The Nepal Digest - April 12, 1995 (29 Chaitra 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Wednesday 12 April 95: Chaitra 29 2051 BkSm Volume 37 Issue 5

 ******************************************************************************
 * TND Board of Staff *
 * ------------------ *
 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh a10rjs1@mp.cs.niu.edu *
 * SCN Liaison: Rajesh B. Shrestha rshresth@black.clarku.edu *
 * Consultant Editor: Padam P. Sharma sharma@plains.nodak.edu *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta k945184@atlas.kingston.ac.uk *
 * Book Reviews Columns: Pratyoush R. Onta ponta@sas.upenn.edu *
 * News Correspondent Rajendra P Shrestha rajendra@dartmouth.edu *
 * *
 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
 * *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" - Sirdar Khalifa *
 * *
 ******************************************************************************

********************************************************************** Date: Sun, 9 Apr 1995 03:46:28 -0400 (EDT) From: Rakesh Karmacharya <karmacha@aecom.yu.edu> Subject: Artistry of the Kathmandu valley To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

In the "Travel" section of this Sunday's New York Times (April 9), the theme is "Artistry of the East". One of the prominent pieces is an article entitled "Discovering the rich wood carving and architecture of Nepal's Katmandu Valley" by Marcia R. Lieberman, a visiting scholar at Brown University. Included with the article are colour photographs of Bhaktapur's Sun Dhoka, a stone elephant in the courtyard of the Changu Narayan Temple, carved and painted struts in Patan, farmers winnowing grain outside the Narayan temple in Changu and children on statue on the steps of the Nyatapola temple in Bhaktapur.

Another piece is entitled "Holy chants and sacred paintings in Tibet's oldest temple and other religious sites" by John M. Lindquist, along with photographs of the Samye Monastery, Kumbum Temple, Palkor Chode Monastery, pilgrims being ferried to Samye across the Tsangpo River and a woman selling scriptures.

********************************************************************** Date: Sun, 09 Apr 1995 01:11:36 EDT To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu Subject: Top Ten List:

                        Top Ten Reasons
        given by the United People's Front (UPF) on why
    they hurled stones at Hillary Clinton's motorcade in Kathmandu

10. "They denied us a visa, man . . . to drive cabs in New York!"

09. "No, we did not mean to hurt Hillary. We were only trying to hit
     the evil spirits hovering over her head."

08. "They totally misunderstood us: We meant to say, 'Imperialists go
     home . . . and COME BACK with money to invest in our industries.
     But we shouted the first line loudly, and the second line softly."

07. "We just wanted to see how far we could throw stones without hurting
     anybody."

06. "Hey, we are stone-age people, with stone-hearted tactics. What do you
     expect?"

05. "Come on, relax, it's not that big a deal: That's what Newt Gingrich
     would have done anyway, had he too been in Kathmandu, hanging out
     with us."

04. "Throwing stones at visiting important guests: This program was brought
     to you by the creative minds of Babu Ram Bhattarai and Hisila Yami,
     our great leaders, whose previous jobs include stints at stone-cutting
     facilities at the Himal Cement Company and the Department of Roads."

03. "You know Mick and Keith? Well, they are the Rolling Stones . . .and
     our Babu Ram and Hisila? Well, they make up our very own Hurling
     Stones. Get it?"

02. "Ah! Just our way of winning brownie points with Comrade Gonzalo in
     Peru. You see, Comrade Gonzalo is our long-distance David Koresh!"

01. "Oh, baby, we were all totally STONED! That jadi-booti from Mt. Kailash
     was making us all just so high that we had no idea what the hell we
     were doin'."

************************************************************* Date: Fri, 07 Apr 1995 23:38:33 PDT To: nepal-request@cs.niu.edu From: FRENCHBRD@eworld.com Subject: letter to editor, request for information

Dear Editor:

First, thank you very much for so promptly initiating my subscription to TND. Would you kindly post the following request: I would greatly appreciate information on the current mathematics curriculum at the middle-school level (grades 7 and 8), in Nepal. I am doing a comparative study of mathematics education and curricula in the US and other countries. My last visit of several to Nepal was 1988, and my info is not very up to date. Specifically; info re: grades and grading standards, curriculum and curriculum standards, salient differences in curriculum, education, and performance in rural areas vs. Kathmandu. Any response would be most appreciated. Thank you!

Robert Matthews french brd@eworld.com

********************************************************************** Subject: Happy New Year 2052 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Date: Sun, 9 Apr 1995 15:36:44 -0400 (EDT) From: "Anil Shrestha" <shresth1@student.msu.edu>

To: The Editor, TND From: Friends of Nepal at MSU

We would like to wish readers of TND all around the world "A VERY HAPPY NEW YEAR 2052."

*********************************************************** Date: Sun, 09 Apr 1995 17:07:55 -0500 (EST) From: Jagadish Dawadi <JXD9590@ritvax.isc.rit.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - April 9, 1995 (26 Chaitra 2051 BkSm) To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>
                        
                        Dear TND Readers!

                                I
        
                        Wish All Of You
        
                                A
        
                        Happy New Year 2052!

                

        May This New Year Be Prosperous To All Of You!

                                  Namaste!

                        Jagdish Dawadi
                Rochester Institute Of Technology
                      Rochester, New York

************************************************************* Date: Sun, 9 Apr 1995 16:47:25 -0400 (EDT) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Decision-making To: nepal@cs.niu.edu

        I was absolutely amazed at the number of people who could not distinguish between whether it was Amulya's or FORWARDED by Amulya, re: the recent posting on BKS. So much so that one reader, in a particular burst of white-hot anger, even called Amulya "Mr. Loose-Mouth". And that reader was AGAINST name-calling! Fascinating people, aren't we?

        Amulya is certainly right that there are many dimensions to any decision-making process in Nepal. And that no single posting or an essay can truly capture every essence of that ENTIRE decision-making process.
 
        Certainly the state of secondary schools in Nepal, for example, requires greater efforts, resources and more time to be understood more clearly than what is possible to point out here on the screen.

        But I also think out that just because a topic is complex, or just because it is close to someone's heart, that's no excuse to NOT critically discuss it at all.

        After all, if a debate is to be sustained well, somebody has to start somewhere, even with some naive ideas or thoughts. Otherwise, if we assume, a priori, that all things are complex and therefore require tons of expertise beforehand on one's part, how then to go about benefitting
[intellectaully] from this vast pool of talents, intelligence, knowledge and experiences that 1200-plus TND readers from all over the world possess?

        Personally, I do NOT think that TND debates have any obligation to help in Nepal ko Bikas. If they do that, fine. Even if they don't, well, as a TND reader, I would be more than happy if these kura-kani SIMPLY make us challenge our long-held assumptions, unsettle our fuzzy beliefs, sharpen our knowledge and help us getting our ideas, thoughts, reports, and news across to a well-educated, concerned audience without getting personal or unduly cynical. It would also help, if they entertain us, too!

        After all, hey, if vigorous dialogues now shape robust democracy later on, then Nepal's Internet Generation -- consisting of FUTURE doctors, engineers, lawyers, public policy makers, scientists, social scientists, philosophers, writers, politicians, professors, ministers, and, yes, even our favorite Amulya Tuladhar :-) -- is right here, chatting up in cyberspace. Amazing, ain't it, when you pause and think about it.

namaste ashu

************************************************************* Date: Sun, 9 Apr 1995 17:26:45 -0500 (CDT) From: loomin <rd038@aix1.ucok.edu> To: nepal_news_bulletin <nepal@cs.niu.edu> Subject: **Nebraska boys**

The following information was written by -Gyanendra Aryal Hi Shobhakar-
                It was nice to hear from you via TND. Regarding your queries: Sanjaya Shrestha--- phone # 402-558 5636 Kanchan Sharma ---- phone # same as above. Pawan Adhikari ---- CRDT, Wallsall Campus
                    Gorway Road
                        551 .3bd, Walsall
                    UK
                    ..sorry i don't have his phone #. so long...take care...and have fun.

Gyan namaste.

************************************************************** Date: Sun, 9 Apr 1995 19:57 EST From: ATULADHAR@vax.clarku.edu Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - April 9, 1995 (26 Chaitra 2051 BkSm) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu

LAND USE WORKS IN CENTRAL NEPAL...
=================================

  This is in response to Joti Giri's request for any contacts and leads of land use works in central nepal that might help him with this mathmatical modelling of river flooding of Bagmati. I am offering my two cents of suggestions that might be of interest to joti and others who may be interested in environmental research on Nepal...

At Clark university, we have been studying Nepal's himalayas since 1990's as part of research supported by National Science Foundation, United Nations University, UNITAR, NASA, and Ford Foundation. The first phase studied environmental change in the Himalayas as part of the global study that studied environmental change in 9 critical areas of the world (Aral Sea in USSR, Ordos Plateau in china, Borneo, Kenya, the Mediterranean, the Great Lakes, South west America, and Mexico city). Leading this study was Dr. N. S, Jodha, formerly Director of Mountain Farming System of ICIMOD. The study was coordinated by Principal Invetigators R. E. Kasperson and B. L. Turner II. This study looked not only into environmental change but also societal response and concluded that Nepal was an endangered environment. This study is coming out ina book published by United nations University called Regions at Risk: Comparison of Threatened Environments in 1995.

The next study was an effort to explore how Landsat Imagery could be used to assess environmental criticality in the Middle Mountains. This study used 1:50,000 contour maps, 1978 and 1992 aerial photo graphs, GPS recordings in the field, and IDRISI GIS to try to identify environmental change and societal respone patterns by satellite platform. The preliminary results will come in the Journal of Global Environmental Change in 1995 (PLEC issue).D9!

The Clark Cartogragphic labs, where the most popular GIS software (some 12000 licensed users worldwide) was developed , has studied the Bagmati watershed for a series of UNITAR instructional exercises in decision making such as using gis to decide land allocation in Kathmandu valley for agriculture vs carpet factory. This research has produced GIS data bases of controus, GPS locations, relief, aspect maps all in GIS spatial data base. While all ths looks jazzy, they all suffer from the primal sin of unreliable contour maps of Nepal from which they have been digitized.

Ford Foundation has funded an ECOGEN study of Ecology, Gender, and Community analysis of development and environmental change. The study area was Ghusel, a remote village on the souther edge of kathmandu valley. The data is mostly social and not biophysical.

Besides these research at Clark, University of British Columbia have been involved for nearly 8 years studying the Jhikhu Khola watershed for micro level environmental change and much of their work is biophysical in nature. They have exact data on soil run off, change of forest and agriculture cover, specially flown aerial phototgraphy at 1:20,000, all in GIS format
(TERRASOFT). They have brought a series of articles in Mountain Research and Development and Environmental Management, the latest being "Gaining forests but losing ground: A GIS Evaluation of in a Himalayan Watershed" in Environmental Management, 18(1): 139-150. Try calling up hans Schreir at University of British Columbia.

During the mid eighties, Barry Haack studied the Kathmandu Valley with Spot satellite imagery and GIS to study urban growth and in the process also developed GIS spatial data base of runoff and slope and aspect that Barry haack may be interested for his mathmatical modelling.

Exercises in mathmatical modelling raise hopes of exactitude and the authority of science but all this is a function of foundational data base such as the Topographic maps such as developed by the Survey of Indian which nepal still uses. Till a few years ago, the govt was so tizzy about availing these maps ostensibly for "defence " purposes and it is rumoured that Nepal has only 2
"original copies " from the Survey of India one with rhe Royal Army and the other as master copy with the Topographical survey of Nepal. The rest are bluish color ammonia prints where we can hardly read the topo maps and the utmost of digitizers is completely lost when we have to interpolate between points. Also my professor of remote sensing gis and cartography had the rare fortune to see the multicolor "original" contour map at the Topo Geodetic survey office at the Kausi of theChar Khal Adda in Dilli Bazaar while we were disputing the differing in the so-called 1 meter accuracy of Geodetic Control points which we dug up and calibrated with 21 defence Global Satellite Positioning system and found them to be off by up to 200 to 300 meters. In these points the boundaries of forests and shrubs were obviously interpolations between few random measurements. No doubt this introduces gross errors in calculations of vegetation covers, the rainfall interception, the soil runoff and all the fancy mathmatical manipulations one might do.

just my humble opinion,

Amulya Tuladhar Clark University USA

THE GREAT BKS DEBATE: THE MICROCOSM OF WHAT'S WRONG IN nEPAL?
==============================================================

Many in the TND are frankly tired with the "great BKS" debate ignited by the great discussion moderator of ancient past, ashu, and fired up by the incendiary defence of the loyal bks alums. What have we learned so far?

1. That Ashu's orginal thesis that the State has no right to support
        such elite school despite BKSites asserting that it is necessary
        to produce bright nepalese who may be poor to top schools of the world
        stands,

2. That BKS grads are a bright and articulate lot and fiercely proud
        of their school and would love to shout down any dissenting opinions,

3. That BKS grads and others no longer dispute that the causal links
        demonstrated by the anonymous posting that claimed that there is
        cheating going on in enrolling into BKS, a hallowed myth that
        all bks are virginally pure, " poor" [emphais on poor underscored
        because this is the crux of the argument justifying the State's
        investment for the righteous cause of helping these poor brigth
        students] and deserving.

The debate has now moved into whether this systematic cheating and looting
(note, no debate here argued by the bks alums) is a "isoloted random" event or much more characteristic bks, as other pork barrel schemes of Nepal?

It is interesting that similar objections are raised about any book that hits the nail on the head, one of the first defence is denial: "oh it is an isolated thing," one of the characteristics of "isolated things" if really true is that the accused do not feel threatened about being exposed so it is often ignored. As Shakespear, that classic purveyor of human nature, noted,
"Thou dost protest too much" is often taken by dispassionalte observers as a common sense indication of a smoking gun, that something is totally amiss.

I am referring here not to BKS but the book, "FAtalism and Development" a book that has been torn apart as "screwy research, unrepresentative, simplistic" by only the defendents implicated in the book but which most every development worker both nepalese and foreginer admits hits the nail on the head of being right on target. I sometime wonder if we begin to insist that every argument stand up in a court of law, and we know even that is flawed, before we believe in the credibility of a thesis we cannot get any social communication done. There will always be varying degrees of access to data and knowlege and it does not follow that truth lies only in the head of the most well informed . if that was so, we would buying into a elitist notion of society ruled by Plato's philosopher kings or in modern US contexts there is an expert for everything to comment on the evening news from why peoplf fall off chairs to dna sampling of blood samples. Can we say the jurors understand all the details of dna that the experts do and does that disqualify them for passing judgements?

Just wondering... Amulya Tuladhar

********************************************************** Date: Sun, 9 Apr 1995 17:46:28 -0700 (PDT) From: Anshuman Pandey <apandey@u.washington.edu> To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Nepali Brahmins.

I'm looking for any information about the Pande/Pandey families in Nepal. I've heard that a great number of Nepali Pande Brahmins migrated from Uttar Pradesh, India some time ago, and were once called Pandey.
>From the same group as these Pandeys, come the Tiwari, Dwivedi, Mishra,
etc, Brahmins.

Any information anyone is able to provide me with is greatly appreciated. Thanks again.

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Sun, 9 Apr 1995 18:31:55 -0700 (PDT) From: Dahal Durga <daha9014@uidaho.edu> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - April 9, 1995 (26 Chaitra 2051 BkSm)

Tax people, I pay tax by my salary. My parents pay tax of their land. What kind of tax you are looking for? Bribe tax? Thanks.

****************************************************** Date: Mon, 10 Apr 1995 00:50:49 -0400 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: World Neighbors' project in Nepal. From: fkroger@coho.halcyon.com (Frank F Kroger)

Here is a report about World Neighbors' activity in Baudha-Bahunipati, Nepal.

Please let me know if you think this is too long of a post.

Please see my signature for information about WN appearance on the PBS tv series "The Quiet Revolution" or send email if you have questions. Thanks, Frank

         The Integration of Population and Environment
                   In Baudha-Bahunipati, Nepal

                         Denise Caudill
               Research Associate, World Neighbors

I. Nepal - Crisis in population & environment
     Experiment & Experience III. Case Study: Majhigaon Village IV. Strategy for Sustainability V. Lessons Learned VI. References

I. NEPAL -- CRISIS IN POVERTY, POPULATION & ENVIRONMENT
          The world community has now recognized the interrelation of population, the environment and poverty. International debates have begun on how to address these related issues. Conflicts arise especially over the issue of population, as seen at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and in the prelude discussions to the UN International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo.

     UNICEF has presented the "PPE spiral" in its State of the World's Children 1994. This schematic illustrates the integrated and mutually reinforcing relationships between poverty, population growth and environmental stress. It also proposes an integrated response against the PPE problems, emphasizing family planning, health and nutrition and education, especially of girls. (1)

     In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development urged that "population policies must have a broader focus than controlling numbers: measures to improve the quality of human resources in terms of health, education and cosial development are as important." (2)

     These problems and possibilities for solutions can easily be seen in Nepal. In the 1989 Worldwatch Paper -- Poverty and the Environment: Reversing the Downward Spiral, Alan Durning described the problems:

     Nepal exemplifies the way sheer growth of human numbers
     feeds the spiral, when human practices at a given level
     of technology exceed the carrying capacity of local
     environments. As population swells, peasants in
     highland valleys are forced to expand their plots onto
     steep forested hillsides, extending the distance women
     must walk to gather fuel and fodder. Over the past
     decade, during which forests have shrunk to half of
     their original extent, women's average daily journeys
     have increased by more than an hour. Pressed for time,
     their workday in the fields shorten, family income
     falls, and they have both less food to cook and less
     time to cook it. Shubh Kuman and David Hotchkiss of the
     International Food Policy Research Institute report not
     only that daily food consumption in the region has
     fallen by 100 calories per person on average, but that
     - in village after village - childhood malnutrition
     rates and deforestation rates are closely coupled. In
     the hill regions of Nepal, in other words, the health
     of a village's children can be read in the retreating
     tree line on surrounding slopes. (3)

     Sharon Camp, Ph.D., former senior vice president of Population Action International, suggests a solution. She states that voluntary family planning programs alone are not enough to bring about required reduction in fertility to achieve world population stabilization: "but in combination with other efforts to raise the social and economic status of women, reduce child mortality, and improve economic opportunities for low-income families, better quality voluntary family planning programs are sufficient to stop most population growth in most parts of the world." (4)

     This paper will describe the experiences of people in rural Nepal who have reversed the downward spiral of poverty, population and environment through an integrated community-based self-development process.

     The Baudha-Bahunipati Family Welfare program is sponsored by the Family Planning Association of Nepal in partnership with World Neighbors.

II. The Baudha-Bahunipati Family Welfare Program:
     Experiment & Experience
     The Baudha-Bahunipati (BBP) Family Welfare project grew out of a modest, private health care project based in the Baudha Family Health Center on the outskirts of Kathmandu, Nepal in the early 1970s. This small clinic was providing basic health and family planning services to the local community. Additionally, some patients and clients from Sindhupalchowk District, a remote area northeast of Kathmandu, used these facilities as there were no other health services available. Under the auspices of the Family Planning Association of Nepal and with support from the International Planned Parenthood Association, the Baudha- Bahunipati Family Welfare project began in 1973 when it expanded its clinic services to Bahunipati, a small bazaar located on a major trading route in Sindhupalchowk.

     The people's fundamental concerns had more to do with self- sufficiency and improved livelihood than child-spacing in the early days of the program. Excessive demand on the area's diminishing resources by the growing population had resulted in subsistence living conditions, lack of food security and outmigration.

     In community discussions, the people identified priority objectives of income generation through improved agriculture and livestock development. The animals they had were unproductive, such as cows that were raised for manure only which required grazing yet didn't produce milk.

     World Neighbors participation began in 1975. Without the resources to work in non-family planning activities, the project requested World Neighbors to support a pilot project integrating family planning with community health and income generation from fodder and livestock.

     Families work small plots of land, planting rice in the valleys and corn and millet on the hillsides. Production was barely sufficient for family food security -- no surplus available for sale. Livestock was the source of manure for fertilizer and potential additional income and food for the family. Water buffalo could provide meat and milk: goats and pigs provide meat and a source for quick cash. But a critical limiting factor to productive livestock improvement was the lack of grazing land or fodder for the animals.

     From its initiation, the project has addressed comprehensive and integrated needs of the people as seen in the original goals of the program:
     * reduce the birth rate and improve the health of children
          and mothers
     *increase agricultural productivity and family income --
          especially of small farmers
     * increase community participation in program design and
          implementation
     * provide basic curative and preventative health services
          until the area is adequately served by alternative
          services
     * integrate project activities with other agencies and the
          government for effective utilization of available
          resources
     * seek to discourage permanent out-migration by promoting
          income generating activities and better health care
     * demonstrate the project's cost-effectiveness to government
          and non-government agencies.

     In addition to setting these goals, the project began with a commitment to long-term continuity of involvement, starting slowly and encouraging people's participation at every stage. (5)

     The project started small, working with one health center and the surrounding community of Bahunipati in 1973 and gradually expanded to cover one-half of the district by 1980 with an integrated development approach of community health, family planning, drinking water, sanitation, fodder and livestock development for income.

     Where other government or international organizations had programs, such as the Department of Health, Action Aid and Save the Children Foundation UK, the Baudha-Bahunipati Family Welfare project filled in the gaps, providing family planning services or agroforestry extension or drinking water systems support.

     In the mid-1980s a strategy of concentration in "focus communities" was adopted to allow for better measure of the relationship between adoption of contraceptives and the integrated project activities. In general, good impact in family planning acceptance had been realized but the association with other key project activities was still difficult to assess.

     Characteristics of the "focus communities" included: representative of marginalized people, low class and income; dryland farming; inconvenient drinking water source; interest in livestock improvement. After a three-year emphasis in these areas, the "focus communities" showed double the acceptance of family planning compared to the overall district and national rates. Along with the increased focus and evaluation efforts, formation of user groups (for credit, managing and repairing drinking water systems, rotating male breeding goats) led to enhanced capacity of communities to sustaining their improvements following the phase-out of the three year projects.

     Measurement of these important health indicators in 1993 show the results realized in the Baudha-Bahunipati Family Welfare project area:

                                   BBP Program National

Under age five mortality rate 46.5/1000 107/1000

Total Fertility Rate 3.2 5.8

Crude Birth Rate 26.1 36

Crude Death Rate 8.1 14

     A summary of other major accomplishments since 1988 illustrate the extent of the program activities:

     * family planning acceptance (April 1993) 6,687 fertile couples protected (22% of the project area population of 153,000)

     * fertile couple protection 35% to 62% in 15 focus communities following three years of integrated services

     * curative health service to 10,000 patients per year through four health clinics which are now 50% self-supporting

     * introduction and continued use of latrines; 525 pit latrines constructed in focus communities

     * 55 new drinking water systems completed and sustained by community user groups

     * project nursery producing approximately 15,000 fodder, fuel and timber seedlings per year for use as "mother plants" and start-up planting material for extension in new areas.

     * 150 home nurseries producing 52,000 seedlings in June 1994

     * livestock upgraded with improved breeding in 22 communities known to the project

     * eight local NGOs assisted in organization, registration, planning and implementation, to sustain the program activities.
(6)

III. CASE STUDY: MAJHIGAON VILLAGE
     The project began in the Bahunipati area and would later expand to 48 village development committees covering about 450 square miles with an estimated population of 160,000.

     The Majhi fishing village of Bahunipati situated along the Indrawati River was one of the first involved in program activities. A focus on it from 1975 to 1990 reveals the evolution of the BBP project.

Early Days of the Program
     The Majhi people traditionally relied on fishing from the river for their livelihood. Environmental degradation had severely limited the productive fishing and the Majhi became subsistence farmers and porters. They are among the poorest classes in Nepal. The land they farmed was marginal, steeply terraced, rainfed hillslopes that was mostly reclaimed forest.

     Trees had been cut if they competed with the rainy-season crops of corn and millet. The people's constant need for animal fodder, fuel and timber also led to the cutting of trees. Remaining forest land across the river was at risk. The Majhi used the remaining forest to graze animals and as a source for cutting fodder. The need for fodder was critical. Manure was insufficient for crop production, especially for any improved varieties, and livestock numbers were limited because fodder was unavailable.

Limiting Factor Identified
     What was needed to address this complex problem was a fast- growing fodder tree that would grow on the terrace faces, could be cut to prevent shading, was nitrogen-fixing and deep rooted to prevent competition with crops for moisture and nutrients -- the leucaena trees were the perfect, early solution.

     Varieties of leucaena seed were first acquired from World Neighbors programs in the Philippines. The project staff germinated the new seeds using inoculant from soil taken from around a leucaena tree growing in a government research farm near Kathmandu. They transplanted the seedlings around the health center in Bahunipati and waited to see what would happen.

     The trees survived and averaged eight to ten feet of growth during that first year, 1977. The best variety was chosen based on fodder yield and the seeds from those trees were used to begin the first community nursery to produce seedlings for the Majhi people.

Farmers Test New Idea
     Slowly a process of diffusion took root. Farmers tested the new trees on their own land where they could learn for themselves that leucaena would grow on terraces along with other crops, it would not compete for moisture, nutrients or sun, and that it would produce fodder for their livestock. The people measured the value of the trees by the effect they had on their animals -- how many they could maintain, milk yields, meat gains.

     One of the first farmers to get involved was also one of the first family planning acceptors. This woman, Laxmi Majhi, went on to produce the largest number of trees, increase her livestock holdings and become a village health worker. Though family planning services had been available for four years already, the increase in acceptance of family planning started at the same time as the agroforestry activities. (7)

     The news about the project spread to even more farmers through the use of field days during which people from other villages and districts visited the farms of ongoing program participants. Farm tours, field-discussions, and farmer-to-farmer sharing enabled many people to learn from their peers about everything from transplanting, spacing, manuring, weeding to lopping the fodder and feeding practices. (8)

Measuring program progress
     A household survey was conducted in Majhigaon in 1983 to provide baseline information for measuring program progress. By 1986 these changes had occurred:
     * 40% increase in livestock
     * sale of animals went up from 26 head a year to 234;
          purchases went down for 32 from 68
     * 85% of households using leucaena as primary fodder tree
     * 49% of households had enough food to last all year
          compared to 13% in 1983
     * average annual growth of the population at 3.5%

     With the realization of these successes and triumphs over problems, the Majhi people took on more projects. People desired irrigation canals and drinking water systems and requested funding assistance. The project encouraged them to collect money locally which led to the establishment of "user groups" -- made up of the families who co-fund, construct, manage, and use the water systems.

     In 1989 the household survey was conducted once again and revealed these improvements:
     * 90% of households using leucaena
     * 73% of households had enough food to last all year
     * average annual growth of the population down to 1.9%

     But also in 1989 the leucaena trees were devastated by a psyllid which destroyed the fodder-producing capacity of the trees. The insects ate the tender new shoots produced when the trees were cut.

     The community nursery diversified and produced seedlings of other fodder trees. Farmers now produce seedlings in their home nurseries, which they learn to establish and maintain following one-day training sessions conducted at the project nursery. (9)

     A decade after the program began in Majhigaon, visitors asked the local people what they would do if the project stopped in the area and their response was, "They have taught us enough. We can manage." (10)

Evaluation Findings
     An impact evaluation of the Baudha-Bahunipati (BBP) Family Welfare project was conducted in Majhigaon village in 1989 by the Nepali research organization New ERA with assistance for the Ford Foundation. (11)

     The study had six major components:
            1) leucaena-cereal interaction
            2) fodder system and livestock keeping
            3) irrigation system and cropping pattern
            4) income expenditure pattern
            5) time allocation study
            6) family planning adoption.

A similar comparison village, Dumrechour, was also included in the study. The major difference between the two villages was the activity of the BBP program. However, due to its proximity to Majhigaon and diffusion of program activities, Dumrechour did experience some impact from the program. Despite this, key differences were found:

     * before the implementation of the BBP project there were few productive animals and fodder trees in the two villages -- one or two per household. The study found average animal holding size (excluding poultry) at 4.71 in Majhigaon and 5.71 in Dumrechour, and average number of fodder trees per household at 346 and 45 respectively. Both production per unit and economic efficiency were measured higher in Majhigaon than Dumrechour.

     * easy access to fodder and drinking water systems in Majhigaon significantly reduced time spent on fodder collection and water carrying which allowed family members (primarily women) to spend their time saved on other farm and non-farm activities, including more time with children and generating extra income.

     * household income level was higher in Majhigaon than in Dumrechour although larger land and animal holdings were evident in the latter. This was due to higher productivity from resources in Majhigaon.

     * 100% of the people in Majhigaon had knowledge of at least one form of family planning, almost double that of respondents in the comparison village. Current users of family planning in Majhigaon was 37.7% compared to 28.7% in Dumrechour. There was also a distinct difference between the two villages' knowledge of specific methods -- Dumrechour respondents were found to have little or no knowledge of temporary contraceptive methods while a large majority of Majhigaon respondents were aware of and users of oral pills and injectable contraceptives.

     A general conclusion of the report was "the Bahunipati Family Welfare clinic and program has been very effective in providing family planning services."

IV. STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABILITY
     In the early 1990s, the Family Planning Association of Nepal and World Neighbors began implementing a program strategy aimed toward program-service sustainability, strengthening of local capacity for program management and phase-out of outside support.
(12)

     Central to the new strategy was the development of local, community based organizations. These organizations would be strengthened in order to take over responsibility for all program activities -- from managing the clinics and providing services to financial support and management.

     A change in the government in 1990 brought with it a more supportive climate for the registration of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Since then it has been a relatively simple process for the project to encourage individuals and user groups to join together and become registered NGOs. Most of them grew out of community user groups or networks of small NGOs.

     The NGOs have established programs in the area which sustain the activities of the BBP project but which are no longer solely dependent on outside support. NGO programs include reproductive health services, curative health services, women's credit, construction of drinking water systems, community nurseries for agroforesty and livestock improvement. (13)

     The BBP project has changed its focus to one of replication through training. Demand has steadily increased from local, national and international groups interested in learning about the integrated development approach. A training facility has been constructed in the program area and training curriculum developed.

V. LESSONS LEARNED
     The long experience gained through the Baudha Bahunipati Family Welfare project has provided many lessons. Among them:

     * The integrated approach to family planning works, evidenced by the findings that contraceptive acceptance and continuation rates were significantly higher in areas served by the integrated approach than in villages where family planning was accessible but without other development activities.

     * Objectives for sustainability should be set at the beginning of programs. Local institution building and strengthening are as important as any other project activity and is essential for long-term sustainability. (14)

     * Sustainable family planning activities are best rooted in community-based programs with fees for services and drugs.

     * Always start with the people, establishing trust, strengthening their capacity to identify, analyze and solve their own problems. Work with people to try out new ideas, starting small and staying practical.

     The Baudha-Bahunipati Family Welfare program is sponsored by the Family Planning Association of Nepal in partnership with World Neighbors. The following organizations have provided financial and other support:

The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation The Ford Foundation The Scaife Family Charitable Trust The Brush Foundation OXFAM-UK International Planned Parenthood Federation PATH Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association CEDPA Asia Health Institute (Japan) Phd Foundation (Japan) World Neighbors Canada Society SG Foundation The Martin Foundation

VI. REFERENCES

1. UNICEF. State of the World's Children 1994. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press for UNICEF.

2. World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future. 1987.

3. Durning, Alan B. Poverty and the Environment: Reversing the Downward Spiral. Worldwatch Paper 92. Washington DC: Worldwatch, November 1989.

4. Camp, Sharon, L. "Global Population Stabilization: A 'No Regrets' Strategy" in Conscience. Vol. XIV, No.3, Autumn 1993.

5. Caudill, Denise. "Integrated Strategy Focused On Agriculture, Livestock and Economic Improvements Yields Significant Health and Family Planning Results in Nepal," Paper presented at National Council for International Health Conference, Washington, DC, 1988.

6. Arens, Tom. "World Neighbors Five Year Summary Report to the Social Welfare Council," Kathmandu, Nepal, May 21, 1993.

7. Hamand, Jeremy. "Fodder Trees and Family Planning in Nepal" in Earthwatch. Number 28, 1987.

8. Arens, Tom and Nakarmi, Gopal. "Case Study 3, Baudha- Bahunipati Family Welfare Project, Nepal," The Greening of Aid: Sustainable Livelihoods in Practice, International Institute for Environment and Development, 1988.

9. Westley, Sidney. "Family planning project turns to nitrogen- fixing trees." Nitrogen Fixing Tree News. Volume 1 - Number 3. July-September, 1993.

10. Vaidya, Huta Ram. "Villagers of Majhigaon Rise to Prosperity" in Himal. Nov-Dec 1990.

11. Adhikary, B. R. ed. The Boudha-Bahunipati Project (BBP) At Majhigaon, Sindhupalchowk District, Nepal: An Overview. Kathmandu, Nepal: New ERA, 1990.

12. Arens, Tom. "Sustaining BBP - A Concept Paper," Memo to World Neighbors headquarters, received April 2, 1991.

13. Arens, Tom. Strategic Plan for South Asia. Kathmandu, Nepal: World Neighbors, 1994.

14. Severinghaus, Jeff. Is Reproductive Health a Sustainable Rural Development Strategy? An Analysis of a Family Planning Project in Nepal. Oklahoma City, OK: World Neighbors, 1991.

Posted by:
*Frank Kroger, World Neighbors volunteer Seattle WA US fkroger@halcyon.com
** World Neighbors: working in a cost effective way at the forefront of
*** efforts to help the poor of the world help themselves.
****Look for WN on the upcoming PBS series the "Quiet Revolution."
***** World Neighbors Home Page http://www.halcyon.com/fkroger/wn.html
   
   
             

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