The Nepal Digest - April 20, 1995 (7 Baishakh 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Wednesday 20 April 95: Baishakh 7 2051 BkSm Volume 37 Issue 9

 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * SCN Liaison: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *

********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 17 Apr 1995 13:28 EST From: To:


[source: ESCAP, VOL.9 NO.1, JAN 1995]

1. Total vehicles registered with Kathmandu Traffic Police in
        Bagbazaar till nov 1994 = 83086.

2. Total industries registered with Department of Industry for
        Kathmandu valley = 2533. Of these 58 industries
        are smoke emitting.

3. Total vehicles tested in Thapathali enginneering campus
        till Dec 1994 = 325, of these 204 (2/3 failed).

4. Total vehicles tested for emission by Traffic Police so far:
        = 10,184, of these 5567 (56%) failed.

5. Total vehicles tested for emission by BAGMATI ZONE Traffic
        Management,= 2882; of these, 1794 (62%) failed.

6. Legal pollution emissionstandards spelled by the Royal
        Gazette, part 4, section 44 datedjuly17, 1994:
        for petrol vehicles = carbon monoxide percentage less than 3%
        for diesel vehicles = density of smoke less than 65 HSU
        HSU = Hartridge Smoke Unit

AMULYA' COMMENT: It is surprisingly that some of the toxic parts of vehicular emissions such as lead (note unleaded in US), nitroous oxide, and sulfur oxide cmpounds that cause acid rain are not even part of the legal pollution standards in Nepal yet. Heh, polluters do you want to dump your leaded gas in Nepal, our legal codes welcome you and your products!!!

compiled by Amulya Tuladhar



1. nEPAL' share of land area is 0.1% of the world land area but the
        share of world's flowwering plants is 2%.

2. For Nepal,
        Total species of flowering plants = 6500
        Ferns and fern allies = 280
        Fungi = 1500
        Lichen = 350
        Plants found only in Nepal = 250
        Medicinal plant species = 700

3 Animals
        Mammal species = 175
        Bird species = 850
        Butterflies = 640
        Moths = 140
        Dragon flies = 180
        Fishes species = 179

4. Trees
        Timber species = 10
        Fibre species for paper/pulp = 6
        Endangered tree species = 50

5. Percent of land protected = 14
        8 national parks
        3 wildlife reserves
        2 conservation areas
        1 watershed reserve
        1 hunting reserve

6. Current Biodiversity Projects
        1. Global Environmental Facility supported
                Biodiversity ConservationProject

        2. Makalu-Barun Conservation Area

        3. Dutch-funded Biodiversity Profile Project

        4. WWF-funded Biodiversity conservation Program
        5. UNDP-funded Park-People Project

         Compiled by Amulya Tuladhar Clark University april 17, 1995

*************************************************************** Date: Sat, 15 Apr 1995 16:51:54 CDT To: From: (Padam Sharma) Subject: KURAKANI

                Whither Indo-Nepal Relationship?
                      Padam P Sharma, Ph.D.
________________________________________________________________ Nepali Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikari just completed his visit to India. Despite Nepal's repeated requests to renegotiate the 1950 Indo-Nepal treaty, India has shown little eagerness to initiate the process. Prime Minister Adhikari received a lip- service to change some wordings here and there. As it happens every time, this bilateral visit ended with the rhetoric, "We stress the need to consolidate the very cordial and friendly relationship that exists between Nepal and India."

I recently read a book by Stephen Covey titled, "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People." Stephen Covey charts human growth and relationship into stages of dependence, independence and interdependence. While reading this book again and again, I began to wonder if these principals of maturity could be applied to evaluate the relationships between India and Nepal. Here is my analysis of Nepali perspective in Steven Covey's words........
_________________________________________________________________ Nepal and India: A sibling love-hate relationship

A newly independent India helped Nepal achieve its own internal independence from the hereditary Rana regime in 1950. During the formative years, Nepal was totally dependent on India. India nurtured our leaders and our national development programs. Indians came to teach us in Nepal; we went to schools in India.

In a democratic and national growth scale, Nepal is a new born baby while India is an adolescent bully in the neighborhood. After forty-plus years of development, Nepal is still highly dependent on India. As a landlocked nation, we are physically trapped by India for trade and transit. As a majority Hindu culture, we share the same religious fervor and ethnic mythos. Through movies, TV, and popular music, we are culturally blown out by India. We have inter-marital relationships with Indians. We go to pilgrimage in India; Indians come to Nepal.

Above all, Nepal's financial life-line is linked with India. Indian capitalists run our markets and industries; Indian retailers distribute the goods and services. Indian laborers build our buildings and roads, plant and harvest our crops, and pull our rickshaws to the market. They cut our hair, and sew our clothes. Millions of Nepalis travel and stay in India to work in security and domestic services. If 20 million Nepalis live in Nepal, about 10 million live in India.

Nepal's exercise of independence from India

King Mahendra elevated the concept of independent Nepal by replacing the Indian style multi-party democratic system with top- down autocracy. Nepal's Panchayati Raj experiment with political independence was only symbolical and at best sanctimonious. To minimize Indian dependence, Nepal started beseeching international donors and perpetuated the dependency. With time, the nationalistic rhetoric of the ruling right and the "Indian hegemony" language of the emerging left grew at the cost of Nepal's emotional bank account with India.

This "anti-India" national psyche is a natural reaction to dependence -- to having Indians control us, define us, and manipulate us. On the maturity continuum, Nepal is behaving like an angry child and speaking the language of you -- it is your fault. You did not give us separate transit treaty; you cheated us on hydro-power development projects; you are responsible for the under-development in Nepal.

A serious problem with reactive socio-political culture is that it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. The political language focuses on blaming and accusing attitudes and perpetuates feelings of victimization. We blame our natural setting and calamities, and even the God for our situation. For the last two decades, we have started blaming the Indian influx for our ills. The nationalistic paradigms put independence from India into a pedestal and label communication and cooperation with India as a political sin.

Scripts of past Indo-Nepal negotiations

To compensate for the lack of adult character, India borrows strength from its size and approaches its neighborly relationships in a bully-style win/lose script. Indian government speaks the language of I - I should get these little countries to agree on my terms. In the disguise of bilateral negotiation, India makes its weak neighbors blink by its strength of power and occasional small favors. As long as India does not grow up to understand an interdependent reality of South Asia, it will continue to commit juvenile crimes in the neighborhood.

Nepal has conducted its negotiations with India on either lose/win or win/lose approach. Nepal's Congress Party used a lose/win script. The congress leaders were usually quick to please or appease India. Perhaps they were easily intimidated by larger than life Indian leaders. Such a lose/win script is seen as capitulation - giving in or giving up. India drafted the 1950 Indo-Nepal treaty, and Nepali Congress gave too much in subsequent bilateral negotiations. Take for example the Tanakpur issue, the Girija government was so considerate of Indian desires that it did not have the courage of conviction to express and actualize Nepal's own interests.

The Panchayati government negotiated with the same win/lose script as India minus the strength. When two determined, stubborn, ego-invested individuals (Rajib Gandhi and King Birendra, for example) interact in this script, we get a lose/lose result. When India closed the boarder recently
(1989?), the decision makers in Kathmandu had their vehicle fuel and toilet paper air-lifted while the general public suffered from a severely acute shortage of necessities. Panchayati government's arrogance to assert itself only exasperated Nepal's problem of fundamental dependence, and we lost face.

Egotistic unilateral decisions bring grave consequences

When we pick one end of a stick, we also pick the other end. Purchase of arms from China and now Sweden (?) are one sided foolish overtures. The slogan by leftist splinter groups that
"Nepal should immediately abrogate the unequal 1950 treaty with India," and the floating ideas of issuing visas to Indians in Nepal are other lose/lose propositions. Neither we can manage such grandiose schemes nor do we know the effect of such reactive decisions. How would India react? What happens to ten million Nepalis in India? We have not analyzed how this will play with our citizens in Terai. Unilateral expressions of hollowed independence could lead us to the path of destruction as Hutus versus Tutsies, or close at home -- the Tamils versus the Sinhalese.

Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world, and it has to beg month to month for its survival as a nation. Begging to countries other than India is not a manifestation of independence. Until we as a new nation can say deeply and honestly, "Nepal is what Nepal is today because of the choices Nepal made yesterday", Nepal can not say, "We choose otherwise". Beggars can not be choosers.

Nepal has to look at its own mirror and grow up

Nepal's dependence problem is a personal maturity issue that has little to do with Indian demeanor. To develop an independent character, Nepal has to stop blaming India for its miseries. The negative energy generated by this anti-Indian obsession decreases our ability to realize that most results we want depend on cooperation with India. We need new methods to influence Indian behavior than by constantly trying to use old ineffective internal and international gimmicks to "shape up" India.

Both India and Nepal have to grow up and understand synergistic benefits of mutual interdependence. Nepal has to give up its childish histrionics by maturing democratically and emotionally at an accelerated rate. Adolescent India also needs to grow up and build its character and trust with its neighbors. As mature adults, both countries need to operate from the paradigm of interdependence and win/win relationships.

Geopolitical reality of South Asia demands interdependent relationships

The concept of an interdependent relationship with India is very hard to understand and accept. However, dependent Nepal's hollow independent thinking is against the nature of interdependent geopolitical reality of South Asia. To achieve complete independence (physical, emotional, mental, and financial) from India is like trying to turn our rivers towards the Himalayas. In the words of Mahatma Gandhi, "Indians can not take away our self-respect if we do not give it to them." As an Alcoholic Anonymous, it is time for us to pray, "Lord Pashupatinath and Buddha! Give us the courage to change the things which can and ought to be changed, the serenity to accept the things which cannot be changed, and the wisdom to know the difference".

Nepalis need to do something we are very good at, smile. With a genuine smile, we need to peacefully accept our problems with India and learn to live with them, even though we don't like them. By choosing to empower Indian government's behavior to control us, Nepal has clouded its vision of independence. The vision of an independent Nepal should be "To increase the standard of living and the quality of life for Nepalis wherever they live in this planet Earth".

_______________________________________________________________ This article is being submitted for publication to other newsletters. General comments or discussions on this draft should be directed to Nepal Digest at Any personal suggestions on how to improve this article, or if you want to throw soil or dispatch flowers towards me, please use following E-mail addresses.
                ***** Happy New Year 2052 ***** Padam Sharma Email (Home): Email (Office):

****************************************************************** Date: Sun, 16 Apr 1995 00:05:27 EDT To: The Nepal digest Editor <> From: "Pramod K. Mishra" <> Subject: Sanskrit is Dead; Long Live Sanskrit

Dear Editor,

     Why should Dev Bhasha, the language of the gods, should still continue to be the language of much worship among us, defecating and nose-blowing mortals? We have no gods; we have only their ghosts. Why shouldn't we bury Sanskrit, therefore, in the graves of libraries and the minds of some memory-buff pandits? What is dead is dead; why should we fight among ourselves over whether Sanskrit should be revived or not? And now, Mr. Padma Ratna Tuladhar, one of the firebrand intellectuals of Kathmandu Valley, has resigned his post because the government promoted Sanskrit. The radio Nepal broadcasts news in Sanskrit and nobody understands what it says, except recognizing that the mumbo-jumbo is Sanskrit (I doubt if every Nepali recognizes even that). Moreover, the government has planned (if this is true) to make Sanskrit compulsory in schools.
     Why should one of the contributors of TND even after failing in Sanskrit want to promote it? If we analyze this tendency a little more critically, we might come to an understanding of this hullabaloo over this beautiful but dead language. Please don't get me wrong. I never failed in Sanskrit from childhood to all four year of college. In fact, (at the risk of self-advertisement and
"self-promotion") I must say that I always got highest marks in Sanskrit, once or twice shamefully much higher than even distinction. So, I'd like to make Sanskrit not only compulsory, but the language of daily speech and conduct the same way the Israelis have done with Hebrew--eat, shit, make love, everything in Sanskrit. Hebrew, the language of the Jewish people, had lain dead for centuries before the government of Israel made it the official language and the language of instruction and daily transactions. If I could, I'd make every child breathe the richas of the Vedas and drink the shlokas of the Gita. And instead of speaking these corrupted languages of us nose-blowing mortals, I would have a mortal achieve the status of the immortal gods by talking Sanskrit, a language in which one would hardly know how to perform not-so-holy bodily functions and only know how to do yajna and worship and prayer and all other heavenly duties.
     But Nepal is not Israel; nor Nepalis the Jews. In fact, all Nepalis are not even the resplendent descendants of the rishis of the Vedas, the Upanishdas, and the Puranas, nor have their languages descended from Dev Bhasha, Sanskrit. Many Nepalis have evolved from the depths of the oceans, their ancestors such slimy creatures as the fish and such ungainly animals as the chimpanzee, if you believe in Darwin. Otherwise, how can you explain the kind of discrimination Nepalis of many tribes and castes have suffered in Nepal? That's why, even though I did well in Sanskrit and love it, I have no illusion about its potential discriminatory power and therefore I have serious objections about promoting this beautiful but dead language in any form until two conditions are met. 1. Removal of caste system from Nepali Hinduism, and 2. End of discrimination against and promotion and full revival of all the other languages of Nepal, particularly those which are not the tributaries of either Hindi or Nepali and which exist only within the borders of Nepal, such as the tribal languages.
     I have already briefly mentioned in one of my postings about how Sanskrit and its institutional structure are at present inextricably allied with the power structure of the upper castes in Nepal. At the risk of boring some of the readers, I'll rehash my point. Sanskrit, as it has existed, has been, in spite of its linguistic and literary richness, the language of the Brahmans and their beneficiaries, including this writer. Making Sanskrit a compulsory subject will only make the privileged more privileged and it would be at the expense of the rest of the population who either racially or castewise do not find their interests allied with Sanskrit. For the promotion of Sanskrit means employment and officialdom to those who study it and who are part of the Brahmanic ideology?
     For example, at this point in Nepal, there is Balmiki Campus in Kathmandu, which is a strong institution and which was enough to produce enough teachers and priests to meet the needs of the caste Hindus in Nepal. Besides, most Sanskrit teachers and priests got, and many still get, their Sanskrit degrees in India, where there are numerous exclusive Sanskrit universities and Vidyapiths for this purpose and where Sanskrit is taught at every college. But the parochial planners of Nepal founded the Mahendra Sanskrit University in Dang; that, too, quite recently, thus increasing many times more the production of Sanskrit graduates (Shastries or B.As., Acharyas or M.As., and Madhyamas). Now, where do you find employment for these many graduates in Nepal? Some would definitely join college teaching in Sanskrit; others would, by virtue of their Sanskritized Nepali, join Nepal Civil Service; only the unambitious few would join the ranks of priesthood. A large number would still remain unemployed with their degrees in hand. But if Sanskrit is made compulsory or some other methods are used, more employment opportunities would open up.
     I must make it very clear here, however, that I have all sympathy for these unemployed graduates, and it's not their fault that they obtained Sanskrit education. If not they, some others in their place would have gotten their degrees as long as the University existed. The fault squarely lies on the shoulders of the planners of Nepal's education, who founded the Sanskrit University, instead of opening more universities that taught more practical skills. But now what can you do? As some one once said, the toothpaste is out of the tube, it's awfully hard to get it back in. As a practical measure, therefore, you have to find employment for these people.
     How does Sanskrit directly relate to caste? Well, it's simple enough. Anyone can make a survey of the student and faculty of both Balmiki Campus and the Sanskrit University. I'd hazard this guess that more than ninety percent (one can safely raise the percentage to 99.9, but I won't do that) of their students come from the upper caste Hindus, particularly Brahmans. The tribal people, both from the hills or the plains, don't study Sanskrit, because they don't identify with it nor have their languages (except for the Tharus and Rajbanshis) descended from Sanskrit. Moreover, they think that Sanskrit is a language of Hindu rituals which only the Brahmans are allowed to perform; they have nothing to do with it. And if some wanted to study, they have to pay for it, while the children of the Brahmans are lodged, boarded, and taught freely in some places in Nepal. This, they think, is a blatant discrimination against them.
     If the caste system were to go away like getting rid of some plague, things would be a little easier for Sanskrit's promotion. But only a little, for Nepal is different from India.
     Nepal, as King Prithvi said, is a garden of four castes and thirty-colors. Why only four castes but thirty-six Varnas? In the standard Hindu version, there are four Varnas (Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra), and within each of them we can say that many castes exist. But in Nepal, the ethnic reality was different, or at least King Prithvi had the ability to see it differently. These thirty-six colors could be said the numerous tribes of Nepal, who had their own distinct traditions and languages. These thirty-six flowers don't want to give off the Sanskrit scent; they want to retain and spread their own scent, while joining the garden. (Have you heard a native Nepali speaker making fun of the accent of a non-Nepali speaker, implying that the person who doesn't speak Nepali as naturally as a native speaker has something wrong with him, is somehow inferior as a citizen of the kingdom? But Nepali is a necessary evil; there must be a language that functions as a lingua franka, and in Nepal, only Nepali performs that function. In spite of Nepali language's national status, in spite of its widespread use as a medium language, time has come that other languages are brought in the Public Service Commision and Nepali's overemphasis reduced. By promoting Sanskrit, we will only aggravate this insult to and discrimination against those whose mother language is not Nepali or Sanskrit-related language. Besides, many may think that Sanskrit enriches Nepali. I for one have very little desire to let the verbosity of Sanskrit vocabulary come and deaden the Nepali language. While reading a preface to a Nepali novel recently published by the Royal Nepal Academy, I felt pity for the preface writer's Nepali prose, which more than expounding its profound ideas seemed to take pleasure in the incomprehensibility of its arcane and dead Sanskrit vocabulary. God forbid such tendencies and God save the Nepali language from such deadening effects!).
     Everyone would agree that Sanskrit is no longer spoken as a living language; only some of its lines are chanted on specific occasions at the houses of upper caste Hindu families. Have you ever heard or seen a Brahman priest going to the house of an untouchable to perform the rites? I haven't, but if you have let me know. Anyway, no matter how much or how loud one reads the news in Sanskrit from Radio Nepal, nobody (except for Sanskrit scholars who would listen to it just for curiosity and a sense of satisfaction) is going to understand it. Isn't understanding news a major function of broadcasting it?
     Now one can of course broadcast news in Sanskrit, but first of all, news in all other languages will have to come from Radio Nepal. If you broadcast news in Limbu, Gurung, Thakali, Rajbanshi, Rai and other languages, people speaking these languages as their mother tongue will have a feeling that they belong to the same garden which is called Nepal. Besides, they will understand the news and know in their own languages which Nepali politician made what speech and who went where and how many people died of starvation and disease. Broadcasting news in Sanskrit provides none of these functions; it only fulfills some people's nostalgia and enhances their sense of cultural and political dominance.
     The resources that go into promoting Sanskrit should instead be devoted to the promotion of the tribal languages, which are not only linguistically and anthropologically endangered but whose promotion would enhance national solidarity in an age of democracy and create equality. Besides, Sanskrit will survive even if you dismantle Balmiki Campus and Mahendra Sanskrit University (not that I advocate this), because there are many institutions in India which teach and promote Sanskrit. But what about the tribal languages? I doubt if Newari is spoken anywhere else in the world except in Nepal; I doubt Rajbanshi is spoken anywhere in the world except in Morang and Jhapa districts of Nepal. The same more or less could be said of Thakali, Rai, Limbu, Magar, Gurung and other tribal languages. Once the last speaker of these languages die for lack of encouragement, even the linguists wouldn't be able to preserve them, for these are not Dev Bhasa (God's languages) and there is no Panini among our linguists in Nepal, who can create Maheshwar Sutra. On the other hand, Sanskrit is taught extensively not only in India but in many other major countries.
     I personally love Sanskrit; I have deep feelings for it; I want my children to learn it (I know that they'll never learn it; they'll instead learn English and dance to the tune of pop, wrap, and rock 'n' roll). Kalidasa, Magh, Bhavabhuti, Dandin, Banbhatta, Vishnu Sharma, Bhas I love them all. I feel good when I chant
"Upma Kalidasasya, Bharverthagauravam, Dandinah padlaalityam, Maghesanti trogunah." I marvel even at the crooked-minded authors' of smritis, and admire the composers of the Vedas and the Upnishdas and the epics. But that doesn't mean that I don't see the potential damage meaningless promotion of Sanskrit could do to the languages and cultures of those who have been discriminated for centuries.
     It is not to say that Sanskrit should not be taught as an optional subject in colleges. It should be taught as it has been taught. There will always be people who will study it, but all caste-related discriminatory practices must be removed even if it is taught as an optional subject. On the other hand, waging a campaign to promote it is trying to play the old flute and, instead of loosening the grip, it is to intensify the clutch of the upper castes ideologies over the rest of the people in Nepal. This is only to say that by doing so, by becoming madly in love with even without understanding it, fanatically promoting Sanskrit in a democratic Nepal, we'll only weaken Nepal's sovereignty and national solidarity and independence.
        Only by sincerely strengthening the various languages and cultures, only by empowering the various people who speak these languages and thereby giving them a sense of belonging will Nepal's future be safe and guaranteed. Importing rocket launchers and going to Delhi to revise the treaty are at best temporary solutions, at worst mere gimmick. The policy makers should go to the people, to the Terai, to the hills and revise the national contract with them and include them in it. The treaty with Delhi will have no problem; it'll soon be revised. By promoting Sanskrit without doing anything with the self-destructive caste system and not sincerely promoting other languages and empowering non-Nepali speaking people, the Nepali policy makers are harming the interests of all Nepalis. And some Nepalis, even though we fail in Sanskrit, think that through its promotion, we'll somehow automatically become pandits and purse-wala, which may not be entirely untrue.


*********************************************************************************************** Date: Sat, 15 Apr 1995 16:52:11 EDT To: From: "Heather C. Stewart" <> Subject: TND request

Dear editor,

Could you please send me the Research Report on Nepali Women by Elaine Schroeder? It is from sometime before December, 1994. It was submitted by Amulya Tuladhar.

Also, I have been reading the TND a lot lately, and I am planning on going to Nepal this summer... Could you please send me the TND on a regular basis?

My name is Heather Stewart and I am a student at UVM. My e-mail address is:

                           Thank you very much,

%%%%%Editor's Note: Please forward the appropriate pieces to our %%%%%
%%%%% friend Heather - thank you. %%%%%

**************************************************************** Date: Thu, 13 Apr 1995 11:18:52 EDT From: ST941806@PIP.CC.BRANDEIS.EDU Subject: TND

I WAS READING TND and was taken aback by your top ten on throwing stones on HIllary Clinction the fact that some pepole in KTM decided to throw stones on Hillary was NOT funny....and I still fail to udnerstand the purpose behind your saying

 Top Ten Reasons
        given b Top Ten Reasons
        given by the United People's Front (UPF) on why
    they hurled stones at Hillary Clinton's motorcade in Kathmandu seems to me that you meant it to be a joke

Many people got arrested...many people take this incident serioulsy and some people were trying to voice their opinion by throwing stones at Hillary . Given: it was an inappropriate way of expression.

but to maake a joke out of the whole issue and cite it directly from UPF [while I am postiive that those ten reasons don't ahve any factual connection iwht the UPF motives]......

i don't know..

I jstu requst you to give this sensitive issue due seriousness and thought.......and not jsut creat one of your "top ten jokes" and hvaee you realized for soemone who is new to TNDD or Nepali politics, your article might appear as facts, rather than a joke?

that is all.....i hope , no offense...

please do not hesitate to educate in this matter if you think i am missssing some point..


*************************************************************** Date: Thu, 13 Apr 1995 16:59:00 EDT To: From: DGURUNG@CLEMSON.EDU Subject: PM ADHIKARY DEMANDS TO BUY ARMS FROM CHINA (31 LINES)

     NEW DELHI, April 11 (Reuter) - Nepal's Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary on Tuesday demanded the right to import arms from China, pressing India to change a treaty with Kathmandu that effectively opposes such a deal.

     "It is the right of every country to import arms which are cheaper," Adhikary, who arrived here on his first foreign visit on Monday, told a news conference following official talks with Indian Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao.

     Adhikary, Hindu kingdom Nepal's first communist premier, said he would seek closer cross-border ties with Tibet during his talks with Chinese leaders in Beijing during a five-day visit from April 17. He goes to Mongolia on April 21.

     "We want to integrate our economy closer with Tibet," he said. "That's an outstanding issue and we will raise it with the Chinese leadership."

     He said Rao had expressed appreciation of Nepal's arms position but admitted their talks stopped short of agreement.

     "You reach consent after appreciation," Adhikary said.

     Indian defence officials said Nepal's import of two dozen anti-aircraft guns from China in 1988 had triggered a showdown between New Delhi and Kathmandu resulting in a crippling trade blockade of the landlocked country by India.

     Adhikary became Nepal's prime minister when his pro-China United Marxist Leninist party defeated a pro-India Nepali Congress party.

     "The elections are over and that chapter is closed," he said on Monday.
"As they say, all is fair in love and war."

***************************************************************** Date: Fri, 14 Apr 1995 07:10:00 EDT To: From: DGURUNG@CLEMSON.EDU Subject: NEPAL CRACKS DOWN ON EXILES (TIBETIAN AND KASHMIRI)(35 LINES)

Voice of America, April 12, 1995

New Delhi: The Nepalese prime minister says he has cracked down on activities by Tibetan exiles and Kashmiri separatists so as not to antagonize Nepal's giant neighbors, China and India. Correspondent Michael Drudge has interviewed the Nepalese leader in New Delhi.

The Prime Minister of Nepal, manmohan Adhikary, says he has forbidden a March by Tibetan exiles and a meeting by Kashmiri separatists in order to avoid problems with China and India.

Tibetans based in India had wanted to March last month through Nepal to Lhasa to protest China's occupation of their homeland. And Kashmiris who want to split their territory away from India had intended to meet this month in the Nepalese capital, Kathmandu.

But Prime Minister Adhikary says he will not let Nepal be used for anti-Indian or anti-Chinese activities because, in his words, "we cannot afford it."

Nepal is a landlocked Himalayan nation and one of the poorest countries on earth.

The Nepalese Prime Minister led his United Marxist-Leninist party to victory in elections last year, the first time communists have ruled in the Hindu Kingdom.

Mr. Adhikary spoke with V-O-A news at the presidential house Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi as he wound up an official visit Wednesday.

He says India has agreed in principle to revise a 1950 treaty with Nepal that gives New Delhi veto power over Nepalese defense policy and arms purchases. But he says more discussions are needed.

Mr. Adhikary will visit Beijing next week. He says he is looking for joint ventures with China in banking, investment and tourism and he will promote Nepal as a gateway for western visitors headed to Tibet.

*************************************************************** Date: Fri, 14 Apr 1995 13:13:53 +0200 To: From: (Reema Bista) Subject: Information about Nepalese in Singapore

Hello people!!

    I am looking forward to go to nepal through Singapore in September.I know nobody (nepali) there. I would like to have some informations before I go there. Moreover it is very expensive to buy a ticket here (from Singapore to Kathmandu with return).I want to stay in Singapore for few days.I would like to request you whether it is possible to find someone (living in Singapore) who kann help me to reserve a ticket because it may cost cheaper there.

     I would be very pleased to hear from someone as soon as possible.

                    thanking you.
***************************************************************** Date: Sat, 15 Apr 1995 16:04:45 +0200 To: From: (Basant Pant) Subject: Feel your responsibility.

I came to know about Mr. Padma Ratna Tuladhar resignation from his health minister's post because of Sanskrit language. Is it really true ?. I don't want to discuss on the plus or minus of having Sanskrit news but I am surprised how Mr.Tuladhar can even think of resigning because of this issue. People of Nepal have not given him that post to defend or support any particular language. His responsibility is to deliver proper health care to the people of our country. He has all the right to have his personal opinion but he has no right to leave the post for the sake of discussion on language. I would have admired him had he started hunger strike or a strong protest for the improvement of infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, accessibility of health care system to all the people etc. Now once he has resigned, who will look after different programs he started or that he does not care what happens to the health care delivery system of Nepal. I am sure there will be people who will support Shanshkrit news and people who will oppose it. But both of them get sick and Mr.Tuladhar's responsibility is to look after both otherwise he will just become the health minister of Shanshkrit news opposing group.
        I think Mr. Tuladhar should not resign, and should give his opinion only after he finishes his term as minister of health and concentrate to the work given to him by the people. It is becoming the habit of intellectuals of our country to poke their nose in any bit of conflict that arises, no matter whether they are directly concerned or not. When can we call ourselves Nepali and nothing else, when can we stick to the responsibility given to us and make the best out of if, when can we have lesser intelligence and more courage and drive to work.
        I feel embarrassed when people in a foreign country tell me that
"you have a very bad cast system in your country". I do not know exactly what they mean by that. Do they mean "touchable Vs untouchable" or do they mean people speaking certain language, or do they actually mean "class" rather than class. In whatever form it exists, discrimination is the bad, we must work against it, we are the people who some how or other had the privilege of being one of the few "Educated Nepali", this is our responsibility to work against such system which makes discrimination between us. Unless we can become Nepali first and "something else" next we will not have unity and unless we have unity we will not have the privilege of group power or a nationalistic drive. Lets utilize this excellent opportunity of TND to up bring love, brotherhood, and unity among Nepali not hatred, distrust and argument for the sake of argument only. Thank you and a Happy New year.

Basant Hiroshima

************************************************************** Date: Mon, 17 Apr 1995 17:14:50 -0400 (EDT) From: Nirmal Ghimirez <NGH42799Q236@DAFFY.MILLERSV.EDU> To: Subject: Language is to unite not to divide

This is in response to Nuru Lama's thoughts about Sanskrit language. As far as I am aware the language either it be of pahadiyas or janajatis were essentially derived from the Sanskrit language. Sanskrit language was not solely meant for only the pahadiyas. It was for everyone, that is based on historical facts. It was unfortunate that later on it was used by some caste only. But that however does not say that Sanskrit belongs to one caste only. The country where Sanskrit has had a great effect is Germany. This language was quiet popular in Germany and was taught there a long time before.

In Nuru's words'Sanskrit has been the language of Hinduism.Its promotion will be understoodas trying to promote Hinduism and Hindu nationalism in Nepal.

I think he has pushed this meaning quiet too much. First of all Sankrit language is declining and realizing this fact the government is trying to push it up. If his statement were to be correct then why didn't they focus on making it a national language. I would like to say that promoting a language is not for this purpose. Then promoting English language should be seen as promotion of Christanity if the former statement were true. Since English was a international language it was promoted throughout the world. Realizing the important role Sanskrit language could play the government tried to uplift it. Essentially all religion are for the same purpose.

I would not mind if a Christan father would say" May Jesues bless you" or a Sufi would say " May Allah bless you". Since they have understood god in that manner they sai so. Similarly the king says"Pashupatinathle sabiko Kalyan garoon" because he is a Hindu and he views is that way. There would have been a problem if he would have said, Hindumatrako kalyan garoon or a Christian would say ,"Only christians be blessed". But the blessing is for all. It is just that they say it from there point of view.So, I do not think it is a point of objection. As far as text books go I remember studying god and goddess about Hinduism and the life about Buddha in my Mahendramala or some other book during my class days. Since these two religon were dominant in the country so it was designed like that. It would be great to read about great people of different culture be it Christ, Muhammad, Buddha or Krishna.

Finally I would like to say that no language can progress by pulling another language or by stopping the progress of another language. That is not a positive approach. Why not promote other languages too. Let us promote other various languages and many if we can. But not by stopping another language from moving forward. Language is for unity and not for partion. Thanks.


*********************************************************************** Date: Mon, 17 Apr 1995 19:39:24 -0400 (EDT) From: SUSHAN ACHARYA <> Subject: Re: RNAC To:

This is a brief reaction to the comment on RNAC. I agree that the service in RNAC is detorirating. However, regarding the flight attendants (the word airhostesses is as far as I know people do not use in professional level) I have few things to say. I usually fly North West and I have seen fkight attendants probably above 35or 36 let along 32. Which was not a problem to me. Sencod is the use of language regarding a women's body and appearance was really offensive. I can not imagine anyone in TND could make such a sexist remark. I am a bulky short woman does any one have a right to put a level on me? ABSOLUTELY NOT. Please keep such a primitive remark away at least from the TND circle. Sushan
*************************************************************** Date: Tue, 18 Apr 1995 00:11:07 -0400 From: (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: Subject: nepal to delhi

Cross-posted from SCN:

To be honest I don't think that much hitchhiking goes on in India. I would reccomend bussing to the nepal border and then using the brilliant Indian rail network. Admittedly it is pretty damn slow but it is also an experience in itself and a great way to meet other travellers. It is also incredibly cheap (a couple of quid for journies that literally span continents)On the way Varanasi is a well known spot and should not be missed.

I'm dead envious of anyone going travelling while I'm here but if there's anything else you want to know I'd be happy to help.



***************************************************************************** From: (Pratyoush R. Onta) Subject: (fwd) Info on No.of school students To: (tnd) Date: Tue, 18 Apr 1995 00:40:49 -0400 (EDT)

I am trying to figure out how many students passed through grades four and five in Nepali schools between roughly 1967 and 1990. Sources I have consulted do not help me to arrive at this cumulative no. If anyone knows of any statistical data that would be useful for me, I would appreciate if s/he would write to me directly at

Also if anyone knows specific details regarding how school textbooks were written and compiled in Nepal during the 1960s and the 1970s, I would appreciate your contacting me at the above address.

Thanks, Pratyoush

**************************************************************** Date: 18 Apr 1995 08:30:08 GMT From: "Shakya-Parish-Rita" <MSMAIL.SHAKYAPR@TSOD.LMIG.COM> Subject: Out of the Office To: Comment: MEMO

I am in a seminar. I'll be back around April 21, 1995. If this note is about ARTS, NPC, DOPS or Informed questions, please forward them to Admin Sys Help Desk; somebody will get back to you at earliest possible time. Thanks.

(This is a pre-recorded message.)

******************************************************************************* Date: Tue, 18 Apr 1995 09:31:09 -0400 To: Subject: Nepal expert, volunteer needed From: (AAC IEP)

     America Online's Academic Assistance Center is providing free academic assistance by Internet e-mail throughout the world. Our teachers and professional experts will assist students with their assignments. Our more than 600 volunteers assist over 10,000 students a month. Send questions to

     The Academic Assistance Center's International Educational Program (IEP) is also looking for experts from around the world to assist answering inquiries about their COUNTRY. The IEP would list the country as a participating area. Questions are gathered, edited, and submitted about once a week. Replies are sent out as an educational newsletter and posted in our library.

     If you have expertise concerning any country in the world and are interested in participating as a volunteer please send a short biography/resume with your qualifications to:


or if you have any questions about the International Educational Program (IEP), please contact the same address.
     Thank you.

************************************************************** Date: Tue, 18 Apr 1995 09:32:13 -0400 To: Subject: need B/W photos of Nepalese temples From: (Charles Jones)

I am arranging an art installation on Nepali culture at the University of Colorado at Denver and need B/W photographs of Nepalese temples. For this project, I am recreating a composite temple (assembled from individual photographs) and need detailed shots of doorways, windows, carved beams, brickwork, pagoda roof structure, stone statuary and temple steps. Copies of actual B/W negatives would be best, prints would do if they are of high quality. Please contact me by E-mail.

Charles B. Jones

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