack of medical services.

HEADLINE: Nepali women kept as slaves, prostitutes in India: report


   Indian and Nepali government officials have contributed to a burgeoning traffic in Nepali women who are forced into prostitution and slavery in India, according to a report released Sunday.

   In its 90-page report "Rape for Profit," Human Rights Watch/Asia charges that women and girls from remote hill villages and poor border communities in Nepal are lured by recruiters promising jobs or husbands.

But the agents sell the women to brokers, who in turn deliver them to brothel owners in India. Their purchase price, with interest, becomes the debt that the women must work to repay.

   The women are "held in debt bondage for years at a time, ... raped and subjected to severe beatings, exposure to AIDS, and arbitrary imprisonment," Human Rights Watch said.

   "These abuses are not only violations of internationally recognized human rights but are specifically prohibited under the domestic laws of both countries," it said.

   The group called for delegates at the Fourth UN Conference on Women in September to pledge improved cooperation in stemming the traffic in women and girls and in cracking down on those who profit from it.

   "The willingness of Indian and Nepali government officials to tolerate and, in some cases, participate in the burgeoning flesh trade exacerbates abuse."

   "Many of the girls and women are brought to India as virgins; many returns to Nepal with the HIV virus," it said.

Human rights groups in Nepal have identified traffickers and reported extensively on the traffic in women to Indian brothels, the human rights group said, but that has resulted in few arrests and fewer prosecutions.

   Nepali women and girls comprise up to half an estimated 100,000 prostitutes in Bombay, many of whom are believed to be infected with the AIDS virus, the report said, citing non-governmental organizations.

   Police and local officials in India patronize brothels and protect their owners as well as traffickers, while brothel owners pay protection money and bribes to police to prevent raids and bail out underaged girls, it said.

   "Police who frequent brothels as clients sometimes seek out underaged girls and return later to arrest them" as a way of extorting larger bribes, the report said.

   "Girls and women who complain to police about rape or abduction, or those who are arrested in raids for vagrancy, are held in 'protective custody' -- a form of detention. Corrupt authorities reportedly allow brothel owners to buy back detainees," it said.

The group also interviewed brothel owners, doctors, lawyers, activists, social workers, government officials, police officers, and non-governmental organizations working on the traffic in women and AIDS.

************************************************************ Date: Thu, 20 Jul 1995 17:43:08 -0400 To: Subject: UC Berkeley - India/Nepal Cultural Introduction From: (Jason Wurtzel)

Namaste. I have been asked to post this announcement for any interested parties:

On Saturday, August 5, an "India Nepal ACTION" program will be held at UC Berkeley. This event is sponsored by: The Center for South Asian Studies - UC Berkeley, SISSA (School for Independent Study of South Asia), Joint Assistance Center, Top Guide Trekking & Tours

This program is meant to provide an introduction to various cultural topics with regard to Nepal & India. The program schedule runs from 9:30 to 4:30 and is as follows:

9:30 - 10:00am Morning Ritual 10:00 - 11:00am Hindu & Buddhist Culture 11:00 - 12:00am Culture Do's & Don'ts 12:00 - 12:30pm Traveler's Tales 12:30 - 1:00pm Lunch (Indian & Nepali Food) 1:00 - 1:30pm Hindi Movie Clips 1:30 - 2:30pm Living, Working & Traveling 2:30 - 2:45pm Tea Break 2:45 - 3:00pm Gestures in Culture 3:00 - 4:00pm Slide Show - India / Nepal 4:00 - 4:30pm Question & Answer Period

This event will be held at Berkeley - exact location is to be announced.

Registration is $35 by July 21st, $40 after.

For more information, or to register, please contact SISSA at (510)835-6156

Payments may be set to SISSA at 2007 Rose Street, Berkeley, CA 94709

(Checks should be made payable to SISSA)

*************************************************************** Date: Thu, 20 Jul 1995 17:43:43 -0400 To: Subject: Governments and markets - invitation From: (cgtd research)

An invitation to participate in a thoughtful, constructive discussion regarding economic governmental intervention


Keywords * Political Economy, National Trade Policies, Economic Growth & Decline, Global Economy, nationalism, public policy, social factors and economy , free economy

Excessive Political maneuvering and intervention in otherwise self-sustaining economic systems remains one of the most significant obstacles blocking economic growth and natural societal evolution.

The gap between politically free, liberated economies and politically obsessed prisoner economies, as defined by varying degrees of political interference, is as wide as pacific ocean.

Today, disputes and debates within countries over state- society relations concerning the economy spill over into the international arena and into national policies toward a more open global economy. Within most nations with emerging market economies, mature markets and semi-dormant economies, the ongoing debate over how best to relate to the ever evolving global economy is causing exciting disputes.

Now, more than ever, nations are striving hard to reach a comfortable equilibrium between interference and absolute laissez faire.

The debate includes:

open borders, free trade, formation of trading blocs, regional geo-economic blocs, export oriented industrialization, IMF and World Bank's economists push for extensive privatization and expenditure cuts, small scale enterprise in open economy, open or closed door policy toward services, who should invest where, foreign investment vs. blanket nationalism, nationalistic fundamentalism, religious fanaticism, political liberties, individual freedom to conduct business, etc..

While in the 1990s most developed economies quietly drift toward post-industrial societies, industrialization and the gravitation to the global-marketplace, industrialization and markets are spreading around the globe placing severe stress on the political processes of nations pushing for reforms and foreign investments at the same time they are also struggling to keep oppressive political systems alive to control the public. The public however , today enjoys more political and economic freedom, born of market liberalization and industrialization and to some extent wider spread of information net, resist the oppressive laws and systems which want full control over the market and their political and economic freedom.

Many governments still take it for granted that foreign investment can corrupt the people, however the truth remains that they are unable to manage the faster pace of growth created by massive investment and consequently control the people. It is also notable that foreign investment does work as a driving force to motivate the otherwise dormant domestic investors. Governments use a wide variety of hidden tactics to
"domesticate" the "corruptive" effects of entrepreneurial spirit and non-political foreign capital investment.
  Among them are the following; nationalism, religion, caste, ethnicity, invisible tactics, old-values, fear of the unknown and Western culture, and decrepit ideologies

Center for Global Trade Development [CGTD] -- an unaffiliated and independent organization -- monitors all countries and geo-economic areas.

CGTD invites your views on the role of governments: on how governments should behave relative to business and the market economy, on the role of political parties and political machine in democratizing and freeing the economic system from political clutches, on the shift in political processes and how said shifts determine the market economy: on the deliberate disguise of populist movements to control burgeoning markets, etc..

Governments, laws and policies are devices formed by human beings seeking to solve socio-economic problems...but are these devices turning against their human creators ? Should the veil of religion, the invocation of God to explain events, anti-human laws, anti-business policies, and ideological dreamers with forceful but stagnant thought processes, be separated from economic system and market ?

Markets are social institutions. Political machines can either crush markets through authoritarian rule that places duct- tape over each mouth or the same political machine can free the market and society to breathe on its own and to let people make it work. Free-markets are said to be self-perpetuating mechanisms guided and sustained by independent entrepreneurs. In this context, can you write about a specific country you know well. If yes, do it now. We will put your opinion across to the related people.

Please feel free to write on above issues modeling specific countries or geo-economic areas.

All participants sending original views will be entitled to a free printed copy of a report soon to be published on these topics. If you have a paper please send us a brief of it preferably by e-mail, which we'll try to include in the publication to be circulated widely and worldwide.

Please send your reply mail to

Thanks and best regards CGTD Research

PS: If you have a book-size papers to be considered for publication , kindly send a very brief summary/synopsis to

************************************************************ Date: Thu, 20 Jul 1995 23:23:33 -0500 To: From: (Padam Sharma) Subject: Stories on Nepali prostitutes in Bombay...

Courtesy: The India Digest...
#4 Bombay brothels enslave 50,000 Nepali girls - Report

    By Sonali Verma
     NEW DELHI, July 17 (Reuter) - As many as 50,000 young Nepali girls are enslaved in Bombay brothels, most working to repay the price their families were paid for them, according to a U.S.-based human rights group.
     Thousands of young Nepali girls are brought every year across the 500-mile (800-km) open border India and Nepal share, by greasing palms of officials on either side, Human Rights Watch Asia said in a report titled
"Rape For Profit."
     The report said many, lured from remote, impoverished village homes with promises of marriage or jobs, are sold for 200 Nepali rupees ($4) to brokers who deliver them to Indian brothels where they are beaten, raped and tortured.
     "If I had known what was to happen to me, I would have killed myself halfway," it quotes 16-year-old Tara as saying. "My purity was violated, so I thought, why go back, go back to what?
     "When they brought me here, I kept wondering what kind of work was going on. Men would go and come through these curtained entrances. People on the street would be calling out, two rupees, two rupees (six cents). In two days, I knew everything. I cried."
     "In India's red-light ares, the demand for Nepali girls, especially virgins with fair, 'golden' skin and Mongolian features, continues to increase," the report says.
     "The Nepalis also suffer from a reputation of sexual compliance among both Indian sex workers and customers, who say they engage in higher-risk sexual acts than their Indian counterparts, who may have more control over the terms of contact."
     In 1991, the average age of new recruits from Nepal, among the world's 10 poorest countries, was 10, compared to 16 in the 1980s, the New York group said in the July 16 report.
     Brothel owners pay 15,000 to 40,000 rupees ($500 to $1,330) for newcomers, then imprison, beat and rape them to weaken them physically and psychologically, the report said.
     "I am not living even now, so how does it matter if I die," a young Nepali prostitute was quoted as saying. She was infected with HIV, the virus which can lead to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrom (AIDS), for which there is no known cure.
     The report accuses Indian and Nepali police of colluding with brokers in trapping and sending women through a vast trafficking network, and allowing brothels to flourish despite laws forbidding prostitution, in exchange for hefty bribes.
     It quoted Nepali officials as saying poorly-paid policemen were not trained to identify traffickers among the estimated 100,000 people who cross the border without visas every day.
     "Because many of the girls contract AIDS sooner or later, there is a growing demand for 'fresh meat' and traffickers have begun looking for Nepali girls of all castes and localities," the report said.
     The women, many illiterate, uneducated and very young, were powerless to negotiate to protect themselves from HIV infection. It said 20 percent of Bombay's 100,000 prostitutes were under 18. At least half of them are suspected to be infected with HIV.
     "Customers are falling off these days. Those men who want to live stay away," it quoted a brothel owner as saying.

#16 India-Nepal Prostitution

 Associated Press Writer
   NEW DELHI, India (AP) -- About half of Bombay's 100,000 prostitutes are young women bought in Nepal and then raped, beaten and held in brothels as virtual slaves, a New York-based human rights group said Monday.
   Human Rights Watch blamed the governments of Nepal and India for permitting the traffic in Nepali women, sought by brothels in Bombay because of their light skin.
   "Many of the victims are young women from remote hill villages and poor border communities of Nepal who are lured from their villages by local recruiters, relatives or neighbors promising jobs or marriage, and sold to brokers who deliver them to brothel owners in India," the Human Rights Watch said in a report titled "Rape for Profit."
   Nepal seldom arrests traffickers and Indian policemen and other officials often patronize the brothels and protect their owners, it said.
   "The willingness of Indian and Nepali government officials to tolerate, and, in some cases, participate in the burgeoning flesh trade exacerbates abuse," the report said.
   The report said 20 percent of prostitutes in Bombay, India's financial capital, are under 18, and at least half may be infected with the HIV virus that causes AIDS.
   "Many of the girls and women are brought to India as virgins; many return to Nepal with the HIV virus," the report said.
   The report was based on interviews with Nepali women working in brothels, brothel owners, local doctors, activists and lawyers in India.

*********************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 08:59:47 -0400 To: Forwarded by: Rajesh Shrestha <> Subject: longest surname among Nepalee citizens. From: (GP)

I am trying to make a format with boxes for first and middle name and for the surname (THAR) separately. I have limited space, A6 size paper, every column has 3.5mm width. There are total 26 columns. i am allocating 14 for the given name+middle name and 12 for the surname. I have found "Bajracharya" as the longest surname, so far, from my association. So, any of know the surname longer than 12 character, I would be greatly indebted to you. It is because the person having longer than 12 character in the surname will be disappointed if such name exist, if it does not exist then what is the upper limit in Nepalee surnames. As far as the first name is concerned I can accomodate them by putting lot initial even if the the name is from Royal family, i.e. Sri Panch Maharaja Dhiraj Birendra Bir Bikram to SPMDBBB Shaha Dev. But, my intention is put full surname in the appropriate column.

Some of the surnames,

Pokharel 8 characters Pradhanang 11 Shah 4 Tuladhar 8 Thapa Magar 10+1 Kunga 5 Sherpa 6 Gurung 6 yadav 5 Thakur 6 Bajracharya 12 Karmacharya 12 Chitrakar 10 Sherchan 9 Joharchan 10 Dhakal 6 Shapkota 8 Dhital 6 Koirala 7 Adhikari 8 etc...............please mention if longer than 12 character.

********************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:00:36 -0400 To: Subject: Nepal's geotechnical professionals From: (GP)

To: Nepalee Geotechnical Professionals ,

working on

1. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering 2. Engineering geology 3. Soil engineering/science/technology 4. Mining Engineering 5. Rock Mechanics/Engineering 6. Ice Technology/ Glacilogy related to civil engineering aspects. 7. Geotechnical Engineering and its several other branches.

 are requested to send their details of publications (publication list) on referred (learned) journals and international referred conferences, to Nepal Geotechnical Society, G. P. O. Box -4058, Kathmandu, Nepal. All the correspondence shall be addressed to the Secretary General. The society is aiming to publish the list of publications made by Nepali geotechincal professionals residing in Nepal and abroad. NGS further aims to publish the abstract of the Masters thesis and Ph.D. (or equivalent) works by the Members of the NGS in near future. (Like Geotechnique, proceedings of the British Geotechnical Society, also publishes abstract of the Ph.D. thesis in geotechnical field completed in Britain ). The society hopes to get success as the time passes. It has right now more than dozen individual members and fellows. The society is still suffering from financial problems and hopes to get rid of as the time passes AND expects the number of members to go up geometrically and sponsership by several geotechnical industries/consultants/laboratories. It also aims to conduct yearly national level conference in geotehcnial field and workshops/ forums to boost the professional ability of geotechnical professionals in Nepal. If any of you geotehcnial professional are going to to Nepal for short time visit or after your studies let the NGS know, it will try to arrange small meeting venue and you can present your current work and research achievement and it will help the Nepalee G. P. living in Nepal who rarely get access to the international and current research / construction activities going on. . May be you can sell your output of the research in Nepalee geotehcnial market. And get to know with Nepal residing geotechicnal professionals.

Your support is expected and highly appreciated. Good Luck and very many thanks.
(More later.)

Faithfully yours, Gyaneswor Member /NGS

********************************************************************* Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:03:37 -0400 To: Subject: News from Nepal From: (Sunil Shakya)

Headline: Khimti I hydropower project on track Source : The Independent, July 5, 1995

An accord reached in Manila 16 June 1995 placed the Khimti I Hydropower Project, owned by Himal Power Limited (HPL), back on track. At the meetings hosted by the Asian Development Bank, and its sponsors were able to agree with both His Majesty's Government of Nepal (HMG) and the Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) on new terms and tariffs.

        The project has thus been given the injecton of confidence that was required for it to move forward. The climate during the negotiations was at times tense. As both sides had gone to Manila with determination and the hope of a successful outcome, the talks continued until agreement was reached. The result of the accord is considered beneficial, not only to the parties involved but also to the country and NEA's consumers. As the result has been considered satisfactory by both sides, it is indicative that site activities will be resumed in the not-too-distant future enabling electricity to be supplied to NEA's National Electricity Grid before end 1999.

        Himal Power Limited is a Nepali company registered in 1993. The sponsors of the project are Statkraft SF, ABB energy and Kvaaerner Energy, all Norwegian companies, with Butwal Power Compnay Ltd. representing Nepal's interests.

        The project is part of Nepal's private sector development policy and is, at present, one of the most developed hydropower projects in Nepal in the small to medium range. After the new accord signed in Manila last week, HPL will work with the financing parties, Asian Development Bank, the International Finance Corporation (the World Bank's private sector wing), NORAD/Norwegian Export Finance, NEA and HMG toward completing all necessary documentation in the shortest possible time - a target of October 1995 was set.

        The project is to be financed with loans totalling approximately
$100 million from the Asian Developmetn Bank, International Finance Corporation and NORAD/Norwegian Export Finance. NORAD, the Norwegian Aid Agency, has played a vital role in closing the gap in order to finance the project in an affordable way.

Project details

        The 60 MW Khimti, is a run-of-river hydropower project on the Khimti Khola. It is located about 100 kilometers east of Kathmandu, in the middle hills of Nepal, being built along the border of Dolakha and Ramechhap districts in Janakpur zone. The headworks site is located at the confluence of Palati Khola and Khimti Khola, and the powerhouse at Kirne Besi, Dolakha. In addition, five adits (tunnel access points) are required to construct the project. The major portion of the construction activities lie in Dolakha District.

Environmetal aspects

        Environmental impact studies have indicated no serious negative impacts, but have recommended certain measures to mitigate some of the impacts of the project. The purpose of this plan is to specify the impacts in detail, how they are to be mitigated, the responsibilities of the various parties, and how the impacts may be monitored.

        A plan has been prepared HPL, the project owner. The contents specify the measures, which are applicable to all parties involved in the project. It is part of the documentation prepared to meet the requirements of the international lenders, and is incorporated as part of the project licence issued by HMG.

        In association with the main project, there are two related activities:

        Nayapul Kirne Road (access to the powerhouse area). This is esential for project construction, but is being built by HMGN as part of their district roading network. The road had been started prior to project inception, but was delayed. HMGN then undertook to complete it.

        Grid connection (132 kv transmission line). The connection of the project to the national grid is NEA's responsibility as the onwner of the national electricity grid. They are carrying out the necessary investigations to minimise the environmental impact of the grid connection.

The cost factor

        The understanding reached in 1993 allowing for regular increases in the tariff tied to American dollar inflation (normally less than Nepal's inflation), mentioned a figure which would be 5.5 cents. The at-site price paid by NEA does not include any of the costs which may be incurred by them to get the electricity into the national grid. The NEA currently buys electricity from Butwal Power Corporation at very low rates indeed. On completion, the Khimti project may be staffed by 60 trained Nepalis and four expatriates. The Andhikhola and Jhimruk projects have no expatriates at all among their personnel._

************************************************************ Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:03:55 -0400 To: Subject: News from Nepal From: (Sunil Shakya)

Source: The Independent, July 5. '95.
"The Supreme Court has no alternative to ordering another poll"- Madhav Kuman Nepal

Deputy Prime Minister and CPN-UML General Secretary Madhav Kumar Nepal is now the most powerful man in the party and government. A former bank employee, Nepal has been handling the portfolios of Foreign Affairs and Defence Ministries since his party formed a minority government last December. Considered the de facto prime minister in some political quarters, he has steered party and government affairs, rendering septuagenarian PM Adhikari virtually powerless. He is considered a most fortunate man, since he does not have a constituency, yet is an upper house member. After the dissolution of the house of representatives and announcement of another mid-term poll, Nepal is now busy deputing his party workers for election campaigning in the districts. He talked to Achyut Wagle of The Indepnedent at the CPN-UML party office July 1 about recent political developments and party infightings. Excerpts:

Q. After coming to power, the communists seem to be trying to give the impression that the CPN-UML is extremely pro-palace.

A. Our policy toward the monarchy is clear because we are committed to working under the constitution.

Q. But your party policy is different. The fifth (latest) national conference has passed a resolution that the party's ultimate goal would be the establishment of a republican communist state with a classless society, but you are now praising the monarchy. How can you establish a republic under a monarchy? Does it not sound like a strategy to fool the people?

A. There can be two sorts of republics - real and practical. We believe in a practical one. If we can reduce the gap between the haves and have-nots that may be a step toward establishing a classless society by eliminating feudal exploitation. Right from the drafting of the constitution we were involved. Therefore there should not be any confusion regarding our vision of the monarchy.

Q. Contrary to your statement, your Deputy General Secretary Bamdev Gautam has challenged the monarchy and other non-communist formations, expressing a desire to bury them all in the same grave, terming them all
"reactionaries" and threatening armed struggle.

A. I asked him if he had said anything regarding the monarchy and he said, "No." There is nothing on record as claimed by the media. Regarding other political parties, we believe they are not functioning democratically and he has challenged them inthe battle of the ballot. We are confident that we may defeat all pseudo-democrats in the elections, and may be equivalent to digging their grave. As far as armed struggle is concerned, we are ready to battle to safeguard the country's democracy.

Q. Instead of safeguarding communist ideology you are talking about democracy these days.

A. If the country has a democratic future, it can only be guarnateed by us. All other parties are wearing lions's skins of democracy but working against it. The motto of any political system should be to work for the people and think a democratic system may also translate communists' dreams into reality.

Q. You claimed that your party may win the elections, but what have you deliverd the people to attract them to your side?

A. In the last six months in power we built up confidence in the people. We demonstrated that our party and leaders have the capacity to lead the country toward brighter futures and mobilise the idle villages' workforce by encouraging the participation of the people in develooment projects. The "build your village yourself" program has set a new developement trend in the villages which has had a good impact on people. We have made the people realise they should develop their villages instead of being dependent on the centre. Other important achievements include programs to settle the homeless, resolve citizenship problems and a great deal of work on land reform. We have controlled corruption and made our stance clear in the diplomatic arena. We have strengthened relations with neighboring countries in particular.

Q. All your moves are confronted by serious problems. You are distributing land ownership certificates to the homeless but there is no land available for them. You are also encouraging people to encroach on the forest. Are these achievements?

A. I have already directed the commission that, before distributing land, the deforestation and social impacts aspects should be assessed. I understand there were some problems earlier but now there are none. The homeless are now trying to settle on the land they have been provided.

Q. While in the opposition, your party protested against the Tanakpur accord but now your government is talking about inviting India foar the Mahakali Basin project.

A. All the wrongs were committed by the Congress government. The Pancheshwor project was agreed on by the Koirala government. We just followerd it up according to the understanding. We have slso said that all the undrestandings related to this project should be brought into a treaty format so that we can talk about is stauts. Different provisions are in different papers, and thus difficult to deal with.

Q. Your most populist BYVY program is also in trouble due to your party's infighting. Local Development Minister C. P. Mainali has been critical about the cabinet decision to dissolve the BYVY follow-up committee constituted by him.

A. The cabinet did not feel a necessity for the commitee since existing governmental agencies can do it. It was also felt that unnecessary expenses should be avoided. In countries with parliamentary system, ministers cannot change cabinet decisions or be critical of them on moral grounds. Even those who take a stand on moral values should not go on criticising decision in which they were involved.

Q. But he has already done it.

A. Our prime minister must have taken his statements into account.

Q. Regarding the continuation of business in the national assembly, the government and oppositions seem at loggerheads. Don't you think the upper house should be allowed to function?

A. It is ridiculous that the majority of national assembly members are forcing the caretaker government to be accountable to that House, though undre Article 35(2) of the constitution, we can recommend its being prorogued. Being extremely flexible, we are not doing so. They are creating an issue where there is none. A caretaker government can't present a budget in the House. It must come by an ordinance. That is also a precedent set by the Congress.

Q. It seems, the country has been polarised politically into communist and anti-communist formations. That must cause you some insecurity.

A. We had expeced it. I believe this polarisation will help the people identify the political forces really working for them. All the parties against us are intimidated by our popularity and lack the courage to face us. I have laready said that their veil of democracy will soon be lifted by time, and they will be nowhere. Now the real battle has started between the forces really working for he country and the high-sounding betrayers of democrary.

Q. On the one hand you are talking about holding free and fair elections and on the other you have assigned concerned ministers work for your party's election campaign. The election commission has also issued an order to stop some of the activities you are carrying out. How can the polls be fair if you continue with your populist posture, and set the budget accordingly?

A. I assure you that it will be conducted fairly. As far as our ministers' involvement in party committees is concerned, being party workers, they have obligations to the party too. But we know how to function, not being immoral like the Congress. In the budget, we will not propose programs on which questions may be raised. Besides, we are confident that, by all fair means, we will get a majority to form a permanent government after the November polls.

Q. You were critical of the congress when you were in the opposition. Now your are treading the self-same paths, saying this was also done by the congress. Your are not trying to correct the ministers. lt is as if two wrongs make a right.

A. We have to follow what they have done politically. Except for corruption and nepotism, there is no alternative. If there is wrondoing it is their, not ours.

Q. Your PM recommended dissolution of the House of Representatives. If a minority PM recommends dissolution, the constitutional provision for tabling a no-confience motion (59(2))and summoning a special session of the House (53(3)) will be void. Do you think in your heart that the dissolution was constitutional ?

A. It was the oppositions's desire to go to mid-term polls not ours. Regarding different Articles of the constittuion, it is for the supreme court to interpret them. Its interpretations are acceptable to us.

Q. What do you expect the court's verdict to be?

A. I am confident that the honorable supreme court judges will not give a verdict disgracing themselves. Due to their longstanding background they may not drag themsleves into controversies by giving a verdict against last year's precedent.

Q. That sounds like a threat.

A. It is not, but they have no alternative to ordering the political parties to go to the polls.

****************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:07:00 -0400 To: Subject: Nepal's communist premier dismissed minister From: Amrit R Pant <arp>

KATHMANDU, July 15 (Reuter) - Nepal's prime minister has dismissed a dissident cabinet colleague, exposing a rift in the Himalayan kingdom's ruling communist group before crucial polls, officials said on Saturday.
         They quoted a Royal Palace communique issued late on Friday as saying Man Mohan Adhikary had sacked Chandra Prakash Mainali from his post as minister for local development and supplies.
         A spokesman for the ruling Unified Marxist Leninist (UML) Party told Reuters that Mainali, who represents a minority faction in the group, had frequently criticised decisions made by Adhikary's cabinet.
         The prime minister had earlier dissolved a committee formed by Mainali's ministry to promote the UML's 'Build Your Own Village Yourself' programme.
         Mainali reacted to the move during an interview with a local magazine, saying: ``Dissolving the committee would impede the success of the programme in my ministry. That would bring about the failure of the government.''
         He was not available for comment on Saturday, but officials close to Adhikary said he had apparently declined a less important portfolio.
         Last month, Adhikary's minority government, facing likely defeat in parliament in a no-confidence vote, asked King Birendra to dissolve parliament and order general elections in November.
         The polls will be the third in less than five years.

*************************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:09:48 -0400 To: Subject: slc trend!!! From: (Pradip Baniya)

I read in some nepali weekly that this year's SLC result was published. But to my great surprise.. UML govt. has broke some 69 years long trend of publishing the top 10 students by not publishing board students. May be the increasing amount of publicity given to the schools which secure more no of positions in board and the race between the schools to "buy" the brilliant students, trying to obtain question papers before exam and even tracking who is responsible for correcting the question papers.. etc, might have led the UML govt to come to this decision. But it certainly nips the competitive feelings amongst the students. just my thought... pradip... --

******************************************************************************* Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:10:19 -0400 To: Subject: Caste and Hinduism: Where do we start? From: (Rajiv Varma)

[Cross-posted to all India and Hindu related ngs, where caste has been discussed in the past, or presently being discussed, or being mentioned as a part of a debate under another subject.]


Caste in modern times has been a potent weapon in the hands of enemies of Hinduism, both external and from within. Hindus readily go on the defensive whenever, the word 'Caste' is uttered by the combine of Macaulite perverts-Nehruvian secularists-Islamic Jihadists-Marxist debauchers-Christian missionaries and their surrogates. Unfortunately, till date there has been lacking a Hindu perspective on this issue. What is needed is a Hindu School of Thought on this issue (among many others), which can put the whole issue in proper perspective, so that the stifled Hindu society can move on into the future. Even more importantly, proper justice to our Hindu brethern who have been denied opportunities over the centuries of mlechha (alien) political domination, can be awarded only when a proper Hindu perspective on this issue is developed. In its absence, power-hungry politicians have caught the Hindu society off-gaurd and have put it into a quagmire of politics of casteism, politics of subtraction and politics of division. This is a minimum and the foremost requirement for laying the foundation of a resurgent Hindu society. Also, such perspective should form the basis of a viable policy and program for the Antyodaya (self-upliftment) of the Dalits.

There have been many white lies perpetrated by Hindu-baiters over caste. Fortunately for the Hindu society, the foremost leader coming out of the ranks of SCs in modern times, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar never fell for these blatant lies. [He seemed to have gone wrong on an entirely different issue, viz. Hinduism and Buddhism. But as is found now, his misconceptions about relationship between Hinduism and Buddhism arose from the same set of factors, i.e. concocted theories by the Hindu-baiters, which rather fell in the complex shades of gray.]

Let's start this complex issue with Babasaheb's views on caste.

[Dr. Ambedkar's views do not necessarily reflect those of this poster. But are listed here only due to his stature as a great thinker.]

Dr. Ambedkar on the Conspiracy Theory of Caste:

First of all, Dr. Ambedkar rejected the conspiracy theory of caste, i.e. the notion that the caste system was cunningly and malaciously imposed on the Indian society by the machinations of the sly Brahmins. This was the view fed to Jyotirao Phule by the missionaries, and is nowadays the most popular and politically exploited belief about caste. The conspiracy theory of caste is a variation on the pop-Marxist view of religion. Hence

A little necessary digression into Marx and (esp. his Desi) followers.

Marxist view of religion as the "opium for the people" is well known. However, Karl Marx's own view on religion and that of his followers differed considerably. Marx saw religion as a genuine reflection (though a mistaken belief) of people's actual condition: without needing outside inspiration, the common people themselves would create religion as a source of consolation for their misery.

But his followers (esp. the desi variety) saw it as "opium FOR the people," a false belief system concocted by the exploiters who sat down one day, thought of a way to fool the people in submissiveness, and then improvised the Bible, or the Veda, etc., which they fed to these unbelievably gullibale masses. In this view, sly exploiters could make the millions accept a religion which they had hitherto not known or needed, and similarly, the sly Brahmins (esp. the law-giver Manu) could make the millions adopt a rigorous and all-encompassing system of practices which they had not known nor needed and which moreover meant against their own interests.


In his paper "Caste in India", Ambedkar wrote:

        "One thing I want impress upon you is that Manu did not give the
        law of caste and that he could not do so. Caste existed long
        before Manu. He was a upholder of it and therefore philosophized
        about it, but certainly he did not and could not ordain the
        present order of Hindu society .... The spread and growth of the
        Caste system is too gigantic a task to be achieved by the power or
        cunning of an individual or of a class. .... Similar in argument
        is the theory that the Brahmins created the Caste. After what I
        said regarding Manu, I need hardly say anything more, except to
        point out that it is incorrect in thought and malicious in intent.
        The Brahmins may have been guilty of many things, and I dare say
        they were, but the imposing of the caste system on the non-Brahmin
        population was beyond their mettle."

[Source: Dr. Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, Vol I, p. 16]

Thus, both Manu, as an individual, and Brahmins as a class stand exonerated by the greatest thinker coming out of the ranks of SCs himself, for their supposed "crime" of foisting the Caste System on the Hindu Society, as alleged by the Hindu-baiters.


I am not sure where this debate would lead us. But I thought first it was necessary to "free" both Manu and Brahmins of the white lies perpetuated by the Hindu-baiters.

...... will continue to add to this from time to time.

regards, Rajiv

*************************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:11:43 -0400 To: Subject: Hindus seek worldwide laws to protect religion From: (Robert Clive)

         DURBAN, South Africa (Reuter) - Hindus from 38 countries, meeting in South Africa, said Tuesday they would ask governments to outlaw blasphemy and violations of religious rights.
         ``We resolve that a call be made to governments all over the world to pass a religious harmony bill to prevent blasphemy, conversion and other transgressions of religious rights,'' they said in a statement.
         The resolution was one of 41 adopted after a four-day World Hindu Conference which brought more than 600 Hindu saints, swamis (priests) and scholars together in South Africa for the first time.
         The resolution urging governments to secure religious rights was in the interest of world peace, one of the organizers, Rambhajun Sitaram, said.
         He said other resolutions included a call to the United Nations to look urgently at threats against Hindus' fundamental rights in such countries as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Kashmir.
         One resolution said: ``We commit ourselves to inter-religious dialog and also caution all other religious groups that Hinduism will not necessarily accept with simple magnanimity all their attacks and affronts on Hinduism. We will resist vigorously attempts at conversion.''
         Sitaram said a committee had been delegated to compile a set of core principles of Hinduism which all proponents of the religion would be recommended to follow.
         An international development trust would be established to support the Hindu way of life.

************************************************************** From: Migran Aslanian <> Subject: nepal dig To: Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 15:09:43 +0200 (MET DST)

dear Sir, I am a nepalese studient studying in Germany and would like to have your news about Nepal and the Publications. With best regards. Anil Adhikary, freiburg, Germany

Migran Aslanian, 0761/4867111 <>


*********************************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:15:39 -0400 To: Subject: Arun III/NEPAL- A Case of Anti-Social Development From: (Ken Cooke)

Arun III/NEPAL- A Case of Anti-Social Development

The World Bank, in connection with the (NEA) Nepal Electricity Authority, is planning to fund one of the most expensive hydro-electric projects ever in the economically impoverished country of Nepal. The U.S. $1.1 billion dollar project, better known as Arun III, would entail construction of a 122 kilometer access road, a dam, 2 tunnels, and 11 bridges in Nepal's Arun Valley, which is the world's last intact Himalayan forest valley.

The Valley is home to 450,000 people belonging to 24 distinct ethnic groups-- involuntary resettlement of these groups would severely jeopardize their traditional socio- cultural and economic practices. Arun Valley is also home to a number of endangered plant and animal species. Environmental impact studies have cited 14 mammal, 14 plant, 2 reptile, and 4 bird species as threatened with extinction if the mega-project is implemented.

Arun III is economically unfeasible because the sheer cost of the hydro-scheme will generate electricity which will be too expensive for the majority of Nepali citizens to afford. The project cost is equivalent to two years of Nepal's national budget, and in order for the NEA to repay its loans, it is estimated that it must raise the electricity tariff by at least 83%, with consumers footing the bill. If for any reason the NEA cannot repay its loans, the country will amass an even greater external debt, allowing the World Bank to gain control over Nepal's economic development and domestic resources.

As water is considered one of the most dependable factors in natural resources in Nepal, there is a real need for creation of small-scale, National-based schemes which will not lead the country into greater dependency and debt. According to a study undertaken by His Majesty's Government of Nepal, over 30 small scale schemes have been identified which can produce over 1,000 MW of power at half the cost as Arun III, and would utilize Nepali engineers, economists, and contractors.

Who can afford to buy Arun III power? Who will benefit from Arun III???? Considering the project is entirely foreign run, with technology, machinery, and experts coming primarily from abroad, it looks like foreign business interests, as well as the World Bank institution, will rake in a large profit if Arun III goes through. Public pressure is crucial at this time to inform the Bank that Arun III is economically, environmentally, as well as socially unsound for the country of Nepal. You can express your concerns to the World Bank by sending letters or e-mail to:

The Inspection Panel/ World Bank 1818 H Street N.W. Washington D.C. 20433


For more information contact:

INHURED INTERNATIONAL International Institute for Human Rights, Environment and Development P.O. Box 2125 Putalisadak, Kathmandu, Nepal

Tel. (0977-1) 419610 Fax. (0977-1) 412538

*********************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:16:39 -0400 To: Subject: Arun III/NEPAL- A Case of Anti-Social Development

Cross-posted from SCN:
--------------------- (Ken Cooke) writes:

> Nepal's Arun Valley, which is the world's
>last intact Himalayan forest valley.

I dont like Arun III either.But this is an example of hyperbole? There are a few other intact valleys in the Himalaya.

Why is 'the world's last'? Are there Himalayan valleys, or Himalayan forests anywhere but in the Himalaya?

>The Valley is home to 450,000 people belonging to 24
>distinct ethnic groups-- involuntary resettlement of these
>groups would severely jeopardize their traditional socio-
>cultural and economic practices.

The valley to be flooded is a narrow chasm. I doubt that anybody lives in the area to be flooded. but in any case the number of effected people will be very small, no where near 450,000 people, who live downstream from the proposed dam site.

There is enough wrong with this project that it really is not necessary to make up stuff.

>International Institute for Human Rights,
>Environment and Development
>P.O. Box 2125
>Putalisadak, Kathmandu, Nepal

>Tel. (0977-1) 419610
>Fax. (0977-1) 412538


**************************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:18:24 -0400 To: Subject: -->Culturally Mixed Marriages<-- From: (Mark T. Palmos)

Hi People,

Is it possible for "Mixed Marriages" to work?

Black-White -- Jew-Moslem -- Christian-Jew Korean-Latino -- Bosnian-Serbian -- Japanese-Italian etc...

What you think about "Mixed Marriages"? Should they be encouraged or discouraged?

I am collecting real information from people's own personal experience for a documentary on the subject. I want to hear from you especially if there were challenges and difficulties you had, and overcame, or had and could not completely overcome. Problems with things like language, parents, family and friends, food, religeon... Please E-Mail me at

I believe that "love conquers all" and that differences can enhance a relationship as much as they could be problems. My documentary will end with the conclusion that anything is possible where there is love... but it will be a much more interesting story if there is a challenge which the loving couple had to overcome!

I am still collecting my information, but if you get chosen for the documentary, you will get a couple of hundred dollars for your trouble, and of course, it will be with your permission.

Please Write!!!!! Yours Sincerely, Mark T Palmos.

********************************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:19:10 -0400 To: Subject: FYI: Hong Kong Arrests Illegal Immigrants From:



***************************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:19:54 -0400 To: Subject: News from Nepal: dhuk-dhuki kahan ra kata From:

Nepal ko Political Analysis: Rastra dhuk-dhuki kahan ra kata?

This essay is based on the package of newspapers from july 9-14 which i just finished skimming. The essay contains specific news items that are not usually covered by western wires we get to read in the internet as well as my impressions of what these may mean.

One of the surpising absences i noticed is the apparaent lack of political visibility of the big loud-mouth Girija Koirala. He was only quoted as being happy at the release of Aung Sang Kyi of Burma. He is either very busy building up party cadre or fast accelerating to political oblivion.

Ganesh Man, the man without a govt post or party post, is again in the news for his conditions of participation in politics again. They include among others:

1. That Girija and Krishna Prasad do not stand up for elections.

2. That all the old generation leaders from Girija and Bhattarai
        remove themselves from leadership positions. [hey, i thought
        girija said this in relation to ganesh man and look who
        are still fishing in muddy waters.]

3. That he will not speak publicly under the auspices of the
        Congress 4-star flag.

4. That he will speak for democracy not for Congress.

5. That those who sponsor his talks are not Congress but
        independent persons.

6. That all those Congressi rebels who were in the
        "Nepali jana jagaran" campaign of Jagannath Acharya,
        a proxy Ganesh Man iniative aimed at inciting Congressi
        activists against Girija, be readmitted to Congress with
        due respect. [It may be noted that there is a new party called
        Nepal jan jagaran party registered for elections.}

There is a lot of whining that Ganesh man is a nothing, a have-been and why his conditions still deserve so much media play but it is obvious he is still considered a power to reckon and the congress would like him back because he presence has been historical victory at the hustings and his withdrawal of support has meant congress loss. There is little confidence displayed by the cogress that tbey can win the elections without Ganesh Man.

        Instead the congress seems to jumping and prancing like a headless chicken at what they percieve is a sure victory of UML over the Congress. First, the Congress leadership is panicking that the new UML budget by decree has the vastly popular, "Build your own village yourself" program where Rs 3 laks will be disbursed to each village to spend as they wish. The congress leadership characterize this as "irresponsible populist" move that will push deficits, devaluation, and inflation. There are all kinds of futile move to counter this vote capture strategies from hoping the Supreme court will still render Adhikari's decision extra=constitutional to pleading the King to reconsider his decision and appeal for his activist role by Krishan Prasad to now the General Secretary Mahendra narayan Nidhi announcing that the
"institution of monarchy is a too costly for the country and not really working {for them, obviously".

        The insinuations of responsible people of one of the most powerful political parties against the insitutions of the monarchy when these very same parties have religiously paid lip service tothe constitutional committment to monarchy in Nepal has many political pundits wondering where the country is going. Monarchy-baiting is not limited to the frustated and bitter congress but also UML leadership. both PM Adhikary and Party Secretary Bam Dev Gautam has been caught in recent post-parliament dissolution election season mouthing sentiments such as, in effect, "UML is ultimately committed to republicanism, i.e. the removal of the king" which the pm had wiggle out because he is in the responsible position but has yet to bre refuted by the Party secretary.

        The UML leadership seems to responding to the general accusations by their opposition from both the right and the left that UML and the Palace has been too cozy lately and it is specifically the mashal, "Sanyukta Janmorcha" headed by the Baburam Bhattarai, PHD, who have been spearheading this confrontations with the UML with public strikes and postering and re-postering over UML slogans in public places as Ratna Park. Accusing political opponents of being close to the King and the Palace seems to be the politically correct thing to do. Nepal Sadabhavan party Chairman Gajendra Narayan singh, a former Congress and Panche who spear headed the cause of the "Mashesis" by publicly wearing a dhoti to Parliament and Rastra Panchayat and speaking Hindi publicly, accused his former Party secretary Hrideyesh Tripathi, a former socialist who came under the regionalist slogan of Sadbhavana and who has now deserted his party to form his party and align himself with the left forces as opposed to Sadhvana aligning himself with the congress, as "Raat ko adhyanro ma daura-suruwal lagayera chor justo durbar jaane uhi Hrideyesh hun
{Hridedyesh is the one who stealthily crept like a thief to the palace in the
"national costume" considered a breach to the "Madhesi" faith.

        All this is pointing to the clear political capital in mass support for anti-king republican sentiment by various parties from the Congress, Sadhabhavan, to UML and the Sanyukta janmorcha. It is probably due to his vulnerability that the Monarchy insist that all political prties pay their legal allegiance to the Monarchy.

        Political pundits like to characterize the current political dhuk-dhuki as the congealing of political forces into polemic Communist, read left forces, and the anti-communist rightist forces. While this was superficially so in the last formal confrontations in the Parliament, a closer look reveals others schisms and realignment of political forces.

        One interesting and potentially very signigicant political realignment is along ethnic politics of pro and anti Hindu socio politics of Nepal. Here are some of the evidences.

1. Recently in Dharan, there was a constellation of various modern categories of political pluralism such as the Human Rights Organization coalescing with ethnic, anti_Hindu label ethnic organizations such as "Tamu Tsedung, Kirant Rai Yayokkha, Kirant Yankthung Chumlung, etc[note how these organizations have abjured Sanskritzed names for organzatins such as 'samitis, sangh, samudaya, samaj']" by speakers who celebrate their ethnic surnames such as Tilak *Yongden*, or Khadga Meyanbo, under an ethnic coherance called,
"Sakeladi BhumiDevi Kirant Sanskritic Sangh" to fight against the "B.P. Memorial Health and Science Academy ' for bulldozing and defiling sacred Kiranti land, values, sentiments. The speaches were fiery. It is to be noted that the diety, "Sakeladi Bhumidevi" refers to a pre-Hindu earth-goddess and the participants came in traditional war attire bedecked in spear, bows, in specific rejections of the HIndu, "national" norm of the daura-suruwal, a dress which the multiparty leaders associated with the regimentations and the cakari of the Panche govt by deliberating wearing simple western shirt and pants immediately after the 1989 change but now are increasing wearing daura-suruwal topi with a vengeance in a iconographic message that they are with the Hindu definition of what is right and normal for the country. This meeting also witnessed political critizisms against all the modern parties from the Panche to congress, to UML and the leftist for paying lip service to the cause of Kiranti identity and politics.

2. Obviously the Kiranti accusation has deep resonance in contemporary political reality of Nepal. Among the 67[of the 97] political parties which had registered till July 13, 53 or nearly 80 % were from Brahmin or chettri castes.

3. That modern categoris of political discourse are breaking down in their ability to define and contain ethnic and culture politics is indirectly evident in another political development. The UML govt recently fired C.P. Mainali for speaking against the govt in relation to the Cabinet dismissing his special monitoring committee in his Local Development Ministry for the
"Build your own village yourself." The explanation given is that C.P. was trying to cash in the immensely popular political capital of the program to increase his weight in the UML and maybe to oust the present chief, Madhav Nepal. Nor being an insider, one wonders how much political damage CP was really doing to its electoral chances by makig sure the popular program worked that this merited his firing, specially considering how heavy he is within the party, beig a founding membner fro the Jhapali days, struggling in jail while Madhav Nepal was masquerading as secure bank employee.

When this is contrasted to the way Padma Ratan Tuladhar issue has been handled, one begins to wonder at the difference. Padma Ratna Tuladhar definetly does not have the same following among the party cadres of UML as C.P. but he has an independent cross-party appeal, beginning with his core Mankah Khala to the oppressed by the Panche people when he bravely demanded multiparty within the mono-party panche legislative body, to human rights activists and those who value dignity of the oppressed especially the new cultural politics outsde of the mankah khalah's traditonal challenge of establishmentarian Hindu values. Certainly he has caused more damage to political capital of the UML: from his insistence on his independence, despitethe ridicule fo the congress, when standing up for elections to his breaking teh sensitive work permit issue before visiting India as a labor minister (much to the chagrin of the South Block) to his threat to resign over the Sanskrit broadcast of news in Radio Nepal to the ultimate sensitive faux pas, his alleged statement supporting cowslaughtert taht the PM and the Deputy PM had to apologize and explain their variance with Tuladhar's stand.

My question is this: if UML govt so publicly disagrees with Tuladhar's culatural politics why don't they fire him when CP should be fired for just stablishing a small monitoring cell within his own ministry. I posit that UML is very aware of the strong inde[endent political capital Tuladhar caries and the negative political price they will have to pay if they send a message by firing him.

It is an uncomfortable marriage of convenience between the Marxist and ethnic politics" pretty soon the privilege paid to Hindu values over modern marxist values would tear asunder the current left politics of capitalizing on the feelings of the oppressed of Nepal. The PM is paying his obligatory respects of Nepali by attending to Bhanubhakta's anniversary and Mod Nath Prasit, the architect of cultural policies of the UML, is now defensively asserting taht Sanskrit cannot be dismissed as a dead religion.

Besides these political dhuk-dhukis, the papers have printed a phot caption of Makhmali Mali weeping over the prizes won by her retared son, RaMesh Mali; she is obviously a heart-broken woman of humble back ground, not one of those well-off who might use their afno-manche connections to wheedle n opportunity to go to States.

Christianity seems to have increaed in the Valley, says one report. There are 125 chruches with 100-2000 followers in each, a total of 35-40000 in all.

130 cows and oxen were intercepted at Palhi VDC in Nawalparasi as they were being smuggled to India for slaugther.

There is tension between the Transportation Department responsibnle for fixing traffic lights and the Police dept responsible for enforcing traffic rules. Kathmandu valley had 2000 traffic accidents in 1994, this is nearly ten times the rate ten years ago. The total road length is 941 km with 81000 vehicles plying and about 500 new drivers getting their lincence everymonth.

The interest offered by Himalayan Bank in Nepal for savings deposit is 8% a year, that is more than any mutual fund stock market in usa, the cd offer 9.5% for 2 year deposits.

Populist measures of the UML budget, would you give your votes for this?

1. Rs 100/mo social security for elders over 75 yers of age, [Nepali
        who have a life expectancy of 56, rightly regard seniours over
        77 as reaching godhood.]

2. Rs 5,00,000 for Build your Village yourself, up from Rs 3 lakhs.

3. Rs 3.5 millions for each of the 205 constituencies for upgrading
        health, drinking water and transport facilities {sure beats
        raisind money for the police bullets.}

4. Property Tax abolished.

Nepal had record rainfal in the central part. The rainfall in Pokhara was 1391 mm, highest in 23 years; naturally a number of landslides have been reported in Syangja.

Modnath Prasit increases the budget of the Sanskrit University by 33 lakhs this year.

A. K. Mainali becomes the first Ambassador to Sri Lanka, can any one tell if he is related toa the Mainalis in communist leadership?

According to Arjun narshing, Girija will take over as Acting President of the Congress Party given the current President Krishna Prasad Bhattarai "due to reasons of health".

The money earmarke for Kathmandu cleanup i the curent budget is Rs 210 million.

Budget has been allocated for a minimum of 3 ha of community afforestation in 1352 villages and 18 townships.

Compiled and written by:

Amulya Tuladhar Clark University

********************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 09:55:00 -0400 To: Subject: Solar cookers at IUFRO world congress From: (Ari Lampinen)

Here is a program (incl. Nepalese contribution) of a seminar on the potentials of solar cookers to reduce tropical deforestation.

Latest information available in WWW:


(including speech abstracts and link to conference full program)


IUFRO XX World Congress

August 6-12, 1995, Tampere, Finland

Caring for the Forest: Research in a Changing World

TEP will organize a satellite meeting in this major forest research congress
(3000 attendants expected) with a topic "Solar cookers as a means for reducing deforestation". There will be a seminar of 2 hours (on 10th of August) and cooker and cooking exhibitions (during the congress week). The congress is organized by Finnish Forest Research Institute.

SATELLITE MEETING: 10th August 1995, 19:30 - 21:30, University of Tampere, Main Building, room U 11

Solar Cookers as a Means for Reducing Deforestation

Chair: Riitta Wahlstrom, co-chair Ari Lampinen; Technology for Life and University of Jyvaskyla, Finland


   * Claus Montonen, Technology for Life and University of Helsinki, Finland:
      Using solar cookers in developing countries, different aspects
   * Anita Mahandrar, Centre for Rural Technology, Nepal: Solar cookers as a
      means to reduce deforestation in Nepal
   * Ulrich Oehler, Group ULOG, Switzerland: Solar cooking in Switzerland -
      use of cookers in Africa and India
   * Artur Marques da Costa, Portugal: Experiences of using solar energy
   * Discussion

******************************************************************** Date: Fri, 21 Jul 1995 13:56:00 -0400 From: P.K. Sharma <> To: Subject: ANA election results for immidiate release

Header: Election Results of the Association of Nepalis in Americas (ANA)

Recent election results were announced by ANA at its 13th. Annual Conference held in Denver, Colorado, during the first week of July. The newly elected officers are: Pramod Sharma, President; Shyam Karki, Vise President, Amrit Tuladhar, Secretary; Krishna Nirola, Treasurer; and Hom Nath Subedi, Chief Editor. These Executive Officers are elected for a two-year term. A summary of ANA's Denver Conference will be made available very soon through TND.

For a complete list of ANA Advisors and Executive Committee members, please contact P.K.Sharma@SFWMD.GOV Pramod Sharma, West Palm Beach, FL
-------------------------------------------------- Note to TND: This is my first contribution, please let me know if I need to improve on the format etc. Thanks, Pramod
------------------------------------- For Your record: I am Pramod K. Sharma, AICP Profession - Planner Address: 744 Whipoorwill Row W. Palm Beach, FL 33411
(407) 791-9934 Home
(407) 687-6779 Off.

**************************************************************** Date: Sat, 22 Jul 1995 11:00 EST To: From: (Oliver Seeler) Description: Help on Stupa Book

I'm in the early stages of planning the production of a book on Buddhist stupas. The concept, at this point, is to produce a book that will be of interest from a variety of perspectives - historical, religious, architectural, archeological, mythological and artistic. It will provide an informal but accurate introduction and overview of Buddhist stupas in general, and of the stupas of Nepal in particular (the latter to limit the work to manageable size and to provide a geographical focus). Extensive graphics - color photographs, technical drawings and modern and old paintings of stupas - will be the heart of the book, and will complement both modern and classical text organized to allow the reader to follow his or her particular areas of interest without distraction.
  Much as I would like to myself photograph all of the stupas that might be included, and research and write the text myself, I can't undertake a lifetime project. So this is a call for material. If you have taken photographs or have created other graphics of stupas, or have written something about stupas, I would be most interested in the possibility of including your work in this book. If you know of other material that I might be able to include, I would be grateful for your direction to it.
  What is sought includes:
  Graphic material including photographs, diagrams, drawings, paintings, maps and so on; termas, or parts of them, and other scriptural references to stupas; relevant folktales and other stories, including personal ones; accounts of historical secular and religious events involving stupas; travel, exploration and pilgrimage stories; material relating to the ornamentation of stupas; technical or more casual papers dealing with any aspects of stupas; bibliographical entries, annotated or not; and anything else you might suggest.
  Some business: Submitted material can be returned if desired, but please be aware that this project won't be finished overnight. Written material will not be edited without consultation with and approval of the author(s). Scriptural material will not be used without the approval of a therewith associated religious authority. Contributed material will be credited in the work. If applicable, copyrights of submitted material will be retained by the contributors and will be so acknowledged. Payment for material used will be at the least a copy of the published work; other payment may be possible as the project progresses, but at this time this is an individual out-of-pocket effort. Some portion of any profits will be donated to the maintenance of the stupas of Nepal.
  Some of you may recall my recent issuance of a GIF of a spectacular photograph of the Great Stupa at Bodhnath. I have now completed a digital transcription of the English translation of the terma (The Legend of the Great Stupa) associated with that stupa (with the permission of the print publishers, Dharma Publications of Berkeley). Both the GIF and the text file are available, free, on request from me.
  Thank you for your time, and I look forward to a whatever support you can offer. May this project be of benefit to all beings.
  Oliver Seeler

******************************************************************* Date: Sun, 23 Jul 1995 14:22:45 -0500 (CDT) From: Rupeshiadis Pradhanis <PRADHAN@AC.GRIN.EDU> (Rupesh Pradhan) Subject: Kathmandu Home Page To:

I would like to invite you to check my web page, Kathmandu Home Page. Though most of it still under construction, there is enough material for you to browse through and send me comments, suggestions, recommendations...

The main purpose of Kathmandu Home Page is to provide a resource base for the Nepalese economy through its Chanakya Page. Chanakya Page has very limited information at this stage, but hopefully, it will grow in the days to come. I would appreciate any help you may be able to offer in bettering Chanakya Page.

The URL for Kathmandu Home Page is:

Thanks and hppy browsing!

Regards, Rupesh

***************************************************************** Date: Mon, 24 Jul 1995 17:15:22 -0400 From: (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: Subject: Nepal VISA info needed

Cross-posted from SCN:

Information about VISA for Nepal. Us Dollars CASH still buys a visa at the airport. Be sure to have little photos of your self. One for each VISA, one for each VISA extension ( I am not sure how long they give if you buy the VIS at the airport, which usually has a shorter line than the line for the those that already have a VISA). For each trekking permit, two photos. A new permit is required for each area Annapurna, Everest and Miscellaneous (they are color coded). Annapurna region permits can be obtained in Pokhara. Central Immigration Office is located at Tri Devi Marg, across from the Himalayan Bank, just west of the Royal Palace just as you enter the Thamel area (where many low to moderate price tourist hotels and restuarants are located). They open at ten a.m. People start to line up beofre then. There is a separate line for those merely extending a VISA but not getting a TREKKING permit. It will be croweded. You MUST have the photos. Trekking fees in Spring 1995 were Nepali currency equivalent to $5 per week. If you are going to a National park or special Conversation Area(as in the Everst and Annapurna treks) there is an additional fee (payable at a different window, be patient) of about US$12 ( I think Rs. 600). Visa extensions for tourist are payable at the rate of US$1 per day in local currency (about Rs 50 or 51 to one US Dollar). Have exact change!!! They will accept (usually) US dollars cash in lieu of Nepali rupees. VISA and trekking permits submitted in the morning are generally avaialbe to be picked up that afternoon.

The lines wil be long, but enjoy yourself. I often run in to friends of mine while standing in line. Just like in Casablanca, "Everybody goes to Rick's", so it is with Immigration office. Some trekking destinations are off limits and others require that you pay special fees and go with a group and follow special rules. All parks require that you use kerosene and NOT food for cooking. There are some kerosene sales and stove rental depots set up outside of some parks andother trekking areas.

Tourist VISA is can be extended to a maximum of 5 months total stay per calendar year. I have never heard of any exception. Usually by the three or fourht month you need to provide some sort of justification. After you have beenthere a total of five months. Bye, Bye. Trekkers, remember just because the guide book says the monsoon is over in oct/Nivember doesnt mean that it can't rain hard!!!! Be careful, carry a walking stick. I tis useful to protect yourself from rabid dogs. There were at least 300 deaths last year among Nepalis due to Rabies. All modern immunizations (including Hepatitis A, brand name Havrix) are available in kathmandu (those made outside Nepal or India or more expensive). Happy trekking. Remember, she or he who finishes the trek last has seen more. Don't be in a hurry. Finish each day early enough to enjoy the sunset or find that hot springs.

************************************************************ Date: Mon, 24 Jul 1995 17:15:51 -0400 To: Subject: Nepal VISA info needed From:

Hi again, I left something off in responding to the question about Nepal VISA info. The cost of the initial visa often changes and is soemwhere in the neighborhood of $25 to 40 dollars (US) depending on how many days it is good for. Tourist Visa can be extended in Kathmandu, no problem. Jut need money and photos.

It ahs been about two years since it was necessary to show a minumum amount of money changed in order to get a TOURIST visa extension.
    This information is accurate of May 1995. I don't expect it to change soon.

Though immigration office opens at 10 am that is just to hand out forms. The acutal doors don't open for ral business until 10:15. Occasionally there is some delay due to late arriving employees. Those who have taken public transport (bus) in Kathmandu will understand.

********************************************************* Following news article is taken from The Globe and Mail ( Canadian national newspaper); july 20, 1995 ( ie, today).


 Slavery - Age of girls being lured into prostitution down, rights group says

        Thousands of Nepalese women and girls are sold into a life of prostitution in India every year and kept in conditions tantamount to slavery, a report by Human Rights Watch says.

        In India's red-light districts, there's an increasing demand for Nepali girls, especially virgins with fair skin and Mongolian features, according to the report, titled Rape for Profit : Trafficking of Girls and Nepali Women to Indian Brothels.

        Estimates put the number of Nepali girls and women now working in Indiaa brothels at about 200,000 with between 5,000 and 7,000 new Nepalis ending up in Indian brothels every year.

        Girls forced into prostitution in Bombay's brothels may stay trapped in the system for more than a decade, during which they may be sold from one brothel to another several times.

        "It is clear the percentage of Nepali girls in Indian brothels is very high, that their numbers appear to be increasing and that the average age at which they are recruited is significantly lower than it was 10 years ago," the report says.

        The age range at which the girls are recruited has dropped, from 14 to 16 years old in the 1980s to 10 to 14 in 1994, despite new laws in both countries intended to stem trafficking and child prostitution.

        The report says the victims are young women lured from their villages by local recruiters, relatives or neighbours with promises of jobs or marriage. Kidnapping was also reported.

        They are then sold to brokers who deliver them to brothels in India. Their purchase price and interest become the "debt" the women must work to pay off, and that can go on indefinitely.

        Most girls and women start out in cheap brothels where they are
"broken in" througha process of rapes and beatings, and frequently resold to other brothels where they can bring in more money for the owner.

        Both psychological and physical means are used to "break in" new girls purchased for brothels. "Psychological abuse, threats and intimidation are an integral part of the process and are used exclus ively with girls who are purchased as virgins and can threrefore be sold for higher prices if their 'training' does not include rape," the report says.

        And when the psychological approach fails to work, brothel staff use phusical abuse or permit customers to do so; the abuse can include beatings, gang rapes and torture with burning cigarettes.

        Escape from the brothels is almost impossible because they're tightly controlled. The debt bondage is enforced by near-total confinement to the brothels premises.

        Many return to Nepal infected with the AIDS virus.

        The Human Rights Watch/Asia report is largely based on interviews with trafficking victims, most of them Nepali women in their 20s who were sent to India as teen-agers, or older women in Bombay who were still involved in the industry.

        Becuase people pass freely between India and Nepal, it is difficult for the border police to check illegal activity, the report says, adding that in Nepal border police are bribed to allow traffickers to get the girls to India.

        While Bombay appears to have the highest percentage of Nepali prostitutes, Nepali women are trafficked into many other cities in India. The report also says that tourism is less a factor in the sex industry than local demand.

        One organization dedicated to the rights of children reported last year that 40 per cent of 300 Nepali prostitutes interviewed in Bombay had been trafficked from carpet factories. Carpets are Nepal's most important export; Kathmandu carpet factories are notorious for the pervasive use of child labour, the report says.

        The Nepali girls and women interviewed by Human Rights Watch/Asia were forcibly trafficked into India and didn't work as prostitutes voluntarily "but were held in conditions tantamount to slavery."

************************************* To: Subject: Email Send/Receive Service in Nepal From: (Sushovit Bhattarai) Date: 21 Jul 1995 15:03:30 GMT

                            Great News!!
  For Those Requiring Email Receive/Send Services to Friends and Families In Nepal
  Due to the numerous inquiries regarding email/internet access in Nepal, a company named Global Communications Consultants based in Karmachari Sanchayakosh Building at Thamel has set up an email service through Mercantile Office Systems (MOS). This company provides phone, fax, telex, email and postal services to the general public. They also have a branch at Everest Communications Service at Boudha.
  With this service, anyone from abroad can receive/send email to almost anyone in Nepal. Due to the send/receive cost regarding connection through Mercantile Office Systems, there will be a fee charged to the recipient (in Nepal). The Costs are as follows:
     Sending email NRs. 80.00 per KByte
     Receiving email NRs. 30.00 per KByte
     Procedures in Sending an Email to a Person In Nepal:
     1. Create and send the email to the address <>
     2. Do not forget to write the recipient's FULL NAME and PHONE
     3. The recipient will be notified immediately.
     Please forward your comments/questions/concerns to :
     [] or []

****************************************************** Date: Mon, 24 Jul 1995 17:33:02 -0400 To: Subject: news July 21 From: (Pratyoush R. Onta)

 The Xinhua News Agency, JULY 21, 1995 HEADLINE: fair price shops to be opened across nepal DATELINE: kathmandu, july 21; ITEM NO: 0721075

   the nepalese government is to open 4,745 fair price shops in the country to relieve public woes caused by the spiraling prices of daily commodities, according to the ministry of supplies. the decision to set up such shops was taken by the cabinet recently under its program to provide relief and make all daily goods available to the people at one place, the ministry said thursday. commodities to be sold in the fair price shops include grain food, salt, sugar, tea, edible oil, baby food, vegetables, meat, fruit, medicine, clothes, construction materials and other essential goods, a spokesman from the ministry said. this program is to begin from kathmandu, the capital and biggest city in the country, and to be expanded to all the 75 districts in the country, according to the spokesman.

****************************************************************** To: From: dummy <dummy2@AIX1.UCOK.EDU> Date: 22-JUL-1995 16:26:46 Description: Re: Nepalese being sold to brothels

Much ado about nothing!!!! (Abi Kumar Sharma) wrote:
>Following news article is taken from The Globe and Mail ( Canadian
>national newspaper); july 20, 1995 ( ie, today).
> Slavery - Age of girls being lured into prostitution down, rights group says
> Thousands of Nepalese women and girls are sold into a life
>of prostitution in India every year and kept in conditions tantamount
>to slavery, a report by Human Rights Watch says.
> In India's red-light districts, there's an increasing demand for
>Nepali girls, especially virgins with fair skin and Mongolian features,
>according to the report, titled Rape for Profit : Trafficking of Girls
>and Nepali Women to Indian Brothels.
> Estimates put the number of Nepali girls and women now working
>in Indiaa brothels at about 200,000 with between 5,000 and 7,000 new
>Nepalis ending up in Indian brothels every year.
> Girls forced into prostitution in Bombay's brothels may stay trapped in the system for more than a decade, during which they may be
>sold from one brothel to another several times.
> "It is clear the percentage of Nepali girls in Indian brothels
>is very high, that their numbers appear to be increasing and that the
>average age at which they are recruited is significantly lower than it
>was 10 years ago," the report says.
> The age range at which the girls are recruited has dropped,
>from 14 to 16 years old in the 1980s to 10 to 14 in 1994, despite
>new laws in both countries intended to stem trafficking and child
> The report says the victims are young women lured from their
>villages by local recruiters, relatives or neighbours with promises
>of jobs or marriage. Kidnapping was also reported.
> They are then sold to brokers who deliver them to brothels in
>India. Their purchase price and interest become the "debt" the women
>must work to pay off, and that can go on indefinitely.
> Most girls and women start out in cheap brothels where they are
>"broken in" througha process of rapes and beatings, and frequently
>resold to other brothels where they can bring in more money for the
> Both psychological and physical means are used to "break in"
>new girls purchased for brothels. "Psychological abuse, threats and
>intimidation are an integral part of the process and are used exclus
>ively with girls who are purchased as virgins and can threrefore be
>sold for higher prices if their 'training' does not include rape," the
>report says.
> And when the psychological approach fails to work, brothel staff
>use phusical abuse or permit customers to do so; the abuse can include
>beatings, gang rapes and torture with burning cigarettes.
> Escape from the brothels is almost impossible because they're
>tightly controlled. The debt bondage is enforced by near-total
>confinement to the brothels premises.
> Many return to Nepal infected with the AIDS virus.
> The Human Rights Watch/Asia report is largely based on
>interviews with trafficking victims, most of them Nepali women in their
>20s who were sent to India as teen-agers, or older women in Bombay
>who were still involved in the industry.
> Becuase people pass freely between India and Nepal, it is
>difficult for the border police to check illegal activity, the report
>says, adding that in Nepal border police are bribed to allow traffickers
>to get the girls to India.
> While Bombay appears to have the highest percentage of Nepali
>prostitutes, Nepali women are trafficked into many other cities in
>India. The report also says that tourism is less a factor in the sex
>industry than local demand.
> One organization dedicated to the rights of children reported
>last year that 40 per cent of 300 Nepali prostitutes interviewed in
>Bombay had been trafficked from carpet factories. Carpets are Nepal's
>most important export; Kathmandu carpet factories are notorious for
>the pervasive use of child labour, the report says.
> The Nepali girls and women interviewed by Human Rights
>Watch/Asia were forcibly trafficked into India and didn't work as
>prostitutes voluntarily "but were held in conditions tantamount to slavery."
  Kathmandu Carpet industries may be notorious for child labor but don't you think that a child of age 10-14 is better off knotting a carpet amidst her family members or village friend than being raped and tortured in "Indian Brothels?"
  Suman Sharma Univ. Central Okla.
********************************************************************* From: (Bhanu Neupane u) Date: 23-JUL-1995 18:35:31 Description: Re: Nepalese being sold to brothels

dummy (dummy2@AIX1.UCOK.EDU) wrote:
: Kathmandu Carpet industries may be notorious for child labor but don't
: you think that a child of age 10-14 is better off knotting a carpet
: amidst her family members or village friend than being raped and tortured
: in "Indian Brothels?"
: Suman Sharma
: Univ. Central Okla.
  You've said it! but the current scenario is even worse. NOt only girls but the boys have equally affected. All you've to do is stand in front of the Nirula's at Durbar-marg. If you're a tourist (got to be white) or have a look alike appearance, you can witness the appalling aftermath of the outcry against child labor. Little boys (8-15 years) -- once actively working in carpet industries -- may approach you and offer anal-sex for a dollar or two ( or even worse for a cone of vanilla ice-cream or a half-eaten hamburger).
  If child-labor was disgusting and an exploitation, how should one take this burgeoning atrocious activity.
  To my frustration, anger and grief, would somebody from INURED (hello! knock!! knock!!!) or (I)NGOs with similar CELESTIAL objectives comment?
[social work...NGOs...Bah!]


************************************************************* Date: Wed, 26 Jul 1995 12:09:02 -0400 From: (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: Subject: Nepalese being sold to brothels

Cross-posted from SCN:
--------------------- In article <DC6xF7.6MA@info.uucp>, (Bhanu Neupane u) wrote:
> dummy (dummy2@AIX1.UCOK.EDU) wrote:
> :
> : Kathmandu Carpet industries may be notorious for child labor but don't
> : you think that a child of age 10-14 is better off knotting a carpet
> : amidst her family members or village friend than being raped and tortured
> : in "Indian Brothels?"
> :
> : Suman Sharma
> : Univ. Central Okla.
> :
> You've said it! but the current scenario is even worse. NOt only girls but
> the boys have equally affected. All you've to do is stand in front of the
> Nirula's at Durbar-marg. If you're a tourist (got to be white) or have a
> look alike appearance, you can witness the appalling aftermath of the
> outcry against child labor. Little boys (8-15 years) -- once actively
> working in carpet industries -- may approach you and offer anal-sex for a
> dollar or two (or even worse for a cone of vanilla ice-cream or a
> half-eaten hamburger).
> If child-labor was disgusting and an exploitation, how should one take
> this burgeoning atrocious activity.
> To my frustration, anger and grief, would somebody from INURED (hello!
> knock!! knock!!!) or (I)NGOs with similar CELESTIAL objectives comment?
> Bhanu
> =====

I don't get this. Why do a lot of you Nepalis get so bloody uptight as soon as somebody even mentions "child labour" or "carpet factories"? Is it some kind of collective guilt-trip, or what? Sure, there ARE atrocities worse than child labour in Nepal, but why does seem so impossible to get a serious discussion on the subject??! Please, don't (mis)take this for a flame, I'm just really bewildered by this phenomena. On my visit to Nepal in December 1994 I made a series of unannounced visit to three different carpet factories in Kathmandu (all located in the vicinity of the Boudhnath stupa). All used child labour, they working conditions were appalling, in short, it was awful! Why defend it? I know there are no easy solutions, and even (?) Garuri Pradhan (of CWIN) doesn't believe international boycott will be even a means to the end of readicating child labour. Also, a lot of the regular contributors to SCN seems to bear a grudge towards Nepalese NGO's. Why is that? OK, there are quite a lot of "dollar-chasers" (Hello Amulya!) around, but a whole bunch of others are doing great work with no or very limited means. I consider CWIN to be one of these. So, please enlighten me on these issues. They have been puzzling me for quite a while now, and it would feel great to get it out in the open so to speak. My apologies if anyone has found this offending, it wasn't my intention.


Michael Nord

************************************************************ Date: Wed, 26 Jul 1995 12:07:57 -0400 From: (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: Subject: Nepalese being sold to brothels

Cross-posted from SCN:
--------------------- In article <> (Abi Kumar Sharma) writes:
| Slavery - Age of girls being lured into prostitution down, rights group says
 | Thousands of Nepalese women and girls are sold into a life
 |of prostitution in India every year and kept in conditions tantamount
 |to slavery, a report by Human Rights Watch says.
 | In India's red-light districts, there's an increasing demand for
 |Nepali girls, especially virgins with fair skin and Mongolian features,
 |according to the report, titled Rape for Profit : Trafficking of Girls
 |and Nepali Women to Indian Brothels.
 | Estimates put the number of Nepali girls and women now working
 |in Indiaa brothels at about 200,000 with between 5,000 and 7,000 new
 |Nepalis ending up in Indian brothels every year.

          Either on of these data is wrong. If we assumed all girls dragged to these "DHOTI BHAI's" heaven and hell(cf. haven) for Nepali girls, are between age 14 to 16 then they work till the age of 50 years only then the above data approaches to be correct. If we assume the first data to be more reliable , which can be real ,we also assume these girls work decades (lets assume 20 years), then the average influx of Nepali girls in these red light areas becomes 10, 000 years. Every day, 30 girls. If we assume there are 30 ports from where they are dragged , then every day one girl is passed for the purpose of prostitute from every port? As far as I know from my 7x2=14 passes to India, our Nepali army checks our every bag very carefully, but, why they fail to check the girls who are not tiny szie of "LIRIL" soap. The custom officer make issue of one tiny sized "LIRIL" soap, but, why they fail to extract such innocent girl who have bEEN taken to india? Why they fail to interview to every girl of the possible age before they leave Nepal? Is there something wrong with them? They interview/ask questions to every passenger/ commuter going/coming to Nepal about every tiny goods, but why don't they ask the guys who are exporting girls? Why don't they watch the psychology of such hell bent idiots? Are our custom officers more interested in non-living goods only? As far as I know the duty of immigration + custom officers is to check and verify that the person living the country will not suffer any problem in the country of destination and there responsibility is make cautious on the possibility of sufferings.

   We failed all these checking because our politicians are power muggers and running behind the power, what to do with these poor souls, who don't where is their destination. Its a shame . who will take care of them, who will verify them, who will listen to them, who will bring them back, who will cure their HIV, who will accept them even if they come back, some one will do it? But, who is he? God, that is the only last hope, I can make. That is only answer I can satisfy. That is only hope these teens dreaming. Shit politicians like Girija and Mana Mohan are just spending the money brought from selling these innocent girls in "SO CALLED DEMOCRATIC ACTION" , i.e. election every year. So, the total money imported so far from india selling these poor souls in present price level if assumed per head
@NRs. 10,000. Then total is 200,000x10,000=NRs. 2, 000,000,000 . So, total is 2 billion nepali rupees. If the 20 years is their average period in those hells, in next twenty years they (innocent girls) will contribute by selling their life another Rs. 2 billion net . As you know the 2 bllion net means, if assumed 5 cycles of use before this money returns to india, then it is about Rs. 10 billion rupees. They will allow our politician to make every year election. Thus, the every years election money comes from selling our own daughter, sister what not.

I have nothing more to say to these money sucker politician, just one word "shits".


P.S. I have read an interview with the exporting gang, saying now a days they sell in between NRs. 20, 000 and 30,000. You can make you own computation.
 | Girls forced into prostitution in Bombay's brothels may stay
            trapped in the system for more than a decade,
            during which they may be
 |sold from one brothel to another several times.
<rest part purged>

********************************************************** Date: Wed, 26 Jul 1995 16:55:01 -0400 From: (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: Subject: sponsoring visitor

Cross-posted from SCN:
--------------------- On 24 Jul 1995 greenspan@UMDSP.UMD.EDU wrote:
> Does anyone know what U.S. government forms and red tape are required
> to sponsor a Nepali friend for a U.S. tourist visa?
> Thanks very much.
> Marian G.

It does seem to help to have a sponsor letter which basically should swear that the individual will return to Nepal...which tells the Embassy in Kathmandu that you are rich enough to support them if they need be supported and that you have known the person to be of fine character and all of that. Beyond that it is a total crap shoot. The consulate office in Kathmandu is abitrary and frankly irrational. The Consulate denied my brother in law a visa because, according to a very good AMERICAN friend who accompanied him to apply for the visa, "he is too good looking...and might marry an American"...How is that for a good reason to deny a visa!!! Don't get your hopes up unless your pal is independently wealthy. We had asked for a visa for my brother in law so that he could accompany a six year old here who had severe orthopedic deformities who was accepted to Shriner's Hospital for surgery. Not only did the Consulate expect this crippled kid to get here on his own...(despite the fact that he had rarely even been outside of his village...) they responded to my pleading requests only after a letter from my Congressman was faxed to the Ambassador. Is it any wonder that few Nepali citizens ever venture back to Nepal!!! The damned Embassy makes it so hard to get here in the first place that once here, few want to risk going back for fear that they will NEVER get another visa!!! Anyway in answer to your question...outside of your sponsor letter...there really is nothing else you need to do. All of the visa documents are available from the embassy in Kathmandu. They charge a colossal fee for even applying for a discourage applicants. So your pal should have someone who speaks English review his papers to make sure they are in order before he applies. The consulate loves to hear that they have land, a wife or husband and children...because they are under the naive assumption that if the individual has all of the above they will be motivated to return to Nepal...NOT. Anyway...GOOOD LUCK! Mari Sherpa

******************************************************** Date: Thu, 27 Jul 1995 15:42:20 -0400 To: Subject: SOFTWARE TRADE AND NEPAL From: (The Notorious R.R.R.)

        Nepal and Software Trade with Other Countries

Recently, I have returned from Nepal and on my quite enjoyable trip, I happened to attend a seminar on software trade between Nepal and more developed countries. The seminar was setup by the Computer Association of Nepal (CAN) and they invited a speaker from the International Trade Commission (ITC), Geneva. Other speakers were from the Trade Promotion Center (TPC) and various other organizations/companies.

The seminar ran eight hours and covered various topics. Here are a few:
- the trade of software in Europe.
- the Indian approach to facilitate software trade development.
- the history of Nepal and computers.
- the past image of Nepal and what image is needed for the future.
- the ITC spokesman talked about how it can facilitate the trade if given money.

Then the seminar was open to general question/discussion. Discussion of various problems and various solution to those problems arised.

Personally, what I saw from the seminar was that there is very great interest in Nepal to trade software with developed countries. Not only are there are a lot of people in this field, the people knew what they were talking about. If the trade works out, Nepal would be a promising investment. Nepal does not have too many other avenues to better it's economy. This is the best, if not the only, way that Nepal can vastly improve it's economy.

Now the question is "how?". India developed their software trade by the use of the their Non-Resident Indians (NRIs). So the best chance Nepal has is the use of their NRNs (Non-Resident Nepalis), which is basically... us.

I currently hold a portfolio of one the companies in the Nepal. I can give a copy of this to anyone who needs it. This can be distributed anywhere to promote trade between Nepal and other countries.

So, those of us who want to help Nepal, this is one of the best ways. I, myself, am a starting software consultant who is also starting my master's in CS. I do not have the time nor the connections to help Nepal in this sense to the fullest. So, If you are in the software field or software-related field, or know someone in these fields, please email or call me.

Thank you for your time, Rajan Rajbhandari
(312) 769-6059

Right now my email account is being transferred around, so it may be unreliable. If there is no response in 3 days, please call.

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 27 Jul 1995 15:42:46 -0400 To: Subject: Nepal hands over Tibetans to China (fwd) From: "T.Matthew Ciolek" <>

       Tibet Information Network / 7 Beck Rd London E8 4RE UK
           ph: (+44-181) 533 5458 / fax: (+44-181) 985 4751
 -------- TIN - an Independent Information Service -------------
 TIN News Update / 26 July, 1995 / pages: 4 ISSN 1355-3313

       - Over 200 Tibetans Repatriated by Nepal Despite UN & US Protests -

  Forced repatriation of Tibetan asylum seekers is continuing to take place in Nepal, with at least ten refugees deported this month, after they had formally sought government protection. The deportations continue in the face of strong protests from the US, Australia and the UN's High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), and could have repercussions on western aid to Nepal.

  Since April 23rd this year Nepal has repatriated over 200 Tibetans who had crossed the Himalayas to seek asylum, including three well-known Tibetan dissidents, while other are currently hiding in the mountains to evade Nepali police, according to diplomatic sources.

  The real figure for forced deportations this year is likely to be as high as 400. By June this year refugee arrivals in Kathmandu were down by 520 compared to 1994, suggesting that up to 200 other deportations have probably taken place without being documented by exile Tibetan or western observers in Nepal.

Until April this year the Nepal authorities allowed Tibetan asylum seekers who reached Kathmandu to be assessed by UNHCR officials in Kathmandu before proceeding to India, where asylum is granted. About 2,500 had been helped in this way each year since 1990.

Nepalese Government ministers deny that there has been any policy change, but diplomatic sources say that by 19th June at least 14 groups of refugees, totalling around 210 people, are known to have been handed over by Nepalese police to the Chinese authorities at the border town of Dram, known in Chinese as Zhangmu.

On about 11th July ten more Tibetan refugees, hoping to avoid being detained by local police who might not have training in refugee procedures, formerly applied for asylum with district authorities in the Solu Khumbu region in Eastern Nepal. The ten were driven back to the Chinese border and handed over to Chinese police, according to an unconfirmed report from Kathmandu today.

Security patrols have been intensified around Salleri, 70 km south of the Tibet-Nepal border, as well as other villages in the Solo Khumbu area as police search for refugees who have crossed the Nangpa-la, the 5,700 metre pass most often used by Tibetan refugees.

"We have received credible reports that officials of the Government of Nepal have denied newly arrived Tibetan refugees access to the UNHCR and have returned them to Chinese border authorities", a spokesman for the US Government told TIN today.

"The US has urged the Government of Nepal at a senior level to handle these Tibetan cases according to international procedures and practices," the State Department spokesman said, calling on the Nepalese to refer all asylum seekers to the UNHCR for assessment.

The US authorities are reported to have taken the matter up directly with the Prime Minister in Nepal and have issued at least two demarches in Kathmandu. While the State Department emphasised that it has no immediate plans to take action on US aid to Nepal, worth some $25 million per year, it noted that aid cuts could not be ruled out.

"It is quite clear that this issue will get the attention of a number of prominent members of congress," said one US official. "They are the people who control the purse strings", he added.

Australia has also issued a demarche to the Nepalese on the repatriation issue, while the British Government has also made its concerns known. "Her Majesty's Government has expressed the hope that the Government of Nepal will continue to abide by internationally recognised standards - to which Nepal subscribes - for handling refugees, in close co-operation with the UNHCR," said a Foreign Office spokesman today. Nepal is signed the UN Convention on Torture, which forbids deportation to countries where torture is rife.

But there was conspicuous silence from the European Union, which has issued no demarche on the repatriations and which has decided to wait and see if the policy continues before making any collective statement. European inaction reflects the growing reluctance of some EU members, notably some Mediterranean states, to raise human rights issues, particularly in relation to China. The delay, which is achieved by some countries making repeated calls for further information from their embassies, was criticised by other western diplomats. "There is no longer any plausible deniability that these repatriations are taking place," said one diplomat, who added that some of the incidents had been witnessed by his colleagues.

UNHCR has raised the issue both in Geneva and in Nepal, where the local UNHCR representative, Tahir Ali, told VOA in May that he was concerned about "the organised manner" in which Tibetans were being sent back. On 4th July a senior UNHCR official, J. Amunategui, flew to Kathmandu for a meeting with Deputy Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal.

Mr Amunategui, Director of Inspection and Evaluation Services for the UNHCR, expressed the hope that "Nepal would live up to its humanitarian tradition and commitments". Nepal depends on the UNHCR for substantial funding to maintain camps for over 80,000 ethnic Nepalese refugees who have fled Bhutan, none of whom face the practice of repatriation without assessment.

Madhav Kumar Nepal insisted that there has been no change in Nepal's policy concerning refugees, according to the official paper, the Rising Nepal. A Foreign Ministry spokesman repeated the statement on Radio Nepal on 6th July.

Home Secretary Rewati Raman had earlier admitted that some Tibetans had been handed back to China, but insisted that they had asked to be repatriated. It was "at their own request to return home", he is said to have told the Kathmandu paper, the Independent, on 30th May. "Our policy on the matter has not changed", he added.

"Whenever I have contact with the Government and the relevant officials they always assure me there is no change in the government policy," said Tashi Namgyal, the Dalai Lama's representative in Kathmandu. "I hope this stands and I hope the repatriation of these refugees will be stopped,"

The deportation policy began in April within days of Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikari's first official visit to Beijing since Nepal's Communist Party won a general election last year, and could indicate increasing closeness to China. Last month police in Kathmandu raided book shops in Thamel, the tourist area of the city, seizing stickers with the slogan
"Free Tibet" and detaining at least one shopkeeper, according to a tourist who witnessed a raid on 23rd June. New elections are due to take place in November, giving the Nepal Communist Party a chance of strengthening its position.

           - Leading Dissidents Repatriated: Daughter Appeals -

The most serious case reported so far involves three prominent Tibetan dissidents who had recently been freed from prison in Lhasa. One, 64 year old Tsewang Palden, was on conditional release, and is certain to be returned to prison for his attempted escape to Nepal. He was handed over with nine other Tibetans on 18th June.

Tsewang Palden, a carpenter from Lhasa, had been conditionally released last November after serving 3 years of a 5 year sentence imposed in December 1991 apparently on suspicion that he had links with the exile Tibetan government. His daughter, Sonam Drolkar, a well-known political prisoner who escaped from prison in Lhasa in 1991, today appealed to international organisations to help get her father released.

Sonam Drolkar, who was herself tortured for six months in a Lhasa prison, says she has no details of her father's physical condition or of his current whereabouts. "I am especially concerned that we don't know where they are being held", she said of her father and other deportees. "To be arrested again is especially dangerous", she said, speaking from Dharamsala, N. India.

The other former political prisoner amongst the ten people handed over on 18th June was Dawa, a 29 year old monk from Ratoe monastery 50 km south of Lhasa, who completed a 4 year sentence in April 1993 for starting a pro- independence demonstration.

Thubten Tsering, a 70 year old monk from Sera monastery in Lhasa, was handed back to the Chinese by the Nepal authorities on 17th June, one day before Tsewang Palden. He had just completed an 8 year jail sentence, imposed in 1987 because he discussed Tibetan independence with an Italian tourist in Lhasa. 18 other Tibetan asylum seekers were handed over to the Chinese with him, including 5 children under 13 years of age. One of them, Dorje Phuntsog, from Lhasa, is a 5 year old boy.

The three political activists were among a group originally of 31 people who had walked across Tibet for two months, often without food, before climbing a Himalayan pass in western Tibet and entering Nepal. They were detained by Nepali police near Baglung in western Nepal, 90 km south of the border, on 9th or 11th June, and driven 180 km to Kathmandu, where UNHCR representatives were refused access to them.

Home Ministry officials contacted on 18th June denied all knowledge of the group, who had spent the previous day in police custody in Maharajganj in Kathmandu, less than 2 km from the Ministry, and by then had been deported.

After one day in prison on the Chinese side of the border, Dawa, the youngest of the three political prisoners, escaped from the Chinese police and safely reached UNHCR officials in Kathmandu after walking back across the border and walking for a week through the Nepalese countryside.

"Ten of us were handcuffed in pairs and driven to Dram," said Dawa. "A plain- clothes Nepalese man took us across the bridge to the Chinese side and handedus over to the Chinese police," he added, indicating that the hand-over was carried out not by police but by Nepalese immigration officials, who are less likely to have acted without central authorisation.

Dawa spent one night in a Chinese jail near the border bewfore the prisoners were moved to larger prisons inland. "All ten of us were handcuffed together in a line, with the first one handcuffed to a bar in the window, so the ones by the window couldn't lie down," said the monk, who escaped the next day by jumping out of a truck and hiding in the forests near the border. The group of ten, all men in their 20s, included four monks from Sera monastery near Lhasa. Tsewang Palden, who was with Dawa in the truck, was too weak to jump from the vehicle or to complete the walk back to Kathmandu.

Tibetans face increased efficiency by Chinese border security forces, who intercepted 6,838 "illegal emigrants" throughout China in 1994, a 23% increase on the previous year, according to the People's Daily on 16th January. The number of Tibetan asylum seekers detained by Chinese police is not known. Under Chinese law people crossing the border without permission face a sentence of up to one year in prison, or many years more if accused of trying to contact the Dalai Lama and his government.

In May the Chairman of the Tibet Autonomous Region in his annual work report, published in the Tibet Daily on 8th June, called on officials to
"accelerate the construction of border defences" and to strengthen the
"reserve armed forces and militia" in order to assist "the military, the police and the civilians to make greater contributions to defending the border [and] safeguarding the motherland's unification".

Last month M-17 helicopters were introduced to carry out border patrols in the Xinjiang military district, which includes western Tibet, according to the Liberation Army News on 15th June, monitored by the BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. The use of the helicopters, replacing yaks and horses, marked the advance of "our frontier defence towards modernisation, with boundary control changing from surface to three dimensional", the paper quoted the district's frontier defence director as saying.
     - [names of 19 deportees available from TIN] [end] -

Dr T. Matthew CIOLEK ANU Social Sciences Information Systems Administrator, Coombs Computing Unit, Research School of Social Sciences,
[Coombsweb] Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia ph +61 (0)6 249 0110 fax: +61 (0)6 257 1893

*********************************************************** Date: Thu, 27 Jul 1995 18:27:00 -0400 (EDT) From: mahesh maskey <> Subject: Vaccine for cancer/fighting ebola with blood To: The Nepal Digest <>

Health News: Subject: Cancer vaccine trials to start in Britain

                        VACCINE FOR CANCER!

         LONDON (Reuter) - British scientists developing a vaccine that could stamp out one of the main causes of cervical cancer have tested it on animals and now hope human trials will be successful too.
         The vaccine, developed by scientists at The Institute of Cancer Research, builds an immunity to the sexually transmitted disease Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).
         A high proportion of HPV sufferers have cervical cancer.
         Professor Julian Peto, giving an update on the progress of the vaccine tried out on cows, dogs, rabbits and mice, told reporters Wednesday, `` We believe the likelihood is that it will work in humans too.
         ``A few years ago people would have thought we were in cloud-cuckoo land to have even suggested tackling a virus. But now it should be relatively simple to attack the virus before it gets started.''
         He said trials on humans could start within three years.
         ``If the trials are successful, the vaccine could be available by early next century,'' he said.

Date: 26 july 1995.


         KINSHASA, Zaire (Reuter) - Zaire's top virologist said Wednesday a team of local doctors who helped contain this year's Ebola virus outbreak may have found a cure to the deadly disease
-- injecting victims with blood of survivors.
         Professor Jean-Jacques Muyembe said that foreign doctors fighting the epidemic were totally opposed to the idea but that his team had gone ahead anyway and the gamble seemed to have paid off.
         ``Of the eight who received the treatment seven survived and one man died, who was in a very advanced state when he arrived at the hospital,'' he said. ``There was even one who was in a coma when he received the treatment and he quickly recovered.''
         The virus, spread through contact with infected blood or bodily fluids, is one of the deadliest known to man. There is neither medicine nor vaccine for the disease, which normally kills seven out of 10 victims through uncontrollable bleeding.
         The virus, which killed more than 300 people in northern Zaire in 1976, resurfaced this year in the town of Kikwit, 300 miles from the capital, Kinshasa. It has so far killed 233 of the 296 people infected.
         Muyembe portrayed the treatment as a gamble.
         ``Some of our foreign friends were very much opposed to this treatment, but the Zaireans said, there is no vaccine and no medicine, at least we should try this procedure, and apparently it works,'' he said.
         ``The principle is that there are some who recover naturally from the disease and who develop antibodies,'' Muyembe said.
``There is no virus left in their blood, but they have protective antibodies.''
         ``We take the blood of the convalescents and give it to those in the acute phase of the sickness,'' he explained.
         ``If we prove by scientific study that by giving blood there is a drop in antigens that will be proof, and we will demonstrate it very soon.''
         The Kikwit epidemic, like the one in 1976, appears to have burned itself out.
         ``There has been no new case for over a month, but we have to wait twice the longest known incubation period, which makes 42 days,'' Muyembe said. ``By the end of this month we should officially declare the epidemic over.''
         Meanwhile, the hunt for the source of the virus continues.
         Researchers plotted Kikwit cases back to January and a charcoal maker who cut wood in the nearby forest.
         Scientists from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, with help from the U.S. army animal experts, have been trapping forest creatures suspected of harboring the virus.
         Muyembe suspects an insect may be the source or carrier.
         ``I suspect it is an insect, but it is possible that rodents are the reservoir and insects the vector, which transmit the virus from rodents to man,'' he said.
         He added, ``The virus is still out there. We haven't yet got our hands on the reservoir and the risk of an outbreak is ever present.''

************************************************************************* Date: Tue, 18 Jul 1995 19:19:38 To: From: Subject: proposal

Due to time constraints many do not have the chance to look at the whole issue. Sometimes the discussio n scrolls page after page. If the editorial board could limit the length of the posting then t he readers will be better served. Long discussions are not necessarily better discussions. Or if i t has to be a lengthy one maybe it can be compiled and posted in parts. Can TND also be posted in two
 versions? One just for current news clippings and the other for discussions, poems, events, p ersonal experiences fact findings etc etc. This will give TND and the readers more flavors.
     Again keep up the much appreciated service and good luck.

Subject: Proposal to start a firm to provide Environmental Services

     Namaste and hello!

     I am writing this sort of memo to get together some like minded people to do some innovative and challenging work in Nepal starting as soon as November or Decemb er, 1995. The goal is to start a firm to provide environmental services such as solid waste m anagement, recycling, consulting in air and water pollution prevention, management of par ks and recreational areas etc. The list is tentative and can be increased as things roll along.

      The objective is to provide quality services in the most creative, effici ent and cost effective method, generate revenues and create a professional environment for i ntelligent and hardworking individuals. This is a challenge and I encourage anyone interested to join me and form a team. The potential market for these kind of environmental services is n ot limited to local domestic market by all means. If we can get together a dedicated hardworking gr oup with ambitious goals, the work, I assure, will be rewarding and a lot of fun.
     The group in mind will come from various backgrounds. Environmental scienc e, environmental engineering, business administration, computer programming, econo mics etc are some areas. If you are thinking of going back to Nepal to work in any environme ntal field (which is broad) and would like to part of a start-up company this is your chance.
           If you are currently a student and would like to volunteer your time
 while you are
     in Nepal send me your name, address, number and e-mail address. I'll keep
 you informed.
          If you already have expertise in this field and would like consult vo luntarily or for a
     fee please contact me. Details will have to be worked out.
          If you want to be a part of this team but cannot join us physically b ut would like to
     contribute your ideas on different aspects of environmental services, plea se let me know.
     Since information about latest developments in technology will also be a k ey factor in tackling these environmental problems we need access to information. This is on e area where some of you can contribute by sending research journal articles, books, technic al reports etc.

     Any leads on names of individuals in Nepal who would be interested in this
 venture will be much appreciated.

     At this point I am trying to get together a motivated group. Details and l ogistics will be worked out in Nepal. I am personally very excited about this venture that I am willing to take on. After being here for ten years as a student and a professional I have decid ed to explore new opportunities in Nepal and the region. I strongly urge interested people to joi n the team.

     Please respond to me directly, so that we can start discussing the logisti cs. Thank you and look forward to hearing from you all soon.

My e-mail address until September 15 is Address in Massachusetts until end September, 1995 1077 Mass. Ave Arlington, MA 02174 Ph: (617)643-0804 (even.)
      (617)349-2844 (day)

Address in Nepal after September Anish Bania P.O. Box 2416 Tripureswore Kathmandu, Nepal Ph: 216085 Fax: 223187

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