The Nepal Digest - January 18, 1996 (04 Magh 2052 BkSm)

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The Nepal Digest Thursday 18 Jan 96: Magh 4 2052 BS: Year5 Volume46 Issue6

  Today's Topics:

        1. Message from TND Editorial Board

        2. KURA_KANI

                 Social - No Bamboo, No Flute: Killing a Woman in the Womb
                 Political - Bhutanese Refuges
                 Tourism - Trekking Plan
                 Technology - SuperNova-Nepal Internet Services

 * TND Board of Staff *
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 * webmaster email: *
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 * White Plains, NY 10605, USA *
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 * Editor/Co-ordinator: Rajpal J. Singh *
 * TND Archives: Sohan Panta *
 * SCN Correspondent: Rajesh B. Shrestha *
 * Webmaster Correspondent: Pradeep Bista *
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 * +++++ Food For Thought +++++ *
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 * "LIFE: Indulgence vs Seeking Truth - Which is your forte?" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
 * "If you don't stand up for something, you will fall for anything" -Dr. MLK *
 * "Democracy perishes among the silent crowd" -Sirdar_Khalifa *
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************************************************************************** From: TND Foundations <> To: The Nepal Digest <> Subject: TND Foundation Contribution Fund

Dear TND members:

     TND Foundations is accepting your generous contribution in an effort to
     find a permanant home for The Nepal Digest (TND).

     You are encouraged to send your contribution payabale to:
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     Following members have been kind with their generous contributions:

     Mahesh K. Maskey Arlington, MA
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     TND offeres heartful thanks to all the generous contributors.

Sincerely TND Foundations

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********************************************************************** Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 17:27:54 +0000 (GMT) From: strawn <> To: the nepal digest <> Subject: Bhutanese refugee update 15 January (fwd)

        FROM Jesuit Refugee Service Asia/Pacific
        DATE 15 January 1996
        REGARDING Bhutanese demonstrations-update 15 January 1996

Over 200 Bhutanese refugees held in India after staging demonstrations in theIndian state of West Bengal have returned to refugee camps in Nepal. leaving the number still in detention to nine. 101 refugees were released last week from a jail in Darjeeling district after signing after signing bond letters that they would no longer violate the law and order in India. Another group of approximately 119 were unconditionally released from Siliguri on Saturday.

Another demonstration has begun on 14 January 1996. 300 peace walkers have begun a walk into Bhutan in order to appeal directly to the Bhutanese king to resolve the situation of the Bhutanese refugees. Observers are concerned that this group are willing to have their own blood shed if that is required to raise awareness. Reports indicate they will attempt to cross into India in 17 January, where Indian security forces have gathered with the intention of sending them back.

The nine refusing to sign the letter are pressing for unconditional release. They have vowed to begin an indefinite hunger strike inside Bakharakot jail in Darjeeling district. These include several leaders of exiled Bhutanese political and human rights organizations. Reports indicate that medical supplies have been given to three members of the group who had fallen ill.

The nine detainees are:

1. Mr DNS Dhakal, General Secretary of Bhutan National Democratic Party
        (BNDP) (REPORTED ILL WITH DIFFERENT AILMENTS) 2. Mr Vishwanath Chhetri, President of Students Union of Bhutan (SUB)
        (REPORTED ILL WITH 3. Hari Adhikari, BNDP (REPORTED ILL WITH DIFFERENT AILMENTS) 4. Ganbi Poudyal, SUB 5. Tal Man Rana 6. Mr S B Subba, Acting Chairman of Human Rights Organization of Bhutan
        (HUROB) 7. Kishore Rai HUROB 8. Khageshware Mishra 9. Kumar Subedi

101 Bhutanese refugees who were detained in the Indian state of West Bengal after staging demonstrations there have been released at the border of India and Nepal. They have returned to the refugee camps inside India after signing bond letters that they would not violate the law and order in India.

Refugees in the Nepalese camps have staged a 12-hour hunger strike in support of the detainees.

Human rights lawyers are reported to have not accessed the detainees, possibly because they were turned back or because the communication between the demonstrators has been poor.

The refugees entered India from Nepal at the beginning of January with the intention of demonstrating on the Indian side of the India/Bhutan border. They were arrested in and near Jaighon, on the border of India and Bhutan.

India has implemented IPC (Indian Penal Code) 144, which prohibits public gatherings, presumably as an attempt to head off the demonstrations.

On January 10, delegation of the Bhutanese Coalition for the Democratic Movement (BCDM), arrested in India, were able to meet with former Indian Prime Minister Chandra Shekha, Ms. Manpa Banerjee, Member of Parliament, and the President of the West Bengal Youth Conference.

The refugees, totalling about 1/6 of the 600,000 people populating Bhutan, were forced to leave the country in the early 1990's after a "One Nation/ One People" policy effectively rendered them stateless. The international community has been thus far ineffective in resolving their plight. Bhutan has the largest percentage of its people living as refugees in the world.

The government of India had initially responded to the Bhutanese refugees' appeal by claiming theirs was a problem between Nepal and Bhutan. Nepal has since returned the sentiment, saying the Bhutanese refugees who left Nepal to demonstrate in India are now the concern of Bhutan and India.

********************************************************************** From: Rajesh Shrestha <> Date: Tue, 16 Jan 1996 13:41:29 -0500 (EST) To: Subject: Planning trek to Nepal

Cross-posted from SCN:


Everyone has offered some good advice and some goofy stuff too. The bottom line is that you need to decide what type of trip you want and how adventurous you want to be. There are good outfitters and agents in Nepal and the U.S. Advantages and disadvatages. For my Two cents worth: Nepal is a undeveloped country and can be pretty gnarly for the first timer and unless you really want to tough it out you might want to go with a pro to to one of the classic areas like the Annapurnas or Everest. There is no doubt that you'll get a rich experience in Dolpo or Kanchenjunga or less traveled areas but you need to be ready for a hard trek and some adventure. By the way. You cannot go to many places as a solo trekker unless you plan on doing a camping trek in which case you'll need a "agent" or guide like Frank's friend Sonam. Having run many commercial trips and personal climbing expeditions to Nepal I know that people get a the best first time experience with a SMALL group commercial trip that is run and organized by a good U.S. company. Beware of huge companies like Wilderness travel or Mountain Travel. They run cattle drives not personal, cultural trips. See my Home page for more info:

Clay Patton

********************************************************************** Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 14:05:11 +0000 (GMT) From: strawn <> Subject: Bhutanese demonstrations-update 17 January 1996 (fwd)

        FROM Jesuit Refugee Service Asia/Pacific
        DATE 17 January 1996
        REGARDING Bhutanese demonstrations-update 17 January 1996
                        and background fact sheet

150 Bhutanese refugees have crossed into India on a peace march, intending to march on until they reach Thimphu, the capital city of Bhutan, where they intend to appeal directly to the Bhutanese king for a resolutoin.

The marchers travelled from refugee camps in Nepal to the Indian border, which they reached last night. This morning they began to cross into India, but they were met by Indian security forces and a barricade over the bridge which serves as the border, and told they could not continue. Sobre
(Support Organization of Bhutanese Refugees), an Indian-based support group, intervened, asking security forces for a legal justification for blocking the marchers. They also met with the district magistrate of Darjeeling. When the police failed to produce a legal justification for the barricade, saying they were merely following instructions, Sobre threatened to remove the barricade themselves from the Indian side.

At approximately 4pm the Indian security forces removed the barricade and allowed the marchers through. Supporters of the marchers were not allowed to pass, however.

Inside of India several other checkpoints await, and any of them may stop the marchers. At last report, the 150 had been stopped again, and told that they have violated IPC 144 (Indian Penal Code 144). This law was put in force in anticipation of the marchers, and prohibits public gatherings. The marchers were told they will be brought to court. It is unknown whether they have been detained, however.

If the peace marchers reach their destination of Thimphu, in Bhutan, they plan to appeal directly to the Bhutanese king to resolve the situation of the Bhutanese refugees. Observers are concerned that this group is willing to have their own blood shed if that is required to raise awareness. They have decalared they will stage a hunger strike if stopped before they reach their desination.

The mood among Bhutanese refugees in camps in Nepal is said to be hopeful. They hope the demonstrations will continue to raise awareness to their plight, which is in its six year with little sign of a pending resolution.

The refugees, totalling about 1/6 of the 600,000 people populating Bhutan, were forced to leave the country in the early 1990's after a "One Nation/ One People" policy effectively rendered them stateless. The international community has been thus far ineffective in resolving their plight. Bhutan has the largest percentage of its people living as refugees in the world.

BHUTAN AND ITS REFUGEES AN INFORMATION SHEET Bhutan Bhutan is a tiny mountain kingdom perched on the eastern Himalayas with an area of approximately 47,000 sq. km. Landlocked, the country is bordered by the Tibet autonomous region of China to the north and by India to the south, east and west. The kingdom has a population of about 600,000. Thimphu, the capital city, has only two residential embassies, those of India and Bangladesh, though the kingdom has established diplomatic relations with a number of countries. As Bhutan enjoys no diplomatic relations with its northern neighbour, all the diplomatic, trade, cultural and economic transactions are conducted with the southern neighbour, India. Bhutan is one of the world's least developed countries and has an agrarian economy, relying heavily on overseas aid. The bulk of its external aid, about 75 - 80%, comes from India, both in cash and in kind.

Ethnic Diversity The Drukpas, or Ngalongs of Tibetan Mongoloid origin, inhabit the north-west part of the country. They speak Dzongkha, an offshoot of Tibetan, and they form about 16 - 20% of the population. The king and the bulk of the ruling oligarchy belong to this community. Sharchhops of Indo-Burmese stock predominate in the eastern region and constitute about 30 - 35% of the population. they speak Sharchhopkha, a language similar to the one spoken by the people of Arunachal Pradesh state of India. Nepali speaking people of Indo-Aryan origin live in southern Bhutan and form about 50 - 55% of the population. While the Drukpas and the Sharchhops practice Himalayan Lamaist Buddhism, the southern Bhutanese follow Hinduism. Besides the three above, there are other smaller ethnic groups and tribes such as the Doyas, Brokpas, Adhivashis, Tibetans, Khengs, etc.

Political & Human Rights Bhutan is ruled under an absolute and hereditary monarchy established, with British involvement, in 1907. The king is both head of state and head of government. There is no written constitution or bill of rights. The judiciary is not independent. There is no provision of defence by qualified attorneys in Bhutan's courts. The National Assembly of Bhutan represents the ruling feudal elements and does not represent the Bhutanese people. Membership of the National Assembly is not based on universal adult suffrage. The ministers are appointed by the king and remain in office at the pleasure of the king. The government is not accountable to the people. Political parties and activities are strictly banned in the kingdom. There is no right to free speech and free expression. There is no free press. There are no political rights. There is no right to form associations, unions, or similar associations. There is no right to seek justice. There are no social or cultural rights.

Ethnic Cleansing The popular demand for political reform, human rights and democracy to replace the current absolute monarchy began after the government controlled by the Drukpas introduced a number of national policies in 1988 directed against the southern Bhutanese, who were then recognised as forming a majority group in the country. The Citizenship Act of 1985 implemented through a national census in 1988 withdrew the right to nationality from a large section of the southern population. Government legislation requiring every citizen to wear the Drukpa dress, to adopt the Drukpa culture and to learn the Drukpa language violated the social and cultural rights of non-Drukpas. The Green Belt policy to be implemented on the southern border with India had the design of forcibly taking over the ancestral lands of the southern Bhutanese. When the people took to the streets against these policies the government termed the movement "anti-national" and resorted to military means including the mass forced evictions of southern Bhutanese.

Crackdown People's resentment and anger finally exploded in the form of peaceful protests and rallies between September and October 1990. The crackdown on the pro-democracy supporters by police and army led to the flight of several thousand Bhutanese citizens from the south to neighbouring India. The crackdown involved arbitrary arrest and detention, torture, extra-judicial killings, rape, plunder, confiscation of lands, properties and citizenship documents, demolition of houses and forced evictions. The exodus to Nepal began in early 1991 after the government of India failed to provide needed humanitarian relief to the Bhutanese refugees seeking asylum in India. The refugee population rose dramatically after the 70th session of Bhutan's National Assembly held in October 1991 decided to throw out from Bhutan everyone associated with or involved in the movement for human rights and democracy, including all members of the families of those involved.

Refugees More than 100,000 Bhutanese refugees have been created. This is one sixth of the total population of Bhutan who have been stripped of their citizenship, exiled, and rendered stateless. 90% of these are housed in the eight camps in eastern Nepal cared for by an number of National and International Non Governmental Organisations under the auspices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The other 10% of refugees are fending for themselves without assistance outside of the camps both in India and in Nepal.

Stalemate & Stagnation Bilateral talks have been held between the governments of Nepal and Bhutan to try to resolve the refugee issue. The six rounds of talk so far held have resulted in nothing. UNHCR has not been party to these talks nor has it been invited to take part. There is a reluctance on the part of Nepal to internationalise the issue as yet. Bhutan is against any such internationalising. India, the regional power and in control of Bhutan's foreign and defence policy, says that the problem is not theirs and remains aloof, despite the conveying of the Bhutanese refugees across its land to Nepal. Meanwhile in the camps the hopes of the refugees, after five years of stagnation, rot along with their bamboo and thatch shelters.

The View of One NGO
"Amnesty International believes that many people in the camps in Nepal have been forced out of Bhutan as a result of measures taken by the Bhutanese authorities. Amnesty International opposes the practice of forcible exile when it is imposed as a formal measure on account of people's non-violent expression of their political, religious or other conscientiously-held beliefs or by reason of their ethnic origin, sex, colour or language. It believes that many of those in the camps in Nepal have been forcibly exiled from Bhutan on account of their ethnic origin or political beliefs."
[Amnesty International Report, 'Bhutan: Forcible Exile', August 1992].

Compiled in July 1995 by David Keith Townsend, S.J

Gil Carroll 24/1 Soi Aree 4 Phaholyothin Road 7 (South) Bangkok 10400 Thailand tel. 66-2-271-3611


*********************************************************************************************** Date: Fri, 12 Jan 1996 23:29:45 EST To: The Nepal digest Editor <> From: "Pramod K. Mishra" <> Subject: "No Bamboo, No Flute": Killing a Woman in the Womb

Dear Editor,

Just this morning, I heard on the BBC that the Indian government has enacted a new law to protect the female fetus. From the news, it appeared that the land of spiritualism and fate is turning into a modern state, i.e., Indians (those who can afford such luxury) had renounced the dictates of Brahma and taken control over their own fate. They were aborting female fetuses by detecting early the gender of a fetus with the help of a new technology called ultrasonic gender detection or whatever. But the government wanted its populace to continue to rely on fate. What an irony!

Even when the Hindus begin to take control of their fate, they screw things. Now, who are these people who abort female fetuses? They are not coolies, the ragamuffins, the homeless, the starving by whose image many associte India. On the contrary, these parents are middle class, educated (whatever that means) and professionals--engineers, doctors, professors even, government employees--and they are not the country cousins, as many elightened Indians would like to think and put the blame of India's shameful beliefs and systems on the shoulders of the benighted rustics and salvage the populace of Delhi, Calcutta, Bombay and such other cities as progressive. And still these defenders of India's shame would like to brag about and say, "India is changing." Sure, changing, but at what speed and whither?

Now, it's not that this system of blessing a female fetus by aborting it started only recently, although many knowledgeable Hindus would like to cite their ancient shloka: "Yatra Nari Pujyate, Ramante tatra Devata." In this case, they might argue that only the method of worship is different: instead of offering flowers and incense at the funeral pyre to deify a Sati on the bank of a holy river, they do it early, in the mother's womb and at a sanitary clinic. That's what change means; and that's how you change.

This system of murdering a female dates back centuries. First they killed the widows and made them Sati (now many scholars who write essays in the West would like to think that everything bad among the Hindus started only after the British conquered India); then when Sati system was outlawed, they took to killing a female infant immediately after its birth. This is one of the reasons you can still find qite a dearth of females among the Rajputs and consequently many of its men remain lifelong bachelors--and not because they were gay or anything, but simply because they just can't find women. You'd think that these men wouldn't take dowry, but in their case there is nobody to give dowry.

And now after the Sati in the early centuries, female infanticide in the 19th and early twentieth century, Indians have come a long way. They kicked out the British, framed a relatively enlightened Constitution, particularly in comparison to many constitutions in the West, won several wars, acquired nuclear power on their own; they have t.v., electricity, scooters, the third largest technical manpower--and now ultrasonic sound detection technology to detect the gender of the fetus. Surely, this is one heck of a progress, one heck of a change, isn't it? And I'm sure there are many who would applaud India's change and become defensive about its follies.

This kind of shameful system doesn't exist even in Islam, which has been much maligned for its cruel treatment of women, and where fornication and adultery are punishable by death by throwing stone, where women are kept behind the curtain and veil all their life--all these advocated by the fundamentalists. But even in Islam, widows are married, evnen though a man may have four wives. I haven't heard this killing of women outside the violation of sexual transgression. I need enlightenment from our Hindu brethren.

Why does this benighted system exist among the enlightened, the spiritual, the cosmopolitanists Hindus and India, the land of holy rivers, meditation, renunciation, and other-worldly quests? I can come up with three reasons: dowry, caste, and honor.

All these three causes for the degradation of Hindu women and lifelong bondage of many men intersect with one another. First ofor of all, dowry. Arrange marriage, which is almost the exclusive form of marriage in India reinforces dowry system and dowry system makes sure that only arraged marraiges could benifit the parents, not least the grooms. Even those marriages where the grooms and brides get to see each other, talk to each other, like each other, the physically grown but emotionally the kid of the family, the apple of his parents' eyes, dare not prevent his family, relatives, and parents from asking for dowry. How can his parents boast the high price of their son's worth? You see, India is a land of hypocrisy: the law may propound fine and dandy ideal, but in practice, even the law maker, particularly the defender of the law, would demand cut-throat dowry for his son. (I don't talk about Indian sadhus here; there will be time and occasion for that.)

Under these circumstances, in which you must save your honor by marrying your daughter, sister within the caste through arranged marriage by the time the girl reaches age, you must give dowry if you want a groom who can take care of your daughter. If you don't have dowry, you are lost. And if you don't get your "girl" married early, that is, maximally in her early twenties, your honor is lost; you can't show your face to your caste, because in the caste, everyone--fathers, mothers, brothers, the candidates themselves--believes in honor. And caste honor is everything. If you are rich, what use your prosperity if it doesn't bring you honor? If you are educated, what use your knowledge, if it doesn't bring honor--of caste and clan. And to earn honor, the single most important step you can take is to give hefty dowry and buy a clanish, highly educated, rich groom (The long welcoming line of groom seekers and dowry givers at India's Union Civil Service Training Center has only increased, "India Today" tells us.) To have honor, you must buy honor, and dowry is indispensible for that.

If followed the path of caste, arranged marriage, dowry, and honor, then your female child would bring honor; but if even a little deviation occurs in any of these conditions, your whole family, nay, your several generations are shamed, and the stigma persists for good. If you don't give or take dowry, your honor is shaken; if you don't follow strictly the codes of arranged marriage--that is, if the girl meets the boy or the boy meets the girl, even sees one another, in many cases even under parental supervision--your honor is compromised, your hope of accumulating lifetime's impeccable prestige goes down the drain. How can you show your face to yor caste, to your society?

Now, caste is the bottomline, the most dangerous violation. You may violate the codes of dowry a little, the world won't end; you many transgress the rules of arranged marriage, nothing more than scandoulous rumors would sully your prestige. But if caste transgression is committed in most parts of India (Bengal and a few other states have evolved a different sets of values), the doomsday certainly arrives; centuries of accumulated prestige gives way to generations of shame, disgrace, and ignominy--and loss of identity.

Now, in this a son's transgressions, always considered temporary, the whim of wild youth, liable to go away with the cooling down of the outburst of adolescent harmones, don't bring shame; on the contrary, if the violations are temporary, they may prove the prowess of the male progeny--the Bhagirath of the family. A Biswamitra can be maharshi even after the digressions with Menaka, but Ahilya, once transgresses the code, has to be petrified, literally; Sita has to be rejected; Kunti has to hide her ignominous maternity in silence. Well, all these are ancient legends surrounding the vulnerability of female honor.

In modern India, and Hinduism, dowry and caste have added new dimensions to this problem. A Hindu woman, as she is raised and valued, is a worthless thing. Her sexual organs, considered shameful, can quickly destroy generations of accumulated family honor in the eyes of the caste and society. A Hindu female's sexual organs and potential desire in their use keep her in lifelong bondage, impedes the development of her personality--in acquiring mental, physical, emotional abilities--making her worthless for her parents. She always possesses the potential to destroy all the honor; she can't by convention take care of her parents; and she can't salvage her ancesters across Bhavasagar after death. She is useless in this world; she is useless after this world. On the contrary, a baby son can be a Shrawan Kumar; he can be a Bhagiratha; and if nothing works, he can be a Buddha, or one of the Pandavas. The best a woman could be in this regard is Mohini endangering family honor; Laxami, always ready to take flight, theefore unstable; Durga and Kali, killers and bloodsuckers. Now, we don't know much about their parents family or caste, do we? Therefore, like Rambha, Menaka, Urwashi, cannot dishonor anybody; they can give only pleasure or kill demons. But others who have--Saraswati, Kunti, Sita--shame their birth family. Then why shouldn't parents avail themselves of this scientific miracle of the detecting the gender of a female fetus and abort it in time to save money in the form of beggary-inducing dowry; to protect caste purity in the form of avoding castelessness (I remember a Brahman PhD in English telling me once "I'd rather die as a Brahman than be anyone else").

So much for the parents. A woman can dishonor her husband as well, by not liking him, by not bringing enough dowry. That's why, you see, bride burning evne in cities like Delhi. Killing female fetus and bride burning, taking place in big cities as well as towns in India, are parts of the same picture. Why let the husband and his folks burn her, why not, as parents, abort ourselves? For a divorced woman is worse than a widow. A widow is widowed because of God's will, but a woman gets divorced for her own fault and her own will, think the parents. She is liable to bring worse shame because not only that she has known a man's company and therefore would seek another; but she becomes tough, defiant, bringing double dishonor and shame. So destroy her before she assumes full human form and wears diapers or colorful, tempting saris, to others than potential grooms, who are too shrewd and honor-bound, dowry-tempted themselves to take such relations seriously.

But, somehow, the Indian government passes these laws to thwart the schemes and ambitions of these Indian parents! First dowry laws and now prohibition against gender detection in the womb! Either the Indian government wants to show the world, like many Hindus, that they are enlightened and progressive in matters concerning women; or it knows that the dual system of morality, like dual economy, would, like the failure of dowry laws, would take care of the problem and pacify the voters. Otherwise, how can you expect such rotten people sending such fine representives to the parliament? The old belief that "people get the government they want" doesn't apply here. But then, one must remember the spirit of India's freedom struggle that produced M.K. Gandhi, Nehru, and Ambedkar; that, while Jim Crow reigned supreme in "the land of the free and country of the brave" America, drafted Affirmative action policies for the tribes and untouchable castes. Maybe they did all that to show to the West, particularly the British, how progressive and enlightened they were; but maybe not.
****************************************************** Date: January 16, 1996 To: "The Nepal Digest" <> From: "W. Paul Carlson" <> Subject: FYI to Friends of Nepal

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January 16, 1996

Subject: Internet Access, web presence, and solutions proposal for
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Personal Internet Access Services

SuperNova-Nepal Technologies Personal Internet Access Services provides the individual user with simple and fast access to on-line applications such as E-Mail, on-line transactions, World Wide Web (WWW), Internet news, remote login to another computer (Telnet), and file transfer between computers (FTP). This is the most cost effective means for most people to gain access to the Internet.

Small Business Internet Presence Services

SuperNova-Nepal Technologies Small Business Internet Presence Services provides an affordable means for you to establish an Internet presence allowing your customers to visit your Web site and view the latest brochure describing your company's products, promotions, and services. SuperNova-Nepal Technologies provides the media, you provide the information content and messages.

Small Business/Corporate Internet Access and Presence Services

SuperNova-Nepal Technologies Small Business/Corporate Internet Access and Presence Services provides the means for you to establish a Web site presence on the Internet and distribute your company's information, information your present customers require and information to reach new customers.

SuperNova-Nepal Technologies provides the media, you provide the information content and messages.

Your Web site will have your own company domain (e.g., with the Corporate Internet Access and Presence Services.

Your customers can now visit your Web site to view the latest about your company's news, products, promotions, and events. They can also place orders and make reservations. This service provides you with a userid to gain access to the Internet, so as your product line changes, you can easily update the information content on your Web site, thus providing the latest information to your customers.

Additional Information To find out more about the Internet services offered by SuperNova-Nepal Technologies, please call at (914) 686-1290, send an E-Mail to, visit us at

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 * The Nepal Digest(TND) is a publication of TND Foundations, a Nepal Interest *
 * Group for news and discussions about issues concerning Nepal. All members *
 * of will get a copy of TND. Membership is open to all. *
 * *
 * *
 * TND Foundations Home Page: *
 * -------------------- *
 * webmaster email: *
 * *
 * TND Foundations contributions can be mailed payable to: *
 * TND Foundations *
 * c/o R. J. Singh *
 * 44 Greenridge Ave *
 * White Plains, NY 10605, USA *
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 * Subscription/Deletion requests : NEPAL-REQUEST@MP.CS.NIU.EDU *
 * Provide one line message: sub nepal "lastname, firstname, mi" <user@host> *
 * [OPTIONAL] Provide few lines about your occupation, address, phone for *
 * TND database to: <A10RJS1@MP.CS.NIU.EDU> *
 * Snail-Mail Correspondences to: Rajpal J.P. Singh *
 * Founding-Editor/Co-ordinator *
 * TND Foundation *
 * 44 Greenridge Ave *
 * White Plains, New York 10605, U.S.A. *
 * *
 * Digest Contributions: NEPAL@MP.CS.NIU.EDU *
 * Contributors need to supply Header for the article, email, and full name. *
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 * Postings are divided into following categories that are listed in the *
 * order below. Please provide category-type in the header of your e-mail. *
 * *
 * 1. Message from TND Editorial Board *
 * 2. Letter to the Editor *
 * 3. TAJA_KHABAR: Current News *
 * 4. KATHA_KABITA: Literature *
 * 5. KURA_KANI: Economics *
 * Agriculture *
 * Forestry *
 * Health *
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 * Social Issues *
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 * 6. CHOOT_KILA (Humor, Recipies, Movie Reviews, Sattaires etc.) *
 * 7. JAN_KARI: Classifides (Matrimonials, Jobs etc) *
 * 8. KHOJ_KHABAR (Inquiring about Nepal, Nepalis etc. ) *
 * 9. TITAR_BITAR: Miscellaneous (Immigration and Taxex etc. ) *
 * *
 * **** COPYRIGHT NOTE **** *
 * The news/article posters are responsible for any copyright violations. *
 * TND, a non-profit electronic journal, will publish articles that has *
 * been published in other electronic or paper journal with proper credit *
 * to the original media. *
 * *

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