The Nepal Digest - Jan 5, 1995 (21 Push 2051 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Thursday 5 Jan 95: Push 21 2051 BkSm Volume 35 Issue 3

               Happy New Year 1995!

                               - TND Editorial Board

  Note: There was a file update problem on the system last week. If
         you or one of your friends are not getting TND, please re-subscribe!
         Apologies for the inconvinience.

  Today's Topics:

        1. TAJA_KHABAR

                  News from Nepal
                  Diplomacy waves as sabers rattle in South Asia

        2. KURA_KANI

                  Economics
                       Re: NPC and Economics
                       Re: Capital Proposal

                  Social
                       Re: Solar Toilet
                       Re: Is trekking safe?

        3. Articles
                  A Road to Free Market

        4. JAN_KARI
                  Music - Sur_Sudha
                     

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********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 3 Jan 95 14:46:40 PST From: koirala@timss.ubc.ca (Hari Koirala) Subject: Help wanted

Dear editor,

Could you please include the following message in the coming issue of TND? Thanks.

I am planning to visit San Francisco to present papers at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). The conference is going to be held at the San Francisco Hilton and Towers.

As a student, the cost of the hotel is quite expensive for me. I am looking for an affordable accommodation from April 17 22, 1995. I would be grateful if somebody could suggest me an affordable place which has a direct bus link to San Francisco Hilton and Towers. It would also be great if I can stay with a Nepali friend as a paying guest. If you can provide any help please let me know in my email address at koirala@timss.ubc.ca. I would appreciate a quick response as that will give me sufficient time to arrange an air ticket. Thanks a lot!

Sincerely, Hari Koirala Doctoral Candidate Department of Curriculum Studies University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C., Canada, V6T 1Z4 Tel. (W) (604) 822-9133 (H) (604) 224-7549 Fax (604) 822-8571
 
**************************************************** Date: Jan 2, 1995 To: The Nepal Digest <nepal@mp.cs.niu.edu> From: K.PAUDYAL@CGNET.COM Sub: Request for email address

Dear Rajpal Singh Ji
         
     NAMASKAR SATHAI NAYABARSH 1995 KO SUBHAKAMANA

     We would like to request you to send the email adress of the following.

1.Purushottam K. Mudbhari, FAO, Roam, Italy 2.Damber Gurung, South Carolina University, USA 3.Bishnu Dev Pant, ESCAP, Bangkok, Thailand 4.Any Nepalese either residing or associated with the following University paricularly, with the department of economics or agricultural economics:

i. University of Illinois, at Urbana, Champaign, USA ii University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontorio, Canada iii. University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada iv. Oklahama state University, Still water, Oklahama, USA

     Thank you very much for helping us despite your busy schedule.

kamal R. Paudyal Madhusudan Bhattarai

%%%%Editor's Note: Would the appropriate parties please respond to %%%%
%%%% Kamal and Madhusudan ji directly? %%%%
%%%% Thank you for your help. %%%%
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******************************************************************* Date: Tue, 3 Jan 1995 18:48:24 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Re: NPC and Economics To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

        Allow me to quickly clarify that my previous TND post on economics and NPC was NOT meant as a blanket defence of -- or even as arguments in support of the public importance (or lack thereof) of-- economists.

        Rather, it was simply to make a comment that, like in any other discipline, there is MORE diverse, interesting and contrarian stuff to today's economics than the hopelessly cliched and wrong image of
"GREEDY" economists' calculating profits and/or counting GNP.

        Also, I had derived my point on why top-rate [academic] economists CANNOT function as INDEPENDENT and HONEST policy-makers (due to political stuff that has to be taken into account) from one of the best-written 1994 books "Peddling Prosperity" by the Stanford economist Paul Krugman.

        My thanks to Eknath Belbase for his comments.

namaste ashu

**************************************************** Date: Tue, 3 Jan 1995 20:24:58 -0500 (EST) From: William Pusateri <pusateri@oberon.pps.pgh.pa.us> To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - Jan 3, 1995 (19 Push 2051 BkSm)

Today in TND I heard for the first time one of the most intelligent proposals so far to help solve some of Kathmandu's problems.

I refer to Purna C. Subedi's proposal that the capital be moved to Naryanghat.

New government buildings could be built on some of the land owned by the recently elected UML leaders there. The Parliament could distance itself from the palace. Transportation, air and land, would be substantially imporved. Control over the borders with India could be more easily supervised. The population crunch would be eased in Kathmandu. Some of the old buildings in Kathmandu could be converted to housing. Old Rana palaces could be converted into art galleries or suitable tourist hotels operated by the new government in the terrai. Nah. It will never happen.

Could we have some discussion on the subject.

I hope I have not hurt any feelings here. Just responding to an idea suggested by Dr. Subedi.

********************************************************************* From: eknath@math.cornell.edu (Eknath Belbase - Math Grad) To: NEPAL@cs.niu.edu Subject: greed/self-interest/summary

in reply to ashu's reply>>

A. Greed

My remark about GREED being a word that [...etc.] was a flippant inaccurate comment about economists trained in the US that I think wasn't really worth the amount of time you spent on it. I agree with your distinction between self-interest and greed, but I would say they are of the same essence, but differ in intensity. When self-interest exceeds all basic material needs to the point of hoarding...

As for Milken and Boesky, I would argue that they went to jail not because they were greedy, but because the way they dealt with their greed was illegal, and they got caught. Lots of other people are greedy in more accepted ways and continue to be so.

B.NPC One point about the YES response to having only economists in the NPC: yes, I know there are various more interdisciplinary branches of econ like environmental, law, etc. But wouldn't you say a scientist trained in environmental areas would see things quite differently from an expert in the economics of the environment? I am not just talking about coming from a different knowledge base but a whole difference in perspective/ worldview that comes from studying in different departments.

C. Take-home

As for a summary of my previous posts: the land reform article was essentially an invitation to refute the arguments I presented there for removing all land ownership ceilings in Nepal-a simplistic argument, but I thought any response would teach me something.

The NPC post had arguments for
(1) why there ought to be an NPC[inter-ministry coordination, long-term outlook]
(2) why it ought to have non-economists in abundance [breadth of perspective, knowledge base, expertise].

Eknath

********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 4 Jan 1995 12:40:09 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Is Trekking alone in Nepal safe? From: mayudog@aol.com (Mayudog)

In article <e9225636.1.001205B3@stud1.tuwien.ac.at>, e9225636@stud1.tuwien.ac.at (e9225636) writes:

>In preparation of my impending trip to Nepal, I've been doing a great
>deal of reading. One of the things that seems to come up occassionally
>is the (rare) violence that sometimes happens against lone trekkers.

Please don't get me wrong, I love Nepal, I lived there for over two years, and I plan to spend a lot of time there in the future, but I feel compelled to respond to the past three or four postings about trekking alone in Nepal and how very safe it is.

In 1987 during my first year as a Peace Corps Volunteer, a female volunteer with two years experience in Nepal was murdered on a relatively routine trek. She was skilled in Nepali, had knowledge of Nepali culture and customs, and was sufficiently aware of what was and wasn't safe in Nepal. Yet she was killed on a trail.

Nepal is a wonderful country and I've met many friendly and helpful people there. But like any country anywhere on the earth there are many dangers to be encountered there and one has to be aware of the risks and not blithely assume that he is traipsing into some kind of never-never land full of smiling, friendly peasants.

You can trek by yourself and probably won't have any problems at all. But be aware of the possibility of violence. And don't get fooled by the naive rhetoric of some of the response postings that there is little to be concerned about while trekking alone in the mountains.

Peter G.
(N163A)

************************************************************* Date: Wed, 4 Jan 1995 12:41:47 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Who is responsible for those killings? From: krk4131@huxley.anu.edu.au (Kabi Raj Khanal)

There was some controversy over the tragedic death of UML leaders Madan Bhandari and J Ashrit, last year. UML was not satisfied with the enquire made by the `Anil Aayog' formed by previous govt. Later in line with the UML demand, another `Aayog' was formed on the chairmanship of currently serving judge of the supreme court (I forgot the name of hon. judge). The basis for such a demand (to form another Aayog) from UML was that (according to UML) the NC was behind the conspiracy (of those deaths), and GPK as the architecht of the conspiracy.

Now this Aayog has already submitted its report to the king saying that there was no conspiracy behind those deaths other than the 'carelessness' of the driver A Lama. The report is sent back to the cabinet.

When UML was organising the violent protest claiming NC and particularly GPK are responsible for those deaths, more than a dozen of people were killed. Since the whole basis of the movement proved as `baseless', who is responsible for those killings of innocent people, and unrest created by the movement. Is it responsible, realistic/pragmatic politics to made such serious allegations (but entirely baseless) against someone?
 
*********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 4 Jan 1995 12:50:23 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: SUR-SUDHA From: neup2011@mach1.wlu.ca (Bhanu Neupane u)

 Yesterday I received a letter from a friend of mine --he is an
 american very much into the classical music and sometimes plays
 Cello (?sp) for Baltimore Symphony-- which reads " Sursudha (a
 nepali band) will perform in DC during this xmas and new year".
 The letter further reads " They [sursudha] are expected to give
 four shows is DC area before leaving for New York.

 I would be obliged, if somebody will verify this info. And if it
 is for real, please post the detail itinerary of their US tour.

 The letter was posted to me almost four month ago and my attempt
 to phone this guy failed, as he has gone away (?for the holidays,
 I guess. (This ridiculous delay has nothing to do with snail
 mail, the letter was misplaced in a wrong pigeon hole)

 Introducing Sursudha to few (?many) of us. Its a classical band
 from Nepal. Originally this band was formed by Prem Avatari, who
 is a very famous flute player with two other guys. THe base
 musical instruments are flute, sitar and tabala. I would say,
 they have been very successful in integrating the harmony of Nepali Folk
 melodies with the cacaphony of western electronic instruments. Few of their
 music sound very similar to "Enigma". Sursudha as made an
 excellent wave in Europe, particularly France, Germany and
 Austria. Thy had a plan to tour North America but they had
 problems in finding somebody to sponsor them (they too were said
 to have encountered problems in obtaining US visa?)

 I would personally recommend Sursudha, if you are hosting a romantic evening and need something really good and soft to soothe the heat of the moment and provide a rythem for a good romance. I may sound exaggerating, but their music can be a very good and N-E-P-A-L-I substitute for Mozart or Bach (here I am not saying equally good). Moreover, their music can prove very good option to many of us, who are really into Nepali Lok geet and Narayan Gopal. Many of us must have noticed how the new lok geets are coming out (they suck). I've just received something very new of Prem R. Mahat (name?, this is the guy who sang that beautiful song "sim sime pani ma jyan le beiman garchha ki jindagani ma) and it really sucks.

THanking you in advance!!

Bhanu

I wonder what would Homer Simpson said if he were a Nepali?

D'oh = Hoina? or Dhatt?? or Thukka ???
 
      \/ ___ ______
      .'/,-Y" "~-.
      /\ _\_
     i ___/" "\
     | /" "\ o !
     1 ] o !__./A
      \ _ _ \.___./ "~\A
       X \/ \ ___./
      ( \ ___. _..--~~" ~`-.
       ` Z,-- / \
         \__. ( / ______)
           \ | /-----~~" / Thukka !!
            Y \ /
            | v_______.Y
            j Y

***********************************************************************************************

*********************************************************************************************** Date: Wed, 4 Jan 1995 12:52:05 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: The PC of Nepal: A Free Market Approach or a Hidden Agenda From: bohara@unm.edu (Alok Bohara ECONOMICS)

Dear netters,

   A couple of days ago I had posted an article on the formation of the Planning Commission. I had been critical of its membership, especially in the context of the policy of economic liberalization and free market.
 
   I have given some more thought to it and have attempted to come up with a "rational" explanation as to why they formed the PC the way they did (under the heading of "Or a Hidden Agenda?") But for the sake of continuation I have included texts from my earlier article.

alok bohara

          The Current Planning Commission of Nepal:
          A Free Market Approach or a Hidden Agenda?

                    A Road to Free Market?

The new government has just announced the names of the members of the Planning Commission of Nepal. In light of the government's publicly expressed commitment to economic liberalization and free market, the current list of the PC does not reflect its intention. The group is suspect in expertise (for the intended purpose, that is), lacks focus, and may not have much needed conviction toward free market. Which leads me to suspect that the government probably has a different agenda, which it wants to carry out using the PC as a vehicle. More about this later.

The Commission is a body, which, in my view, should play a positive role in prescribing a list of policy guidelines that are helpful in creating an environment that is conducive to economic development and growth. Most importantly, different market forces should be allowed to take the natural course.

The group consists of two sociologists, one agriculture expert, one economist, one engineer, and is led by a population studies expert. Some of these professionals are respected scholars in their fields, and I respect them for their professional accomplishments, especially Mr. Manandher who is a well-known demographer in Nepal.

But, a free market oriented economic policy may involve monetary policy, fiscal policy, an understanding of the international trade (e.g., GATT), exchange rates structure, tariff structure, manpower development, identification of comparative advantage etc. There is only one economist who is hopelessly outnumbered by numerous non-economists. Mr. Manandher may provide a leadership but in which direction?

The current memberships in the PC remind me of another incident that took place a few years ago during the Panchayat regime. To the amazement of many academicians, the Tribhuvan University obtained a Vice Chancellor who was a pediatrician. Where on earth do you find such an appointment? Only in Nepal, I guess. I have nothing against the pediatricians, but the Vice Chancellorship is not for them. Similarly, I do not buy the idea of an engineer as a economic policy maker. Same goes for sociologists, anthropologists, geographers, etc. The policy making body such as the Planning Commission should be manned by professionals who are knowledgeable in economic policy making, regardless of their training grounds.
    I was also wondering about the conviction of a group of predominantly non- economists toward free market? A basic element of the free market economy is the market adjustment mechanism. In the process of adjustment, some "shifts" are expected. How will, for example, the sociologists and anthropologists react to these sectoral shifts that are sometimes painful as well? My own guess is that these professionals will not be patient enough to tolerate such anomalies that are by-products of a free market economy. Their own political philosophy will also not allow them to tolerate such imbalance, how short-lived it may be. Does that mean that we will see a proactive approach (e.g., price control, controlled allocation of resources, subsidies etc.)?

My greatest fear is that the group will lack focus. For example, assume that the group decides to follow the policy of free market. How will the Chair
"pacify" the sociologists and anthropologists whenever the economy goes through some glitches and exerts some pain? Does the Chair have to battle these groups, whenever he plans to push for projects that may not be correct, socially or ecologically?

I wish Mr. Manandher a lot of good luck to coordinate these individuals who may have conflicting agenda. He is a strong personality; he will survive.

If the objective is to conduct a social experiment through central planning
(e.g., price control, controlled resource allocation etc.), then yes the PC certainly has a rainbow coalition of different inter-disciplinarians. But, he needs a lot of luck too. Because, it just will not succeed. Have we not learned from past mistakes?

                      Or a Hidden Agenda?

My own guess, however, is that the formation of this group is not coincidental. By announcing the names of the PC group which is dominated by sociologists, rural experts and led by a geographer, the government may have signalled a change in its priority.

That is, the priority is not to pursue the policy of free market and economic liberalization but to adopt a bottom-up approach. That is, the government will not wait for fruits of free market to reach the rural sector. Rather, it wants to to be active in developing the rural sector. Obviously, then the government is more likely to adopt a quick-fix approach of price control, land management, and heavy subsidies. And, of course, they could use a couple of engineers too.

I am even beginning to suspect that the government was quite deliberate in forming this group, while all along it was vowing to continue the policy of economic liberalization. In this case, I would consider their action to be very disingenuous.

The sad part is that the free market policy would have a better chance of improving the economic condition of our rural sector than the government's interventionist approach of central planning. I am also afraid that the long- run stable economic policies are more likely to be made based on value judgement rather than the basic principle of free market --supply, demand, and the comparative advantage.

Again, I wish the current PC good luck, and I hope I am wrong.

Alok K. Bohara bohara@unm.edu

************************************************************************ Date: Wed, 4 Jan 1995 12:53:28 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Diplomacy wanes as sabers rattle in South Asia From: abdutta@icaen.uiowa.edu (jit)

This is from INN services.

Diplomacy wanes as sabers rattle in South Asia

 By IAN STEWART
   NEW DELHI (UPI) -- The veneer of diplomatic decorum between Pakistan and India faded in 1994, exposing five decades of raw enmity and mistrust and boding ill for a peaceful 1995.
   Talk of nuclear war, an escalating conventional arms race and the tit-for-tat expulsion of diplomats by Islamabad and New Delhi made for a year of worsening relations between the two rivals.
   While other parts of South Asia such as Sri Lanka and Nepal moved closer toward democratic stability, India and Pakistan tumbled toward confrontation.
   "I confirm," former Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif declared, "that Pakistan possesses the atomic bomb."
   With that bold and largely unquestioned pronouncement, the risk of conflict in the subcontinent was cast in a catastrophic light.
   Indeed, Islamic extremists and factional Muslim fighting throughout South Asia from Afghanistan to Bangladesh provided an endless source of tension and bloodshed.
   In Bangladesh, writer Taslima Nasrin was forced to flee her country when ultra-conservative Islamic groups called for her death.
   As with Salman Rushdie, Nasrin's writing -- deemed blasphemous against the sacred Muslim holy book, the Koran -- stirred Islamic rage.
   And in Afghanistan, hundreds of thousands of people fled fratricidal bloodshed as Islamic Mujahideen factions continued the wholesale destruction of their own country.
   Perhaps most threatening to regional security and stability, however, was the embattled northern Himalayan Kashmir region.
   The volatile territorial dispute raged on unfettered into its fifth year of a virtual proxy Indo-Pakistan war.
   New Delhi remained convinced the insurgent war has been orchestrated, armed and financed by Islamabad.
   But Pakistan, which routinely denies India's claims, for the first time openly expressed sympathy and solidarity with the guerrilla separatists whom it terms "Kashmir's freedom fighters."
   "India has used unprecedented brute force in Kashmir," Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto said. "Kashmir has seen nothing but blood and violence."
   The war of words, played out in the region's press, did little to help ease the mounting tensions.
   Where in recent years both Islamabad and New Delhi relied on back channel discourse to deal with the Kashmir issue, in 1994 saber-rattling rhetoric set the tone.
   "With, without or in spite of Pakistan, Kashmir will remain an integral part of India," Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao told his nation.
   Bolstering Islamabad's determination to back its territorial claim to Kashmir, Bhutto said, "Geographically and politically, Pakistan is incomplete without Kashmir."
   Any attack on Kashmir by India, her predecessor Sharif said, "can trigger a nuclear war in South Asia."
   With the threat of a direct Indo-Pakistan war over Kashmir becoming a real possibility, New Delhi and Islamabad were thrown into an arms race to bolster their air and sea defenses.
   In September, Pakistan signed a $950 million deal with France for three Agosta 90 class B submarines. Earlier in the year, Islamabad took delivery of six high-tech Chinese-made K-8 training aircraft.
   Unconfirmed reports said Islamabad had secured M-11 missiles from Beijing and was negotiating with Moscow for the purchase of SU-27 fighter aircraft.
   Not to be outdone, New Delhi signed a multi-million dollar defense pact with Russia and was in the market to purchase as many as 50 Russian-built MiG-29 fighter aircraft.
   According to an Indian Defense Ministry source, India was aiming to counter Pakistan's limited air and missile force.
   In the most chilling military development, however, India successfully tested its domestically built nuclear-capable Prithvi ballistic missile.
   "By test-firing the missile, India has brought all major Pakistan cities except the southernmost city of Quetta under its range," Pakistan Foreign Office spokesman Munir Akram said.
   Despite peacemaking efforts by the United States, Britain and the United Nations, Indo-Pakistan relations have continued to deteriorate.
   Both sides refused to consider limiting their missile programs and neither would sign a treaty forbidding the first-use of nuclear arms.
   "You've got a very volatile pair here," a foreign military attache in New Delhi said of India and Pakistan. "But neither is willing to budge. They can't even agree on a date when to meet."
   By mid-year, a wave of diplomatic expulsions further reduced the few remaining lines of communication between the two countries.
   At least three envoys from each capital were expelled and returned to their respective countries amid cries of espionage and diplomatic foul- play.
   Pakistan went a step further, shutting down its consulate in Bombay.
   The political animosity even extended into the medical realm as New Delhi accused Pakistan of using an outbreak of the plague to hurt India economically.
   As the fear of pneumonic and bubonic plague swept across much of India, Islamabad, along with dozens of countries around the world, imposed restrictions on travel to and from India.
   India's border with Pakistan was virtually sealed in a move New Delhi said was more politically than medically motivated.
   Likewise, social unrest and ethnic turmoil in both countries did little to redirect political intentions from Indo-Pakistan confrontation.
   In Pakistan's Sind and North West Frontier Provinces, and in India's northeast and south, violent clashes between authorities and protesters led to hundreds of deaths.
   But as India and Pakistan moved closer toward confrontation, one of the region's bloodiest civil wars showed signs of waning in 1994.
   The first precarious steps toward peace in northern Sri Lanka's 11- year civil war were taken by the country's newly elected Prime Minister Chandrika Kumaratunga, who later was elected the country's president.
   Kumaratunga overturned 17 years of United National Party rule in Sri Lanka and ushered in new hope for peace between the majority Sinhalese government and Tamil separatist guerrilla army.

***************************************************************** Date: Wed, 4 Jan 1995 12:55:12 -0500 From: rshresth@black.clarku.edu (RaJesh B. Shrestha) To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Solar TOILET at Namche Bazar & Everest

Cross-posted from SCN:
--------------------- Charles Little says:
>The government of Nepal is not only responsible for
>the public health of its people but also the tourists who in many cases
>spend hard earned money to come to Nepal

Really? I don't think many tourists have to work as hard for their money as most Nepalis have to work for far less money. Probably a large percentage of that hard earned money is spent on airlines in getting to and from Nepal anyway, rather than in Nepal.

You are being presumptuous and selfrighteous here. Many people go to Nepal because it has less technology and ammenities than their own country. Now you suddenly want the government of Nepal to be responsible for YOUR excrement. I am not saying that it would not be a good thing if SOMEBODY worked on sewage treatment on Nepal, but for you as a tourist to EXPECT that to be done for you is unwarranted and unreasonable.

(I won't mention what I think you are full of :>)

Frank

******************************************************** Date: Wed, 4 Jan 1995 12:58:11 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: South Asian Business Brief From: abdutta@icaen.uiowa.edu (jit)

DATE=12/27/94 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-171417 TITLE=SOUTH ASIA/BUZ BRIEFS (L ONLY) UNVOICED BYLINE=ANJANA PASRICHA DATELINE=NEW DELHI CONTENT= VOICED AT:

*INTRO: NEPAL'S NEW COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT HAS ANNOUNCED A BUDGET THAT LEAVES THE MOUNTAIN KINGDOM WITH A HUGE DEFICIT. FROM VOA'S SOUTH ASIA BUREAU IN NEW DELHI, ANJANA PASRICHA REPORTS ON THIS AND OTHER REGIONAL BUSINESS NEWS.

TEXT: NEPAL'S BUDGET FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING NEXT JULY HAS THE GOVERNMENT HAVING TO COPE WITH A MASSIVE FISCAL DEFICIT OF NEARLY 30 PER CENT. ECONOMISTS SAY THE GAP WILL HAVE TO BRIDGED THROUGH LARGER BORROWINGS -- BOTH FOREIGN AND INTERNAL.

THE BUDGET'S SPENDING OUTLAY IS 854-MILLION DOLLARS, BUT REVENUE COLLECTIONS ARE PEGGED AT LESS THAN 600-MILLION DOLLARS.

AS EXPECTED, THE COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT'S FIRST BUDGET RAISES PUBLIC SPENDING ON SOCIAL PROGRAMS SUCH AS BASIC EDUCATION AND VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT. IT ALSO OFFERS TAX BREAKS TO LOW INCOME CITIZENS.

-0-

GERMANY BECAME THE SECOND LARGEST FOREIGN INVESTOR IN INDIA THIS YEAR BRINGING IN 12 PER CENT OF NEW INVESTMENTS. THE INDO-GERMAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE SAYS THE GERMAN PROJECTS WILL BRING IN INVESTMENTS WORTH APPROXIMATELY 100-MILLION DOLLARS.

THE UNITED STATES MAINTAINED ITS POSITION AS THE LARGEST FOREIGN INVESTOR, WHILE BRITAIN CAME THIRD.

AMERICAN UNDERSECRETARY OF COMMERCE FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE, JEFFREY GARTEN, RECENTLY SAID THAT THE RACE BETWEEN AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN COMPANIES FOR FOOTHOLDS IN PROMISING MARKETS SUCH AS INDIA HAS BECOME WHAT HE CALLED "WHITE HOT" WITH HUGE INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS AT STAKE.

-0-

DUTCH COMPANIES WANT TO TURN INDIA INTO A MAJOR FLORICULTURE CENTER AS THEY BEGIN TO ESTABLISH PRODUCTION BASES FOR FLOWERS IN WARMER COUNTRIES.

INDIA'S PRESENT SHARE IN THE THE 38 BILLION DOLLAR GLOBAL FLOWER TRADE IS LESS THAN HALF A PER CENT, BUT VISITING DUTCH FLORICULTURE EXPERTS ARE CONFIDENT THIS COULD GROW TO 10 TO 15 PER CENT WITHIN A DECADE.

A BEGINNING IS BEING MADE BY THE INTERNATIONAL FLORIICULTURE FIRM DALSEM AS IT SETS UP FIVE PROJECTS OVER THE NEXT TWO YEARS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ROSES. THE EXPORT TARGET FOR FLOWERS HAS BEEN SET AT APPROXIMATELY 30 MILLION DOLLARS FOR THE COMING YEAR.
(SIGNED)

NEB/AP/LTJ/HVS

27-Dec-94 5:49 AM EST (1049 UTC) NNNN

Source: Voice of America

-- 
opinions are mine only.

********************************************************************** Date: Sat, 31 Dec 94 14:14:57 EST From: "Durga D. Poudel" <DPOUDEL@UGA.CC.UGA.EDU> Subject: Re: The Nepal Digest - Jan 1, 1995 (16 Push 2051 BkSm) To: The Nepal Digest <NEPAL@cs.niu.edu>

Dear Mr. Belbase:

I read your postings about Land Reform in the latest TND with great interest. Regarding your request 'Does anyone know of particular cases...... states? What was ........ it so?'... I suggest you to go through Land Reform Programs and Policies adopted by Taiwan. I am sorry that I do not have any documents at the moment. However, I may find some for you if you ramin interested, let us sa y, within 6 months (I will be travelling to Taiwan in April). Also, I suggest you to acquire some documents on 'Specialized Area Production Program' of Taiwa n. Please do not hesitate to contact me directly. Wish you a Happy New Year.

Durga D. Poudel

********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 4 Jan 1995 17:25:00 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: Some Food for Thought: The Planning Commission of Nepal From: bohara@unm.edu (Alok Bohara ECONOMICS)

Some Food for Thought: The Planning Commission of Nepal

The new government has just announced the names of members for the Planning Commission of Nepal.

The Commission is a body, which, in my view, should play a positive role in prescribing a list of policy guidelines that are helpful in creating an environment that is conducive to economic development and growth.

The list of the members:

Sociologist (Mr. C. Mishra) Rural Sociologist (Mr. K.N. Pyakurel) Engineer (Mr. S.M. Rimal) Agricultural Expert (Mr. Y.B. Thapa) Economist (Mr. D. Khanal), and Population Study Expert (Mr. M.S. Manandher; Vice Chairman)

A free market oriented economic policy may involve: monetary policy, fiscal policy, understanding of international trade and commerce (e.g. GATT), laws regarding capital investment, identifying national comparative advantage, manpower development etc. Above all, it provides an environment so that the different market forces can take the natural course.

Although the government has vowed to continue a policy of free market, I am a little doubtful about their conviction. A Committee led by a geographer and manned by several sociologists and rural experts...? Only time will tell...but, I am not too hopeful.

Say, the group decides to continue to follow the policy of free market. In this process of market adjustment, some "shifts" are expected. I was wondering how these sociologists and geographers are going to react to these initial changes that are sometimes painful as well. My only guess is that these professionals will not be patient enough to tolerate such anamolies that are by-products of any free market approach. Their own political philosophy will also not allow such imbalance, how short-lived it may be. So, does it mean that we will see a proactive approach (e.g., price control, controlled allcocation of resources etc.)

I was wondering about Mr. Manandher's own conviction toward free market. Remember, he is a geographer not an economist. Will he be able to "pacify" those sociologists whenever the economy goes through some glitches; and believe me it will? Does he have to battle with these groups, whenever he plans to push for projects that may not be correct, socially or ecologically?

I wish Mr. Manandher a lot of good luck to coordinate these individuals who may have conflicting agenda. He is a strong personality; he will survive.

But, if the objective is to conduct a social experiment through central planning, then yes he certainly has assembled a rainbow coalition of different disciplines. But, he needs a lot of luck too. Because, it just ain't gonna succeed. Have we not learned from our past mistakes?

Plus, just a curiosity: A geographer back in the saddle again; oh well just continuing the tradition, I guess!

I wish them good luck and I hope I am wrong.

alok bohara bohara@unm.edu

************************************************************ Date: Wed, 4 Jan 1995 17:31:00 -0500 To: nepal@cs.niu.edu Subject: nepali language translation...??? From: ehug@delphi.com (Ed Hug)

Greetings,

I was so surprised and pleased to find a newsgroup dealing with subjects related to nepal (politics, environment, culture,etc...). I've been there twice and am returning at the end of this month to gather research and make video and audio interviews for my senior thesis: A case study of the Makalu-Burun National Park and Conservation Area, the relationships that exist among local culture, ecology, and resource issues. One of my main focuses will be the Arun III hydroelectric Project and how locals feel this will benefit or change their lives. Since I am making an amateur video, I will need a verbatim translation (my Nepali is not so good!) of about 4-5 hours of footage. Is there anyone in the New England area (preferably Vermont or New Hampshire) who might have a Saturday in the middle of February to help me with this small project (translating from Nepali to English)? Thanks for your time and keep up the stimulating conversation, our country needs more educated people from interesting countries to increase our national diversity! Cheers, Ezra M. Hug Goddard College Plainfield, Vt.

*********************************************************** Date: Wed, 4 Jan 1995 18:47:00 -0500 (EST) From: Ashutosh Tiwari <tiwari@husc.harvard.edu> Subject: Re: greed/self-interest/summary To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu> > On Wed, 4 Jan 1995, Eknath Belbase - Math Grad wrote:

> > My remark about GREED being a word that [...etc.] was a flippant inaccurate > > comment about economists trained in the US that I think wasn't really > > worth the amount of time you spent on it. I agree with your distinction > > between self-interest and greed, but I would say they are of the same > > essence, but differ in intensity. When self-interest exceeds all basic > > material needs to the point of hoarding...

Ashu's reply:

Eknath, economists get knee-jerk bad press, often from well-meaning NON-economists. Your remark may well understandably be flippant, but as economics, I couldn't let go of your flippancy without a comment. So relax. My comments were/are not aimed at proving you right or wrong. They were/are mostly to point out that, for better or worse, there's more to studying and applying economics than being the slave to the GREED factor.

Having said that, I do wonder, however, how you arrived at the distinction that self-interest and greed "differ in intensity", especially when you have yet to clarify what you meant by greed in the first place. Else, what you think of as "greed" may be well be "being smart" to someone else, and how are we to decide what is what? As for intensity, think again, "differ in intensity" FOR WHOM?

Think, for example, would your hoarder above would see himself as being GREEDY? You may, but would he? Or, even, IS he? Economists dislike hoarding NOT because it's morally wrong (it may well be, but let's leave that to philosophers for now!), but because it distorts the market and makes a much larger group of people suffer. How? Because, a bit loosely, demand exceeds supply.

> > As for Milken and Boesky, I would argue that they went to jail not because > > they were greedy, but because the way they dealt with their greed was illegal, > > and they got caught. Lots of other people are greedy in more accepted ways > > and continue to be so.

So, what have we now? Legal greed and illegal greed? Your reasoning implies that being "greedy in more accepted ways" is ok, while being greedy otherwise is not. I don't know what to make of this.

Is GREED, legal or illegal, even an "acceptable" human emotion to begin with? If yes, then why is GREED widely perceived to be something negative? If no, then, well, since there is no room for "acceptable greed", your argument doesn't hold. But either way, we are still left with the a secondary question: Acceptable to whom?

Believe me, I am NOT trying to indulge in useless verbal gymnastics here; but just to show that our every-day words like "greed, selfish, acceptable" and so on require PRECISE definitions that both of us can agree on, before we proceed with a kura-kani of this sort. [And since I do not have that much time, I suggest that we drop this].

Moving on, let me recast my original point this way: Economists do indeed recognize that human beings continue to be motivated by OTHER considerations too, such as altruism, fame, goodness, information, ethics and so on. I agree that many of these OTHER considerations get crowded out from typical rational-thinking, profit-maximizing homo economicus models. But I assure Eknath that, thanks to many interdisciplinary surges, economics is very much influenced by these other non-market considerations too.

> > B.NPC

>BUT wouldn't you say that the expert in environmental areas would see >things quite differently from an expert >in the economics of the environment? Rather than having TWO specialists -- one on the environment science and the other on the environmental economics -- at the NPC to look after the environment, I would rather have a rigorously trained (in ANY discipline, including mathematics or history!) intelligent GENERALIST who shows these three qualities:

1) One who shows tremendous WILLINGNESS to learn new concepts and ideas . (Many Nepali experts at NPC are too arrogant, or too gelled or too slow to learn new ideas. They carry on with the airs of "Daktar-Shaheb" and the NPC jobs becomes just a jagir for them rather than a challenge!)

2) One who sees CONNECTIONS among different public-policy strands such as environmental law, anthro, sociology, economics, history and so on and is able to combine them with hard science and data to come up with a sound, defensible interpretation. (Perhaps a well-trained liberal arts graduate with many years of SOLID real field-experience would do! Just a thought!) 3) And who comes to the NPC after already having made his PROFESSIONAL REPUTATION for "getting things done" somewhere else -- either in academia or the private/public sector. And he need not even have a PhD! Strictly speaking, a PhD degree loses its INTELLECTUAL value unless one regularly keeps up with the the development in the field. Only in Nepal does a PhD confer exaggerated social importance -- which NOT what the degree is supposed to do!

4) And finally, someone who can take intellectual risks.

The trouble with NPC is that it used to be and is still saturated with so-called "experts", most of whom ( though thankfully NOT all) are both third-rate PhDs and third-rate publicy-policy makers. Think back to Nepal, can you tell me who you have found to be the most influential NPC member ever? Which NPC member has left an intellectual legacy of any sort?

In Nepal, we put too much emphasis on experts for planning, when, in reality, a decently educated Nepali, like most of us, with a little bit effort, can do the job equally well, if not better.

C. Take-home > > The NPC post had arguments for > > (1) why there ought to be an NPC[inter-ministry coordination, long-term > > outlook]

Co-ordination is fine in theory. In practice . . . well, you know the story. As for LONG-TERM outlook, I would rather settle for even short-term outlooks if only the NPC really, concretely achieved them. When the NPC cannot seem to get its day-to-day function well (ask anyone who's worked there!), what's the point of having having GRAND long-term plans?

> > (2) why it ought to have non-economists in abundance [breadth of > > perspective, > > knowledge base, expertise].

Such non-economists should be AT the UNIVERSITIES, not at the NPC! University is where the best and the brightest Nepali scholars and experts should be. Making them sarkar ko karmachari like in NPC is no way to make national plans nor to do justice to their research interests.

namaste ashu

*********************************************************** Date: Wed, 04 Jan 1995 19:23:14 -0700 (MST) From: Rameshwar Adhikari <ASRPA@asuvm.inre.asu.edu> Subject: Nepalis and Friends Association (NAFA To: Nepal Digest <nepal@cs.niu.edu>

We are pleased to announce the establishment of Nepalis and Friends Association (NAFA), a non-profit organization headquartered in Arizona.

The objectives of the Association include: to promote and preserve the interests and welfare of the Nepali community; to establish and promote socio-cultural identity of Nepal within and outside the Nepali community; to familiarize the incoming members with the new environment and culture; to provide means for collection, dissemination and exchange of creative ideas and information concerning Nepal and Nepali community; to act as a support group for the community; and to act as a contact point with other sister organizations and communities.

NAFA membership is open to any person who takes active interests in the welfare of Nepal and Nepali community. Annual membership fee for a student or the family of a student is $10; annual membership fee for other individuals or families is $25; life membership fee is $500; and the contributors of $1,000 or more are designated as NAFA patrons. Any other contributions are always welcome.

Please send your comments and contributions to NAFA, 3044 E. Corrine Dr., Phoenix, AZ 85032. For further information, please contact Rameshwar Adhikari, Chairman, NAFA Working Committee at (602)493-0875.

*************************************************************** Date: Wed, 04 Jan 1995 21:12:51 MST To: a10rjs1@cs.niu.edu From: "VIVEK S. RANA" <RANA@CCIT.ARIZONA.EDU> Subject: Taja_Khabar

Work Permit for Indians in Nepal --------------------------------

In reply to one of the questions in the parliament from Yaggya P. Acharya MP Nepali Congress, UML minister for labour and Social Welfare Padma Ratna Tuladhar said that his Government was considering imposing Work Permit for Indian Nationals.

He also concluded that he was going to talk about these issues in next month SAARC labour ministerial meeting in New Delhi, India.

Work Permit was primarily imposed during the Panchyat regime. It was then removed when the NC came to power. Shrestha concluded that this has nothing to do with Indo-Nepal relationship. This is simply a matter of exsistance of a poor country like Nepal." %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %% %% %% END OF "THE NEPAL DIGEST". %% %% %% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%



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