The Nepal Digest - August 11, 1995 (27 Shrawan 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Friday 11 August 95: Shrawan 27 2052 BkSm Volume 41 Issue 4

  Today's Topics:

        1. TAJA_KHABAR - News From Nepal

        2. KURA_KANI
                 Culture - Festivals or Fun, But for whom?
                 Health - Heart and Health
                 Social - Re: Mind your tongue please!
                 Military - Anit Aircraft Guns

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha rshresth@black.clarku.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

********************************************************************** Date: Thu, 10 Aug 1995 10:20:02 EDT To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> From: uc_ece_1167 <rpanth@ece.uc.edu> Subject: Pashupati

> One morning I went to Pashupatinath for Darshan. I was quite shocked to
> see how the police were treating the older women who were standing in
> line for hours to see the Pashupati and get some Phool and Prasad. In
> some cases, the police were even using their battans on these women. The
> women's line was quite long and static, but what disgusted me the
> most was to see a special line of rich marawari tourists (who
> had just gotten off the buses) who were getting special treatment, a
> special feature, I was told, at Pashupati these days.
>

        I have heard the same thing from other people. I have also heard that there are two different types of 'chandan' distributed. A rough and coarse type for the less charitable and a smoother type for the generous.

        Though you term it as "a special feature....these days", I have known about this for a long time and it may just be that it is more open and noticable now than ever before. This is not only a case of Pashupati catering to the rich, but sign that the degradation of morality in Nepal has not even spared Pashupati Nath.

Priniti Panday

************************************************************************* To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: December HINDUISM TODAY available free by email Date: Wed, 9 Aug 95 17:03:07 EDT From: rshresth@BBN.COM

Namaskarams!

The December issue of Hinduism Today is "on line". You may request articles by file name. Note that it is suggested you include your internet mail address in the request message.

Also, be sure to include the issue name, in the format
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The list of file names (articles are downloaded by file name) for December include:

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                        --<TABLE OF CONTENTS>--

        Index: Animal Advocate Amala Akkineni , A Kinder Vision
        Index: Hindus Return to Uganda, After 22 years of Exile
        Index: Hindu Timeline #1 -2.5m to -1000
        Index: Hindu Timeline #2 -1000 to 1000
        Index: Hindu Timeline #3 1000ce to 1500
        Index: Hindu Timeline #4 1500 to 1800ce
        Index: Hindu Timeline #5 1800ce to the Present and Beyond!
        Index: Hindu Timeline Intro., A History of India and Hindu Dharma
        Index: Hindu Timeline Article, Here's a guide to competing theories
        Index: Editorial: History as Hoax, New Finds and Intriguing Theories
        Index: Letters to the Editor
        Index: Masthead
        Index: My Turn, Hindu Marriage Duties
        Index: Publisher's Desk, Let's Stop Bashing Our Priests
        Index: Sin and Suffering, Hinduism admits of no mortal sin
        Index: Goodness in the 8,000-year-old wisdoms of the Vedas
        Index: 1994: Year in Review
        Index: Scriptural Quotes

****************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Politics alias Affair-e-domesticus??? Date: Wed, 9 Aug 95 17:06:34 EDT From: neup2011@mach1.wlu.ca (Bhanu Neupane u)

FOLKS!

I don't know what is happening in Nepal and to "Bichara" Nepalis(in Nepal). Yet the recent election and "wiered" political development have led to a tremendous political uprising among Nepalis- and that too at every level. Here are ten similar overheard gossips to validate how recent political exercises are becoming "affair-e-domesticus".

10. Two love-birds chit-chating overheard at New Road : "Maiya, don't forget
    to meet me at Nirulas, we "still" have got a lot to talk about - who
    becomes the next prime minister. I will be bringing a "pack" of
    evening edition of newspapers along...be there at 5:30..."

9. Father talking to his son overheard at Baneshwor: "Look Chhora, I
    don't have lots of money ( and our surname is also not Koirala..). I
    can't allow you to blow my money like Congressis did on their
    election campaign. You should learn to pick-up "girls" on the basis
    of your ability to talk and not on the basis of money...."

8. Coach shouting to loosing football team overheard at Dasharath Stadium
    " Hey Keta HO! Its only half time, we still can make a great comeback like
    RPP did in recent election."

7. Big brother scolding his yonger brother overheared at Sanepa " Gadha!
    Bhate!! you can't use my moterbike like Girija used Napal Army
    Helicopters..."

6. Three kids fighting over a piece of bread (pauroti) observed at
    Lagankhel " Oho, Garhai Parla! even UML no longer exercises "Barabari".
    I should get the bigger portion of the bread...."

5. Wife yelling at husband overheard at Dillibazar " Darn Budha!
    hurry-up and bring some sugar, the guests will be coming home anytime.
    You can't simply watch me doing all the works without sharing.
    Kasto Krisha Prasad Bhattarai Jasto...."

4. A dope-pusher selling marijuana to a "Thangne Bideshi" overheard at
    Thamel - "Ey! Kuire! Ganja Kinne? This stuff looks "disgusting" yet
    its very cheap and gives a really good kick. J.u.s..t like UML in recent
    election..."

3. Teacher shouting at two boys fighting over a marbel overheard at Hindu
    Vidyapith Pashupati- " Stop that Badmash Ho! I say stop at once,
    fighting like ManMohan and Girija! ITs a marbel you won't be able
    to divide it equally... only one of you can have it..."

2. Two elderly women talking about the marrige of their grand-daughters
    overheard at Bluwatar " Haina Hajoor! This marrige has to be cancelled
    somehow. The prospective groom is just like RPP. He looks fine now and
    very matching but no one guarantee that he will remain with your
    grand-doughter for ever...he will anytime leave chhori and marry
    someone else. Its all for dowry...

1. A mother yelling at her doughter overheared at Gyaneswor " Kasto Keti
    Rahechhi - You don't have to wear that make-up. Shailaza still hasn't
    become the prime-minister of Nepal..."

        (the girl did reply - Oho! you know what Ama- Chandra Dai Aundai
         Hoisinchha Re! (yet large part of this gossip has been sensored)

WITH APOLOGY

[Especially to Mr. Nam Navaeko Nepali, who has been recently sending large email messages, with heaps of derogatory comments (I am enjoying your stuffs man!). I stand indifferent and endow an apolitical self. Dear Mr. Anonymous, you should spare me, however why don't you be man enough to reveal your identity. ] ==========

Bhanu

**************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Telecommunications in Nepal Date: Wed, 9 Aug 95 17:41:51 EDT From: ian@icompub.demon.co.uk (Ian Geldard)

Can you help?

As a researcher for the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity's 1996 Yearbook, I am attempting to compile a list of those telecommunications carriers, cellular/paging operators and suppliers of any value added services that have been granted licenses to operate by their respective countries. Ideally I would like the information to include the name of the company, its address, telephone number, fax number and the nature of their business.

In return for providing such information I'd be happy to email any correspondents a draft chapter from the yearbook which examines the telecommunications development in that country. This can range from a few paragraphs for a country such as Nauru, to the equivalent of around 20 pages of text for China. So the more information you can provide, the more I'll supply. Please reply by email to ian@icompub.demon.co.uk as I will not have the time to track Usenet follow-ups.

Some of you may not be too familiar with the APT so I've included a brief description and contact address below. If you require more information, please contact the APT direct, or email me.

The Asia-Pacific Telecommunity was established in May 1979 to serve as a regional telecommunications organization under the auspices of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) by an inter-govermental agreement. The APT maintains close cooperation with relevant UN bodies/agencies and international and regional organizations, and covers all aspects and areas of telecommunications. Membership of the APT is open to any state within the region which is a member of the UN or the ESCAP. The APT currently has 28 members, four associate members, 32 affilitate members and three private sector entities.

APT Headquarters, 12/49 Soi 5 Chaengwattana Road Bangkok 10210, Thailand Tel: +66 2 5730044/5736893-5 Fax:+66 2 5737479/5744226

PS. If anyone wants a copy of the 1995 edition of the yearbook it costs US$185 and can be ordered from the address in my .sig below.

Ian Geldard, Researcher - APT Yearbook 1996 ian@icompub.demon.co.uk Icom Publications Ltd. Chancery House, St Nicholas Way, Sutton SM1 1JB, UK

******************************************************************* Date: Wed, 9 Aug 1995 22:17 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - August 9, 1995 (25 Shrawan 2052 BkSm) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

Speaking for the Gurkhas
==========================

This is in reference to a recent news item posted by PONTA on the contribution of the Gurkhas to the British fight with the Japanese in the WW II.

I found it hightly objectionable that members of the Rana military families should speak for the heroic exploits of Gurkhas who fought outside the homeland.

The news item quoted two prominent Ranas, Sridhar Shamsher, connected with the ex-Servicement organization in Nepal and Hemant Rana, a professor of history in the Bhaktapur military campus/college. Given that it is these Ranas and the Shahs, and the so-called Thakuriyas who monopolize upper level positions in the Nepal Army and prevent Victoria Cross caliber Gurkhas from the hills from enlisting and climbing up the Sandhurst training ladder, I think they have no right to speak for and claim any political visibility for the exploits of the WWII.

I was also pleasantly surprised to hear one quote from a "Brig. General" Chutra Thapa of the the British Gurkha, could Ponta enlighten me about the highest levels attained by theGurkkhas in the British ARmy, and second whether his research unearthed any evidence of institutional racism in the form of Orientalist military internal document that spelt out the hightest positions Gurkhas may reach or was this mostly an unwritten rule in the British Army?

curious, amulya

***************************************************************** Date: Wed, 9 Aug 1995 22:23 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: an173960@anon.penet.fi (Silent Do Good) Description: Koernke says Nepalese Gurkhas are in Montana!

       Mark Koernke, identified by millions of his radio/videotape fans as
"Mark from Michigan,"is well-known in the militia movement in the U.S.
        Most of Koernke's messages are rife with two things: first, conspiracy theories, with the Federal Government, Clintons, and foreign governments as "conspirators;" and, second, hatred of minorities, mostly blacks, and jews.
        One of his conspiracy theories even involves Nepalese Gurkhas (soldiers from Nepal).
        Here is a small excerpt of _Time_ magazine's version of that conspiracy theory:
        
           And that's just for starters. Reliable
        sources have detected 300,000 foreign
        troops on American soil, including a con-
        tingent of Nepalese Gurkhas in Montana,
        this doctrine holds. Soon they will attempt
        an outright takeover of America, dispersing
        countless Patriots to dozens of detention
        camps already built for the purpose by the
        Federal Emergency Management Agency.
        (FEMA's employees are the new world or-
        der's shadow government: "Only 59 to 63
        out of 3,060 actually deal with storms, dis-
        asters, hurricanes and nuclear attack.")
        Once the nation is supine, it will be carved
        into large regions ruled through terror by
        new-world-order proconsuls. Microchips
        will be implanted in every newborn child,
        enabling the government to track each
        move by a new generation of citizens.
        Americans will live in slavery. Unless..."
 
                                        -- _Time_, June 26, 1995
                                           (page 61).
 
*********************************************************** Date: Wed, 9 Aug 1995 21:51 EST To: nepal@cs.niu.edu From: nk18@columbia.edu (Niraj Kumar) Subject: RE: Arun III project press release

I am reposting this press release (which Vijay had originally posted) in regular format.
-niraj
                 WORLD BANK AND NEPAL TO DEVELOP ENERGY
                        ALTERNATIVES TO ARUN PROJECT

         WASHINGTON, August 3, 1995 The World Bank and the Government of
    Nepal have agreed to work expeditiously to develop alternative
    approaches to meeting Nepal's energy needs following a decision by the
    Bank not to proceed with plans to support the Arun III hydropower
    project.

         The agreement follows discussions between World Bank President
    James D. Wolfensohn and Man Mohan Adhikari, the Prime Minister of
    Nepal. Mr. Wolfensohn assured the Prime Minister that the Bank
    attaches the highest priority to helping Nepal in devising and
    implementing an alternative strategy for meeting its needs for electric
    power. The Prime Minister, in the changed situation, has requested the
    Bank's financial support for alternative approaches and Mr. Wolfensohn
    indicated that, subject to proposals meeting the Bank's normal lending
    criteria, the institution would be prepared to provide such assistance.
    As a result, talks have already begun between the World Bank and the
    Government on specific proposals to take advantage of alternatives
    available for meeting Nepal's power needs.

         The World Bank had considered supporting the Arun III project
    through a $175 million credit from the International Development
    Association. Mr. Wolfensohn advised the Prime Minister that, following
   a comprehensive review of the project and the subsequent
    recommendations of senior staff, he had concluded that the Bank could
    not support the project.

         "Large complex projects require institutions like the World Bank
    to weigh the benefits against the risks and then decide on their
    feasibility. The judgment made over a year ago in the case of Arun
    came out in favor of the project after substantial internal debate.
    Irrespective of whether that was the right or wrong decision at the
    time, I concluded that under today's circumstances and with the
    information at my disposal, the risks to Nepal were too great to
    justify proceeding with the project," Mr. Wolfensohn said.

         "The public debate on this controversial project was valuable in
    that it served to heighten the concerns of Bank staff about the risks
    faced by the project. It also led to a review by the World Bank's
    Inspection Panel of environmental and social aspects of the project
   with the result that measures to address these concerns were
    strengthened. Although this project will not go ahead, the Panel's
    work remains relevant to the Bank s operations in general and to future
    investments in Nepal's power sector in particular," the World Bank
    President added.

         While the Bank's review as well as the findings of the Inspection
    Panel confirmed that the environmental and social mitigation actions
    that were currently stipulated for the proposed project were
    satisfactory, Mr. Wolfensohn s decision to advise the Government of
    Nepal that the Bank could not move ahead with support for the project
    was based on three main considerations:

              S The Bank had always recognized the demands that a project
         of this size and complexity would place on a small country like
         Nepal. Since the initial appraisal, the Bank had established
         increasingly rigorous standards for the implementation of the
        project, and these reinforced initial concerns about the burdens
         being placed on the Government. The Government recognizes these
         constraints and had agreed to collaborate with capacity-building
         efforts recommended by the Bank's management in 1995. However,
         the limited capacity of institutions in Nepal to implement the
         long list of actions that would have to be taken to ensure success
         means that it could take up to five years longer than originally
         anticipated for this highly complex project to be completed.
         Demanding tasks relating to the operations and financial
         management of Nepal's power utility and the need to implement
         effectively the social and environmental actions highlighted by
         the Inspection Panel, would have imposed requirements which the
         Bank now judges to be beyond what Nepal could realistically have
         achieved at present.

              S While there is support for Arun III, both among all Nepal's
         political parties and from most of the residents of the valley,
        the Government would still have had to implement a number of
         measures such as adjusting tariffs and prioritizing expenditures
         and sustain them over the next few years to ensure that the
         project did not crowd out priority social expenditures. While not
         questioning the Government's commitment to take these steps, the
         Bank recognized the difficulties inherent in developing widespread
         popular support and understanding of such measures.

              S In addition to the financing from the World Bank, the
         project had always depended on funds being provided from several
         other sources. Some cofinancing partners did not feel they were
         in a position to commit the necessary funds within the next 12 to
         18 months. This extremely difficult financing picture was further
         complicated by the fact that the estimated cost of the project had
         increased by $30 to $40 million as a result of delays that have
         already been incurred. As a result, the Bank felt there was no
         realistic prospect of firming up the financing plan in the near
        future.

         The President's review reaffirmed the hydropower potential in the
    Arun valley as a promising option for meeting Nepal's long term energy
    needs, subject to improving the capacity to address social and
    environmental impacts of the likely projects and the creation of a more
    pro-active community development program in the valley.

         A team of senior Bank staff is expected to visit Nepal shortly,
    and the President has instructed the team to give this effort top
    priority.

         "Nepal's growth and efforts to alleviate poverty hinge heavily on
    the country s ability to generate power. These are the benefits that
    the Bank had hoped would be generated by Arun. The challenge is to
    work with the international community to bring alternatives to fruition
    as quickly as possible. Energy is crucial to Nepal s prosperity," Mr.
    Wolfensohn said.

Niraj Kumar School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University 420 W 118th St. #1308, NY, NY 10027 tel: 212-854-4823; fax: 212-222-4276; email: nk18@columbia.edu

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Thu, 10 Aug 1995 09:46:25 +0100 (BST) From: B J Lawson-mcdowall <hspbjlm@bath.ac.uk> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Bikash Pandey + AIII

If my memory serves me well Bikash Pandey (ITDG, Arun Concerned) is now in the States. Where ever he is I congratulate him on the World Bank's decision. I found him informed and articulate both in his critique of Arun III and more importantly in his advocacy for the alternatives. Given recent events vis-a-vis Arun III I would be interested to see a piece by him appear on the TND. Is there anyone out there who could arrange it?

Bruce Lawson-McDowall CDS, Bath.

***************************************************** Date: Thu, 10 Aug 95 10:17:33 -0400 To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: Re: World Bank Kills Arun III [soc.culture.nepal #8135] From: skpandey@athena.mit.edu (Shreekrishna Pandey)

The World Bank's cancellation of Arun III funding is a big victory for the process of capacity building in hydro sector in Nepal. For some years to come, the local manufacturers and hydro companies can now venture projects that are of moderate size. Slowly, their COLLECTIVE capacity will increase as has been the case in the last decade. Arguably, the Arun project concerned many opponents for the harm it would do to local companies more than the environment. Now, hopefully more Nepali engineers will be able to handle projects in Nepal. And maybe if Kali Gandaki's penstock pipes are washed away by a flood in the future, we won't have to make a special request to Japan and wait for months for a replacement, as happened with Kulekhani.

Reading recent articles, it becomes clear that international donors never wanted to fund Arun only and no other project. They are equally interested in smaller alternatives too; it is just some government officials and NPC in Nepal that oppose the notion of giving the alternatives a chance. The 10% commission from contractors of Arun III - which would be around $76.4 million - essentially
'bought' the decision makers from our side. Our former man at NPC, Ram Sharan Mahat, used to be a big advocate of "small is beautiful" before coming to power. After taking charge, however, he completely trashed his ideology and started branding the opposers of Arun as "bikash birodhi" (= opposers of development).

UML had no clear opinion on Arun when it was in opposition. It said it did not have enough information to oppose Arun although it was skeptical of the project because of its high cost. Now, UML is expressing surprise that WB has cancelled Arun's funding!

The "no-option trap" that was claimed to be Arun proved wrong. Active and grassroot opposition supported by logic has made its thrust felt so massively for the first time in Nepal. We can hope this will serve an an excellent paradigm for planners in WB and especially Nepal in the future. The government will also be wise to co-operate with the private sector and rewrite some of the existing laws that are impeding the private enterpreneurs.

Shreekrishna Pandey

********************************************************************* To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Casteism and Hinduism: "The Birth of Jaati-Prathaa" by Dinkar Date: Thu, 10 Aug 95 16:04:08 EDT From: rvarma@stallion.jsums.edu (Rajiv Varma)

                        "The Birth of Jati-Prathaa" Based on "Samskriti key Chaar Adhyaaya" (Hindi) by Ramdhari Sinh Dinkar
(Translated by Pandit S.N. Vyas)

The RgVeda mentions three varnas. With the emergence of Shudras, the Vedic society had four varnas. The institution of Chatur-varnya was not a bad one in those days. Neither would we be crticisizing it had this institution not proliferated into millions of jatis. In Gita, Sri Krsna says with a lot a comfort that 4 varnas are divisions of 'maya' (implying whatever we see thru our senses) on the basis of properties. He says
"Chaturvarnya maya srishtih guna-kram-vibhagashah". Swami Dayanand, and Gandhiji also did not regard varnashram as abhorrent. However, what was and is indeed shameful, that this institution degenerated into a system with infinite jatis, the differences between high and low became acute, and the Shudras were designated to be low-born and even untouchable. As of today, the jati-prathaa is the biggest curse on the Hindu society, and even the most informed Hindus fail to acknowledge this gross devia- tion. These people mince no words in criticizing casteism, but their own actions tell a different tale altogether.Hindu is 100% free to think what he/she wants. His/Her speech has always been unrestrained. But the Hindu society has mastered ways and means to control and restrict even the most simple acts of its individual units. ...It is for this reason that even the Sikhs who profess communism dare not shave their hair, since that could lead to their ex-communication.

It is true that the number of jatis and up-jatis swelled due to mariages of 'anulom' and 'pratilom' type. But it is very difficult to explain as to what led the Aryans to create the institution of jati itself.

According to one of the hypotheses, the Aryans created 'jati' after they came to India, and they realized that such an institution will help in the assimilation of all types of people living in India. There were the Dravids, who excelled in matters of Dharma, civilization and culture. Perhaps, we also had Austric and Negroid tribes, whose civilizations were not that much advanced. And then there were the Aryans who were proud of themselves. And further still, there might have been groups who were products of the mixtures of these groups. Overall, it is possible that India had a wide range of people in those days, some totally civilized, some half-civilized, some rich, some poor. Some of them might have been into spirituality, and still others did not care an iota about spirit- uality. Add to this, different customs, traditions, gods, goddesses etc. The task to accomodate all these seemingly diverse groups was taken by the Aryans. And for the fulfilment of this purpose, they resorted to the idea of jati.

The modern notion of jati was perhaps not similar to the original one. And it would not be totally correct to assert that profession was the only basis of one's jati in those earlier days. Besides that, jati was also an indicator to the level of cultural development of its members. Perhaps in those days, a person from higher jati, was more refined than others. And since higher jati persons were probably richer too, (not always) they had better access to education and all the good things of life. Similarly, in the same jati, persons belonging to one 'gotra' started regarding themselves as better than the rest. Among the untouch- ables too, some people were regarded as more untouchable than the rest. In fact, the parameters which were used to categorize different jatis, were also used to make further sub-divisions among jatis themselves.

The Aryans resorted to jatis, since they had charged themselves to find a place for everyone in India, in one society. With that, they created a long gallery, in which everyone, could find a seat at just the right place.

If Aryanization was the desire of the Aryans, then the institution of jati would have helped them a great deal, since Brahmins were in-charge in matters concerning jatis, and without the consent of purohit, one could not change his jati. All those who mastered the cultural mores of Aryans rose on the ladder of caste pretty fast. Perhaps for this reason we see that a lot to Dravids were Brahmins right from day one, and they in fact assumed the duties of priesthood, not only for the Dravidians, but even for the Aryans themselves. The idea of jati was not created to make sure that Aryans remained aloof from the non-Aryans. In fact it was quite the opposite. And this is what we see even today. Throughout hist- ory we have seen the attempts by 'low' jatis to rise and join the 'dwij' by abstaining from liqour and subscribing to ahmisa.

The fact that one could change his/her jati in the earlier days is borne out by history. Sri JayaCahndra Vidyalankar writes: "Jati became a rigid jati only in the 10th century, and even after that, it was not 100% rigid. As late as the invasion of Shahabuddin Gauri, we see that non- Hindus are included in the Hindu fold. In 1178 AD, Gauri lost to the forces of Gujarat's minor-King Moolraj II. A big fraction of his forces were taken as POW. The commanders of the Muslim army were designated as Rajputs, and ordinary soldiers were designated as kolis, khants, babrees, and meds.

Prof. KshitiMohan Sen writes: "In the earlier days, there were not so many restrictions. Before the Kaliyug, intercaste marriages were not looked down upon. And the Brahmins used to eat food cooked by Shudras. Then what led to the curbs in KaliYug. Sham Shastri attributes this development to rise of Buddhism and Jainism, which laid great emphasis on sam-nyasa. A lot of higher caste persons turned away from violence. The Shudras did not do so. And thus the food cooked by a Shudra became in- edible for the higher caste people. Raja RajendraLal Mitra explains:" At the insistence of Buddhists, Hindus stopped eating beef." And those who did not, went down the social ladder.

That has been the service of 'jati' to the Hindu society. It was designed to assimilate everyone into a broad based single fold. Mongols, Greeks, Sakas, Abheers(now aheer),Yuchis, Huns, Turks, all these groups got assimilated into the Indian society. And the credit for that goes to
'jati'. We never had a problem of finding a place for a newcomer. Since each jati had its own divisions, every newcomer could find just the right place for himself/herself that satistifed the requirements of compati- bility from individual, familial and cultural perspectives.

As of today, the 'jati' system stands condemened. And it has started to fall apart. But it has helped India in ancient times. Whenever one group conquers another group, the victorious group has to decide the fate of the conquered group. When this problem arose in America and Australia, the whites solved it by wiping out the native populations, and settling thereafter. Even to this date (i.e. 1955) the problem of Black vs White in Africa is being solved in a similar manner in which it was solved in the Americas and Austrailia. However, the Indian way has been the way of ahimsa and love. The Aryans (if they were the conquerors) did not kill the rest on account of their differentness. Rather, they found a place for every one and included everyone into the same fold.

********************************************************************** To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Economic salvation Date: Thu, 10 Aug 95 16:00:14 EDT From: alan.r.wald@support.com

Regarding the cancellation of ARun III and tourism as an economic salvation consider the case of SRi Lanka, aka "Paradise Island". Big buildup of hotels and tourism in the early 1980s only to be wated by civil war and pollution of tose vvery sites that drew the tourists in the first place. Bye dynamiting each other and the coral reefs (easy fishing!!!) Sri Lanka literally blow up its tourism business. If you visit any European capital city with an old section of todwn, it is always, clean and well restored. This attract people to the city center. More can be done in Kathmandu. All the temple got a fresh coat of paint for the Kings coronation. Do we have to wait decades and decades for Nepal to clean up. These efforts don't take lots of money. Just work. How about if students, and government officials and business people and local resdients donated one saturday a month to cleaning up the neighborhood. And took repsonsibilty for making sure that no one continued to litter. I am not proposing throwing people in jail or making laws. Just common sense and responsibilty.

I am avaialble, but I want to see one government official (high ranking official, not a "peon") working on one side of me and a local merchant on the other. Kathmandu belongs to everyone who lives or visits there. Everyone is repsonsible. In the 1960s the Black Power movement came up with a clever slogan. "If you are not part of solution, you are part of the problem".

See you in Katmandu. Bye, Alan

******************************************************* To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: News from Nepal Date: Thu, 10 Aug 95 16:06:04 EDT From: sshakya@lynx.dac.neu.edu (Sunil Shakya)

Julus For Hire (A satire by Ashutosh Tiwari)

Taken from Spotlight newsweekly, Aug. 12, '94.

        My friend Anup Raj is a smooth operator, the kind who can sell saris even to Marwaris. In college, all he ever talked about was how to make tons of money, go out with Sunny and be funny in front of those dainty damsels attending the nearest all-women's school.

        But we lost touch after his case-study-laden MBA days on the banks of the Charles River in Boston, Massachusetts-the same place also famous as the bastion of American capitalism where the collective first-year salary of the graduates is higher than Somalia's GDP.

        Anyway, imagine my surprise when I spotted Anup Raj the other day in Indrachowk- all suited-booted like a Zee TV host, nonchalantly puffing out Surya churot in small concentric circles.

        "Hi Anup Raj! Fancy meeting you here. I thought by now you were some big-time investment banker on Wall Street, pulling all-nighters at Goldman Sachs."

        In response, Anup Raj merely flashed his you-stupid-devil smile, and waved his cigarette, signaling me to follow him.

        Puzzled by his uncharacteristic silence, I looked around, and seeing nothing unusual, decided to take his lead. I figured he was up to something.

        A couple minutes' quiet walk through the haphazard row of parked Marutis and Hero Hondas, and we landed in front of a cement house, strategically hidden behind the huge parking lot of that made-in-Hong Kong, sold-in-Kathmandu bought-by-Indians Super Market.

        Following Anup Raj, I climbed up a flight of paan-stained stairs, only to come upon an open corridor. With the Surya-stub firmly between his lips, Anup Raj reached into his back pocket, and pulled out a Jawalakhel Distillery locket that jingled with yellow keys. He clicked open the black Chinese lock that hung on the wood of the last room. Pushing the door open, he looked at me, and with a flourish of an A-class Sri Tin Maharaj, he swept me in.

        The room was sparsely furnished. A bare floor, a desk with some papers and a phone, a couple of chairs, a computer in one corner, lots of space and that was all. From one window, I could see two pigeons cavorting romantically on the head of the Juddha Sumsher statue, as though they were Karishma KC and Rajesh Hamal of the pigeon-world.

        Setting on a chair, I surveyed the pictures on the walls: Gaudy, brightly painted life-size portraits each of Madhav Nepal, Girija Prasad Koirala, Man Mohan Adhikari, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, Surya Bahadur Thapa, Hridyesh Tripathy and Ram Raja Prasad Singh were all doing
'namaste' to me. All grinning like Cheshire cats. Looking at them, I thought that all the Who's Who of Nepal's most famous geriatric club - also known as politics - were right up on the walls of Anup Raj's strange hide-out.

        But in all my 15 odd years of knowing him, I had never thought of Anup Raj as a political animal. As far as I knew, he liked politics with all the passion of a fish taking to a bicycle. So why this sudden change of heart?

        "I am in the julus business," Anup Raj offered quietly, as though reading my mind.

        "Political tension in Nepal is great for my business," he explained. "Thanks to democracy. Nepal now has a plethora of political parties. You know them. All shout for God-knows-what causes. But, hey, what's a political party without a supportive julus behind, right? My job is to supply julus to the political parties. On demand. They pay me well. I serve them well. Once in a while, I do lose a few lives. But those are small losses compared to all wonders I am doing to strengthen Nepal's democracy."

        I didn't know whether to congratulate him or disagree with him. So I kept quiet., letting him to philosophize.

        "You know, after B-school in Boston, I did go to Wall Street for a couple of years. But the work itself was boring. Spending all my time punching LOTUS 1-2-3 was not my idea of using education for the greater good of humanity. Besides, what I did merely consisted of making rich Americans richer. So, naturally, I just couldn't reconcile my Clintonite liberalism with market-based Reaganite conservatism...

        "Soon, I kissed my French-Chinese live-in girlfriend good-bye, gave up the over-the-Hudson apartment, cleared up my American Express bills, and hurried back to Nepal last year. You know, to restore my sanity. Today I'm in this julus business, and I'm very happy. I make lots of money, but also have lots of free time."

        As I listened to Anup Raj's autobiography, I wondered how he had launched himself into the julus business. But suddenly he was silent, as if lost in the lullaby of his own tale.

        "This julus business is very good," he said after a while. "I employ mostly unemployable youths who have come to Kathmandu from 14 zones and 75 districts. They are the zealots to whom an ideology does not mean anything. As long as there's a julus, and Pepsi and samosa after-ward, they go to do whatever is required of them. Why, just the other day, Madhav Nepal phoned me for about thousand baliya-baanga. He wanted them to shout slogans against Girija. The following day, Krishna Prasad wanted another thousand guys at the Academy. Whew! I did manage to meet the needs of both clients. Some of my workers do double and even triple shifts. And they get paid more with elections coming, my only fear is that I would not be able to keep up with the demands for julus. My agents are already out in the drought-ridden eastern Tarai, looking for hungry-looking recruits...

        "Getting new recruits is no easy task, you see," went on Anup Raj. "I have to train them to chant slogans, clap hard, pull apart railings, throw stones at public buses, burn telephone exchanges, laathi-charge the police and even face the bullets. All this is hard work, you know."

        Then the phone rang. From what I could make out, Ganesh Man was on the line. He wanted 500 youths at the Khula Manch in Tundikhel to be in the audience while he awarded Mangala Bhauju with a "mother of democracy" prize.

        At last, I left Anup Raj's office, with a sneaking admiration for the way the guy had combined his business acumen with political conscience.

        As Rod Stewart once sang, some guys have all the luck.

(Message inbox:94)
 -- using template mhl.format -- Date: Thu, 10 Aug 1995 12:38:00 EDT To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu

From: DGURUNG@CLEMSON.EDU Subject: DALAI LAMA ON LIVING TOGETHER

Return-Path: <DGURUNG@CLEMSON.EDU> Content-Type: text Content-Length: 6256

We Must Live Together Without Trying To Destroy One Another
        (NYT)
--------------------------------------------------------------------- By THE DALAI LAMA Forwarded by: Dan Hodel
<trcseattle@igc.apc.org>

(Distributed by New York Times Special Features)

The 50th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki reminds us of the horrifying nature of nuclear destruction.

It is instant, total and irreversible.

Like our neglect and abuse of the natural environment, it has the potential to affect the lives -- not only of many defenseless people living now in various parts of the world, but also those of future generations.

We have recently seen how new-found freedoms, widely celebrated though they are, have given rise to fresh economic difficulties and unleashed long-buried ethnic and religious tensions, which contain the seeds for a new cycle of conflict.

In the context of our newly emerging global community, all forms of violence, especially war, have become totally unacceptable as a means of settling disputes.

Although war has always been part of human history, in ancient times there were winners and losers. If a nuclear exchange were to occur now, there would be no winners.

Finally, realizing this danger, steps are being taken to eliminate nuclear weapons -- a welcome sign. But in a volatile world, the risk remains as long as even a handful of these weapons still exists.

The greatest single danger facing all living beings on this planet is the threat of nuclear destruction.

In the event of nuclear war no one will win, because no one will survive.

I have envisioned that the entire Tibetan plateau should become a free refuge where humanity and nature can live in peace and harmonious balance.

But China -- which occupies Tibet with the presence of a large military force -- has been unwilling to respond constructively.

China is reported to have stationed about 90 nuclear warheads and to have dumped an unknown quantity of radioactive waste in Tibet. This not only endangers human and animal lives but also adversely affects the fragile environment of the Tibetan plateau.

The key elements of my proposal for Tibet as a Zone of Peace include the demilitarization and prohibition of the manufacture, testing and stockpiling of nuclear weapons and other armaments on the Tibetan plateau.

When I visited Costa Rica in 1989 I saw how a country can develop successfully without an army, to become a stable democracy committed to peace and the protection of the natural environment.

This confirmed my belief that my vision of Tibet in the future is a realistic plan, not merely a dream.

Our world is growing smaller -- politically and economically more interdependent -- and the world's people are becoming increasingly like one community.

Yet we are also being drawn together by the very serious problems we face: overpopulation, dwindling natural resources and an environmental crisis.

We have an obligation to promote a new vision of society, one in which war has no place in resolving disputes, but in which nonviolence is the pre-eminent value in all human relations.

On the human level, nobody actually wants war because it brings unspeakable suffering. Everyone wants peace.

But we need a genuine peace founded on mutual trust and the realization that as brothers and sisters we must all live together without trying to destroy one another.

Even if one nation or community dislikes another, they have no alternative but to live together. And under the circumstances it is much better to live together happily.

The necessary foundation for is still something of an experiment on this planet, if it is successful it will open the way to a far more peaceful world in the 21st century.

War and large military establishments are the greatest sources of violence in our world. Whether their purpose is defensive or offensive, these vast powerful organizations exist solely to kill human beings.

War is neither glamorous nor attractive. Like a fire in the human community, it consumes living beings and its very nature is one of tragedy and suffering.

Military establishments are destructive not only in times of war. By their very design they are the single greatest violators of human rights.

Once an army has become a powerful force, there is every risk it will destroy the happiness of its own country. As long as there are powerful armies there will always be the danger of dictatorship.

Throughout history, mankind has pursued peace one way or another. Witnessing the mass slaughter in our century has given us the stimulus and opportunity to control war.

To do so, it is clear we must disarm. And that can only occur within the context of new political and economic relationships.

Our ultimate goal should be the demilitarization of the entire planet.

To achieve global demilitarization our first step should be the total dismantling of all nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

The second step should be the elimination of all offensive arms.

And the third step should be the abolition of all national defensive forces. To protect and safeguard humanity from future aggression we can create an international force to which all member states would contribute.

Such reforms would result in a stable international environment. In addition, the immense financial dividend reaped from the cessation ssfully as peoples emerge from oppression.

Every individual has a responsibility to help guide our human family in the right direction.

Since periods of great change such as the present one come so rarely in human history, it is up to each of us to use this time well to help create a more peaceful world.

c.1995 The Office Of His Holiness, The Dalai Lama, Dharamsala

(The Dalai Lama is spiritual leader of Tibet. Since 1959 he has campaigned from exile in India for the peaceful return of Tibet to independence from Chinese military occupation -- work for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989.

(This article is adapted from the book ``Critical Mass: Voices for a Nuclear-Free Future,'' edited by Greg Ruggiero and Stuart Sahulka, to be published by the Campaign for Peace and Democracy and Open Media Publishing Co., Westfield, N.J., e-mail: openmag(AT)intac.com.)

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